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Sample records for chronic mild carbon

  1. Evidence for oxidative stress in the developing cerebellum of the rat after chronic mild carbon monoxide exposure (0.0025% in air

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    Lopez Ivan A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic very mild prenatal carbon monoxide (CO exposure (25 parts per million subverts the normal development of the rat cerebellar cortex. Studies at this chronic low CO exposure over the earliest periods of mammalian development have not been performed to date. Pregnant rats were exposed chronically to CO from gestational day E5 to E20. In the postnatal period, rat pups were grouped as follows: Group A: prenatal exposure to CO only; group B: prenatal exposure to CO then exposed to CO from postnatal day 5 (P5 to P20; group C: postnatal exposure only, from P5 to P20, and group D, controls (air without CO. At P20, immunocytochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers, and structural and functional proteins were assessed in the cerebellar cortex of the four groups. Quantitative real time PCR assays were performed for inducible (iNOS, neuronal (nNOS, and endothelial (eNOS nitric oxide synthases. Results Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, SOD2, and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 immunoreactivity increased in cells of the cerebellar cortex of CO-exposed pups. INOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity also increased in blood vessels and Purkinje cells (PCs of pups from group-A, B and C. By contrast, nNOS immunoreactivity decreased in PCs from group-B. Endothelial NOS immunoreactivity showed no changes in any CO-exposed group. The mRNA levels for iNOS were significantly up-regulated in the cerebellum of rats from group B; however, mRNA levels for nNOS and eNOS remained relatively unchanged in groups A, B and C. Ferritin-H immunoreactivity increased in group-B. Immunocytochemistry for neurofilaments (structural protein, synapsin-1 (functional protein, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, were decreased in groups A and B. Immunoreactivity for two calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin and calbindin, remained

  2. Chronic mild stress impact: are females more vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Drossopoulou, G; Xagoraris, M; Kokras, N; Sfikakis, A; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z

    2005-01-01

    Despite the knowledge that women are more susceptible than men to stress-related mental illness, such as major depression, there is no comprehensive estimation of the role of gender in the detrimental effects of chronic stress that might cause depression. Sex differences regarding the association of behavioral parameters with serotonergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activities were investigated in the chronic mild stress model of depression. Additionally, the impact of chronic mild stress exposure on an additional/novel short-term stressful procedure, such as the forced swim test was examined in male and female rats. Female rats were found to be more vulnerable to chronic mild stress and that was depicted with disruption of sucrose intake, decreases in open field activity, increased corticosterone levels, alteration in estrous cycle and decreased serotonergic activity in hippocampus and hypothalamus. On the contrary, in males the current chronic mild stress protocol elicited only behavioral changes, such as disruption in sucrose intake and decreased open field activity. Interestingly, in response to forced swim test, females previously subjected to chronic mild stress, were found to cope better by exhibiting increased active behavior in the second forced swim test session and higher hypothalamic serotonergic activity in comparison with corresponding males. On the other hand, males were more affected by previous chronic mild stress exposure and that was manifested by decreased active behavior in the first forced swim test session and increased corticosterone levels following second forced swim test session. These data indicate that although females are more vulnerable in the application of chronic mild stress than males, in response to an additional-novel stressor (forced swim test) they show better response. Therefore, both sex/gender and combination of stressful procedures should be carefully considered in the study of the pathophysiology of stress

  3. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in a...

  4. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress Improves Mood, Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experien...

  5. Chronic mild cerebrovascular dysfunction as a cause for Alzheimer's disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Humpel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder and is characterized by β-amyloid plaques and angiopathy, tau pathology, neuronal cell death, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this disease are not known. This review proposes the hypothesis that a chronic mild longlasting cerebrovascular dysfunction could initiate a cascade of events leading to AD. It is suggested that (vascular) risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia) causes either ...

  6. Unpredictable chronic mild stress not chronic restraint stress induces depressive behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shenghua; Shi, Ruoyang; Wang, Junhui; Wang, Jun-Feng; Li, Xin-Min

    2014-10-01

    The chronic stress model was developed on the basis of the stress-diathesis hypothesis of depression. However, these behavioural responses associated with different stress paradigms are quite complex. This study examined the effects of two chronic stress regimens on anxiety-like and depressive behaviours. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress or to chronic restraint stress for 4 weeks. Subsequently, both anxiety-like behaviours (open field, elevated plus maze and novelty suppressed feeding) and depression-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swim and sucrose preference) were evaluated. Both chronic stress models generated anxiety-like behaviours, whereas only unpredictable chronic mild stress could induce depressive behaviours such as increased immobility and decreased sucrose consumption. These results of the present study provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects behavioural responses and point to the importance of the validity of animal models of chronic stress in studying depression. PMID:25089805

  7. Unusual Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma with Chronic Mild Postprandial Pain

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    Haluk Soylemez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as lipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding or systemic symptoms of infection. In differantial diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging may be useful to show characterize of tissue and relationship with other organs. We report a 66-year-old man with a giant adrenal myelolipoma clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain with a brief review of the literature.

  8. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

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    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  9. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function.

  10. Utility of the chronic unpredictable mild stress model in research on new antidepressants

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    Pekala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unpredictable chronic mild stress model was developed as an animal model of depression more than 20 years ago. Essential for this model is that after prolonged exposure of tested animals to a series of unpredictable mild stressors, a condition similar to anhedonia develops, which is observed in the majority of depressive disorders. Unpredictable chronic mild stress model is used nowadays in numerous studies related to the neurobiological and biochemical changes associated with depressive illness. Their results confirm that chronic unpredictable mild stress induces in tested animals a number of changes, which reflect those seen in depressive disorders. Because the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress can be used in a more accurate diagnosis of the pathophysiology of depressive illness and expand knowledge of its pharmacotherapy, therefore research in this area has been continued all the time.

  11. Octreotide ameliorates gastric lesions in chronically mild stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noha N Nassar; Mona F Schaalan; Hala F Zaki; Dalaal M Abdallah

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) on the emergence of gastric ulcers and possible modulation by octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analogue. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to nine different unpredictable random stress procedures for 21 d, a multifactorial interactional animal model for CMS. Octreotide was administered daily for 21 d at two dose levels (50 and 90 μg/kg) before exposure to stress procedure. Macro-and microscopical assessments were made, in addition to quantification of plasma corticosterone and gastric mucosal inflammatory, oxidative stress, and apoptotic biomarkers. RESULTS: Exposure to CMS elevated plasma corticosterone (28.3 ± 0.6 μg/dL, P = 0.002), an event that was accompanied by gastric lesions (6.4 ± 0.16 mm,P = 0.01) and confirmed histopathologically. Moreover, the insult elevated gastric mucosal lipid peroxides (13 ± 0.5 nmol/g tissue, P = 0.001), tumor necrosis factor-α(3008.6 ± 78.18 pg/g tissue, P < 0.001), prostaglandin E2 (117.1 ± 4.31 pg/g tissue, P = 0.002), and caspase-3 activity (2.4 ± 0.14 OD/mg protein, P = 0.002). Conversely, CMS mitigated interleukin-10 (627.9 ± 12.82 pg/g tissue, P = 0.001). Furthermore, in animals exposed to CMS, octreotide restored plasma corticosterone (61% and 71% from CMS, P = 0.002) at both dose levels. These beneficial effects were associated with a remarkable suppression of gastric lesions (38% and 9% from CMS, P = 0.01) and reversal of derangements in gastric mucosa. CONCLUSION: The current investigation provides evidence that exposure to CMS induces gastric ulceration, which was alleviated by administration of octreotide possibly possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic actions.

  12. MICROBIAL CORROSION OF MILD AND MEDIUM CARBON STEELS

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    J. E.O. OVRI; S. I. OKEAHIALAM; O. O. ONYEMAOBI

    2013-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the corrosion of mild and medium carbon steels is reported. The steels were exposed to anaerobic and aerobic, and fresh water (control) environments. The corrosion rates were evaluated at intervals of seven days for a period of 42 days using weight loss and electrochemical methods. The corroded specimens were visually examined and majorities were found to have undergone general corrosion in the three environments (aerobic, anaerobic, and fresh water)....

  13. MICROBIAL CORROSION OF MILD AND MEDIUM CARBON STEELS

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    J. E. O. OVRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of bacteria in the corrosion of mild and medium carbon steels is reported. The steels were exposed to anaerobic and aerobic, and fresh water (control environments. The corrosion rates were evaluated at intervals of seven days for a period of 42 days using weight loss and electrochemical methods. The corroded specimens were visually examined and majorities were found to have undergone general corrosion in the three environments (aerobic, anaerobic, and fresh water. The mild steel was found to corrode more than the medium carbon steel in anaerobic environment-mild steel: 6.43×10-4 mpy and -0.93 mV, due to limited available oxygen whilst it had -0.89 mV in aerobic and -0.77 mV in the fresh water. The medium carbon steel had -5.30×10-4 mpy and -0.91 mV in anaerobic: -0.84mV in aerobic and -0.74mV in freshwater.

  14. Association between endothelial dysfunction and depression-like symptoms in chronic mild stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Bødtkjer, Donna Marie Briggs; Kudryavtseva, Olga;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases have high comorbidity with major depression. Endothelial dysfunction may explain the adverse cardiovascular outcome in depression; therefore, we analyzed it in vitro. In the chronic mild stress model, some rats develop depression-like symptoms (including...... "anhedonia"), whereas others are stress resilient. METHODS: After 8 weeks of chronic mild stress, anhedonic rats reduced their sucrose intake by 55% (7%), whereas resilient rats did not. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of norepinephrine-preconstricted mesenteric arteries was analyzed...

  15. Interaction of Metabolic Stress with Chronic Mild Stress in Altering Brain Cytokines and Sucrose Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Luke T.; Camp, Robert M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Johnson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism’s risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight two bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on day 5 and 10, then food and water de...

  16. Enhancement of Latent Inhibition by Chronic Mild Stress in Rats Submitted to Emotional Response Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Liana Lins Melo; de Moraes Ferrari, Elenice A.; Nancy Airoldi Teixeira; Guy Sandner

    2003-01-01

    This work evaluated the influence of chronic mild stress on latent inhibition (LI) in rats, using a conditioned emotional response (CER) procedure. Rats were assigned to four groups: a non pre-exposed control group (NPC), a non pre-exposed stressed group (NPS), a preexposed control group (PC), and a pre-exposed stressed group (PS). Stressed animals were submitted to a chronic mild stress (CMS) regimen for three weeks. The off-baseline conditioned emotional response procedure had four phases: ...

  17. Strain Differences in the Chronic Mild Stress Animal Model of Depression and Anxiety in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yang-Hee; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Jun-Sup; lee, Ju-hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been reported to induce an anhedonic-like state in mice that resembles some of the symptoms of human depression. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress animal model of depression and anxiety to examine the responses of two strains of mice that have different behavioral responsiveness. An outbred ICR and an inbred C57BL/6 strain of mice were selected because they are widely used strains in behavioral tests. The results showed that the inbred C57BL/6 a...

  18. Cleaning Carbon Nanotubes by Use of Mild Oxygen Plasmas

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    Petkov, Mihail

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown that it is feasible to use oxygen radicals (specifically, monatomic oxygen) from mild oxygen plasmas to remove organic contaminants and chemical fabrication residues from the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metal/CNT interfaces. A capability for such cleaning is essential to the manufacture of reproducible CNT-based electronic devices. The use of oxygen radicals to clean surfaces of other materials is fairly well established. However, previously, cleaning of CNTs and of graphite by use of oxygen plasmas had not been attempted because both of these forms of carbon were known to be vulnerable to destruction by oxygen plasmas. The key to success of the present technique is, apparently, to ensure that the plasma is mild . that is to say, that the kinetic and internal energies of the oxygen radicals in the plasma are as low as possible. The plasma oxygen-radical source used in the experiments was a commercial one marketed for use in removing hydrocarbons and other organic contaminants from vacuum systems and from electron microscopes and other objects placed inside vacuum systems. In use, the source is installed in a vacuum system and air is leaked into the system at such a rate as to maintain a background pressure of .0.56 torr (.75 Pa). In the source, oxygen from the air is decomposed into monatomic oxygen by radio-frequency excitation of a resonance of the O2 molecule (N2 is not affected). Hence, what is produced is a mild (non-energetic) oxygen plasma. The oxygen radicals are transported along with the air molecules in the flow created by the vacuum pump. In the experiments, exposure to the oxygen plasma in this system was shown to remove organic contaminants and chemical fabrication residues from several specimens. Many high-magnification scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of CNTs were taken before and after exposure to the oxygen plasma. As in the example shown in the figure, none of these images showed evidence of degradation

  19. MDMA Pretreatment Leads to Mild Chronic Unpredictable Stress-induced Impairments in Spatial Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Jacobi I.; Raudensky, Jamie; Tonkiss, John; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2009-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse world-wide and a selective serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. An important factor in the risk of drug abuse and relapse is stress. Although multiple parallels exist between MDMA abuse and stress including effects on 5-HTergic neurotransmission, few studies have investigated the consequences of combined exposure to MDMA and chronic stress. Therefore, rats were pretreated with MDMA and exposed 7 days later to 10 days of mild chronic unpredic...

  20. The Relation of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury to Chronic Lapses of Attention

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    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Broglio, Steven P.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Johnson, Chris R.; O'Connor, Phillip M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which failures in sustained attention were associated with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) deficits in cognitive control among college-age young adults with and without a history of sport-related concussion. Participants completed the ImPACT computer-based assessment and a modified flanker task. Results…

  1. Chronic Mild Prenatal Stress Exacerbates the Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation in Rats

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    Paulo J. Nogueira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic mild prenatal stress on leukocyte infiltration into the airways was investigated in rat offspring. The chronic prenatal stress consisted of transitory and variable changes in the rat's living conditions. Offspring at adult age were actively sensitized (day 0 and intratracheally challenged (day 14 with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in the offspring at 48 h after intratracheal challenge with ovalbumin. A significant increase in total leukocyte infiltration was observed in the nonstressed offspring group and this was associated with a marked recruitment of eosinophils without a significant effect on the influx of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. In the prenatal stressed offspring, the counts of both total leukocyte and eosinophils, as well as mononuclear cells, was increased by 50% compared to the non-stressed offspring. We provide here the first experimental evidence that chronic mild unpredictable prenatal stress produces a marked increase in the allergen-induced airway inflammation in the rat offspring.

  2. [Unpredictable chronic mild stress effects on antidepressants activities in forced swim test].

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    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Voronina, T A

    2015-02-01

    The experiments has been designed to study unpredictable chronic mild stress effect on anti-depressive activities of amitriptyline (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) in forced swim test in male outbred mice. It is shown that acute treatment with fluoxetine does not produce any antidepressant effects in mice following stress of 14 days while the sub-chronic injections of fluoxetine result in more deep depressive-like behavior. In 28 daily stressed mice, antidepressant effect of fluoxetine is observed independently of the injection rates. Amitriptyline demonstrates the antidepressant activity regardless of the duration of stress or administration scheduling, but at the same time the severity of anti-immobilization effect of amitriptyline in stressed mice is weaker in compare to non-stressed trails. Thus, the injection rates and duration of unpredictable mild chronic stress are the parameters that determine the efficiency of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

  3. Clinical Studies on Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Acupuncture and Mild Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Kang Jingli; Duan Shumin

    2005-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and mild moxibustion on chronic prostatitis and to probe into the mechanism of the therapy. Two hundred patients with chronic prostatitis were randomly divided into two groups so as to observe respectively the changes in clinical symptoms, count of WBC and lecithin corpuscles in succus prostaticus, prostatic capcules and internal echo, tenderness and elasticity of prostate by palpation before and after treatment. After treatment, a remarkable improvement was found in clinical symptoms, succus prostaticus test and ultrasonic examination in the treatment group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. The treatment of chronic prostatitis with acupuncture and mild moxibustion can remove the stagnation of succus prostaticus, improve the blood circulation in prostate, inhibit or kill the pathogenic micro-organisms, strengthen or regulate the immune function of the patients, improve local blood circulation, eliminate the accumulation of secretion and relieve the obstruction of the prostatic ducts.

  4. Phlebotomy improves histology in chronic hepatitis C males with mild iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo; Sartori; Silvano; Andorno; Angelo; Rossini; Renzo; Boldorini; Cristina; Bozzola; Stefania; Carmagnola; Mario; Del; Piano; Emanuele; Albano

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the usefulness of mild iron depletion and the factors predictive for histological improvement following phlebotomy in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C(CHC). METHODS:We investigated 28 CHC Caucasians with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and non responders to,or unsuitable for,antiviral therapy who underwent mild iron depletion(ferritin≤70 ng/mL) by long-term phlebotomy.Histological improvement,as defined by at least one point reduction in the staging score or,in case...

  5. Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Methanol and Carbon Dioxide Catalyzed by Potassium Hydroxide under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide using potassium hydroxide as catalyst in the presence of CH3I and the effect of ionic liquid on the reaction were investigated. The results showed that KOH is an effective catalyst; the high selectivity and raised yield of DMC formation under mild conditions were achieved. However,the addition of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (emimBr), can evidently accelerate the conversion of methanol and yield of the product.

  6. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V;

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  7. Chronic mild stressors and diet affect gene expression differently in male and female rats.

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    Liang, Shuwen; Byers, Donna M; Irwin, Louis N

    2007-01-01

    While depression is reportedly more prevalent in women than men, a neurobiological basis for this difference has not been documented. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a widely recognized animal model, which uses mild and unpredictable environmental stressors to induce depression. Studies of chronic stress, mainly in males, have reported an increase in the relative intake of "comfort food" as a means of counteracting the effects of stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genes for certain neurotrophic factors, stress markers, and appetite regulators would be expressed differentially in male and female rats exposed to chronic, mild stressors with access to a preferred diet. Gene expression for neuropeptide Y was upregulated in females purely in response to stressors, whereas that for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in males and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in females responded primarily to diet. Genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AVP, and the cocaine-amphetamine regulator of transcription (CART) in males, and leptin in females, showed a significant response to the interaction between stressors and diet. Every affected gene showed a different pattern of expression in males and females. This study confirms the intimate relationship between dietary intake and response to stress at the molecular level, and emphasizes the sex- and gene-specific nature of those interactions. Therefore, it supports a neurobiological basis for differences in the affective state response to stress in males and females. PMID:17917078

  8. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  9. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): Comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of secretin injection MRCP for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Sixteen patients having mild chronic pancreatitis according to the Cambridge classification and 12 control subjects with no abnormal findings on the pancreatogram were examined for the diagnostic accuracy of secretin injection-MRCP regarding abnormal branch pancreatic ducts associated with mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge Classification), using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for comparison. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for abnormal branch pancreatic ducts determined by two reviewers were respectively 55%-63% and 75%-83% in the head, 57%-64% and 82%-83% in the body, and 44%-44%and 72%-76% in the tail of the pancreas. The sensitivity and specificity for mild chronic pancreatitis were 56%-63% and 92%-92%, respectively. Interobserver abnormal branch pancreatic duct and of mild chronic pancreatitis was good to excellent. CONCLUSION: Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

  10. Endothelial Microparticles in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomashow, Michael A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Parikh, Megha A.; Eric A Hoffman; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Hueper, Katja; Fu, Jessie; Liu, Chia-Ying; Bluemke, David A.; Ventetuolo, Corey E.; Doyle, Margaret F.; Barr, R Graham

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Basic research implicates alveolar endothelial cell apoptosis in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. However, information on endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in mild COPD and emphysema is lacking.

  11. Gestational chronic mild stress: Effects on acoustic startle in male offspring of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K.S.; Mandrup, Karen; Kjaer, S.L.;

    2011-01-01

    from dams exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestation. In humans, decreased PPI has been reported to be associated with anxiety. Because of its potential translational value across species, the modulation of startle reactivity may be a useful tool in examining altered emotional reactivity...... following prenatal insults. The present study aimed at investigating whether prenatally stressed male offspring would display altered startle phenotype. Stress was induced by maternal gestational exposure to alternating procedures, i.e. CMS. At the age of 3 months, half of the offspring were blood sampled...... under restraint. At the age of 6 months, i.e. three months later, all animals were tested in the acoustic startle and the light enhanced startle (LES) paradigm. Control and CMS male offspring showed similar basal startle and LES levels. Maternal gestational exposure to the relatively mild, variable...

  12. The role of pharmacotherapy in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Natya; Guenette, Jordan A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2011-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem worldwide and most of those afflicted have mild to moderate disease as measured by spirometry. There is mounting evidence that even mild airway obstruction is associated with activity-related dyspnea, exercise limitation, impaired quality of life, increased hospitalization and mortality. As our understanding of the complex, heterogeneous pathophysiology and clinical consequences of milder COPD continues to grow, there is increasing interest in the potential impact of therapeutic interventions beyond smoking cessation. Unfortunately, few clinical trials have included patients with mild to moderate disease and the evidence base for pharmacological treatment in this subpopulation is currently lacking. Recent short-term mechanistic studies confirm that reversal of airway smooth muscle cholinergic tone consistently improves respiratory mechanics during rest and exercise in mild COPD but long-term clinical benefits remain to be evaluated. Secondary analysis of large, prospective studies designed to evaluate the efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids and combination therapy indicate that patients with moderate COPD achieve comparable benefits to those with advanced disease. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines for the management of milder COPD, treatment choices are driven mainly by clinical presentation: for those with persistent and troublesome activity-related dyspnea a trial of inhaled bronchodilator therapy is justified; for those with a propensity for recurrent infective exacerbations, consideration of additional anti-inflammatory treatment seems reasonable. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base and emerging paradigm for the pharmacological treatment of mild to moderate COPD. PMID:21357348

  13. Systematic review of the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, Alison K; Cancelliere, Carol; Hincapié, Cesar A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment (CCI) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) using a previously published search strategy and predefined crit....... CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence of an increased risk of dementia after MTBI. In children, objective evidence of CCI exists only for complicated MTBI. More definitive studies are needed to inform clinical decisions, assessment of prognosis, and public health policy....

  14. Effects of Chronic Mild Stress in Female Bax Inhibitor-1-Gene Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Zhi-Yan; Chae, Han-Jung; Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Shrestha Muna, Sushma; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Objective The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and BI-1-/- mice exhibit increased sensitivity to tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of BI-1 in the pathogenesis of chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression-like behaviors in BI-1-/- mice. Methods We delivered CMS for 2 or 6 weeks in BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice. Control groups of BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice were le...

  15. Electroconvulsive stimulation reverses anhedonia and cognitive impairments in rats exposed to chronic mild stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, K; Woldbye, D P D; Wiborg, O

    2013-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy remains the most effective treatment for depression including a fast onset of action. However, this therapeutic approach suffers from some potential drawbacks. In the acute phase this includes amnesia. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) has previously been shown...... to reverse a depression-like state in the chronic mild stress model of depression (CMS), but the effect of ECS on cognition has not previously been investigated. In this study the CMS model was used to induce a depressive-like condition in rats. The study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ECS...... treatment on working memory and the chronic effect of repeated ECS treatments on depression-like behavior and working memory. The results indicated that, in the acute phase, ECS treatment induced a working memory deficit in healthy controls unexposed to stress, while repeated treatments reversed stress...

  16. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in mild to moderate progressive chronic renal failure and its association with aerobic work capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kanstrup, I L;

    1995-01-01

    Tissue sensitivity to insulin and aerobic work capacity was measured in patients with mild to moderate progressive chronic renal failure. Twenty-nine non-diabetic patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 25 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 (11-43) (median, range) and 15 sex, age, and body mass index matched....../I ratio in both groups. In conclusion, not only patients with end-stage chronic renal failure but also those with mild to moderate progressive chronic renal failure are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinaemic. The tissue sensitivity to insulin is correlated to the maximal aerobic work capacity suggesting...

  17. Stressful Presentations: Mild Chronic Cold Stress in Mice Influences Baseline Properties of Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Marie Kokolus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dendritic cells to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to study immune responses. Physiological stress is well recognized to impair several arms of immune protection. The goals of this report are to briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiologically relevant stress and to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent in mice housed at standard ambient temperatures required for laboratory mice to influence baseline DCs properties. Since recent data from our group shows that CD8+ T cell function is altered by mild chronic cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8+ T cell activation, we wondered whether mild cold stress may also be influencing DC properties. We found increased numbers of splenic DCs (CD11c+ in cold stressed mice compared to mice housed at a thermoneutral temperature, which significantly reduces cold stress. However, many of the DCs which are expanded in cold stressed mice express an immature phenotype. We also found that antigen presentation and ability of splenocytes to activate T cells were impaired compared to that seen in DCs isolated from mice at thermoneutrality. The new data presented here strongly suggest that the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties of DC function which in turn could be influencing the response of DCs to added experimental stressors or other treatments.

  18. An Experimental Study on Drugs for Improving Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treating Mild Chronic Hepatic Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Large and small doses of drugs for improving blood circulation and removing blood stasis were used in model rats to treat mild chronic hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The results show that large dose of Dang Gui (当归 Radix Angelicae Sinensis) and Dan Shen (丹参 Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) (drugs for regulating blood flow) and small dose of Yu Jin (郁金 Radix Curcumae) and Niu Xi (牛膝 Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae) (drugs for activating blood flow) can significantly elevate the activity of SOD (P<0.05) and/or lower the T/K ratio, markedly reduce the MDA content (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and significantly decrease the activities of ALT and AST (P<0.05 or P<0.01), demonstrating that these drugs are effective in combating oxygen free radicals (OFR) in chronic liver damage. On the contrary, large dose of Tu Bie Chong (土鳖虫 Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga) and E Zhu (莪术 Rhizoma Curcumae) (drugs for removing blood stasis) tend to increase the ALT and AST (P<0.05) activities. The results suggest that the synergism of elevation of the SOD activity and reduction of T/K ratio contributes to the action of drugs for improving blood circulation and removing blood stasis in combating the liver damage induced by CCl4.

  19. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Cordycepin in a Mice Model of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine, a major bioactive component isolated from Cordyceps militaris, has multiple pharmacological activities. This study is attempted to investigate whether cordycepin (COR possesses beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS- induced behavioral deficits (depression-like behaviors and explore the possible mechanisms. ICR mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 42 consecutive days. Then, COR and fluoxetine (FLU, positive control drug were administered for 21 consecutive days at the last three weeks of CUMS procedure. The classical behavioral tests, open field test (OFT, sucrose preference test (SPT, tail suspension test (TST, and forced swimming test (FST, were applied to evaluate the antidepressant effects of COR. Then the serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NE concentrations in hippocampal were evaluated by HPLC; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in hippocampal were evaluated, and the proteins of TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κBP65 5-HT receptor (5-HTR, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in hippocampal were evaluated by Western blot. Our results indicated that 6 weeks of CUMS exposure induced significant depression-like behavior, with low 5-HT and NE levels, high TNF-α and IL-6 in brain and high hippocampal TNF-α, IL-6, P-NF-κBP65, and 5-HTR levels, and low BDNF expression levels. Whereas, chronic COR (20, 40 mg/kg treatments reversed the behavioral deficiency induced by CUMS exposure, treatment with COR normalized the change of TNF-α, IL-6, 5-HT, and NE levels, which demonstrated that COR could partially restore CUMS-induced 5-HT receptor impairments and inflammation. Besides, hippocampal BDNF expressions were also upregulated after COR treatments. In conclusion, COR remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the upregulating BDNF and downregulating 5-HTR levels and

  20. Mild systemic thermal therapy ameliorates renal dysfunction in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Takashige; Hayata, Manabu; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Izumi, Yuichiro; Iiyama, Junichi; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Thermal therapy has become a nonpharmacological therapy in clinical settings, especially for cardiovascular diseases. However, the practical role of thermal therapy on chronic kidney disease remains elusive. We performed the present study to investigate whether a modified thermal protocol, repeated mild thermal stimulation (MTS), could affect renal damages in chronic kidney disease using a mouse renal ablation model. Mice were subjected to MTS or room temperature (RT) treatment once daily for 4 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (Nx) or sham operation (Sh). We revealed that MTS alleviated renal impairment as indicated by serum creatinine and albuminuria in Nx groups. In addition, the Nx + MTS group showed attenuated tubular histological changes and reduced urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion approximately by half compared with the Nx + RT group. Increased apoptotic signaling, such as TUNEL-positive cell count and cleavage of caspase 3, as well as enhanced oxidative stress were significantly reduced in the Nx + MTS group compared with the Nx + RT group. These changes were accompanied with the restoration of kidney Mn-SOD levels by MTS. Heat shock protein 27, a key molecular chaperone, was phosphorylated by MTS only in Nx kidneys rather than in Sh kidneys. MTS also tended to increase the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt in Nx kidneys, possibly associated with the activation of heat shock protein 27. Taken together, these results suggest that modified MTS can protect against renal injury in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

  1. The protective role of Bax Inhibitor-1 against chronic mild stress through the inhibition of monoamine oxidase A

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa-Young Lee; Geum-Hwa Lee; Anu Marahatta; Shun-Mei Lin; Mi-Rin Lee; Kyu Yun Jang; Kyung Min Kim; Hee Jae Lee; Jae-Won Lee; Tarique Rajasaheb Bagalkot; Young-Chul Chung; Yong-Chul Lee; Hyung-Ryong Kim; Han-Jung Chae

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been hypothesized that BI-1 protects against neuron degenerative diseases. In this study, BI-1−/− mice showed increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress accompanied by alterations in the size and morphology of the hippocampi, enhanced ROS accumulation and an ER stress response compared with BI-1+/+ mice. BI-1−/− mice exposed to chronic mild stress showed signif...

  2. Cardiac response to exercise in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Yan Wang; Qiu-Fen Xu; Yao Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the risk of cardiovascular problem.The symptom of dyspnea on exertion may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction or heart failure, or both. The study objective was to determine whether cardiac dysfunction adds to the mechanism of dyspnea caused mainly by impaired lung function in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. Methods Patients with COPD and healthy controls performed incremental and constant work rate exercise testing. Venous blood samples were collected in 19 COPD patients and 10 controls before and during constant work exercise for analysis of N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP). Results Peak oxygen uptake and constant work exercise time (CWET) were significantly lower in COPD group than in control group (15.81±3.65 vs 19.19a±6.16 ml/min kg, P=0.035 and 7.78±6.53 rain vs 14.77±7.33 min, P=0.015, respectively). Anaerobic threshold, oxygen pulse and heart rate reserve were not statistically significant between COPD group and control group. The NT-pro-BNP levels both at rest and during constant work exercise were higher in COPD group compared to control group, but without statistical significance. The correlations between CWET and NT-proBNP at rest or during exercise in patients with COPD were not statistically significant. Conclusions Heart failure does not contribute to exercise intolerance in mild-to-moderate COPD.

  3. Chronic mild stress alters circadian expressions of molecular clock genes in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Kaneko, Keizo; Shirai, Yuta; Munakata, Yuichiro; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Uno, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Sawada, Shojiro; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2013-02-01

    Chronic stress is well known to affect metabolic regulation. However, molecular mechanisms interconnecting stress response systems and metabolic regulations have yet to be elucidated. Various physiological processes, including glucose/lipid metabolism, are regulated by the circadian clock, and core clock gene dysregulation reportedly leads to metabolic disorders. Glucocorticoids, acting as end-effectors of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, entrain the circadian rhythms of peripheral organs, including the liver, by phase-shifting core clock gene expressions. Therefore, we examined whether chronic stress affects circadian expressions of core clock genes and metabolism-related genes in the liver using the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure. In BALB/c mice, CMS elevated and phase-shifted serum corticosterone levels, indicating overactivation of the HPA axis. The rhythmic expressions of core clock genes, e.g., Clock, Npas2, Bmal1, Per1, and Cry1, were altered in the liver while being completely preserved in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuculeus (SCN), suggesting that the SCN is not involved in alterations in hepatic core clock gene expressions. In addition, circadian patterns of glucose and lipid metabolism-related genes, e.g., peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (Ppar) α, Pparγ-1, Pparγ-coactivator-1α, and phosphoenolepyruvate carboxykinase, were also disturbed by CMS. In contrast, in C57BL/6 mice, the same CMS procedure altered neither serum corticosterone levels nor rhythmic expressions of hepatic core clock genes and metabolism-related genes. Thus, chronic stress can interfere with the circadian expressions of both core clock genes and metabolism-related genes in the liver possibly involving HPA axis overactivation. This mechanism might contribute to metabolic disorders in stressful modern societies.

  4. The effect of chronic mild hyponatremia on bone mineral loss evaluated by retrospective national Danish patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Christian; Eiken, Pia; Verbalis, Joseph;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of chronic mild hyponatremia ([Na+]=130-137mmol/L) on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) loss through multiple, serial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. METHODS: Utilizing biochemical and DXA scan data from two Danish regions...

  5. Association of Mild to Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease With Venous Thromboembolism Pooled Analysis of Five Prospective General Population Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Naess, Inger Anne; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Braekkan, Sigrid K.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Brodin, Ellen E.; Meijer, Karina; Sang, Yingying; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Hallan, Stein I.; Hammerstrom, Jens; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Cushman, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Background-Recent findings suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Given the high prevalence of mild-to-moderate CKD in the general population, in depth analysis of this association is warranted. Methods and Results-We poole

  6. Antidepressant-like activity of gallic acid in mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhillar, Ritu; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of gallic acid in Swiss young male albino mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms for this activity. Gallic acid (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) per se were administered daily to unstressed mice and other groups of mice subjected to unpredictable mild stress, 30 min after the injection for 21 successive days. The antidepressant-like activity was evaluated using forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test. Stress significantly increased immobility period of mice in FST. Gallic acid (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed and stressed mice in FST and prevented the stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice by the drugs. Gallic acid (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity, malondialdehyde levels, and catalase activity in unstressed mice; and significantly prevented the stress-induced decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase activity; and also significantly prevented stress-induced increase in MAO-A activity, malondialdehyde levels, plasma nitrite, and corticosterone levels. Thus, gallic acid showed antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably due to its antioxidant activity and through inhibition of MAO-A activity and decrease in plasma nitrite levels. In addition, gallic acid also showed antidepressant-like activity in stressed mice probably through decrease in plasma corticosterone levels.

  7. Filling in the gaps: Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Diwakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A barrier in the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI stems from the lack of measures that are adequately sensitive in detecting mild head injuries. MRI and CT are typically negative in mTBI patients with persistent symptoms of post-concussive syndrome (PCS, and characteristic difficulties in sustaining attention often go undetected on neuropsychological testing, which can be insensitive to momentary lapses in concentration. Conversely, visual tracking strongly depends on sustained attention over time and is impaired in chronic mTBI patients, especially when tracking an occluded target. This finding suggests deficient internal anticipatory control in mTBI, the neural underpinnings of which are poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuronal bases for deficient anticipatory control during visual tracking in 25 chronic mTBI patients with persistent PCS symptoms and 25 healthy control subjects. The task was performed while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG, which allowed us to examine whether neural dysfunction associated with anticipatory control deficits was due to altered alpha, beta, and/or gamma activity. Neuropsychological examinations characterized cognition in both groups. During MEG recordings, subjects tracked a predictably moving target that was either continuously visible or randomly occluded (gap condition. MEG source-imaging analyses tested for group differences in alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results showed executive functioning, information processing speed, and verbal memory deficits in the mTBI group. Visual tracking was impaired in the mTBI group only in the gap condition. Patients showed greater error than controls before and during target occlusion, and were slower to resynchronize with the target when it reappeared. Impaired tracking concurred with abnormal beta activity, which was suppressed in the parietal cortex, especially the right hemisphere, and enhanced in left caudate and

  8. Filling in the gaps: Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Mithun; Harrington, Deborah L; Maruta, Jun; Ghajar, Jamshid; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Muzzatti, Laura; Corbetta, Maurizio; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R

    2015-01-01

    A barrier in the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) stems from the lack of measures that are adequately sensitive in detecting mild head injuries. MRI and CT are typically negative in mTBI patients with persistent symptoms of post-concussive syndrome (PCS), and characteristic difficulties in sustaining attention often go undetected on neuropsychological testing, which can be insensitive to momentary lapses in concentration. Conversely, visual tracking strongly depends on sustained attention over time and is impaired in chronic mTBI patients, especially when tracking an occluded target. This finding suggests deficient internal anticipatory control in mTBI, the neural underpinnings of which are poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuronal bases for deficient anticipatory control during visual tracking in 25 chronic mTBI patients with persistent PCS symptoms and 25 healthy control subjects. The task was performed while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG), which allowed us to examine whether neural dysfunction associated with anticipatory control deficits was due to altered alpha, beta, and/or gamma activity. Neuropsychological examinations characterized cognition in both groups. During MEG recordings, subjects tracked a predictably moving target that was either continuously visible or randomly occluded (gap condition). MEG source-imaging analyses tested for group differences in alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results showed executive functioning, information processing speed, and verbal memory deficits in the mTBI group. Visual tracking was impaired in the mTBI group only in the gap condition. Patients showed greater error than controls before and during target occlusion, and were slower to resynchronize with the target when it reappeared. Impaired tracking concurred with abnormal beta activity, which was suppressed in the parietal cortex, especially the right hemisphere, and enhanced in left caudate and frontal

  9. Neuroprotective Role of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Induced Depression in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Kushwah

    Full Text Available Hypoxic exposure results in several pathophysiological conditions associated with nervous system, these include acute and chronic mountain sickness, loss of memory, and high altitude cerebral edema. Previous reports have also suggested the role of hypoxia in pathogenesis of depression and related psychological conditions. On the other hand, sub lethal intermittent hypoxic exposure induces protection against future lethal hypoxia and may have beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS induced depression like behaviour in rats. The IHH refers to the periodic exposures to hypoxic conditions interrupted by the normoxic or lesser hypoxic conditions. The current study examines the effect of IHH against UCMS induced depression, using elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, force swim test (FST, as behavioural paradigm and related histological and molecular approaches. The data indicated the UCMS induced depression like behaviour as evident from decreased exploration activity in OFT with increased anxiety levels in EPM, and increased immobility time in the FST; whereas on providing the IHH (5000m altitude, 4hrs/day for two weeks these behavioural changes were ameliorated. The morphological and molecular studies also validated the neuroprotective effect of IHH against UCMS induced neuronal loss and decreased neurogenesis. Here, we also explored the role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF in anticipatory action of IHH against detrimental effect of UCMS as upon blocking of BDNF-TrkB signalling the beneficial effect of IHH was nullified. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that the intermittent hypoxia has a therapeutic potential similar to an antidepressant in animal model of depression and could be developed as a preventive therapeutic option against this pathophysiological state.

  10. Neuroprotective Role of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Induced Depression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwah, Neetu; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satayanarayan; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Khan, Nilofar

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure results in several pathophysiological conditions associated with nervous system, these include acute and chronic mountain sickness, loss of memory, and high altitude cerebral edema. Previous reports have also suggested the role of hypoxia in pathogenesis of depression and related psychological conditions. On the other hand, sub lethal intermittent hypoxic exposure induces protection against future lethal hypoxia and may have beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) induced depression like behaviour in rats. The IHH refers to the periodic exposures to hypoxic conditions interrupted by the normoxic or lesser hypoxic conditions. The current study examines the effect of IHH against UCMS induced depression, using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), force swim test (FST), as behavioural paradigm and related histological and molecular approaches. The data indicated the UCMS induced depression like behaviour as evident from decreased exploration activity in OFT with increased anxiety levels in EPM, and increased immobility time in the FST; whereas on providing the IHH (5000m altitude, 4hrs/day for two weeks) these behavioural changes were ameliorated. The morphological and molecular studies also validated the neuroprotective effect of IHH against UCMS induced neuronal loss and decreased neurogenesis. Here, we also explored the role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in anticipatory action of IHH against detrimental effect of UCMS as upon blocking of BDNF-TrkB signalling the beneficial effect of IHH was nullified. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that the intermittent hypoxia has a therapeutic potential similar to an antidepressant in animal model of depression and could be developed as a preventive therapeutic option against this pathophysiological state. PMID:26901349

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  12. Possible antidepressant effects of vanillin against experimentally induced chronic mild stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Abo-youssef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a flavoring agent widely used in food and beverages such as chocolates and dairy products and it is also used to mask unpleasant tastes in medicine. It has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of vanillin against experimentally induced stress in rats. Briefly rats were subdivided into four groups. Three groups were subjected to chronic mild stress and the fourth group served as normal control group. One week before induction of stress drugs or saline was administered daily and continued for another nine weeks. At the end of the experimental period behavioral tests including sucrose preference test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze test were assessed. In addition, brain biochemical parameters including MDA, GSH, NO and serotonin were determined. Vanillin succeeded to restore the behavioral and biochemical changes associated with stress. It significantly increased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze test as compared to stress control group. It also reduced immobility time in forced swim test and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test. Additionally, it significantly decreased brain MDA and NO levels and significantly increased brain GSH and Serotonin levels compared to stress control group. It could be concluded that vanillin showed beneficial protective effects against experimentally induced stress in rats.

  13. Strain differences in the chronic mild stress animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiao Hua; Wang, Sabrina

    2010-11-12

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction has been implicated in depression pathology. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression to examine the responses of three strains of rats that have different HPA axis responsiveness; and whether the behavioral changes observed are correlated with changes in hippocampal cell proliferation and survival. In addition, in most of the CMS experiments the rats are kept in singly housed condition. Since rats are social animals we also examined whether prolonged single housing condition affects the behavior of the rats. The results showed that rats with a hyperactive HPA axis, the inbred Fischer (F344) rat, were the most responsive to CMS. The inbred Lewis (LEW) rat, which has a hypoactive HPA axis, did not show anhedonia after CMS treatment but showed other signs of distress. The responses of the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were variable; this strain was very sensitive to the single housing condition. Prolonged single housing condition itself could induce helplessness behavior in the rats. The results from hippocampal cell proliferation of the three strains indicated that cell proliferation was not related to anhedonia induced by CMS. We conclude that F344 rat is the strain most sensitive to CMS treatment and is probably the stain of choice for CMS experiments. PMID:20438768

  14. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Auricular Concha Region on the Depressive Status of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Rat Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Peng Liu; Ji-Liang Fang; Pei-Jing Rong; Yufeng Zhao; Hong Meng; Hui Ben; Liang Li; Zhan-Xia Huang; Xia Li; Ying-Ge Ma; Bing Zhu

    2013-01-01

    To explore new noninvasive treatment options for depression, this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the auricular concha region (ACR) of depression rat models. Depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) combined with isolation for 21 days. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal, UCMS alone, UCMS with EA-ACR treatment, and UCMS with EA-ear-tip treatment. Rats under inhaled anesthesia were treated once d...

  15. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-Ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Metho...

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is involved in the modulation of depressive behaviors induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Yun-Li; Liu Yu-Ning; Liu Lei; Wang Xia; Jiang Chun-Lei; Wang Yun-Xia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Experiences and inflammatory mediators are fundamental in the provocation of major depressive disorders (MDDs). We investigated the roles and mechanisms of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stress-induced depression. Methods We used a depressive-like state mouse model induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Depressive-like behaviors were evaluated after 4 weeks of UCMS, in the presence and absence of the iNOS inhibitor N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamid...

  17. Adolescent chronic mild stress alters hippocampal CB1 receptor-mediated excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, C G; Mihalik, G R; Iskander, A N; Seckler, J C; Weiss, M S

    2013-12-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in the stress response and alterations in eCB signaling may contribute to the etiology of mood disorders. Exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a model of depression, produces downregulation of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor in the hippocampus of male rats. However, it is unknown how this stress-induced change in CB1 levels affects eCB-mediated neurotransmission. In vitro, field potential recordings from CMS-exposed (21-days) rats were performed to assess the effects of stress on eCB-regulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in/on hippocampal area CA1. We observed that application of the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-5 (1 μM), in stress animals resulted in a ∼135% increase in excitatory neurotransmission, whereas CB1 activation in non-stress animals leads to a ∼30% decrease. However, during blockade of GABA(A) neurotransmission with picrotoxin, CB1 activation yielded a ∼35% decrease in stress animals. These findings indicate that CMS does not directly affect glutamatergic neurotransmission. Rather, CMS sensitizes CB1 function on GABAergic terminals, leading to less inhibition and an increase in excitatory neurotransmission. This finding is reinforced in that induction of weak long-term-potentiation (LTP) is enhanced in CMS-exposed animals compared to controls and this enhancement is CB1-dependent. Lastly, we observed that the LTP-blocking property of WIN 55,212-5 shifts from being glutamate-dependent in non-stress animals to being GABA-dependent in stress animals. These results effectively demonstrate that CMS significantly alters hippocampal eCB-mediated neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity.

  18. Effects of chronic mild stress on behavioral and neurobiological parameters - Role of glucocorticoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Wang, Zhen-zhen; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Chu, Shi-feng; Chen, Nai-hong

    2016-02-01

    Major depression is thought to originate from maladaptation to adverse events, particularly when impairments occur in mood-related brain regions. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the major systems involved in physiological stress response. HPA axis dysfunction and high glucocorticoid concentrations play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. In addition, astrocytic disability and dysfunction of neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) greatly influence the development of depression and anxiety disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors manifest in the absence of glucocorticoid production and circulation in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats after chronic mild stress (CMS) exposure and its potential molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrate that glucocorticoid-controlled rats showed anxiety-like behaviors but not depression-like behaviors after CMS. Molecular and cellular changes included the decreased BDNF in the hippocampus, astrocytic dysfunction with connexin43 (cx43) decreasing and abnormality in gap junction in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Interestingly, we did not find any changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or its chaperone protein FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) expression in the hippocampus or PFC in ADX rats subjected to CMS. In conclusion, the production and circulation of glucocorticoids are one of the contributing factors in the development of depression-like behaviors in response to CMS. In contrast, the effects of CMS on anxiety-like behaviors are independent of the presence of circulating glucocorticoids. Meanwhile, stress decreased GR expression and enhanced FKBP5 expression via higher glucocorticoid exposure. Gap junction dysfunction and changes in BDNF may be associated with anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:26592454

  19. Is unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) a reliable model to study depression-induced neuroinflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Rai Khalid; Isingrini, Elsa; Tanti, Arnaud; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Arlicot, Nicolas; Minier, Frederic; Leman, Samuel; Chalon, Sylvie; Belzung, Catherine; Camus, Vincent

    2012-05-16

    Unipolar depression is one of the leading causes of disability. The pathophysiology of depression is poorly understood. Evidence suggests that inflammation is associated with depression. For instance, pro-inflammatory cytokines are found to be elevated in the peripheral blood of depressed subjects. Cytokine immunotherapy itself is known to induce depressive symptoms. While the epidemiological and biochemical relationship between inflammation and depression is strong, little is known about the possible existence of neuroinflammation in depression. The use of animal models of depression such as the Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) has already contributed to the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression such as decreased neurogenesis and HPA axis alterations. We used this model to explore the association of depressive-like behavior in mice with changes in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 level as well as the neuroinflammation by quantifying CD11b expression in brain areas known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. These areas include the cerebral cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the caudate putamen, the amygdala and the hippocampus. The results indicate that microglial activation is significantly increased in the infralimbic, cingulate and medial orbital cortices, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, amygdala and hippocampus of the mouse brain as a function of UCMS, while levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines did not differ among the groups. This finding suggests that neuroinflammation occurs in depression and may be implicated in the subject's behavioral response. They also suggest that UCMS could be a potentially reliable model to study depression-induced neuroinflammation. PMID:22465167

  20. Chronic mild stress (CMS in mice: of anhedonia, 'anomalous anxiolysis' and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Schweizer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of depressed patients, stressful life events play a role in triggering the evolution of the illness. Exposure to stress has effects on different levels in laboratory animals as well and for the rat it has been shown that chronic mild stress (CMS can cause antidepressant-reversible depressive-like effects. The adoption of the model to the mouse seems to be problematic, depending on the strain used and behavioural endpoint defined. Our aim was to evaluate the applicability of CMS to mice in order to induce behavioural alterations suggested to reflect depression-like symptoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A weekly CMS protocol was applied to male mice of different mouse strains (D2Ola, BL/6J and BL/6N and its impact on stress-sensitive behavioural measures (anhedonia-, anxiety- and depression-related parameters and body weight was assessed. Overnight illumination as commonly used stressor in CMS protocols was particularly investigated in terms of its effect on general activity and subsequently derived saccharin intake. CMS application yielded strain-dependent behavioural and physiological responses including 'paradox' anxiolytic-like effects. Overnight illumination was found to be sufficient to mimic anhedonic-like behaviour in BL/6J mice when being applied as sole stressor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CMS procedure induced some behavioural changes that are compatible with the common expectations, i.e. 'anhedonic' behaviour, but in parallel behavioural alterations were observed which would be described as 'anomalous' (e.g. decreased anxiety. The results suggest that a shift in the pattern of circadian activity has a particular high impact on the anhedonic profile. Changes in activity in response to novelty seem to drive the 'anomalous' behavioural alterations as well.

  1. Effects of chronic mild stress on behavioral and neurobiological parameters - Role of glucocorticoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Wang, Zhen-zhen; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Chu, Shi-feng; Chen, Nai-hong

    2016-02-01

    Major depression is thought to originate from maladaptation to adverse events, particularly when impairments occur in mood-related brain regions. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the major systems involved in physiological stress response. HPA axis dysfunction and high glucocorticoid concentrations play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. In addition, astrocytic disability and dysfunction of neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) greatly influence the development of depression and anxiety disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors manifest in the absence of glucocorticoid production and circulation in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats after chronic mild stress (CMS) exposure and its potential molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrate that glucocorticoid-controlled rats showed anxiety-like behaviors but not depression-like behaviors after CMS. Molecular and cellular changes included the decreased BDNF in the hippocampus, astrocytic dysfunction with connexin43 (cx43) decreasing and abnormality in gap junction in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Interestingly, we did not find any changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or its chaperone protein FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) expression in the hippocampus or PFC in ADX rats subjected to CMS. In conclusion, the production and circulation of glucocorticoids are one of the contributing factors in the development of depression-like behaviors in response to CMS. In contrast, the effects of CMS on anxiety-like behaviors are independent of the presence of circulating glucocorticoids. Meanwhile, stress decreased GR expression and enhanced FKBP5 expression via higher glucocorticoid exposure. Gap junction dysfunction and changes in BDNF may be associated with anxiety-like behaviors.

  2. Prolactin and its receptors in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faron-Górecka, A; Kuśmider, M; Kolasa, M; Zurawek, D; Gruca, P; Papp, M; Szafran, K; Solich, J; Pabian, P; Romańska, I; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, L; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, M

    2014-03-25

    Prolactin (PRL) exhibits many physiological functions with wide effects on the central nervous system including stress responses. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) - which is a good animal model of depression - on PRL receptor (PRLR) expression in the rat brain. Rats were exposed to CMS for two weeks and subsequently to CMS in combination with imipramine (IMI) treatment for five consecutive weeks. Behavioral deficit measured in anhedonic animals is a reduced intake of sucrose solution. Two weeks of CMS procedure allowed the selection of animals reactive to stress and displaying anhedonia, and the group which is considered as stress-non-reactive as far as behavioral measures are concerned. In this group the elevated level of PRL in plasma was observed, decrease in dopamine release in the hypothalamus, increase in [(125)I]PRL binding to PRLR in the choroid plexus, increase of mRNA encoding the long form of PRLR in the arcuate nucleus and the decrease of mRNA encoding its short form, and decrease in the mRNA encoding dopamine D2 receptor. All these alterations indicate these parameters as involved in the phenomenon of stress-resilience. The prolongation of the CMS procedure for additional five weeks shows the form of habituation to the stressful conditions. The most interesting result, however, was the up-regulation of PRLR in the choroid plexus of rats subjected to full CMS procedure combined with treatment with IMI, which may speak in favor of the role of this receptor in the mechanisms of antidepressant action.

  3. A Facile and Mild Synthesis of Trisubstituted Allylic Sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%–99% with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1. Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  4. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

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    Khedr LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c, caspase-3 (Casp-3, as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001 as well as the changes in adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001. Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. Keywords: rats, CMS, hippocampus, paroxetine, apoptosis, adenine nucleotides, cytochrome-c, caspase-3

  5. Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease among Patients Developing Mild Renal Impairment during Tenofovir-Containing Antiretroviral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Davide Paolo; Casari, Salvatore; Maggiolo, Franco; Cauda, Roberto; Di Pietro, Massimo; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Sighinolfi, Laura; Dal Zoppo, Sarah; Sabbatini, Francesca; Soria, Alessandro; Pezzoli, Chiara; Mondi, Annalisa; Costarelli, Silvia; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Torti, Carlo; Gori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Tenofovir (TDF) can cause kidney injury through tubular dysfunction, with or without drop of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Whether mild eGFR reductions during treatment should be considered a reason for prompt TDF discontinuation, however, remains unclear. Methods Patients with normal pre-TDF eGFR levels, who had developed mild renal impairment (i.e., two consecutive eGFR results between 89–60 ml/min) on TDF, were observed until onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as two eGFR6 months despite mild renal impairment, current TDF use was not associated with a significantly higher rate of CKD. Other significant predictors of CKD were older age, intravenous drug use, diabetes, hypertension, lower pre-TDF eGFR, higher eGFR drop since TDF introduction and longer exposure to TDF. Conclusions Prompt discontinuation of TDF among patients developing mild renal impairment may prevent further progression of renal damage. PMID:27632369

  6. Do epigenetic events take place in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Puig-Vilanova

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction is a major comorbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. Several biological mechanisms including epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle atrophy. Investigations conducted so far have focused on the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in muscle dysfunction in advanced COPD. We assessed whether the epigenetic profile may be altered in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild COPD, normal body composition, and mildly impaired muscle function and exercise capacity. In vastus lateralis (VL of mild COPD patients with well-preserved body composition and in healthy age-matched controls, expression of DNA methylation, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HTAs and deacetylases (HDACs, protein acetylation, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO ligases, and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared to healthy controls, in the VL of mild COPD patients, muscle function and exercise capacity were moderately reduced, DNA methylation levels did not differ, miR-1 expression levels were increased and positively correlated with both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and quadriceps force, HDAC4 protein levels were increased, and muscle fiber types and sizes were not different. Moderate skeletal muscle dysfunction is a relevant feature in patients with mild COPD and preserved body composition. Several epigenetic events are differentially expressed in the limb muscles of these patients, probably as an attempt to counterbalance the underlying mechanisms that alter muscle function and mass. The study of patients at early stages of their disease is of interest as they are a target for timely therapeutic interventions that may slow down the course of the disease and prevent the deleterious effects of major comorbidities.

  7. Actual Therapeutic Indication of an Old Drug: Urea for Treatment of Severely Symptomatic and Mild Chronic Hyponatremia Related to SIADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Decaux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral urea has been used in the past to treat various diseases like gastric ulcers, liver metastases, sickle cell disease, heart failure, brain oedema, glaucoma, Meniere disease, etc. We have demonstrated for years, the efficacy of urea to treat euvolemic (SIADH or hypervolemic hyponatremia. We briefly describe the indications of urea use in symptomatic and paucisymptomatic hyponatremic patients. Urea is a non-toxic, cheap product, and protects against osmotic demyelinating syndrome (ODS in experimental studies. Prospective studies showing the benefit to treat mild chronic hyponatremia due to SIADH and comparing water restriction, urea, high ceiling diuretics, and antivasopressin antagonist antagonist should be done.

  8. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on Corrosion Protection of Acrylate Nanocomposite on Mild Steel Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Akhir, M. M.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Harun, M. K.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2015-05-01

    Acrylate:carbon nanotubes (A:CNTs) nanocomposite thin film was prepared by sol- gel technique. The corrosion coating protection of acrylate:carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite thin film has been coated on mild steel characterised by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) measurement and equivalent circuit model are employed to analyse coating impedance for corrosion protection. In this study, 3.5 w/v % sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was immersed the acrylate:carbon nanotubes nanocomposite thin film. As the results, the surface morphology were found that there formation of carbon nanotubes with good distribution on acrylate-based coating. From EIS measurement, A:CNTs nanocomposite thin film with 0.4 w/v % contain of CNTs was exhibited the highest coating impedance from Nyquist graph after immersed in sodium chloride solution and may provide the excellent corrosion protection. The Bode plots have shown the impedance is high at the beginning from the time at high frequency and slightly decreases with value of frequency become smaller.

  9. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury : Acute versus chronic disturbances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M.; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2014-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully unde

  10. Mildly symptomatic chronic mitral regurgitation. Analysis of left ventricular systolic function and mitral regurgitant fraction under pharmacological influence: echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Ivan Romero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular systolic function and valvar regurgitation under pharmacological influence in mildly symptomatic patients with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR. METHODS: We carried out a double-blind placebo controlled study in 12 patients with MR, mean aged 12.5 years old, who were randomized in 4 phases: A digoxin; B enalapril; C digoxin + enalapril; D placebo. The medication was administered for 30 days in each phase, and the following variables were analyzed: shortening and ejection fractions, wall stress index of left ventricle, left ventricular meridional end-systolic wall stress, Doppler-derived mean rate of left ventricular pressure rise (mean dP/dt, stroke volume and MR jet area. The clinical variables analysed were heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. RESULTS: No significant variation was observed in the clinical variables analysed. The shortening and ejection fraction, the mean dP/dt and stroke volume significantly increased and the wall stress index of left ventricle, the meridional left ventricular end systolic wall stress and the mitral regurgitation jet area decreased in the phases with medication as compared with that in the placebo phase. CONCLUSION: The parameters of left ventricular systolic function improved significantly and the degree of MR decreased with the isolated administration of digoxin or enalapril in mildly symptomatic patients with chronic MR. The combination of the drugs, however, did not show better results.

  11. Apomorphine induced conditioned place preference and sensitization is greater in rats exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Sumera; Ikram, Huma; Farhan, Muhammad; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-11-01

    CNS stimulants are the class of the drugs that may be used to get relief from depression. Apomorphine is a D1 and D2 receptor agonist with a CNS stimulatory effect used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease is also abused. Although many drugs of abuse produce tolerance and dependence. Long term use of pshycostimulants produce reverse tolerance described as sensitization. These drugs also have a number of other beneficial effects but their therapeutic use is limited because of abuse potential. Conditioned place preference (CPP) test is used to monitor the reinforcing effect of drugs of abuse. Stress is an important factor that precipitates and potentiates addictive effects of different drugs of abuse. The present study was designed to investigate the addictive effect of apomorphine (1mg/kg) in rats previously exposed to repeated unpredictable chronic mild stress for 10 days (animal model of depression). Results from present study illustrate that unpredictable chronic mild stress potentiates the reinforcing effects of apomorphine as the number of entries and the time spent in the CPP compartment associated with drug administration is increased. Motor activity was taken as a parameter for behavioral sensitization which is induced by repeated administration of apomorphine, monitored as the number of cage crossings in light compartment of the CPP apparatus, also increased. PMID:26639488

  12. Electrochemical Intercalation of Lithium into Raw and Mild Oxide-treated Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by CVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ke-zhi; XU Yan-hui; WANG Xiao-lin; LUO Guo-hua

    2004-01-01

    The raw carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were used in electrochemical lithiation. To remove the impurity the mild oxidation was done on the samples. The electrochemical characteristics of the two samples are investigated by the galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The structural and interfacial changes of the CNTs electrode were analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. The samples show a reversibility of lithium intercalation and de-intercalation. The reversible capacities of the first five cycles are larger than 300 mAh/g and the irreversible capacity of the first cycle was much larger than that mentioned in literatures. There is no identical change in the structure during the charge and discharge. The reactions at the interface between electrode and the electrolyte are similar to those of other carbonaceous materials.

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation From The High Strain Rate Fracture Of Mild Carbon-Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Calahan, Kenneth

    2005-07-01

    We present results of an experimental study of the back surface emission of electromagnetic radiation resulting from the impact fracture of mild carbon-steel at strain rates of approximates 10^6/s. We obtained time-domain measurements of two perpendicular components of the electric displacement vector at distances of up to 20 m from the targets. Spectral analysis of these data provides results that are consistent with theoretical predictions of the strain-rate dependence of the Misra Effect. We provide evidence that this phenomenon, that has only been reported previously during quasi-static measurements, is also present during explosive and impact fracture conditions. This work supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under contract DTRA01-01-C-0033.

  14. White matter abnormalities are associated with chronic postconcussion symptoms in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danielle R; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among Iraq and Afghanistan military veterans due to the frequent use of improvised explosive devices. A significant minority of individuals with mTBI report chronic postconcussion symptoms (PCS), which include physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints. However, chronic PCS are nonspecific and are also associated with mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to chronic PCS is particularly challenging in blast-related mTBI, where the incidence of comorbid PTSD is high. In this study, we examined whether blast-related mTBI is associated with diffuse white matter changes, and whether these neural changes are associated with chronic PCS. Ninety Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans were assigned to one of three groups including a blast-exposed no--TBI group, a blast-related mTBI without loss of consciousness (LOC) group (mTBI--LOC), and a blast-related mTBI with LOC group (mTBI + LOC). PCS were measured with the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. Results showed that participants in the mTBI + LOC group had more spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities than those in the no--TBI group. These white matter abnormalities were significantly associated with physical PCS severity even after accounting for PTSD symptoms, but not with cognitive or emotional PCS severity. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI + LOC significantly influenced physical PCS severity through its effect on white matter integrity. These results suggest that white matter abnormalities are associated with chronic PCS independent of PTSD symptom severity and that these abnormalities are an important mechanism explaining the relationship between mTBI and chronic physical PCS.

  15. Determining the diagnostic value of endogenous carbon monoxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether endogenous carbon monoxide levels in exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were higher compared to healthy individuals and to investigate alteration of carbon monoxide levels across the three different severity stages of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from January to March 2011 at two medical institutions in Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients of acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The severity of the exacerbations was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Patients with active tobacco smoking, suspicious carbon monoxide poisoning and uncertain diagnosis were excluded. healthy control subjects who did not have any comorbid diseases and smoking habitus were also enrolled to compare the differences between carboxyhaemoglobin levels A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was done following a Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical purposes. Results: There were 90 patients and 81 controls in the study. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were higher in the patients than the controls (p<0.001). As for the three severity stages, Group 1 had a median carboxyhaemoglobin of 1.6 (0.95-2.00). The corresponding levels in Group 2 (1.8 (1.38-2.20)) and Group 3 (1.9 (1.5-3.0)) were higher than the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.005 respectively). No statistically significant difference between Group 1 and the controls (1.30 (1.10-1.55)) was observed (p<0.434). Conclusion: Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly higher in exacerbations compared with the normal population. Also, in more serious exacerbations, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly increased compared with healthy individuals and mild exacerbations. (author)

  16. Bilobalide alleviates depression-like behavior and cognitive deficit induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiyong; Shui, Li; Wang, Siyang; Song, Zhenzhen; Tai, Fadao

    2016-10-01

    Bilobalide (BB), a unique constituent of Ginkgo biloba, has powerful neuroprotection and stress-alleviating properties. However, whether BB exerts a positive effect on depression and cognitive deficit induced by chronic stress is not known. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of BB on depression and cognitive impairments induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice. During daily exposure to stressors for 5 consecutive weeks, mice were administered BB at the doses of 0, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. We replicated the finding that CUMS induced depression-like behavior and cognitive deficits as the CUMS+vehicle (VEH) group showed a significant increase in immobility in the tail suspension test, a decrease in the discrimination index of the novel object recognition task, and increased latency to platform and decreased number of platform crossings in the Morris water maze compared with the control+VEH group. Chronic administration of BB effectively reversed these alterations. In addition, the CUMS+VEH group showed significantly higher levels of baseline serum corticosterone than those of the control+VEH group and BB dose-dependently inhibited this effect. Our results suggest that BB may be useful for inhibition of depression-like behavior and cognitive deficits, and this protective effect was possibly exerted partly through an action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:27509313

  17. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  18. Gene expression profile of rat left ventricles reveals persisting changes following chronic mild exercise protocol: implications for cardioprotection

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    Esposito Fabio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies showed that physical exercise, specifically moderate lifelong training, is protective against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most experimental work has focused into the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying intense, rather than mild exercise, by exploring the acute effect of training. Our study aims at investigating the cardioprotective effect of mild chronic exercise training and the gene expression profile changes at 48 hrs after the exercise cessation. Rats were trained at mild intensity on a treadmill: 25 m/min, 10%incline, 1 h/day, 3 days/week, 10 weeks; about 60% of the maximum aerobic power. By Affymetrix technology, we investigated the gene expression profile induced by exercise training in the left ventricle (LV of trained (n = 10 and control (n = 10 rats. Cardioprotection was investigated by ischemia/reperfusion experiments (n = 10 trained vs. n = 10 control rats. Results Mild exercise did not induce cardiac hypertrophy and was cardioprotective as demonstrated by the decreased infarct size (p = 0.02 after ischemia/reperfusion experiments in trained with respect to control rats. Ten genes and 2 gene sets (two pathways resulted altered in LV of exercised animals with respect to controls. We validated by real-time PCR the increased expression of four genes: similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959, caveolin 3, enolase 3, and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha. Moreover, caveolin 3 protein levels were higher in exercised than control rats by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis. Interestingly, the predicted gene similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959 was significantly increased by exercise. This gene has a high homology with the human C11orf17 (alias: protein kinase-A interacting protein 1 or breast cancer associated gene 3. This is the first evidence that this gene is involved in the response to the exercise training. Conclusion Our data indicated that few, but significant

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  20. Mild chronic kidney disease is associated with cognitive function in patients presenting at a memory clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Marloes D M; Van Marum, Rob J.; Emmelot-Vonk, Mariëlle H.; Verhaar, Harald J J; Koek, Huiberdina L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In dialysis-dependent and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, cognitive impairment is found in 16-29%. In community-dwelling population without dementia mixed results have been observed. We investigated the relationship between renal function and cognition in patients from a mem

  1. Stress sensitivity and resilience in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression; an in situ hybridization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A; Jayatissa, M N; Mørk, A;

    2008-01-01

    We used the validated chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm to induce anhedonia, a core symptom of major depression, in rats. Thirty percent of animals exposed to CMS are resistant to the development of anhedonia, whereas the remaining are responsive, CMS resilient and CMS sensitive, respectively. We...... in stress. Moreover, in the CA3 we found downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in the CMS sensitive group. Downregulation of VEGF suggests impaired hippocampal function, caused by loss of trophic factor neuroprotective support, as part of a previously uncharacterized mechanism...... vasopressin (AVP) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In particular, HPA axis seems to be activated in the CMS resilient group suggesting other pathways protecting against stress sensitivity. We applied the restraint stress procedure to compare effects of a faster and simpler form of stress...

  2. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-09-01

    This data article describes a large, high resolution diffusion MRI data set from fixed rat brain acquired at high field strength. The rat brain samples consist of 21 adult rat brain hemispheres from animals exposed to chronic mild stress (anhedonic and resilient) and controls. Histology from amygdala of the same brain hemispheres is also included with three different stains: DiI and Hoechst stained microscopic images (confocal microscopy) and ALDH1L1 antibody based immunohistochemistry. These stains may be used to evaluate neurite density (DiI), nuclear density (Hoechst) and astrocytic density (ALDH1L1). This combination of high field diffusion data and high resolution images from microscopy enables comparison of microstructural parameters derived from diffusion MRI to histological microstructure. The data provided here is used in the article (Jespersen, 2016) [1]. PMID:27508246

  3. Adaptive response to chronic mild ethanol stress involves ROS, sirtuins and changes in chromosome dosage in wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Potocki, Leszek; Rawska, Ewa; Pabian, Sylwia; Kaplan, Jakub; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-05-24

    Industrial yeast strains of economic importance used in winemaking and beer production are genomically diverse and subjected to harsh environmental conditions during fermentation. In the present study, we investigated wine yeast adaptation to chronic mild alcohol stress when cells were cultured for 100 generations in the presence of non-cytotoxic ethanol concentration. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide signals promoted growth rate during passages that was accompanied by increased expression of sirtuin proteins, Sir1, Sir2 and Sir3, and DNA-binding transcription regulator Rap1. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis revealed that yeast genome was shaped during passages. The gains of chromosomes I, III and VI and significant changes in the gene copy number in nine functional gene categories involved in metabolic processes and stress responses were observed. Ethanol-mediated gains of YRF1 and CUP1 genes were the most accented. Ethanol also induced nucleolus fragmentation that confirms that nucleolus is a stress sensor in yeasts. Taken together, we postulate that wine yeasts of different origin may adapt to mild alcohol stress by shifts in intracellular redox state promoting growth capacity, upregulation of key regulators of longevity, namely sirtuins and changes in the dosage of genes involved in the telomere maintenance and ion detoxification. PMID:27074556

  4. Adaptive response to chronic mild ethanol stress involves ROS, sirtuins and changes in chromosome dosage in wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Potocki, Leszek; Rawska, Ewa; Pabian, Sylwia; Kaplan, Jakub; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-05-24

    Industrial yeast strains of economic importance used in winemaking and beer production are genomically diverse and subjected to harsh environmental conditions during fermentation. In the present study, we investigated wine yeast adaptation to chronic mild alcohol stress when cells were cultured for 100 generations in the presence of non-cytotoxic ethanol concentration. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide signals promoted growth rate during passages that was accompanied by increased expression of sirtuin proteins, Sir1, Sir2 and Sir3, and DNA-binding transcription regulator Rap1. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis revealed that yeast genome was shaped during passages. The gains of chromosomes I, III and VI and significant changes in the gene copy number in nine functional gene categories involved in metabolic processes and stress responses were observed. Ethanol-mediated gains of YRF1 and CUP1 genes were the most accented. Ethanol also induced nucleolus fragmentation that confirms that nucleolus is a stress sensor in yeasts. Taken together, we postulate that wine yeasts of different origin may adapt to mild alcohol stress by shifts in intracellular redox state promoting growth capacity, upregulation of key regulators of longevity, namely sirtuins and changes in the dosage of genes involved in the telomere maintenance and ion detoxification.

  5. Alterations in Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids in Patients with Mild to Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, Bjoern; Luettich, Karsta; Leroy, Patrice; Boue, Stephanie; Vuillaume, Gregory; Vihervaara, Terhi; Ekroos, Kim; Martin, Florian; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for several diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To better understand the systemic effects of cigarette smoke exposure and mild to moderate COPD—and to support future biomarker development—we profiled the serum lipidomes of healthy smokers, smokers with mild to moderate COPD (GOLD stages 1 and 2), former smokers, and never-smokers (n = 40 per group) (ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01780298). Serum lipidome profiling was conducted with untargeted and targeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Guided by weighted lipid co-expression network analysis, we identified three main trends comparing smokers, especially those with COPD, with non-smokers: a general increase in glycero(phospho)lipids, including triglycerols; changes in fatty acid desaturation (decrease in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids); and an imbalance in eicosanoids (increase in 11,12- and 14,15-DHETs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids), and a decrease in 9- and 13-HODEs (hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids)). The lipidome profiles supported classification of study subjects as smokers or non-smokers, but were not sufficient to distinguish between smokers with and without COPD. Overall, our study yielded further insights into the complex interplay between smoke exposure, lung disease, and systemic alterations in serum lipid profiles. PMID:27657052

  6. Respiratory Consequences of Mild-to-Moderate Obesity: Impact on Exercise Performance in Health and in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E. O'Donnell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, the prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. The association between obesity, multiple comorbidities, and increased mortality is now firmly established in many epidemiological studies. However, the link between obesity and exercise intolerance is less well studied and is the focus of this paper. Although exercise limitation is likely to be multifactorial in obesity, it is widely believed that the respiratory mechanical constraints and the attendant dyspnea are important contributors. In this paper, we examined the evidence that critical ventilatory constraint is a proximate source of exercise limitation in individuals with mild-to-moderate obesity. We first reviewed existing information on exercise performance, including ventilatory and perceptual response patterns, in obese individuals who are otherwise healthy. We then considered the impact of obesity in patients with preexisting respiratory mechanical abnormalities due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, with particular reference to the effect on dyspnea and exercise performance. Our main conclusion, based on the existing and rather sparse literature on the subject, is that abnormalities of dynamic respiratory mechanics are not likely to be the dominant source of dyspnea and exercise intolerance in otherwise healthy individuals or in patients with COPD with mild-to-moderate obesity.

  7. [Therapeutic correction of mild cognitive impairment in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinak, M M; Kashin, A V; Ememlin, A Iu; Lupanov, I A

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases are the most significant among the main reasons leading to the cognitive impairment of the elderly. Vascular cognitive impairment is not limited to only dementia, representing a heterogeneous group both in pathogenic and clinical terms. The article dwells upon new principles of vascular cognitive impairment's classification and the review of their possible therapeutic correction that was conducted. The article includes the results of the 12-week open therapeutic (randomized with the control group) study of efficiency and safety of vitrum memory for patients with mild vascular cognitive impairment. It is shown that the therapy significantly improved the state of neurodynamic and regulatory functions of the patients with I--II stage dyscirculatory encephalopathy. PMID:23739499

  8. Clinical Management of a Patient with Chronic Recurrent Vertigo Following a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo, was provoked and right torsional up-beat nystagmus was observed in a 47-year-old patient when she was placed into the right Hallpike-Dix test position using infrared goggle technology. The clinical diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, specifically right posterior canalithiasis, resulting from a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI suffered approximately six-months earlier. Previous medical consultations did not include vestibular system examination, and Meclizine was prescribed to suppress her chief complaint of vertigo. Ultimately, the patient was successfully managed by performing two canalith repositioning maneuvers during a single clinical session. The patient reported 100% resolution of symptoms upon reexamination the following day, and the Hallpike-Dix test was negative. Continued symptom resolution was subjectively reported 10 days postintervention via telephone consultation. This case report supports previous publications concerning the presence of BPPV following TBI and the need for inclusion of vestibular system examination during medical consultation.

  9. Efficient and facile one pot carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by using oxidation with ozone under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, oxidation of carbon nanotubes with ozone in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was studied. The reactions were performed under clean and mild conditions and oxidized products with high concentration of oxygenated groups were yielded. The reaction products were characterized with attenuated total reflectance (ATR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), back titration, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the dispersion behavior of the oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was also studied. The results confirmed the presence of high concentrations of oxidative groups on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) treated by the method of the present work.

  10. Cannabinoid modulation of chronic mild stress-induced selective enhancement of trace fear conditioning in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christian G; Iskander, Anthony N; Weiss, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    History of stress is considered a major risk factor for the development of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning may provide insight into the etiology of PTSD. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 weeks of a chronic-mild-unpredictable stress (CMS) protocol. Immediately following the CMS, the animals were subjected to hippocampal-dependent (trace and contextual) and hippocampal-independent (delay) fear conditioning. CMS exposure enhanced trace freezing behavior compared to non-stress controls. This effect was not observed in contextual or delay conditioned animals. Given that the endocannabinoid system is negatively affected by CMS procedures, separate groups of stressed rats were administered the CB1 receptor agonist, ACEA (0.1 mg/kg), prior to trace fear conditioning or a memory-recall test. Regardless of administration time, ACEA significantly reduced freezing behavior in stressed animals. Furthermore, when administered during the first memory recall test, ACEA enhanced long-term extinction in both stress and non-stress groups. The results demonstrate that chronic unpredictable stress selectively enhances hippocampal-dependent episodic fear memories. Pathologies of the episodic memory and fear response may increase the susceptibility of developing PTSD. Reduction in fear responses via exogenous activation of the CB1 receptor suggests that a deficiency in the endocannabinoid system contributes to this pathology.

  11. Anticompulsive Activity of a New Pyrazolo[C]Pyridine Derivative GIZh-72 under Conditions of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Zhmurenko, L A; Voronina, T A

    2016-07-01

    Anticompulsive activity of a novel compound GIZh-72 (4,6-dimethyl-2-(4-chlorphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-C]Pyridine-3-on, chloral hydrate) in a dose of 20 mg/kg (single, subchronic, and chronic administration) in comparison with fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) was studied in the marble burying test in the model of unpredictable chronic mild stress on BALB/c mice. GIZh-72 produced an anticompulsive effect that increased with increasing treatment duration under stress conditions in contrast to fluvoxamine that induced inversion of this effect after long-term administration. Neuroleptic activity of GIZh-72 in doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg was studied on the model of apomorphine-induced climbing in C57Bl/6 mice. In contrast to haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg), GIZh-72 exhibited no neuroleptic properties. Our results indicate that GIZh-72 holds much promise for pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:27502699

  12. Chronic visual dysfunction after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magone, M Teresa; Kwon, Ellen; Shin, Soo Y

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term visual dysfunction in patients after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mbTBI) using a retrospective case series of 31 patients with mbTBI (>12 mo prior) without eye injuries. Time since mbTBI was 50.5 +/- 19.8 mo. Age at the time of injury was 30.0 +/- 8.3 yr. Mean corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Of the patients, 71% (n = 22) experienced loss of consciousness; 68% (n = 15) of patients in this subgroup were dismounted during the blast injury. Overall, 68% (n = 21) of patients had visual complaints. The most common complaints were photophobia (55%) and difficulty with reading (32%). Of all patients, 25% were diagnosed with convergence insufficiency and 23% had accommodative insufficiency. Patients with more than one mbTBI had a higher rate of visual complaints (87.5%). Asymptomatic patients had a significantly longer time (62.5 +/- 6.2 mo) since the mbTBI than symptomatic patients (42.0 +/- 16.4 mo, p one incidence of mbTBI occurred. We recommend obtaining a careful medical history, evaluation of symptoms, and binocular vision assessment during routine eye examinations in this prepresbyopic patient population.

  13. Neurodegeneration after mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury: Chronic traumatic encepalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanescu Ioana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive brain trauma is associated with a progressive neurological deterioration, now termed as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. Although research on the long-term effects of TBI is advancing quickly, the incidence and prevalence of post-traumatic neurodegeneration and CTE are unknown. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently under research. CTE can be diagnosed only by post mortem neuropathological examination of the brain. Great efforts are being made to better understand the clinical signs and symptoms of CTE, obtained in most cases retrospectively from families of affected persons.Patients with CTE are described as having behavioral, mood, cognitive and motor impairments, occurring after a long latency from the traumatic events. Recent pathogenetic studies have provided new insights to CTE mechanisms, offering important clues in understanding neurodegenerative process and relations between physical factors and pathologic protein deposition. Further research is needed to better identify the genetic and environmental risk factors for CTE, as well as rehabilitation and treatment strategies.

  14. The Impact of a Mild Sub-Critical Hydrothermal Carbonization Pretreatment on Umbila Wood. A Mass and Energy Balance Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cuvilas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the pretreatment of biomass as a source of energy has become one of the most important steps of biomass conversion. In this work the effect of a mild subcritical hydrothermal carbonization of a tropical woody biomass was studied. Results indicate considerable change in carbon content from 52.78% to 65.1%, reduction of oxygen content from 41.14% to 28.72% and ash slagging and fouling potential. Even though decarboxylation, decarbonylation and dehydration reactions take place, dehydration is the one that prevails. The mass and energy balance was affected by the treatment conditions than the severity of the treatment.

  15. The Impact of a Mild Sub-Critical Hydrothermal Carbonization Pretreatment on Umbila Wood. A Mass and Energy Balance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Cuvilas; Efthymios Kantarelis; Weihong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, the pretreatment of biomass as a source of energy has become one of the most important steps of biomass conversion. In this work the effect of a mild subcritical hydrothermal carbonization of a tropical woody biomass was studied. Results indicate considerable change in carbon content from 52.78% to 65.1%, reduction of oxygen content from 41.14% to 28.72% and ash slagging and fouling potential. Even though decarboxylation, decarbonylation and dehydration reactions take pla...

  16. Transcranial LED therapy for cognitive dysfunction in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2010-02-01

    Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases are presented, where cognitive function improved following treatment with transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs). At age 59, P1 had closed-head injury from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) without loss of consciousness and normal MRI, but unable to return to work as development specialist in internet marketing, due to cognitive dysfunction. At 7 years post-MVA, she began transcranial LED treatments with cluster heads (2.1" diameter with 61 diodes each - 9x633nm, 52x870nm; 12-15mW per diode; total power, 500mW; 22.2 mW/cm2) on bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and midline sagittal areas (13.3 J/cm2 at scalp, estimated 0.4 J/cm2 to brain cortex per area). Prior to transcranial LED, focused time on computer was 20 minutes. After 2 months of weekly, transcranial LED treatments, increased to 3 hours on computer. Performs nightly home treatments (now, 5 years, age 72); if stops treating >2 weeks, regresses. P2 (age 52F) had history of closed-head injuries related to sports/military training and recent fall. MRI shows fronto-parietal cortical atrophy. Pre-LED, was not able to work for 6 months and scored below average on attention, memory and executive function. Performed nightly transcranial LED treatments at home (9 months) with similar LED device, on frontal and parietal areas. After 4 months of LED treatments, returned to work as executive consultant, international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing (post- 9 months of transcranial LED) showed significant improvement in memory and executive functioning (range, +1 to +2 SD improvement). Case 2 reported reduction in PTSD symptoms.

  17. Antidepressant-like effects of Sanyuansan in the mouse forced swim test, tail suspension test, and chronic mild stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuo; You, Zi-Li; Zhao, Qiu-Ying; Peng, Cheng; He, Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Natural products have been widely reported as effective therapeutic alternatives for treatment of depression. Sanyuansan is a compound recipe composed of ginseng total saponins, fish oil, and valeriana. The aims of this study were to validate whether Sanyuansan has antidepressant-like effects through acute behavioral tests including the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), locomotor activity test, and chronic mild stress (CMS) mice model of depression. C57BL/6 mice were given oral administration of 30 mg/kg imipramine, Sanyuansan, and saline, respectively. The acute behavioral tests including the TST, FST, and locomotor activity test were done after the administration of drugs for consecutively three times (24 hours, 1 hour, and 0.5 hour prior to the tests). Furthermore, the sucrose preference and the serum corticosterone level of mice in the CMS model were examined. Sanyuansan only at 900 mg/kg markedly reduced immobility time in the TST compared with the saline-treated group of mice. Sanyuansan at doses of 225 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility time of mice in the FST. Sanyuansan reversed the CMS-induced anhedonia and hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition, our results showed that neither imipramine nor Sanyuansan at any dosage increased spontaneous motor activity. These results suggested that Sanyuansan induced significant antidepressant-like effects in mice in both acute and chronic animal models, which seemed unlikely to be attributed to an increase in locomotor activities of mice, and had no sedative-like effects.

  18. The Effect of Chronic Mild Stress and Imipramine on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Iciek, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Bilska-Wilkosz, Anna; Lorenc-Koci, Elżbieta; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Regulska, Magdalena; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Gruca, Piotr; Papp, Mariusz; Maes, Michael; Lasoń, Władysław; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna

    2016-08-01

    Liver abnormalities have been reported to occur in up to 20 % of patients on a long-term therapy with the tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine (IMI). The mechanism involved in this IMI-induced process is unknown but a contribution of oxidative stress is highly likely. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is widely used for modeling depressive-like behavior in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of CMS and chronic IMI treatment, applied alone or in combination, on the levels of oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl groups, and sulfane sulfur as well as on activities of key antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase in the rat liver. Administration of IMI for 5 weeks to rats subjected to CMS resulted in a gradual significant reduction of anhedonia measured by sucrose intake, in a majority of animals (CMS IMI-reactive, CMS IMI-R), although about 20 % of rats did not respond to the IMI treatment (CMS IMI non-reactive, CMS IMI-NR). CMS-induced hepatic oxidative stress, estimated by increased ROS and MDA concentrations, was not prevented by the IMI administration, moreover, in CMS IMI-NR animals, the level of the marker of lipid peroxidation, i.e., MDA was increased in comparison to CMS-subjected rats and activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx and CAT) was decreased compared to IMI-treated rats. The clinical significance of this observation remains to be established. PMID:26961706

  19. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  20. β-Asarone Reverses Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behavior and Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Dong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the influence of β-asarone, the major ingredient of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, on depressive-like behavior induced by the chronic unpredictable mild stresses (CUMS paradigm and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. The results show that β-asarone treatment partially reversed the CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in both the forced swim and sucrose preference tests. The behavioral effects were associated with increased hippocampal neurogenesis indicated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU immunoreactivity. β-Asarone treatment significantly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF at levels of transcription and translation. Moreover, CUMS caused significant reduction in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation, both of which were partially attenuated by β-asarone administration. It is important to note that β-asarone treatment had no effect on total levels or phosphorylation state of any of the proteins examined in ERK1/2-CREB pathway in no stress rats, suggesting that β-asarone acts in a stress-dependent manner to block ERK1/2-CREB signaling. We did not observe a complete reversal of depression-like behaviors to control levels by β-asarone. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that adult neurogenesis is involved in the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of β-asarone, suggesting that β-asarone is a promising candidate for the treatment of depression.

  1. Iptakalim confers an antidepressant effect in a chronic mild stress model of depression through regulating neuro-inflammation and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Yang, Jing-Zhe; Geng, Fan; Ding, Jian-Hua; Hu, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a serious mental disorder in the world, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and the effective cures are scarce. Iptakalim (Ipt), an ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener that can cross the blood-brain barrier freely, has been demonstrated to inhibit neuro-inflammation and enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis. But it is unknown whether Ipt is beneficial to therapy of depression by modulating neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation. This study aimed to determine the potential antidepressant efficacy of Ipt in a chronic mild stress (CMS) mouse model of depression. We showed that treatment with Ipt (10 mg/kg/day, i.p) for 4 wk restored the decrease of sucrose preference and shortened the immobile time in forced swimming tests (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) in CMS model mice. We further found that Ipt reversed the CMS-induced reduction of the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and improved cerebral insulin signalling in the CMS mice. Furthermore, Ipt negatively regulated nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) expression and, in turn, inhibited microglia-mediated neuro-inflammation by suppressing the activation of NLRP3-inflammasome/caspase-1/interleukin 1β axis in the hippocampus of CMS mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Ipt plays a potential antidepressant role in CMS model mice through regulating neuro-inflammation and neurogenesis, which will provide potential for Ipt in terms of opening up novel therapeutic avenues for depression.

  2. The impacts of swimming exercise on hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Ye; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  3. Repeated mild traumatic brain injury causes chronic neuroinflammation, changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and associated cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Stephanie L; Kabadi, Shruti V; Thompson, Scott M; Stoica, Bogdan A; Faden, Alan I

    2014-01-01

    Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause sustained cognitive and psychiatric changes, as well as neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined histologic, neurophysiological, and cognitive changes after single or repeated (three injuries) mTBI using the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model. Repeated mTBI caused substantial neuronal cell loss and significantly increased numbers of activated microglia in both ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus on post-injury day (PID) 28. Long-term potentiation (LTP) could not be induced on PID 28 after repeated mTBI in ex vivo hippocampal slices from either hemisphere. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses were significantly attenuated after repeated mTBI, with no significant changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated responses. Long-term potentiation was elicited in slices after single mTBI, with potentiation significantly increased in ipsilateral versus contralateral hippocampus. After repeated mTBI, rats displayed cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Thus, repeated mTBI causes deficits in the hippocampal function and changes in excitatory synaptic neurotransmission, which are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:24756076

  4. Metabolomic identification of biochemical changes induced by fluoxetine and imipramine in a chronic mild stress mouse model of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Jung, Yang-Hee; Jang, Choon-Gon; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-03-01

    Metabolomics was applied to a C57BL/6N mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS). Such mice were treated with two antidepressants from different categories: fluoxetine and imipramine. Metabolic profiling of the hippocampus was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on samples prepared under optimized conditions, followed by principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and pair-wise orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses. Body weight measurement and behavior tests including an open field test and the forced swimming test were completed with the mice as a measure of the phenotypes of depression and antidepressive effects. As a result, 23 metabolites that had been differentially expressed among the control, CMS, and antidepressant-treated groups demonstrated that amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, adenosine receptors, and neurotransmitters are commonly perturbed by drug treatment. Potential predictive markers for treatment effect were identified: myo-inositol for fluoxetine and lysine and oleic acid for imipramine. Collectively, the current study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of two widely used medications.

  5. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1 and peptides (VGF and NPY in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.

  6. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Auricular Concha Region on the Depressive Status of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Peng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore new noninvasive treatment options for depression, this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA at the auricular concha region (ACR of depression rat models. Depression in rats was induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS combined with isolation for 21 days. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normal, UCMS alone, UCMS with EA-ACR treatment, and UCMS with EA-ear-tip treatment. Rats under inhaled anesthesia were treated once daily for 14 days. The results showed that blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced in the EA-ACR group than in the UCMS alone group or the EA-ear-tip group. The open-field test scores significantly decreased in the UCMS alone and EA-ear-tip groups but not in the EA-ACR group. Both EA treatments downregulated levels of plasma cortisol and ACTH in UCMS rats back to normal levels. The present study suggested that EA-ACR can elicit similar cardioinhibitory effects as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS, and EA-ACR significantly antagonized UCMS-induced depressive status in UCMS rats. The antidepressant effect of EA-ACR is possibly mediated via the normalization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis hyperactivity.

  7. Behavioural and neurochemical evaluation of Perment an herbal formulation in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, M; Balaji, B; Justin, A

    2011-04-01

    Perment, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation that contains equal parts of Clitoria ternatea Linn., Withania somnifera Dun., Asparagus racemosus Linn., Bacopa monniera Linn., is used clinically as mood elevators. The aim of the present study was to explore the behavioural effects and to understand possible mode of action of Perment in stress induced depressive model. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to induce depression in rats. Open field exploratory behaviour, elevated plus maze, social interaction and behavioural despair tests were used to assess behaviour. Using standard protocols plasma noradrenaline, serotonin, corticosterone and brain/adrenal corticosterone levels were measured to support the behavioural effects of Perment. Exposure to CUMS for 21 days caused anxiety and depression in rats, as indicated by significant decrease in locomotor activity in the open field exploratory behaviour test and increased immobility period in the behavioural despair test. Perment predominantly exhibited antidepressant action than anxiolytic activity. Further Perment increased the plasma noradrenaline and serotonin levels in stressed rats. No significant alteration in the brain corticosterone level in stressed rats was observed with Perment treatment. However the adrenal corticosterone level is decreased with Perment. It can be concluded that the Perment formulation exhibited synergistic activity, has a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activity, which may be mediated through adrenergic and serotonergic system activation. Currently the formulation is clinically used as anxiolytic but the present results suggest that the formulation can also be indicated in patients affected with depression. PMID:21614890

  8. Pervasive and opposing effects of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) on hippocampal gene expression in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Malki, Karim; Mineur, Yann S.; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Campbell, James; Karia, Priya; Jumabhoy, Irfan; Sluyter, Frans; Crusio, Wim E.; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2015-01-01

    Background BALB/cJ is a strain susceptible to stress and extremely susceptible to a defective hedonic impact in response to chronic stressors. The strain offers much promise as an animal model for the study of stress related disorders. We present a comparative hippocampal gene expression study on the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress on BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. Affymetrix MOE 430 was used to measure hippocampal gene expression from 16 animals of two different strains (BALB/cJ and...

  9. Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H.; MARTIN, PAULA I; Frazier, Judith; Michael R Hamblin; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Meehan, William P.; BAKER, ERROL H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvas...

  10. Cytisine, a Partial Agonist of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Reduced Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Shui-Bing; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Cytisine (CYT), a partial agonist of α4β2-nicotinic receptors, has been used for antidepressant efficacy in several tests. Nicotinic receptors have been shown to be closely associated with depression. However, little is known about the effects of CYT on the depression. In the present study, a mouse model of depression, the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), was used to evaluate the activities of CYT. UCMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, as shown by the decrease of total d...

  11. Social Isolation-Induced Aggression Potentiates Anxiety and Depressive-Like Behavior in Male Mice Subjected to Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Xian-cang Ma; Dong Jiang; Wen-hui Jiang; Fen Wang; Min Jia; Jin Wu; Kenji Hashimoto; Yong-hui Dang; Cheng-ge Gao

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS), an animal model of depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FIND...

  12. Role of hippocampal p11 in the sustained antidepressant effect of ketamine in the chronic unpredictable mild stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H-L; Zhou, Z-Q; Zhang, G-F; Yang, C; Wang, X-M; Shen, J-C; Hashimoto, K; Yang, J-J

    2016-01-01

    Although ketamine shows a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect, the precise mechanisms underlying its effect are unknown. Recent studies indicate a key role of p11 (also known as S100A10) in depression-like behavior in rodents. The present study aimed to investigate the role of p11 in the antidepressant-like action of ketamine in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model. The open-field test, forced swimming test and sucrose preference test were performed after administration of ketamine (10 mg kg(-1)) or a combination of ketamine and ANA-12 (a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) antagonist; 0.5 mg kg(-1)). The lentivirus vector for p11 was constructed to knock down the hippocampal expression of p11. In the CUMS rats, ketamine showed a rapid (0.5 h) and sustained (72 h) antidepressant effect, and its effect was significantly blocked by co-administration of ANA-12. Furthermore, ketamine significantly increased the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of CUMS rats, whereas ketamine did not affect the expression of p11 in CUMS rats 0.5 h after administration. In addition, ketamine significantly increased the reduced ratio of p-TrkB/TrkB in the hippocampus by CUMS rats, and its effect was also blocked by ANA-12. Moreover, the reduced expression of BDNF and p11 in the hippocampus of CUMS rats was significantly recovered to control levels 72 h after ketamine administration. Interestingly, knockdown of hippocampal p11 caused increased immobility time and decreased sucrose preference, which were not improved by ketamine administration. These results suggest that p11 in the hippocampus may have a key role in the sustained antidepressant effect of ketamine in the CUMS model of depression. PMID:26905413

  13. BDNF and COX-2 participate in anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ming; Yang, Lian-He; Zhang, Yue-Yue; Niu, Chun-Ling; Cui, Ying; Feng, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Fang

    2015-11-01

    Catalpol, a major compound in Rehmannia glutinosa with both medicinal and nutritional values, has been previously confirmed to shorten the duration of immobility in mice exposed to tail suspension and forced swimming tests. This study attempted to examine the anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) by involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). CUMS-exposed rats were given catalpol daily (5, 10, and 20mg/kg, ig) or a reference drug, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH, 10mg/kg, ig), at 5 weeks after starting the CUMS procedure. Sucrose preference test was performed to observe depression-like behavior, and serum and brain tissues were used for neurochemical and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. CUMS induced depression-like behavior, whereas catalpol and FH administration attenuated this symptom. Moreover, CUMS caused excessively elevated levels of serum corticosterone, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivation, in a manner attenuated by catalpol and FH administration. Catalpol administration also further decreased BDNF activities, downregulated the mRNA expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), and reversed the excessive elevation in the activities and mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats undergoing CUMS. Results indicate that catalpol can ameliorate CUMS-induced depression-like behavior, and suggest its mechanisms may partially be ascribed to restoring HPA axis dysfunctions, upregulating BDNF expression and its cognate receptor TrkB, and downregulating COX-2 expression, thereby reducing PGE2 levels in the brain. PMID:26255123

  14. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  15. Antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in the chronic mild stress model in rats: alterations in the NMDA receptor subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochwat, Bartłomiej; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Doboszewska, Urszula; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Gruca, Piotr; Papp, Mariusz; Nowak, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Recent data suggests that the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a potential target for antidepressant drugs. The magnesium ion blocks the ion channel of the NMDA receptor and prevents its excessive activation. Some preclinical and clinical evidence suggests also that magnesium may be useful in the treatment of depression. The present study investigated the effect of magnesium treatment (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg, given as magnesium hydroaspartate) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression in rats. Moreover, the effect of CMS and magnesium (with an effective dose) on the level of the proteins related to the glutamatergic system (GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B and PSD-95) in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala were examined. A significant reduction in the sucrose intake induced by CMS was increased by magnesium treatment at a dose of 15 mg/kg, beginning from the third week of administration. Magnesium did not affect this behavioural parameter in the control animals. CMS significantly increased the level of the GluN1 subunit in the amygdala (by 174%) and GluN2A in the hippocampus (by 191%), both of which were significantly attenuated by magnesium treatment. Moreover, magnesium treatment in CMS animals increased the level of GluN2B (by 116%) and PSD-95 (by 150%) in the PFC. The present results for the first time demonstrate the antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in the animal model of anhedonia (CMS), thus indicating the possible involvement of the NMDA/glutamatergic receptors in this activity.

  16. A2-3: Impact of Mild Chronic Kidney Disease Stage on Outcomes after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jove; Deegan, Brian; Bowen, Thomas; Richard, Raveesh; Perkins, Robert; Foltzer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dialysis and kidney transplantation adversely impact outcomes of total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA), but complication rates have not been reported for patients with less advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Surgeons lack the data necessary to have informed discussions regarding anticipated outcomes of joint replacement for these patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed electronic health records of 779 adults with stages 1, 2, and 3 CKD not requiring dialysis or transplantation who underwent THA or TKA from 2004–2011, to assess infection, revision, 90-day readmission and mortality rates. Patients with less than 12 months follow-up, open fracture, prior joint surgery, pregnancy, or acute kidney injury were excluded. Chi-square analysis and Cox survival analysis compared these outcomes between the stage 1–2 and stage 3 groups, stratified by joint replaced (THA vs TKA). All models adjusted for age, sex and BMI at surgery. Results No statistically different rates of revision or infection between Stage 3 vs. Stages 1–2 were seen, although there was a trend toward increased infections in Stage 3. THA patients with Stage 3 showed a significantly increased mortality rate compared to Stage 1–2 THA patients (HR 3.40, 95% CI = 1.25–9.23, P = 0.02). Conclusions CKD affects nearly 15% of the U.S. population many of whom undergo joint replacement. End stage kidney disease (patients post-transplant or on hemodialysis) has been consistently associated with increased rates of infection and revision in excess of our observed outcomes, but the overall rate of infection/revision in our study population was only slightly higher than reported rates in the general population (2–7% vs. 1–2%, respectively). CKD should not preclude joint replacement, but these data can help clinicians engage in meaningful informed discussions with patients with mild kidney disease regarding risks for infection, revision and death following joint

  17. Ethology assessment and detection of serum GPX-3 levels in rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qiang ZHU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the ethological changes and detect the serum level of glutathione peroxidase (GPX-3 in a rat model of primary and recurrent depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Methods Rats were divided into four groups: group 1(normal feeding, group 2 (CUMS, group 3 (normal + saline + normal feeding and group 4 (CUMS + fluoxetine + CUMS. The behavior of rats in the four groups was assessed by sucrose preference test and open field test. GPX-3 concentration in serum was measured by ELISA. Results A four-week of CUMS was successful in inducing a significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity in rats in treatment groups (group 2 and 4 in contrast with that of control groups (group 1 and 3 (P<0.01. After 3 weeks of fluoxetine treatment, no obvious difference was found in rats between the group 4 and group 3 in the degree of sucrose preference and locomotor activity. Subsequently, after the treated rats were re-exposed to CUMS for 4 weeks, a significant difference was found again in sucrose preference test (P<0.01 and open field test in comparison with control group (P<0.05. GPX-3 levels in the rats exposed and re-exposed to CUMS were significantly higher than those in control groups (P<0.01. Conclusions CUMS may induce depression-like symptoms in rats, and fluoxetine can alleviate the symptoms induced by CUMS. The increase in GPX-3 concentration may reduce the level of oxidative stress in depression-like rats exposed and re-exposed to CUMS, accordingly it plays a protective role in these rats.

  18. A novel isoquinoline compound abolishes chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sartori, Gláubia; Brüning, César A; Mantovani, Anderson C; Duarte, Thiago; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-07-01

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) elicits aspects of cognitive and behavioral alterations that can be used to model comparable aspects of depression in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like potential of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a novel isoquinoline compound, in CUMS, a model that meets face, construct and predictive criteria for validity. Swiss mice were subjected to different stress paradigms daily for a period of 35 days to induce the depressive-like behavior. The animals received concomitant FDPI (0.1 and 1mg/kg, intragastric) or paroxetine (8mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and CUMS. The behavioral tests (splash test, tail suspension test, modified forced swimming test and locomotor activity) were performed. The levels of cytokines, corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormones were determined in the mouse prefrontal cortex and serum. The synaptosomal [(3)H] serotonin (5-HT) uptake, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkB) and pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were determined in the mouse prefrontal cortex. CUMS induced a depressive-like behavior in mice, which was demonstrated in the modified forced swimming, tail suspension and splash tests. FDPI at both doses prevented depressive-like behavior induced by CUMS, without altering the locomotor activity of mice. FDPI at the highest dose prevented the increase in the levels of NF-kB, pro-inflammatory cytokines, corticosterone and ACTH and modulated [(3)H]5-HT uptake and the proBDNF/TrkB signaling pathway altered by CUMS. The present findings demonstrated that FDPI elicited an antidepressant-like effect in a model of stress-induced depression. PMID:27036647

  19. Chemical constraints governing the origin of metabolism: the thermodynamic landscape of carbon group transformations under mild aqueous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (deltaG) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (deltaG +3.5 kcal/mol); and (3) the dependence of carbon group transformation energy on the

  20. Determinants of Chronic Carbon Dioxide Retention and Its Correction in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Skatrud, James B.; Dempsey, Jerome A; Bhansali, Praful; Irvin, Charles

    1980-01-01

    17 patients with chronic ventilatory failure (including 14 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were studied to determine the causes of carbon dioxide retention and the chronic effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on ventilatory drive and acid-base status. Carbon dioxide retention in patients with high mechanical loads occurred concomitantly with a higher than normal inspiratory effort (mouth occlusion pressure) and normal minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production ratio (V̇e/V̇c...

  1. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress. PMID:27094122

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is involved in the modulation of depressive behaviors induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yun-Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiences and inflammatory mediators are fundamental in the provocation of major depressive disorders (MDDs. We investigated the roles and mechanisms of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in stress-induced depression. Methods We used a depressive-like state mouse model induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS. Depressive-like behaviors were evaluated after 4 weeks of UCMS, in the presence and absence of the iNOS inhibitor N-(3-(aminomethylbenzylacetamidine (1400 W compared with the control group. Immunohistochemistry was used to check the loss of Nissl bodies in cerebral cortex neurons. The levels of iNOS mRNA expression in the cortex and nitrites in the plasma were measured with real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR and Griess reagent respectively. Results Results showed that the 4-week UCMS significantly induced depressive-like behaviors, including decreased sucrose preference in a sucrose preference test, increased duration of immobility in a forced swim test, and decreased hole-searching time in a locomotor activity test. Meanwhile, in the locomotor activity test, UCMS had no effect on normal locomotor activities, such as resting time, active time and total travel distance. Furthermore, the levels of iNOS mRNA expression in the cortex and nitrites in the plasma of UCMS-exposed mice were significantly increased compared with that of the control group. Neurons of cerebral cortex in UCMS-exposed mice were shrunken with dark staining, together with loss of Nissl bodies. The above-mentioned stress-related depressive-like behaviors, increase of iNOS mRNA expression in the cortex and nitrites in the plasma, and neuron damage, could be abrogated remarkably by pretreating the mice with an iNOS inhibitor (1400 W. Moreover, neurons with abundant Nissl bodies were significantly increased in the 1400 W + UCMS group. Conclusions These results support the notion that stress-related NO (derived from iNOS may

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to a mild chronic variable stress on body weight, preweaning mortality and rat behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Early stimulation has been shown to produce long-lasting effects in many species. Prenatal exposure to some strong stressors may affect development of the nervous system leading to behavioral impairment in adult life. The purpose of the present work was to study the postnatal harmful effects of exposure to variable mild stresses in rats during pregnancy. Female Holtzman rats were submitted daily to one session of a chronic variable stress (CVS during pregnancy (prenatal stress; PS group. Control pregnant rats (C group were undisturbed. The pups of PS and C dams were weighed and separated into two groups 48 h after delivery. One group was maintained with their own dams (PS group, N = 70; C group, N = 36 while the other PS pups were cross-fostered with C dams (PSF group, N = 47 and the other C pups were cross-fostered with PS dams (CF group, N = 58. Pups were undisturbed until weaning (postnatal day 28. The male offspring underwent motor activity tests (day 28, enriched environment tests (day 37 and social interaction tests (day 42 in an animal activity monitor. Body weight was recorded on days 2, 28 and 60. The PS pups showed lower birth weight than C pups (Duncan's test, P<0.05. The PS pups suckling with their stressed mothers displayed greater preweaning mortality (C: 23%, PS: 60%; c2 test, P<0.05 and lower body weight than controls at days 28 and 60 (Duncan's test, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. The PS, PSF and CF groups showed lower motor activity scores than controls when tested at day 28 (Duncan's test, P<0.01 for PS group and P<0.05 for CF and PSF groups. In the enriched environment test performed on day 37, between-group differences in total motor activity were not detected; however, the PS, CF and PSF groups displayed less exploration time than controls (Duncan's test, P<0.05. Only the PS group showed impaired motor activity and impaired social behavior at day 42 (Duncan's test, P<0.05. In fact, CVS treatment during gestation plus

  4. Safety and tolerability of the novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist BAY 94-8862 in patients with chronic heart failure and mild or moderate chronic kidney disease: a randomized, double-blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, Bertram; Kober, Lars; Ponikowski, Piotr; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Krum, Henry; Nowack, Christina; Kolkhof, Peter; Kim, So-Young; Zannad, Faiez

    2013-01-01

    Aims Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) improve outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), but their use is limited by hyperkalaemia and/or worsening renal function (WRF). BAY 94-8862 is a highly selective and strongly potent non-steroidal MRA. We investigated its safety and tolerability in patients with HFrEF associated with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods and results This randomized, controlled, phase II ...

  5. Proteomic investigation of the ventral rat hippocampus links DRP-2 to escitalopram treatment resistance and SNAP to stress resilience in the chronic mild stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christina; Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Enghild, Jan J;

    2007-01-01

    etiology and recovery. Thus two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the ventral hippocampal proteomes between different treatment groups in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. The CMS paradigm induces anhedonic behaviour, which is a major symptom......The development of depression as well as recovery from depression is most likely accompanied by a change in protein expression profiles. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively investigate global protein expression differences independent of any hypothesis describing depression...... of depression, by exposing rats to a series of mild stressors for 7 weeks, with antidepressant treatment during the last 4 weeks. In the CMS model, animals were split into six different groups at the end of treatment; unchallenged control escitalopram (n = 12), unchallenged control vehicle (n = 12), CMS vehicle...

  6. Evidence for a low-compressibility carbon nitride polymorph elaborated at ambient pressure and mild temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Goglio, Graziella; Foy, Denis; Pechev, Stanislav; Majimel, Jérôme; Demazeau, Gérard; Guignot, Nicolas; Andrault, Denis

    2009-01-01

    International audience Superhard materials like diamond are essential for abrasive or cutting tool applications. In this way, carbon nitrides are of relevant interest because they are expected to exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, high values of bulk modulus being predicted. A smart and simple method was used to synthesize carbon nitrides and allowed elaborating a low-compressibility polymorph. The processing consists in the decomposition of commercial thiosemicarbazide (H2NC(S)N2H...

  7. Antidepressant-Like Behavioral, Anatomical, and Biochemical Effects of Petroleum Ether Extract from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang; Jin, Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive ...

  8. Young-Adult Male Rats’ Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Pérez José Jaime; Benítez-Coronel Venus; Jiménez-Rubio Graciela; Hernández-Hernández Olivia Tania; Martínez-Mota Lucía

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal’s vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum cort...

  9. Effects of Repeated Citalopram Treatments on Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Growth Associated Protein-43 mRNA Expression in Rat Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Ha; Choi, Song-Hyen; Lee, Jimin; Kang, Seungwoo; Shin, You-Chan; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Seung Keon; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Although growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of axonal growth and the formation of new neuronal connections in the hippocampus, there is only a few studies on the effects of acute stress on GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, the effects of repeated citalopram treatment on chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced changes in GAP-43 mRNA expression in the hippocampus have not been explored before. To explore this question, male r...

  10. The effects of reboxetine treatment on depression-like behavior, brain neurotrophins, and ERK expression in rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Maya; Gil-Ad, Irit; Taler, Michal; Tarasenko, Igor; Novak, Nurit; Weizman, Abraham

    2013-05-01

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) in rats is an established rodent depression model. Antidepressants attenuate the depression-like symptoms and prevent the biochemical changes caused by stress. In the present study, we examined the effect of CMS and the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine (REB) treatment on behavioral parameters in rats and on hippocampal and cortical neurotrophic factors. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 5 weeks to a variety of mild stressors. REB (5 mg/kg/i.p.) was daily injected to half of the stressed and unstressed groups. Animal behavior following CMS was tested using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) cognitive paradigm and by monitoring sucrose intake and weight gain. After 5 weeks of CMS, stressed rats showed decreased sucrose intake, and REB treatment normalized this decrease. CMS reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and REB treatment reversed this alteration and increased BDNF receptor (TrkB) levels. REB elevated hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation of both stressed and unstressed rats. In conclusion, our study shows that BDNF, its receptor TrkB, and ERK participate in the neurobiological response to chronic stress and in the molecular and cellular activities of REB in the hippocampus.

  11. Chronic Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow, Axonal Injury, Gliosis, and Increased T-Tau and Tau Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Joseph O; Mouzon, Benoit; Algamal, Moustafa; Leary, Paige; Lynch, Cillian; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Mullan, Michael; Bachmeier, Corbin; Stewart, William; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is characterized by patchy deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in neurons and astrocytes at the depths of cortical sulci. We developed an mTBI paradigm to explore effects of repetitive concussive-type injury over several months in mice with a human tau genetic background (hTau). Two injuries were induced in the hTau mice weekly over a period of 3 or 4 months and the effects were compared with those in noninjured sham animals. Behavioral and in vivo measures and detailed neuropathological assessments were conducted 6 months after the first injury. Our data confirm impairment in cerebral blood flow and white matter damage. This was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in total tau levels and mild increases in tau oligomers/conformers and pTau (Thr231) species in brain gray matter. There was no evidence of neurofibrillary/astroglial tangles, neuropil threads, or perivascular foci of tau immunoreactivity. There were neurobehavioral deficits (ie, disinhibition and impaired cognitive performance) in the mTBI animals. These data support the relevance of this new mTBI injury model for studying the consequences of chronic repetitive mTBI in humans, and the role of tau in TBI. PMID:27251042

  12. Itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms in mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with an impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Maria I; Yosipovitch, Gil; Chan, Yiong Huak; Smith, Ronald; Levy, Pavel

    2005-09-01

    To our knowledge there are no studies evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of itch, pain, and burning sensation among patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency or assessing the impact of these symptoms on quality of life. In this report 100 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients who suffered from itch were also assessed with the use of a validated questionnaire and a modified Skindex-16 questionnaire. We found that the prevalence of itch was 66%. Concomitant itch and burning sensation as well as itch and pain were noted in 47% and 44% of the patients, respectively. No correlation was noted between the severity of these symptoms and the degree of venous insufficiency. Itch had a negative impact on quality of life. A limitation of this study is that the participants, who were primarily hospital employees, are more likely to develop these symptoms. Therefore this study does not reflect the true prevalence of these symptoms in the general population. This study found that itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms of mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with a significant impact on quality of life. PMID:16112363

  13. Serum metabonomics study of anti-depressive effect of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang on rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhili; Yang, Jie; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Kuo; Bo, Yunhai; Lu, Xiumei; Su, Guangyue; Ma, Jie; Yang, Jingyu; Zhao, Longshan; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-09-01

    Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (XCHT) has been proven to be effective for the clinical treatment of depression. However, the mechanisms of definite antidepressant-like effects and detailed metabolic biomarkers were still unclear in this prior study. Here, we have investigated the metabolic profiles and potential biomarkers in a chronic unpredictable mild stress model after treatment with XCHT. Metabonomics based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to profile the metabolic fingerprints of serum obtained from a rat model with chronic unpredictable mild stress with and without XCHT treatment. The model rats showed a significant decrease in sucrose preference and food consumption, and these depression-like symptoms were significantly improved by XCHT. Through principal component analysis (PCA), nine potential biomarkers of tryptophan, uric acid, phenylalanine, cholic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine (C18:0 LPC, C16:0 LPC, C16:1 LPC, C18:1 LPC, C20:4 LPC) were characterized as potential biomarkers involved the pathogenesis of depression. The therapeutic effect of XCHT on depression may involve in amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation response. The present investigation highlights that metabonomics is a valuable tool for studying the essence of depression as well as evaluating the efficacy of the corresponding drug treatment. PMID:27398633

  14. Wet carbon-based solid acid/potassium permanganate as an efficient heterogeneous reagents for oxidation of alcohols under mild conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arash Shokrolahi; Abbas Zali; Mohammad Hossein Kes

    2008-01-01

    Wet carbon-based solid acid and potassium permanganate were used as new reagents for oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in heterogeneous mixtures.The experiments were done moderately at mild condition and high yields in suitable times were obtained.

  15. Long-term effect of inhaled budesonide in mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Sørensen, T; Lange, Peter;

    1999-01-01

    . METHODS: We used a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in a singlecentre study, nested in a continuing epidemiological survey (the Copenhagen City Heart Study). Inclusion criteria were as follows: no asthma; a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and vital...... COPD patients recruited from the general population by screening. We question the role of long-term inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of mild to moderate COPD....

  16. A new class of single-component absorbents for reversible carbon dioxide capture under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzagli, Francesco; Lai, Sarah; Mani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Some inexpensive and commercially available secondary amines reversibly react with CO2 at room temperature and ambient pressure to yield carbonated species in the liquid phase in the absence of any additional solvent. These solvent-free absorbents have a high CO2 capture capacity (0.63-0.65 mol CO2 /mol amine) at 1.0 bar (=100 kPa), combined with low-temperature reversibility at ambient pressure. (13) C NMR spectroscopy analysis identified the carbonated species as the carbamate salts and unexpected carbamic acids. These absorbents were used for CO2 (15 and 40 % in air) capture in continuous cycles of absorption-desorption carried out in packed columns, yielding an absorption efficiency of up to 98.5 % at absorption temperatures of 40-45 °C and desorption temperatures of 70-85 °C at ambient pressure. The absence of any parasitic solvent that requires to be heated and stability towards moisture and heating could result in some of these solvent-free absorbents being a viable alternative to aqueous amines for CO2 chemical capture.

  17. Long-term effect of inhaled budesonide in mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Sørensen, T; Lange, Peter;

    1999-01-01

    for 36 months. The mean age of the participants was 59 years and the mean FEV1 2.37 L or 86% of predicted. The main outcome measure was rate of FEV1 decline. Analyses were by intention to treat. FINDINGS: The crude rates of FEV1 decline were slightly smaller than expected (placebo group 41.8 mL per year...... recruited from the general population by screening. We question the role of long-term inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of mild to moderate COPD....

  18. 3xTgAD mice exhibit altered behavior and elevated Aβ after chronic mild social stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Herdener, Nathan; Camandola, Simonetta; Texel, Sarah J.; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Cong, Wei-na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress may be a risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but most studies of the effects of stress in models of AD utilize acute adverse stressors of questionable clinical relevance. The goal of this work was to determine how chronic psychosocial stress affects behavioral and pathological outcomes in an animal model of AD, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. A triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD mice) and nontransgenic control mice were used to test for an affe...

  19. Vertical Short Crack Initiation in Medium Carbon Bainitic Steel Under Mild Tractive Rolling Contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Peng; SUO Shuang-fu; BAI Bing-zhe; YANG Zhi-gang; LI You-guo

    2008-01-01

    To improve the current grinding procedure of the back-up roll of CVC hot rolling mills so that the back-up roll service life can be extended, the crack initiation and propagation behavior of medium carbon bainitie back-up roll steel was investigated, a kind of asperity-scale, surface originated vertical short cracks occurred at 5 × 102 -1 × 104 cycles. Theoretical analysis indicated that the maximum tensile stress occurring at the back edge of the contact of as-perities keeps at above 1 347. 97 MPa, and ratcheting and cyclic plastic deformation take place at such sites within 1 × 104 cycles. The early initiation of the vertical short cracks is caused by the asperity contact. According to the crack initi-ation mechanism, short crack behavior and preventive grinding strategy, steel consumption can be reduced considera-bly by decreasing the surface roughness and removing the asperity influenced surface thin layer at about 70%-80% of the surface distress life.

  20. Ratcheting led surface failure of medium carbon bainitic steel under mild operation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Dou; Youguo Li; Kaiming Liang; Bingzhe Bai

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) of medium carbon bainitic back-up roll steel was investigated under its actual work conditions. A kind of asperity-scale surface originated cracks, which is lying parallel or at an acute angle to the surfaces, initiated after unidirectional plastic flow of the material in thin surface layer had occurred. Theoretical analysis indicates that they nucleate due to plastic ratcheting induced by asperity contact stresses, and consequently are named as ratcheting cracks. After nucleating and initially propagating, they arrest at some depth and resume propagating till about 70%-80% of the RCF failure life by initially turning parallel to contact surfaces. Their behavior of initiation and propagation is confined to a thin layer prior to the formation of surface distress. According to the critical principle of the preventive grinding strategy, removing the asperity influenced surface layer at about 70%-80% of the RCF failure life can effectively prevent the ratcheting cracks from developing into surface distress, which can lead to the formation of macro-RCF failure soon.

  1. Selected Cytokines Serve as Potential Biomarkers for Predicting Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Normal to Mildly Elevated Aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Qiong; Zhao, Hong; Ma, An-Lin; Zhou, Ji-Yuan; Xie, Shi-Bin; Zhang, Xu-Qing; Zhang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Guo; Shang, Jia; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies of small cohorts have implicated several circulating cytokines with progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, to date there have been no reliable biomarkers for assessing histological liver damage in CHB patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between circulating cytokines and histological liver damage in a large cohort. Also, this study was designed to assess the utility of circulating cytokines in diagnosing liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal range (ULN). A total of 227 CHB patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent liver biopsy and staging by Ishak system. Patients with at least moderate inflammation showed significantly higher levels of CXCL-11, CXCL-10, and interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (R) than patients with less than moderate inflammation (P CXCL-11 (P = 0.032) than the group without significant fibrosis. In addition, 31.8% and 29.1% of 151 patients with ALT CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, and TGF-α and IL-2R independently correlated with significant fibrosis in patients with ALT CXCL-11 was independently associated with at least moderate inflammation, whereas IL-2R and TGF-α were independent indicators of significant fibrosis in both, total CHB patients and patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT. An IL-2R and TGF-α based score (fib-index) was superior to APRI and FIB-4 for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT. PMID:26559292

  2. Molecular pathways associated with stress resilience and drug resistance in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression: a gene expression study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær;

    2007-01-01

    The current antidepressant drugs are ineffective in 30 to 40% of the treated patients; hence, the pathophysiology of the disease needs to be further elucidated. We used the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm to induce anhedonia, a core symptom of major depression, in rats. A fraction of the animals...... exposed to CMS is resistant to the development of anhedonia; they are CMS resilient. In the CMS-sensitive animals, the induced anhedonic state is reversed in 50% of the animals when treating with escitalopram, whereas the remaining animals are treatment resistant. We used the microarray and the real...... a significant upregulation of apoptotic pathways in the treatment-resistant animals and significantly increased expression levels of genes involved in hippocampal signaling in the CMS-resilient rats. We hypothesize that sensitivity to the stress-induced anhedonia in rats is correlated with the impairment...

  3. Effects of Ning Shen Ling Granule(宁神灵冲剂)and Dehydroepiandrosterone on Cognitive Function in Mice Undergoing Chronic Mild Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; DONG Yi-long; YANG Nan; LIU Yan-yong; GAO Rui-feng; ZUO Ping-ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of spontaneous and cognitive behavior,and cholinergic M receptors in the brain of mice subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS),and to determine the effect of Ning Shen Ling Granule (宁神灵冲剂,NSL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on them.Methods:CMS model mice were established by applying stress every day for 3 consecutive weeks with 7 kinds of unforeseeable stress sources,and they were medicated for 1 week beginning at the 3rd week of modeling.The changes in behavior were determined by Morris Water Maze and spontaneous movement test,and M-receptor binding activity in cerebral cortex,hippocampus and hypothalamus were measured by radioactive ligand assay with 3H-QNB.Results:(1)The spontaneous movement in CMS model mice was significantly reduced,with the latency for searching platform in Morris Water Maze obviously prolonged (P<0.01),and these abnormal changes in behavior were improved in those treated with NSL and DHEA.(2)The binding ability of M-receptor in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of CMS mice was significantly decreased as compared with those in the control group (P<0.05),but could be restored to the normal level after intervention with NSL or DHEA.Conclusion:The decline of spontaneous movement and spatial learning and memory ability could be induced in animals by chronic mild stress,and that may be related to the low activity of central cholinergic M-receptors.Both NSL and DHEA could effectively alleviate the above-mentioned changes.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates impairment of learning and memory in chronic unpredictable mild stress-treated rats by restoring hippocampal autophagic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Feng Gu

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major polyphenol in green tea with beneficial effects on the impairment in learning and memory. Autophagy is a cellular process that protects neurons from stressful conditions. The present study was designed to investigate whether EGCG can rescue chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS-induced cognitive impairment in rats and whether its protective effect involves improvement of autophagic flux. As expected, our results showed that CUMS significantly impaired memory performance and inhibited autophagic flux as indicated by elevated LC3-II and p62 protein levels. At the same time, we observed an increased neuronal loss and activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6k signaling in the CA1 regions. Interestingly, chronic treatment with EGCG (25 mg/kg, i.p. significantly improved those behavioral alterations, attenuated histopathological abnormalities in hippocampal CA1 regions, reduced amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ1-42 levels, and restored autophagic flux. However, blocking autophagic flux with chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagic flux, reversed these effects of EGCG. Taken together, these findings suggest that the impaired autophagy in CA1 regions of CUMS rats may contribute to learning and memory impairment. Therefore, we conclude that EGCG attenuation of CUMS-induced learning and memory impairment may be through rescuing autophagic flux.

  5. Cytisine, a Partial Agonist of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Reduced Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Shui-Bing; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-05-01

    Cytisine (CYT), a partial agonist of α4β2-nicotinic receptors, has been used for antidepressant efficacy in several tests. Nicotinic receptors have been shown to be closely associated with depression. However, little is known about the effects of CYT on the depression. In the present study, a mouse model of depression, the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), was used to evaluate the activities of CYT. UCMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, as shown by the decrease of total distances in open field test, and the prolonged duration of immobility in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. Treatment with CYT for two weeks notably relieved the depression-like behaviors in the UCMS mice. Next, proteins related to depressive disorder in the brain region of hippocampus and amygdala were analyzed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of CYT. CYT significantly reversed the decreases of 5-HT1A, BDNF, and mTOR levels in the hippocampus and amygdala. These results imply that CYT may act as a potential anti-depressant in the animals under chronic stress. PMID:27098858

  6. The Antidepressant Effect of Angelica sinensis Extracts on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression Is Mediated via the Upregulation of the BDNF Signaling Pathway in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis (AS, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has pharmaceutical effects on menstrual illness, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cognitive impairments. However, until recently, few studies had explored its antidepressant effect. The current study attempts to investigate the effect of AS extracts on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS- induced depression in rats. Male SD rats were exposed to a CUMS-inducing procedure for 5 weeks, resulting in rodent depressive behaviors that included reduced sucrose consumption and lessened sucrose preference ratios in sucrose preference test, prolonged immobility times and decreased struggling time in force swim test, and decreased locomotor activity in open field test. Moreover, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK 1/2 were markedly decreased in the hippocampus in depressed rats. However, chronically treating the depressed rats with AS (1 g/kg normalized their depression-related behaviors and molecular profiles. In conclusion, in the present study, we show that AS extracts exerted antidepressant effects that were mediated by the BDNF signaling pathway: in AS-treated depressed rats, the expression of the BDNF protein and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets (ERK 1/2, CREB were upregulated in the hippocampus.

  7. The number of granule cells in rat hippocampus is reduced after chronic mild stress and re-established after chronic escitalopram treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Bisgaard, Christina; West, Mark J;

    2008-01-01

    Stress and depression cause structural changes in the hippocampal formation. Some of these can be reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we examined the changes in the total number of granule cells and the volume of the granule cell layer after exposing rats to chronic...... changes, indicating a decrease in sensitivity to a reward, were assessed in terms of sucrose consumption. We found a significant 22.4% decrease in the total number of granule cells in the stressed rats. This decrease was reversed in the stressed escitalopram treated rats that responded to the treatment...... shows that the anhedonia-like state in the CMS rats is associated with a reduced number of granule cells. We conclude that escitalopram acts on specific cellular targets during neuronal differentiation and that recovery from anhedonia-like behavior in rats may be the consequence of an escitalopram...

  8. Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, L.; Ho, KF; Wang, T.; Qiu, H.; Pun, VC; Chan, CS; Louie, PKK; Yu, ITS

    2014-01-01

    Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of sh...

  9. Chronic mild stress and antidepressant treatment alter 5-HT1A receptor expression by modifying DNA methylation of a conserved Sp4 site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le François, Brice; Soo, Jeremy; Millar, Anne M; Daigle, Mireille; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Minier, Frédéric; Belzung, Catherine; Albert, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    The serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A), a critical regulator of the brain serotonergic tone, is implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) where it is often found to be dys-regulated. However, the extent to which stress and antidepressant treatment impact 5-HT1A expression in adults remains unclear. To address this issue, we subjected adult male BALB/c mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) to induce a depression-like phenotype that was reversed by chronic treatment with the antidepressant imipramine. In prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midbrain tissue, UCMS increased 5-HT1A RNA and protein levels, changes that are expected to decrease the brain serotonergic activity. The stress-induced increase in 5-HT1A expression was paralleled by a specific increase in DNA methylation of the conserved -681 CpG promoter site, located within a Sp1-like element. We show that the -681 CpG site is recognized and repressed by Sp4, the predominant neuronal Sp1-like factor and that Sp4-induced repression is attenuated by DNA methylation, despite a stress-induced increase in PFC Sp4 levels. These results indicate that adult life stress induces DNA methylation of a conserved promoter site, antagonizing Sp4 repression to increase 5-HT1A expression. Chronic imipramine treatment fully reversed the UCMS-induced increase in methylation of the -681 CpG site in the PFC but not midbrain of stressed animals and also increased 5-HT1A expression in the PFC of control animals. Incomplete reversal by imipramine of stress-induced changes in 5-HT1A methylation and expression indicates a persistence of stress vulnerability, and that sustained reversal of behavioral impairments may require additional pathways. PMID:26188176

  10. Sub-chronic administration of methanolic whole fruit extract of lagenaria breviflora (Benth. roberty induces mild toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of the methanolic whole fruit extract from Lagenaria breviflora on vital organs and antioxidant enzymes was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: L. breviflora (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t./day/rat was fed orally with the cannula to male albino rats for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the effect of the extract on histology of the liver, heart, lipid peroxidation, tissue and serum antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities, glutathione, myocardial marker enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [AST] in serum, and heart homogenate were assessed. Results: The extract demonstrated mild organ doses dependent (500 and 1000 mg/kg pathological alterations in the architectural section of the liver and heart. At 250 mg/kg/b.w.t., the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the level of thiobarbituric reacting acids substance and antioxidant enzyme activities, but causes (P < 0.05 decrease in serum and tissue antioxidant capacity at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/b.w.t., respectively. Also on these two doses, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in serum activity of CK, LDH, ALT, and AST and concomitantly decrease (P < 0.05 in heart homogenate were also observed. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Fruit of L. breviflora may contain phytotoxic Substances(s which may be hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic or able to induce oxidative stress at high concentration. Hence, the consumption of the plant should be taken with caution.

  11. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Fractions Prepared from Danzhi-Xiaoyao-San Decoction in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Arginine Vasopressin, and Neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of two fractions, including petroleum ether soluble fraction (Fraction A, FA and water-EtOH soluble fraction (Fraction B, FB prepared from the Danzhi-xiaoyao-san (DZXYS by using chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rat model. The results indicated that DZXYS could ameliorate the depression-like behavior in chronic stress model of rats. The inhibition of hyperactivity of HPA axis and the modulation of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus may be the important mechanisms underlying the action of DZXYS antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats.

  12. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Fractions Prepared from Danzhi-Xiaoyao-San Decoction in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Arginine Vasopressin, and Neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Li; Liu, Yan; Pan, Yi; Su, Jun-Fang; Wu, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of two fractions, including petroleum ether soluble fraction (Fraction A, FA) and water-EtOH soluble fraction (Fraction B, FB) prepared from the Danzhi-xiaoyao-san (DZXYS) by using chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rat model. The results indicated that DZXYS could ameliorate the depression-like behavior in chronic stress model of rats. The inhibition of hyperactivity of HPA axis and the modulation of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus may be the important mechanisms underlying the action of DZXYS antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats.

  13. Safety and tolerability of the novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist BAY 94-8862 in patients with chronic heart failure and mild or moderate chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitt, Bertram; Kober, Lars; Ponikowski, Piotr;

    2013-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) improve outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), but their use is limited by hyperkalaemia and/or worsening renal function (WRF). BAY 94-8862 is a highly selective and strongly potent non-steroida......Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) improve outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), but their use is limited by hyperkalaemia and/or worsening renal function (WRF). BAY 94-8862 is a highly selective and strongly potent non......-steroidal MRA. We investigated its safety and tolerability in patients with HFrEF associated with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD)....

  14. Unpredictable chronic mild stress exerts anxiogenic-like effects and activates neurons in the dorsal and caudal region and in the lateral wings of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Danielle A; Lemes, Jéssica A; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Schor, Herbert; de Andrade, José S; Machado, Carla M; Horta-Júnior, José A C; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2016-01-15

    In previous studies, we verified that exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) facilitates avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze (ETM) and increased Fos-immunoreactivity in different brain structures involved in the regulation of anxiety, including the dorsal raphe (DR). Since, it has been shown that the DR is composed of distinct subpopulations of serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons, the present study investigated the pattern of activation of these different subnuclei of the region in response to this stress protocol. Male Wistar rats were either unstressed or exposed to the UCMS procedure for two weeks and, subsequently, analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in serotonergic cells of the DR. To verify if the anxiogenic effects observed in the ETM could be generalized to other anxiety models, a group of animals was also tested in the light/dark transition test after UCMS exposure. Results showed that the UCMS procedure decreased the number of transitions and increased the number of stretched attend postures in the model, an anxiogenic effect. UCMS exposure also increased Fos-ir and the number of double-labeled neurons in the mid-rostral subdivision of the dorsal part of the DR and in the mid-caudal region of the lateral wings. In the caudal region of the DR there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir. No significant effects were found in the other DR subnuclei. These results corroborate the idea that neurons of specific subnuclei of the DR regulate anxiety responses and are differently activated by chronic stress exposure. PMID:26462572

  15. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine--Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model.

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    Lingling Ding

    Full Text Available Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, dopamine (DA, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, homovanillic acid (HVA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC. The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05. In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE.

  16. Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

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    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang; Jin, Wenwen

    2014-05-01

    Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain. PMID:24730393

  17. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  18. Antidepressant-like effects of sodium butyrate and its possible mechanisms of action in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Hong, Guangliang; Pang, Mengqi; Xu, Hailing; Li, Haixiao; Tian, Feng; Fang, Renchi; Yao, Ye; Liu, Jiaming

    2016-04-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited neuroprotective activity. This study aimed to explore that NaB exerts beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like behaviors and its possible mechanisms. The behavioral tests including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were to evaluate the antidepressant effects of NaB. Then changes of Nissl's body in the hippocampus, brain serotonin (5-HT) concentration, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tight junctions (TJs) proteins level were assessed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms. Our results showed that CUMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, neuropathological changes, and decreased brain 5-HT concentration, TJs protein levels and BDNF expression in the hippocampus. However, NaB treatment significantly ameliorated behavioral deficits of the CUMS-induced mice, increased 5-HT concentration, increased BDNF expression, and up-regulated Occludin and zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) protein levels in the hippocampus, which demonstrated that NaB could partially restore CUMS-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairments. Besides, the pathologic changes were alleviated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that NaB significantly improved depression-like behaviors in CUMS-induced mice and its antidepressant actions might be related with, at least in part, the increasing brain 5-HT concentration and BDNF expression and restoring BBB impairments. PMID:26957230

  19. Effects of chronic mild stress on apomorphine induced behavioral sensitization in different brain regions of rats in relation to serotonin change

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    Muhammad Farhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impacts of unpredictable stressors have influence on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in laboratory animals. Stress induced behavioral changes particularly those associated with anxiety like behavior may activate topographically organized mesolimbic cortical serotonergic system. This study was designed to investigate the influence of unpredictable stress on behavioral and neurochemical parameters in apomorphine treated rats. Methods: Initially, the animals were divided into two groups as Unstressed and stressed (uncontrollable chronic mild stress or UCMS. Both groups of animals were subdivided into two groups; i.e. saline and apomorphine administrated animals at dose 1.0 mg/kg. Behavioral manipulations was observed by monitoring the locomotor activity and exploratory activity. Neurochemical estimation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT was done by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Animals were decapitated 24hr post apomorphine injection and different regions of brain (dorsal and ventral striatum, of animals were collected and stored at -70°C. Results: This preclinical study showed that the UCMS induced hypophagia were promoted in apomorphine administrated animals. Apomorphine induced hyperlocomotion were more prominent in unstressed animals than that of stressed groups. It implies that apomorphine is effective in the retrieval from UCMS induced depressive symptoms in rats. Neurochemical study showed decreased level of 5-HT in unstressed animals than stressed animals in response to apomorphine administration. Conclusion: This study, therefore establish the relation between stress and addiction at behavioral as well as neurochemical level to better understand the idea whether intolerable stress promotes addiction.

  20. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia; Lucía, Martínez-Mota

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  1. Young-Adult Male Rats’ Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Pérez José Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal’s vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals’ body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests; meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1 did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2 decreased body weight gain; and (3 increased the rat’s entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats’ vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors.

  2. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors.

  3. Effects of Chronic Mild Stress on the Development of Atherosclerosis and Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway in Adolescent Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

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    Hongfeng Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS on the development of atherosclerosis as well as the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs signaling pathway in adolescent apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/- mice. Mice were subjected to daily CMS for 0, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively. To identify the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in adolescent apolipoprotein E knockout mice subjected to CMS, we compared gene expression in aortas of stressed and unstressed mice using TLRs signaling pathway real-time PCR microarrays consisting of 87 genes. We found that atherosclerosis lesions both in aortic tress and sinuses of CMS mice were significantly increased linearly in response to duration of CMS exposure. Among 87 genes analyzed, 15 genes were upregulated in stressed mice, especially TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, and IL-1β, and 28 genes were downregulated compared with nonstressed mice. CMS mice demonstrated markedly increased aortic atherosclerosis that were associated with significant increases in levels of expression of TLR4, MyD88, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, MCP-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, and sICAM-1. Taken together, our results suggest an important role for TLR4 signaling pathway in atherosclerosis in a CMS mouse model.

  4. Hypothalamic Proteomic Analysis Reveals Dysregulation of Glutamate Balance and Energy Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chenglong; Shi, Haiyang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Zhu, Dan; Zhao, Mingjun; Wang, Ziye; Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Liao, Li; Tang, Jianyong; Wu, You; Zhou, Jian; Cheng, Ke; Xie, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression. However, the mechanism underlying the dysfunction of the HPA axis is not well understood. Moreover, dysfunction of the hypothalamus, the key brain region of the HPA axis, has not been well-explored. The aim of our study was to examine possible alterations in hypothalamus protein expression in a model of depression using proteomic analysis. In order to achieve this aim, mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), as the paradigm results in hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Differential protein expression between the hypothalamic proteomes of CUMS and control mice was then assessed through two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-seven proteins with a threshold of a 1.5-fold change and a p value ≤0.05 were identified as being differentially expressed between CUMS and control mice, and were quantified for bioinformatics analysis. Glycometabolism, citrate cycle (TCA cycle) and oxidation respiratory chain were found to have changed significantly. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase were further validated by Western Blot. Our results demonstrated that CUMS mice exhibited a dramatic protein change both in glutamate metabolism and energy mobilization, which may shed some light on the role of the hypothalamus in the pathology of stress-induced depression. PMID:27230881

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus by Upregulation of BDNF-TrkB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tan, Hui-Ying; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Gu, Hong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induces hippocampal oxidative stress. H2S functions as a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress in brain. We have previously shown the upregulatory effect of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2S prevents CUMS-generated oxidative stress by upregulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway. We showed that NaHS (0.03 or 0.1 mmol/kg/day) ameliorates the level of hippocampal oxidative stress, including reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), as well as increased level of glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats. We also found that H2S upregulated the level of BDNF and p-TrkB protein in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Furthermore, inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, blocked the antioxidant effects of H2S on CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress. These results reveal the inhibitory role of H2S in CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress, which is through upregulation of BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID:27525050

  6. Neuronal apoptosis and synaptic density in the dentate gyrus of ischemic rats' response to chronic mild stress and the effects of Notch signaling.

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    Shaohua Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous research highlighted an inconsistency with Notch1 signaling-related compensatory neurogenesis after chronic mild stress (CMS in rodents suffering from cerebral ischemia, which continue to display post-stroke depressive symptoms. Here, we hypothesize that CMS aggrandized ischemia-related apoptosis injury and worsened synaptic integrity via gamma secretase-meditated Notch1 signaling. Adult rats were exposed to a CMS paradigm after left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Open-field and sucrose consumption testing were employed to assess depression-like behavior. Gene expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and synaptic density-related synaptophysin were measured by western blotting and real-time PCR on Day 28 after MCAO surgery. CMS induced depressive behaviors in ischemic rats, which was accompanied by an elevation in Bax/bcl-2 ratio, TUNEL staining in neurons and reduced synaptophysin expression in the dentate gyrus. These collective effects were reversed by the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenyl-glycine t-butyl ester. We found that post-stroke stressors made neurons in the dentate gyrus vulnerable to apoptosis, which supports a putative role for Notch signaling in neural integrity, potentially in newborn cells' synaptic deficit with regard to preexisting cells. These findings suggest that post-stroke depression therapeutically benefits from blocking gamma secretase mediated Notch signaling, and whether this signaling pathway could be a therapeutic target needs to be further investigated.

  7. Antidepressant-like action of AGN 2979, a tryptophan hydroxylase activation inhibitor, in a chronic mild stress model of depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittos, M W; Papp, M

    2001-10-01

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure was used to study an antidepressant-like activity of AGN 2979, a selective inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase (TH) activation. At the dose of 4 mg/kg, AGN 2979 fully reversed the CMS-induced reduction in the consumption of 1% sucrose solution. This effect was maintained for at least 1 week after cessation of treatment and no signs of withdrawal were observed in either stressed or control animals receiving AGN 2979. The lower (1 mg/kg) and higher (16 mg/kg) doses were ineffective. The magnitude of action of AGN 2979 in the CMS model was comparable to that of imipramine (10 mg/kg) but its onset of action appears to be faster since the inhibition of sucrose intake in stressed animals was already reversed after the 1st week of AGN 2979 administration while imipramine required 3 weeks of treatment to cause similar effect. These results provide support for the hypothesis that inhibition of TH activation may result in a potent antidepressant activity.

  8. Effectiveness of a minimal psychological intervention to reduce mild to moderate depression and chronic fatigue in a working population: the design of a randomized controlled trial

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    Aelfers Ed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a working population, common mental complaints like depressed mood and chronic fatigue are highly prevalent and often result in further deterioration of mental health and consequently absence from work. In a large occupational health setting, we will evaluate the (cost- effectiveness of a Minimal Psychological Intervention (MPI, in reducing symptoms of depression and chronic fatigue in a working population. The MPI is also evaluated regarding its appreciation by worker, nurse, and occupational health physician (process evaluation. The tailor-made intervention is administered by nurses, who are trained in the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy and self-management. Methods/design The presented WoPaCoM study (Work Participation of Workers with Common Mental complaints is a two-armed randomized controlled trial, comparing MPI with usual care. A total number of 124 workers suffering from (chronic mental fatigue or mild to moderate depression will be included. A stratified and block randomization will be applied, stratifying by customer organisation, income, and gender, using a block size of four. It will include a baseline measurement and subsequently follow up measurements after 4, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are symptoms of either fatigue (using the Checklist Individual Strength and/or depression (using the Beck Depression Inventory and secondary outcome measures include sickness absence, self efficacy, costs and quality of life. Analysis will include both univariate and multivariate techniques and data will be analysed according to the intention to treat principle. Discussion Patient recruitment in an occupational setting proves to be complicated and time consuming. Shift work for instance proved to be an obstacle for making appointments for consultation with the nurse. Furthermore, economic developments might have created job insecurity which negatively influenced participation in the study, with

  9. The influence of chronic administration of calcium carbonate on the bioavailability of oral ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, J; Healy, D P; Stotka, J; Polk, R E

    1993-01-01

    Six healthy male volunteers participated in a two-period, two-treatment study to determine the effect of chronic calcium carbonate administration on ciprofloxacin bioavailability. There was a mean reduction of 40% in Cmax and 43% in AUC when calcium carbonate was administered with ciprofloxacin, compared with ciprofloxacin alone (P < 0.05). There were no changes in either half-life or tmax. It is therefore recommended that patients being treated with ciprofloxacin for serious infections refra...

  10. Effects of Yulangsan polysaccharide on monoamine neurotransmitters, adenylate cyclase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress☆

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Shuang; Huang, Renbin; Lin, Xing; Huang, Jianchun; Huang, Zhongshi; Liu, Huagang

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress. The model mice were treated with Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSPS; 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 21 days, and compared with fluoxetine-treated and normal control groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunity and immunohistochemical staining showed that following treatment with YLSPS (300 and 600 mg/kg), monoamine neurotransmitter levels, prefrontal cortex adenylate cyclase activity ...

  11. Sevelamer carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis

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    Vincenzo Savica

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Vincenzo Savica1,2, Domenico Santoro1, Paolo Monardo2, Agostino Mallamace1, Guido Bellinghieri11Experimental and Clinic Department of Internal Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Papardo Hospital, Messina, ItalyAbstract: Sevelamer carbonate is an anion exchange pharmaceutical, developed to improve on the performance of the non-absorbable, non-calcium, and metal-free phosphate binder sevelamer hydrochloride. Sevelamer carbonate is expected not to worsen metabolic acidosis, as previously reported during long-term treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride in hemodialysis (HD patients. Carbonate is the alternate counterion to chloride on the sevelamer polymeric backbone, but the active poly(allylamine responsible for phosphate (PO4 binding remains unaltered. Therefore, sevelamer carbonate is expected to reduce elevated serum phosphorus level, similarly to sevelamer hydrochloride. Sevelamers are prescribed in uremic HD patients to control hyperphosphatemia, but the carbonate has also been proposed for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD non-dialysis patients. Although hyperphosphatemia is regarded as a main contributor to increased mortality in the HD population because of cardiovascular calcification, metabolic acidosis has also been advocated as a major player in the increased mortality in this population, by engendering malnutrition, negative nitrogen balance, and inflammation. This paper reviews the evidence showing that sevelamer carbonate is as good as sevelamer hydrochloride in terms of hyperphosphatemia control in CKD, but with a better outcome in serum bicarbonate balance.Keywords: chronic kidney disease, sevelamer carbonate, hyperphosphatemia, hemodialysis

  12. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

  13. Assessment of anti-depressant effect of nelumbinis semen on rats under chronic mild stress and its subchronic oral toxicity in rats and beagle dogs

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    Chung Hwan-Suck

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we examined the antidepressant effects of Nelumbinis Semen (NS. In this study, we assessed the anti-depressant effects of NS in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress (CMS models of depression and its oral toxicity in rats and dogs. Methods In the forced swimming test, NS was intraperitoneally injected before 24 h, 5 h and 1 h of forced swimming test. And the rats were forced to swim for 5 min, the duration of immobility was observed. In CMS models, animals were exposed to a variety of CMS for 8 weeks in order to induce depression-like symptoms. They were treated with NS for the last four weeks of the 8-week CMS and then an open field test was conducted. The anti-depression effects were evaluated based on a measured index, which consisted of visiting counts, start latency, rearing number and grooming time. In the toxicological studies, NS was administered to rats by gavages for 13 weeks at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day. To assess the toxicity of NS in beagle dogs, NS was administered orally for 28 days at doses of 0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg/day. Results 400 mg/kg of NS had the lowest immobility times in forced swimming test. And NS significantly reversed the decreased visiting counts, rearing number and grooming time caused by CMS. In addition, NS treatment significantly decreased the start latency. No treatment-related toxicity was detected during 13 weeks administration in rats and 28 days administration in dogs. Conclusions Based on the results of this study and previous reports that have examined the anti-depressive effects of NS, NS holds great promise for use in the treatment of depression without causing any adverse effects or toxicities.

  14. Long-lasting antidepressant action of ketamine, but not glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor SB216763, in the chronic mild stress model of mice.

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    Xian-Cang Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical studies demonstrate that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine, induces rapid antidepressant effects in patients with refractive major depressive disorder and bipolar depression. This rapid onset of action makes ketamine a highly attractive drug for patients, particularly those who do not typically respond to therapy. A recent study suggested that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3 may underlie the rapid antidepressant action of ketamine, although the precise mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of ketamine and GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 in the unpredictable, chronic mild stress (CMS mouse model of mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult C57/B6 male mice were divided into 2 groups, a non-stressed control group and the unpredictable CMS (35 days group. Then, either vehicle, ketamine (10 mg/kg, or the established GSK-3 inhibitor, SB216763 (10 mg/kg, were administered into mice in the CMS group, while vehicle was administered to controls. In the open field test, there was no difference between the four groups (control+vehicle, CMS+vehicle, CMS+ketamine, CMS+SB216763. In the sucrose intake test, a 1% sucrose intake drop, seen in CMS mice, was significantly attenuated after a single dose of ketamine, but not SB216763. In the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, the increased immobility time seen in CMS mice was significantly attenuated by a single dose of ketamine, but not SB216763. Interestingly, the ketamine-induced increase in the sucrose intake test persisted for 8 days after a single dose of ketamine. Furthermore, a single administration of ketamine, but not SB216763, significantly attenuated the immobility time of the TST and FST in the control (non-stressed mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that a single administration of ketamine, but not GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763, produces a long-lasting antidepressant action in CMS model mice.

  15. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone, a Tropomyosin-Kinase Related Receptor B Agonist, Produces Fast-Onset Antidepressant-Like Effects in Rats Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-An; Wang, Ying-Hsiu; Tung, Che-Se; Yeh, Chin-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its specific receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase (TrkB), play important roles in treating depression. In this experiment, we examined whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a novel potent TrkB agonist, could reverse the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm in rats. Methods SD rats were exposed to a battery of stressors for 56 days. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (5 and 20 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally during the last 28 days of the CMS paradigm. Rats were tested in sucrose consumption test (SCT), forced-swimming test (FST) and elevated T-maze (ETM). Serum corticosterone levels and hippocampal BDNF levels of the rats were measured. Results Four-week CMS on the rats induced their depression-like behavior in SCT. The CMS-reduced sucrose consumption was reversed starting from 7 days after the 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (20 mg/kg) treatment and remained across the subsequent treatment regime. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, when given at 5 mg/kg for 3 weeks, reduced the immobility time in the FST in the CMS-subjected rats. Additionally, the 4-week treatment with 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (20 mg/kg) attenuated the CMS-induced increase in anxiety-like behavior in the ETM. For the CMS-subjected rats, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone treatment dose-dependently reduced their serum corticosterone levels but increased their hippocampal BDNF levels only at 5 mg/kg. Conclusion 7,8-dihydroxyflavone was beneficial for both depression and anxiety-like behaviors, and may exert fast-onset antidepressant effects. This provides a new insight into the pharmacological management of depression.

  16. Influences of Chronic Mild Stress Exposure on Motor, Non-Motor Impairments and Neurochemical Variables in Specific Brain Areas of MPTP/Probenecid Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaiyappan Janakiraman

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is regarded as a movement disorder mainly affecting the elderly population and occurs due to progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic neurons in nigrostriatal pathway. Patients suffer from non-motor symptoms (NMS such as depression, anxiety, fatigue and sleep disorders, which are not well focussed in PD research. Depression in PD is a predominant /complex symptom and its pathology lies exterior to the nigrostriatal system. The main aim of this study is to explore the causative or progressive effect of chronic mild stress (CMS, a paradigm developed as an animal model of depression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (25 mg/kg. body wt. with probenecid (250 mg/kg, s.c. (MPTP/p induced mice model of PD. After ten i.p. injections (once in 3.5 days for 5 weeks of MPTP/p or exposure to CMS for 4 weeks, the behavioural (motor and non-motor impairments, levels and expressions of dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT, DAergic markers such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine transporter (DAT, vesicular monoamine transporters-2 (VMAT 2 and α-synuclein in nigrostriatal (striatum (ST and substantia nigra (SN and extra-nigrostriatal (hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum tissues were analysed. Significantly decreased DA and 5-HT levels, TH, DAT and VMAT 2 expressions and increased motor deficits, anhedonia-like behaviour and α-synuclein expression were found in MPTP/p treated mice. Pre and/or post exposure of CMS to MPTP/p mice further enhanced the MPTP/p induced DA and 5-HT depletion, behaviour abnormalities and protein expressions. Our results could strongly confirm that the exposure of stress after MPTP/p injections worsens the symptoms and neurochemicals status of PD.

  17. Metabonomic identification of the effects of the Zhimu-Baihe saponins on a chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongli; Wang, Keqing; Su, Li; Zhao, Hongxia; Gao, Songyan; Lin, Qishan; Ma, Xiaofang; Zhu, Baokang; Dong, Xin; Lou, Ziyang

    2016-09-01

    The herbal pair Zhimu-Baihe (Zhimu: Anemarrhena asphodeloides; Baihe: Lilium brownii var. viridulum) is a traditional Chinese medicament used for the treatment of depression. However, the relevant mechanisms of action has not been clarified. This study investigated the anti-depressant activity of the total saponins from Zhimu and Baihe and the mechanisms underlying using a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rat model of depression. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) was applied to determine the levels of three monoamine neurotransmitters, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine (DA), in the rat hippocampus. Optimized pretreatment of samples and mass spectrometry conditions were used to analyse the metabonomic profile of the hippocampus. The 5-HT and NE levels in the CUMS group were reduced compared with the control group, whereas all groups had similar DA levels. The metabonomic profile of the hippocampus revealed 32 differential metabolites between the CUMS and control group, among which 18 metabolites were significantly recovered in the Anemarrhena saponins and Lilium saponins (AL) combination intervention group. These results suggested an anti-depressant effect of AL. Moreover, 24 metabolites in AL group were better recovered compared with the Anemarrhena saponins (AS) or Lilium saponins (LS) intervention groups, suggesting a synergetic effect of AS and LS in the treatment of depression. The anti-depressant effect might be related to the regulation of several metabolic pathways, including monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis (especially 5-HT and NE), and amino acid, fatty acid, and phospholipid metabolism in rats. PMID:27371920

  18. Association between repeated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS procedures with a high fat diet: a model of fluoxetine resistance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Isingrini

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder is a debilitating disease. Unfortunately, treatment with antidepressants (ADs has limited therapeutic efficacy since resistance to AD is common. Research in this field is hampered by the lack of a reliable natural animal model of AD resistance. Depression resistance is related to various factors, including the attendance of cardiovascular risk factors and past depressive episodes. We aimed to design a rodent model of depression resistance to ADs, associating cardiovascular risk factors with repeated unpredicted chronic mild stress (UCMS. Male BALB/c mice were given either a regular (4% fat or a high fat diet (45% fat and subjected to two 7-week periods of UCMS separated by 6 weeks. From the second week of each UCMS procedure, vehicle or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p. was administrated daily. The effects of the UCMS and fluoxetine in both diet conditions were assessed using physical (coat state and body weight and behavioural tests (the reward maze test and the splash test. The results demonstrate that during the second procedure, UCMS induced behavioural changes, including coat state degradation, disturbances in self-care behaviour (splash test and anhedonia (reward maze test and these were reversed by fluoxetine in the regular diet condition. In contrast, the high-fat diet regimen prevented the AD fluoxetine from abolishing the UCMS-induced changes. In conclusion, by associating UCMS-an already validated animal model of depression-with high-fat diet regimen, we designed a naturalistic animal model of AD resistance related to a sub-nosographic clinical entity of depression.

  19. Social isolation-induced aggression potentiates anxiety and depressive-like behavior in male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-cang Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57/B6 male mice were divided into 3 groups; non-stressed controls, in Group I; isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group II and aggression by physical contact in socially isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group III. In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by mice in Groups II and III was significantly lower than in Group I. Furthermore, intake of this solution in Group III mice was significantly lower than in Group II mice. In the open field test, mice in Group III, showed reduced locomotor activity and reduced entry and retention time in the central zone, compared to Groups I and II mice. Moreover, the distances moved in 1 hour by Group III mice did not differ between night and morning. In the light/black box test, Groups II and III animals spent significantly less time in the light box compared to Group I animals. In the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, the immobility times of Group II and Group III mice were significantly longer than in Group I mice. In addition, immobility times in the FST were significantly longer in Group III than in Group II mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that social isolation-induced aggression could potentiate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in isolated male mice subjected to CMS.

  20. Influence of formulated neem seed oil and jatropha curcas seed oil on wire drawing of mild steel and medium carbon steel at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamuda Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available So many facets of hot wire drawing process, despite its extensive and long time employment in the industries, still remain unclear, due to want of systematic investigation of the process. This work investigated the influence of formulated neem seed and jatropha seed oil as lubricants, using antimony dialkyl dithiocarbamates (ADTC as an additive, on wire drawing process. The suitability of the bio-based oils in friction and wear control during wire drawing process were investigated, using a four ball tester. Experimental drawing process, using a Tungsten Carbide die and the formulated lubricants was carried out on mild steel and medium carbon steel rod (6 and 8mm diameter respectively at temperatures from 20OC to 750OC, on a drawing bench. The stresses and the temperature distribution profiles along the work-piece were reported. Up to 45% of reductions in area, without wire fracture, achieved on the drawing of the medium carbon steel have equally been reported.

  1. Estimation of kinetic parameters of the passive state of carbon steel in mildly alkaline solutions from electrochemical impedance spectroscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Wren, J.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Betova, I. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bojinov, M., E-mail: martin@uctm.edu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > The passive state of carbon steel is described using the Mixed-Conduction Model for oxide films. > Kinetic parameters are estimated by comparison of the model to EIS and XPS data. > The passive film is intermediate between magnetite and maghemite. > Relevance of film growth and dissolution reactions for corrosion is discussed. - Abstract: The unambiguous interpretation of electrochemical impedance spectra of complex systems such as passive metals and alloys in terms of an unique kinetic model is often hampered by the large number of adjustable modeling parameters. In this paper, a combination of in situ electrochemical data and ex situ surface analytical information is employed to validate the estimates of kinetic and transport parameters of the passive state of carbon steel. For the purpose, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data for the oxidation of carbon steel in mildly alkaline solutions are quantitatively compared with the predictions of the Mixed-Conduction Model for oxide films that represent the passive oxide as an intermediate phase between magnetite and maghemite. Estimates of the kinetic rate constants at the film interfaces, as well as the diffusion coefficients and field strength in the film are obtained and their relevance for the corrosion mechanism of carbon steel is discussed.

  2. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control, liver (main site for lipogenesis and muscle (main site for thermogenesis.80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room. The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10. The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured.Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR. Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05. CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05, the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty

  3. Diminished Cellular Immune Response to Carbonic Anhydrase II in Patients with Sjogren's Syndrome and Idiopathic Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onishi S

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A serum antibody to carbonic anhydrase II has been reported in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cellular immune response to carbonic anhydrase II in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. PATIENTS: Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (n=23, Sjögren’s syndrome (n=12, alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (n=3 and normal controls (n=13. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proliferation assay of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Notable increased proliferation of the mononuclear cells upon stimulation with carbonic anhydrase II was observed in 2 patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (9% and 2 patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (17% but not in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis nor in normal controls. Among the four study groups, there was no significant difference in the prevalence rate of the positive proliferative responses (P=0.444. CONCLUSION: Carbonic anhydrase II may not be a major target antigen for the immunological process in the pathogenesis of Sjögren’s syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Serum antibody to carbonic anhydrase II may be detected in these patients as a consequence of the immune reaction against other antigens which mimic carbonic anhydrase II.

  4. Reduced response to chronic mild stress in PACAP mutant mice is associated with blunted FosB expression in limbic forebrain and brainstem centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Viktória; Gáspár, László; Kovács, László Á; Farkas, József; Gaszner, Tamás; Csernus, Valér; Balogh, András; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Reglődi, Dóra; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Gaszner, Balázs

    2016-08-25

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in stress adaptation with potential relevance in mood disorder management. PACAP deficient (KO) mice on CD1 background were shown to have depression-like phenotype. Here we aimed at investigating effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts. We hypothesized reduced FosB neuronal activity in stress-related centers, altered activity and peptide/neurotransmitter content of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cells of the oval (ovBST) bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), urocortin 1 (Ucn1) neurons of centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (cpEW) and serotonin (5HT) cells of dorsal raphe (DR) in PACAP deficiency. CVMS caused decreased body weight and increased adrenal size, corticosterone (CORT) titers and depression-like behavior in WT mice, in contrast to KO animals. CVMS increased FosB in the central (CeA) and medial amygdala, dorsomedial (dmBST), ventral (vBST), ovBST, CA1 area, dentate gyrus (DG), ventral lateral septum, parvo- (pPVN) and magnocellular paraventricular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray, cpEW and DR. Lack of PACAP blunted the CVMS-induced FosB rise in the CeA, ovBST, dmBST, vBST, CA1 area, pPVN and DR. The CVMS-induced FosB expression in ovBST-CRF and cpEW-Ucn1 neurons was abolished in KO mice. Although CVMS did not induce FosB in 5HT-DR neurons, PACAP KO mice had increased 5HT cell counts and 5HT content. We conclude that PACAP deficiency affects neuronal reactivity in a brain area-specific manner in stress centers, as well as in ovBST-CRF, cpEW-Ucn1 and 5HT-DR neurons leading to reduced CVMS response and altered depression level. PMID:27282087

  5. Guanidine Hydrochloride/ZnI2 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Conversion of CO2 and Epoxides to Cyclic Carbonates under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the combination of guanidine hydrochloride with co-catalyst ZnI2 proved to be a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the environmentally benign, solvent-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates under mild reaction conditions. The effects of different co-catalysts as well as reaction parameters including catalyst loadings, CO2 pressure, reaction temperature, and reaction time on the coupling reaction of CO2 to propylene oxide were thoroughly investigated. With the molar ratio of guanidine hydrochloride to ZnI2 at 5:1, excellent yield (94% and selectivity (≥99% of propylene carbonate were obtained under 100 °C and at 1 MPa for 1.5 h. Additionally, ZnI2 could be recycled, but because of the washing loss of guanidine hydrochloride, there was a slight decrease in the yield of propylene carbonate. Gratifyingly, the activity of the catalytic system could be restored by adding additional 20 mol% of fresh guanidine hydrochloride, thus exhibiting excellent recyclability of the ZnI2 catalyst. Moreover, the binary catalysts were also versatile when using other epoxides for CO2 cycloaddition. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed wherein guanidine hydrochloride plays a dual role in activating CO2 and epoxide, and ZnI2 activated epoxide, simultaneously. The synergistic effect of guanidine hydrochloride and ZnI2 ensure the reaction proceeds effectively.

  6. Studies on the effects of sulphate-reducing bacteria on mild carbon-steel relevant to radioactive waste disposal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been used to determine their maximum effect on mild carbon-steel (BS4360 grade 43A) of relevance to waste disposal. Batch (static) and continuous culture studies were carried out and corrosion effects monitored by measuring weight loss and pitting. Results show that corrosion increases linearly with increased ferrous iron concentrations. Maximum corrosion was obtained in continuous culture where the organisms were maintained in the exponential phase of growth. Corrosion by SRB has been monitored in model systems mimicking low groundwater flow, deep rock formations in which steel coupons were subjected to a synthetic granitic water/bentonite environment with or without microorganisms. At termination of the experiment corrosion in the presence of SRB was almost three times higher than in their absence. (author)

  7. Synthesis of methyl N-phenyl carbamate from dimethyl carbonate and 1,3-diphenyl urea under mild conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jie Gao; Hui Quan Li; Yi Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of methyl N-phenyl carbamate from dimethyl carbonate and 1,3-diphenyl urea was investigated under atmospheric pressure. The results showed that homogenous catalyst sodium methoxide had the excellent activity to efficiently catalyze the synthesis of methyl N-phenyl carbamate under atmospheric pressure.

  8. Effectiveness of a minimal psychological intervention to reduce mild to moderate depression and chronic fatigue in a working population: the design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aelfers Ed; Bosma Hans; Houkes Inge; van Eijk Jacques ThM

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In a working population, common mental complaints like depressed mood and chronic fatigue are highly prevalent and often result in further deterioration of mental health and consequently absence from work. In a large occupational health setting, we will evaluate the (cost-) effectiveness of a Minimal Psychological Intervention (MPI), in reducing symptoms of depression and chronic fatigue in a working population. The MPI is also evaluated regarding its appreciation by worke...

  9. 抑郁模型大鼠再应激后海马细胞支架蛋白的改变%Cytoskeletal alterations in rat hippocampus following chronic unpredictable mild stress and re-exposure to acute and chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灿; 王高华; 王惠玲; 刘忠纯; 王晓萍; 朱志先

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究抑郁模型大鼠接受再次急性和慢性应激后细胞支架微管系统的动态性改变,并探讨可能的机制.方法 将40只大鼠按随机数字表法分为5组:对照组(空白对照+生理盐水),CUMS组(CUMS+生理盐水),氟西汀组(CUMS+氟西汀),急性再应激组(CUMS+氟西汀+药物清洗期+急性游泳应激),CUMS再应激组(CUMS+氟西汀+药物清洗期+CUMS).实验结束后进行行为学观察,并使用免疫印迹法( western blotting)检测大鼠海马乙酰化微管蛋白(Acet-Tub),酪氨酸化微管蛋白(Tyr-Tub),微管结合蛋白2(MAP-2)及磷酸化微管结合蛋白2(phospho-MAP-2).结果 (1)CUMS再应激组糖水偏好[ (43.38±7.84)%],总行程[(859.21±653.62)cm],运动平均速度[(2.05±0.60)cm/s]及直立次数[(0.12±0.30)次]均减少,与对照组及CUMS组相比均差异有显著性(P<0.01).急性再应激组行为与对照组比较差异无显著性.氟西汀组糖水偏好和旷场实验相关指标与对照组差异无显著性,与CUMS组差异有显著性(P<0.01).(2) CUMS再应激组Acet-Tub表达升高[(244.24±8.90)%],Tyr-Tub表达降低[ (30.92±11.00)%],与对照组及CUMS组差异均有显著性(P<0.01).MAP-2的表达与对照组及CUMS组比较差异无显著性,phospho-M AP-2的表达减少[(24.75±8.83)%],与对照组及CUMS组均差异有显著性(P<0.01).急性再应激组各蛋白水平与对照组比较差异无显著性.氟西汀组各蛋白的表达与对照组比较差异无显著性(P>0.05),与CUMS组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 动物再次暴露于CUMS后,其行为和微管动态性损害更严重,同时伴随微管相关蛋白磷酸化的变化,提示临床抑郁症的发生以及复发的町能机制.%Objective To investigate behavior and hippocampal cytoskeletal alterations following re-exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) and acute swimming stress,and explore the possible mechanism.Methods 40 Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were

  10. Differences in Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Lifetime Trauma Exposure in Formerly Abused Women with Mild versus Moderate to Severe Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Janice; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Although associations between intimate partner violence, chronic pain, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime trauma exposure are well known, previous studies are limited by their recruitment of women from shelters. These relationships were explored with a community-based sample of formerly abused women ( N = 84).…

  11. Effects of Yulangsan polysaccharide on monoamine neurotransmitters, adenylate cyclase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Liang; Renbin Huang; Xing Lin; Jianchun Huang; Zhongshi Huang; Huagang Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress. The model mice were treated with Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSPS; 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 21 days, and compared with fluoxetine-treated and normal control groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunity and immunohistochemical staining showed that following treatment with YLSPS (300 and 600 mg/kg), monoamine neurotransmitter levels, prefrontal cortex adenylate cyclase activity and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were significantly elevated, and depression-like behaviors were improved. Open-field and novelty-suppressed feeding tests showed that mouse activity levels were increased and feeding latency was shortened following treatment. Our results indicate that YLSPS inhibits depression by upregulating monoamine neurotransmitters, prefrontal cortex adenylate cyclase activity and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

  12. Macrophage-related serum biomarkers soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble mannose receptor (sMR) to differentiate mild liver fibrosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E S; Rødgaard-Hansen, S; Moessner, B;

    2014-01-01

    with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Forty patients with chronic hepatitis C were included from two hospital clinics. On the day of inclusion, transient elastography (TE) was performed to assess the fibrosis stage, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of sCD163 and sMR. The plasma concentrations of both...... biomarkers were significantly higher in patients infected with HCV and with cirrhosis compared to those with no/mild liver fibrosis (5.77 mg/l vs. 2.49 mg/l and 0.44 mg/l vs. 0.30 mg/l for sCD163 and sMR, respectively). The best separation between groups was obtained by sCD163 [area under the receiver...

  13. Usefulness of Cardiac MetaIodobenzylguanidine Imaging to Improve Prognostic Power of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Scoring System in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakui, Hideyuki; Yamada, Takahisa; Tamaki, Shunsuke; Morita, Takashi; Furukawa, Yoshio; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Masato; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Kondo, Takumi; Ishimi, Masashi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Seo, Masahiro; Ozaki, Tatsuhisa; Ikeda, Iyo; Fukuhara, Eiji; Sakata, Yasushi; Fukunami, Masatake

    2016-06-15

    Liver dysfunction has a prognostic impact on the outcomes of patients with advanced heart failure (HF). The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is a robust system for rating liver dysfunction, and a high score has been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in ambulatory patients with HF. In addition, cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging provides prognostic information in patients with chronic HF (CHF). However, the long-term predictive value of combining the MELD score and cardiac MIBG imaging in patients with CHF has not been elucidated. To prospectively investigate whether cardiac MIBG imaging provides additional prognostic value to the MELD score in patients with mild-to-moderate CHF, we studied 109 CHF outpatients (New York Heart Association: 2.0 ± 0.6) with left ventricular ejection fraction 27%) had a significantly greater risk of CD than those with normal WR in both those with high MELD scores (≥10; hazard ratio 4.0 [1.2 to 13.6]) and with low MELD scores (<10; hazard ratio 6.4 [1.7 to 23.2]). In conclusion, cardiac MIBG imaging would provide additional prognostic information to the MELD score in patients with mild-to-moderate CHF. PMID:27237625

  14. 慢性应激引起的大鼠海马神经细胞形态结构的改变%The pathological change in the neurons of hippocampus of rat after chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志雄; 殷静雯; 罗旭东

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify The Change in the neurons of Hippocampus of Rat and depressive-like behavior after Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress ( CUMS). Method: The mice were subjected to various unpredictable stressors during the 21 days CUMS procedures. The depressive-like behavior and pathological change was observed.Results:The number of neurons of hippocampus after stress was significantly different (P<0.01).Conclusion:Rats after chronic unpredictable mild stress appeared depressive-like behavior correlated with decreased of neurons hippocampus.%目的:探讨慢性应激引起的抑郁样行为与海马神经细胞形态结构的变化。方法:建立慢性轻度不可预见性应激大鼠抑郁模型,检测大鼠快感缺乏,行为活动减少,体质量减轻等抑郁样症状,观察海马区病理改变。结果:实验组和对照组大鼠行为学评分存在显著差异(P<0.01),实验组海马椎体细胞萎缩,神经细胞层数减少,细胞数目明显减少(P<0.01)。结论:应激可导致大鼠抑郁样行为的发生,同时影响神经细胞的生长和存活。

  15. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  16. Inspired fraction of carbon dioxide in oxygen supply to chronic pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremault, Antoine; Silva, Mitchell; Beaucage, François; Berckmans, Daniel; Decramer, Marc

    2008-12-01

    Hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at risk of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) retention during oxygen therapy and hypercapnia in COPD is associated with an ominous prognosis. Rebreathing with oxygen mask is possible in practice and possibly affects CO(2) retention due to an increased inspired fraction of CO(2). Its effects on arterial partial pressure of CO(2) during oxygen supply have, to the best of our knowledge, never been studied. We measured the inspired fraction of CO(2) in eighteen non-hypoxemic stable COPD patients with a capnograph during a 5 min trial with two different modes of oxygen supply (oxygen mask without reservoir bag and nasal prongs, respectively at a flow of 10 l/min and 2l/min). We found no significant increase in inspiratory CO(2) concentration. These findings suggest that inspired fraction of CO(2) does not increase markedly during controlled oxygen therapy. PMID:18829280

  17. TNFα mediates stress-induced depression by upregulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in a mouse model of unpredictable chronic mild stress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-Ning; Peng, Yun-Li; Lei-Liu,; Wu, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Lian, Yong-Jie; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Kelley, Keith W.; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yun-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Depression is often preceded by exposure to stressful life events. Chronic stress causes perturbations in the immune system, and up-regulates production of proinflammatory cytokines, which has been proposed to be associated with the pathogenesis of clinical depression. However, the potential mechanisms by which stress-induced proinflammatory cytokines lead to the development of depression are not well understood. Here, we sought to screen the main proinflammatory cytokines and the potential m...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of lanthanum carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease before and during dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, S.; Tolley, K.; Keith, M.S.; Postma, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperphosphatemia is a common and harmful condition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined the cost-effectiveness of the noncalcium-based phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate (LC) as second-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia after therapy failure with calcium-based

  19. Cost-effectiveness of lanthanum carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease before and during dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Stefan; Tolley, Keith; Keith, Michael S; Postma, Maarten J

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hyperphosphatemia is a common and harmful condition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined the cost-effectiveness of the noncalcium-based phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate (LC) as second-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia after therapy failure with calcium-based

  20. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Köke, Albère J. A.; Oosterwijk, René F. A.; Swaan, Jeannette L.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients’ catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6–7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4–6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low

  1. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  2. Microfluidic gradient device for studying mesothelial cell migration and the effect of chronic carbon nanotube exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell migration is one of the crucial steps in many physiological and pathological processes, including cancer development. Our recent studies have shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), similarly to asbestos, can induce accelerated cell growth and invasiveness that contribute to their mesothelioma pathogenicity. Malignant mesothelioma is a very aggressive tumor that develops from cells of the mesothelium, and is most commonly caused by exposure to asbestos. CNTs have a similar structure and mode of exposure to asbestos. This has raised a concern regarding the potential carcinogenicity of CNTs, especially in the pleural area which is a key target for asbestos-related diseases. In this paper, a static microfluidic gradient device was applied to study the migration of human pleural mesothelial cells which had been through a long-term exposure (4 months) to subcytotoxic concentration (0.02 µg cm−2) of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs). Multiple migration signatures of these cells were investigated using the microfluidic gradient device for the first time. During the migration study, we observed that cell morphologies changed from flattened shapes to spindle shapes prior to their migration after their sensing of the chemical gradient. The migration of chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells was evaluated under different fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration gradients, and the migration speeds and number of migrating cells were extracted and compared. The results showed that chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells are more sensitive to the gradient compared to non-SWCNT-exposed cells. The method described here allows simultaneous detection of cell morphology and migration under chemical gradient conditions, and also allows for real-time monitoring of cell motility that resembles in vivo cell migration. This platform would be much needed for supporting the development of more physiologically relevant cell models for better assessment and characterization of the

  3. Microfluidic gradient device for studying mesothelial cell migration and the effect of chronic carbon nanotube exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyuan; Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Sun, Jianbo; Li, Xiang; Wang, Liying; Wu, Nianqiang; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is one of the crucial steps in many physiological and pathological processes, including cancer development. Our recent studies have shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), similarly to asbestos, can induce accelerated cell growth and invasiveness that contribute to their mesothelioma pathogenicity. Malignant mesothelioma is a very aggressive tumor that develops from cells of the mesothelium, and is most commonly caused by exposure to asbestos. CNTs have a similar structure and mode of exposure to asbestos. This has raised a concern regarding the potential carcinogenicity of CNTs, especially in the pleural area which is a key target for asbestos-related diseases. In this paper, a static microfluidic gradient device was applied to study the migration of human pleural mesothelial cells which had been through a long-term exposure (4 months) to subcytotoxic concentration (0.02 μg cm−2) of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs). Multiple migration signatures of these cells were investigated using the microfluidic gradient device for the first time. During the migration study, we observed that cell morphologies changed from flattened shapes to spindle shapes prior to their migration after their sensing of the chemical gradient. The migration of chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells was evaluated under different fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration gradients, and the migration speeds and number of migrating cells were extracted and compared. The results showed that chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells are more sensitive to the gradient compared to non-SWCNT-exposed cells. The method described here allows simultaneous detection of cell morphology and migration under chemical gradient conditions, and also allows for real-time monitoring of cell motility that resembles in vivo cell migration. This platform would be much needed for supporting the development of more physiologically relevant cell models for better assessment and characterization of the

  4. Gene expression profile of human lung epithelial cells chronically exposed to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongquan; Stueckle, Todd A.; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Rojanasakul, Yon; Lu, Yongju; Wang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    A rapid increase in utility of engineered nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), has raised a concern over their safety. Based on recent evidence from animal studies, pulmonary exposure of CNTs may lead to nanoparticle accumulation in the deep lung without effective clearance which could interact with local lung cells for a long period of time. Physicochemical similarities of CNTs to asbestos fibers may contribute to their asbestos-like carcinogenic potential after long-term exposure, which has not been well addressed. More studies are needed to identify and predict the carcinogenic potential and mechanisms for promoting their safe use. Our previous study reported a long-term in vitro exposure model for CNT carcinogenicity and showed that 6-month sub-chronic exposure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) causes malignant transformation of human lung epithelial cells. In addition, the transformed cells induced tumor formation in mice and exhibited an apoptosis resistant phenotype, a key characteristic of cancer cells. Although the potential role of p53 in the transformation process was identified, the underlying mechanisms of oncogenesis remain largely undefined. Here, we further examined the gene expression profile by using genome microarrays to profile molecular mechanisms of SWCNT oncogenesis. Based on differentially expressed genes, possible mechanisms of SWCNT-associated apoptosis resistance and oncogenesis were identified, which included activation of pAkt/p53/Bcl-2 signaling axis, increased gene expression of Ras family for cell cycle control, Dsh-mediated Notch 1, and downregulation of apoptotic genes BAX and Noxa. Activated immune responses were among the major changes of biological function. Our findings shed light on potential molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in SWCNT oncogenic potential.

  5. Effects of pentoxifylline, 7-nitroindazole, and imipramine on tumor necrosis factor-α and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of chronic mild-stress-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BMSA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bassim MSA Mohamed,1,6 Sawsan Aboul-Fotouh,2,5 Eman A Ibrahim,3 Hanan Shehata,4 Amal A Mansour,4 Nemat AZ Yassin,1 Wafaa El-Eraky,1 Ahmed M Abdel-Tawab2,5 1Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 5Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 6Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme in dysregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO enzyme, and hence serotonin availability in chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression. Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: two control and CMS-exposed for 6 weeks, and another three groups exposed to CMS and administered pentoxifylline 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, 7-nitroindazole 40 mg/kg/day subcutaneously, or imipramine 20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for the previous 3 CMS weeks. Rats were assessed for neurochemical and immunohistochemical abnormalities. Results: Pentoxifylline-, 7-nitroindazole-, and imipramine-treated rats showed amelioration of CMS-induced behavioral deficits that was accompanied by significant reduction in kynurenine/serotonin molar ratio and nitrates/nitrites in frontal cortex and hippocampus. In the pentoxifylline and 7-nitroindazole groups, serum TNF-α was reduced relative to the CMS group (18.54 ± 0.85 and 19.16 ± 1.54 vs 26.20 ± 1.83 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.05. Exposure to CMS increased TNF-α and IDO immunohistochemical staining scores in both hippocampus and midbrain raphe nuclei. 7-Nitroindazole and pentoxifylline significantly (P < 0.05 reduced TNF-α immunostaining in hippocampus and raphe nuclei, with significant (P < 0.01 reduction of IDO immunostaining in raphe nuclei. Likewise, imipramine reduced TNF

  6. Neuropharmacological evaluation of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (6g on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced changes in behavioural and brain oxidative stress parameters in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvetank Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel 5 HT 3 receptor antagonist (6g on chronic stress induced changes in behavioural and brain oxidative stress parameter in mice. A complicated relationship exists among stressful stimuli, body′s reaction to stress and the onset of clinical depression. Chronic unpredictable stressors can produce a situation similar to human depression, and such animal models can be used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressants. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a novel and potential 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist (4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl(3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-yl methanone (6g with good Log P (3.08 value and pA 2 (7.5 values, synthesized in our laboratory was investigated to study the effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS-induced behavioural and biochemical alterations in mice. Mice were subjected to different stress paradigms daily for a period of 28 days to induce depressive-like behaviour. Results: The results showed that CUMS caused depression-like behaviour in mice, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05 decrease in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity and increase in immobility the forced swim test. In addition, it was found that lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels were significantly (P < 0.05 increased, whereas glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased in brain tissue of CUMS-treated mice. ′6g′ (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days and fluoxetine treatment (20 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days significantly (P < 0.05 reversed the CUMS-induced behavioural (increased immobility period, reduced sucrose preference and decreased locomotor activity and biochemical (increased lipid peroxidation; decreased glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. However fluoxetine treatment (20 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days significantly decreased the nitrite level in the brain while ′6g′ (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days did not show significant (P < 0

  7. Effects of chronic carbon monoxide exposure on fetal growth and development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venditti Carolina C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO is produced endogenously, and can also be acquired from many exogenous sources: ie. cigarette smoking, automobile exhaust. Although toxic at high levels, low level production or exposure lends to normal physiologic functions: smooth muscle cell relaxation, control of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, anti- inflammatory and anti-apoptotic events. In pregnancy, it is unclear at what level maternal CO exposure becomes toxic to the fetus. In this study, we hypothesized that CO would be embryotoxic, and we sought to determine at what level of chronic CO exposure in pregnancy embryo/fetotoxic effects are observed. Methods Pregnant CD1 mice were exposed to continuous levels of CO (0 to 400 ppm from conception to gestation day 17. The effect on fetal/placental growth and development, and fetal/maternal CO concentrations were determined. Results Maternal and fetal CO blood concentrations ranged from 1.12- 15.6 percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb and 1.0- 28.6%COHb, respectively. No significant difference was observed in placental histological morphology or in placental mass with any CO exposure. At 400 ppm CO vs. control, decreased litter size and fetal mass (p Conclusions Exposure to levels at or below 300 ppm CO throughout pregnancy has little demonstrable effect on fetal growth and development in the mouse.

  8. Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Rasmussen, R A; Handberg, J;

    1998-01-01

    into the study. Calculations based on median doses after 12 weeks showed that the cost of the therapy in Denmark was 10 times higher for calcium ketoglutarate compared with calcium carbonate (US$6.00/d v US$0.65/d). Calcium ketoglutarate may be an effective and safe alternative to treatment with aluminum......The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main...... outcome measurements were plasma ionized calcium levels, plasma phosphate levels, plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, requirements for supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate therapy, patient tolerance, and cost of therapy. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis were treated with a dialysate...

  9. Liquiritigenin reverses depression-like behavior in unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced mice by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR mediated BDNF/TrkB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiwei; Dong, Yu; Su, Qiang; Wang, Hanqing; Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Wenda; Chen, Chang; Xia, Baomei; Duan, Jinao; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-15

    Major depression is a common long-lasting or recurrent psychiatric disease with high lifetime prevalence and high incidence of suicide. The main purpose of the current study was to verify whether liquiritigenin conferred an antidepressant-like effect on the depressive mouse model established by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and explore its possible mechanism. The results of depression-related behaviors including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) indicated that both liquiritigenin (7.5mg/kg, 15mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) dramatically improved the depression symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that treatment with liquiritigenin significantly reduced the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum and hippocampus. Compared with the UCMS group, the administrations of liquiritigenin, increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Meanwhile, glucocorticoids (GC) content was reduced in the liquiritigenin group, which suggested that liquiritigenin exhibiting the ameliorative effect on activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stimulated with UCMS. Mice treated with liquiritigenin showed restored levels of neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). Western blot analysis displayed up-regulated expressions of p-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-Akt, p- mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, it was supposed that liquiritigenin might be useful for the treatment of chronic depression possibly through PI3K/Akt/mTOR mediated BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID:27113683

  10. The development of the 'Quality-of-life for Respiratory Illness Questionnaire (QOL-RIQ)': a disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire for patients with mild to moderate chronic non-specific lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillé, A R; Koning, C J; Zwinderman, A H; Willems, L N; Dijkman, J H; Kaptein, A A

    1997-05-01

    Chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD) encompasses asthma as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently in health care, there has been increasing awareness in the functional, psychological and social aspects of the health of patients; their quality of life (QOL). Quality-of-life research addressing CNSLD patients has been rather underdeveloped for a long period of time. Recently, however, the importance of QOL is being increasingly recognized, and several research groups have started to study QOL in CNSLD patients in more detail. This paper describes the construction of a disease-specific QOL instrument for patients with mild to moderately severe CNSLD. Items relating to several domains of QOL were listed, and 171 CNSLD patients in general practice were asked how much of a problem each item had been (assessed on a seven-point Likert scale). After applying an item-selection procedure, a uni-dimensional QOL questionnaire was constructed consisting of 55 items divided into seven domain subscales: breathing problems, physical problems, emotions, situations triggering or enhancing breathing problems, general activities, daily and domestic activities, and social activities, relationships and sexuality. Reliability estimates of the domain subscales of the constructed questionnaire varied from 0.68 to 0.89, and was 0.92 for the QOL for Respiratory Illness Questionnaire (QOL-RIQ) total scale. A first impression of the construct validity of the questionnaire was gained by investigation of the relationship between the QOL domain subscales and several indicators of illness severity, as well as the relative contribution of illness severity variables, background characteristics and symptoms to QOL, using regression analysis. Further research to validate the questionnaire to a greater extent (construct validity, test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change) is currently taking place. PMID:9176649

  11. 温和灸“关元”穴对慢性疲劳大鼠免疫球蛋白的影响%Influence of Mild Moxibustion at Guanyuan Point on Immunoglobulins of Chronic Fatigue Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成泽东; 赵奕; 陈以国

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察温和灸小肠募穴“关元”穴对慢性疲劳综合征(CFS)大鼠血清IgA、IgM、IgG含量的影响.方法:清洁级SD雌性大鼠60只,体重(170±10)g,造模7d后,采用随机数字表法随机分成4组,每组15只.通过力竭游泳加慢性束缚法制备CFS大鼠模型,造模成功后,分别进行药物治疗和温和灸“关元”穴治疗,21 d后,采用ELISA检测各组大鼠血清IgA、IgM、IgG的含量.结果:①模型组血清IgA、IgM、IgG的含量降低,与正常组相比有显著性差异(P<0.05).②艾灸组可使大鼠血清中血清IgA、IgM、IgG的含量增高至正常水平,与模型组相比都有显著性差异(P<0.05).③艾灸组可使大鼠血清中血清IgA、IgM、IgG的含量增高至正常水平,与正常组相比无显著性差(P>0.05).结论:温和灸小肠募穴“关元”穴能增高血清IgA、IgM、IgG的含量至正常水平,维持免疫功能的稳定,这可能是其抗疲劳的机制之一.%Objective: To observe the mild raoxibustion at Guanyuan point on serum IgA, IgM, IgG levels of chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS). Method:60 clean grade SD female rats,weighing(170 ± 10)g,7 d after modeling,according to the random number table,were randomly divided into 4 groups of 15 in each group. Plus chronic restraint by exhaustive swimming in rats prepared by CFS model was successful, drug treatment and mild moxibustion at Guanyuan point were the treatment, lasting for 21 days and using ELISA test to detect serum levels of IgA, IgM, IgG. Results: ① The serum levels of IgA, IgM, IgG decreased and compared with the normal group there was significant difference ( P 0.05). Conclusion:Mild moxibustion at Guanyuan point can increase serum levels of IgA, IgM, IgG to normal levels and maintain the stability of immune function, which may be one of the mechanisms of its anti -fatigue.

  12. Pathological Mechanism Research in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress of Rats%慢性温和不可预知性刺激致大鼠抑郁症模型的病理机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 杜冠华

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a psychological disorder characterized by behavioral, neurochemical and other physiological abnormities. Chronic exposure to mild unpredictable stress (CUMS) has previously been found to cause an antidepressant-reversible decrease in the consumption of palatable sweet solutions, at the same time biochemical disturbances induced by the CUMS procedure were similar to those found in human depression. We review the pathological changes of the animal model of depression ( CUMS). It reflected in some persistent molecular pathologys, such as the changes in receptor , signal transduction.%抑郁症是一种伴有行为学、神经化学和其他生理病理导演的心理障碍.慢性暴露于轻度不可预见性应激(CUMS)已被证实可以导致抑郁薅行为,包括糖水消耗减少等.并且CUMS引起的一系列生化改变类似于人类的抑郁症.我们综述了CUMS致抑郁症动物模型的病理变化,包括了受体、信号转导系统等方面的病理改变.

  13. Enriched Flavonoid Fraction from Cecropia pachystachya Trécul Leaves Exerts Antidepressant-like Behavior and Protects Brain Against Oxidative Stress in Rats Subjected to Chronic Mild Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Caroline F; Réus, Gislaine Z; Ignácio, Zuleide M; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Arent, Camila O; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Matias, Beatriz I; Martins, Maryane M; de Campos, Angela M; Petronilho, Fabricia; Teixeira, Leticia J; Morais, Meline O S; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João; Reginatto, Flávio H

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an enriched C-glycosyl flavonoids fraction (EFF-Cp) from Cecropia Pachystachya leaves on behavior, mitochondrial chain function, and oxidative balance in the brain of rats subjected to chronic mild stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups (saline/no stress, saline/stress, EFF-Cp/no stress, and EFF-Cp/stress). ECM groups were submitted to stress for 40 days. On the 35th ECM day, EFF-Cp (50 mg/kg) or saline was administrated and the treatments lasted until the 42nd day. On the 41st and 42nd days, the animals were submitted to the splash test and the forced swim test. After these behavioral tests, the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial chain complexes and oxidative stress were analyzed. EFF-Cp reversed the depressive-like behavior induced by ECM. It also reversed the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species, myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in some brain regions. The reduced activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase in some brain regions were also reversed by EFF-Cp. The most pronounced effect of EFF-Cp on mitochondrial complexes was an increase in complex IV activity in all studied regions. Thus, it is can be concluded that EFF-Cp exerts an antidepressant-like effect and that oxidative balance may be an important physiological process underlying these effects. PMID:26762362

  14. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test and chronic mild stress model of depression in the rat: Neurochemical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Możdżeń, Edyta; Papp, Mariusz; Gruca, Piotr; Wąsik, Agnieszka; Romańska, Irena; Michaluk, Jerzy; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna

    2014-04-15

    1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) is an exo- and endogenous amine naturally present in mammalian brain which displays antidepressant-like effect in various animal models: the forced swim test (FST) and chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm in rats. To elucidate this action we compared the effects of TIQ with imipramine, a classic antidepressant drug and one of the most clinically effective. Applied behavioral tests showed that TIQ produced an antidepressant-like effect with a potency comparable to that of imipramine. TIQ (25-50mg/kg i.p.), similarly to imipramine (10-30mg/kg i.p.), reduced the immobility time in FST and completely reversed the decrease in sucrose intake caused by CMS in the rat. In addition, in order to avoid the possible psychostimulating effect of TIQ we examined the influence of its administration on locomotor activity in rats. TIQ, like imipramine, produced a reduction in horizontal locomotor activity. This suggested that TIQ did not have psychostimulant properties and that prolonged swimming in the FST was a result of an increased motivation to escape from the stressful situation. The biochemical analyses have shown that TIQ activates monoaminergic systems as a reversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor and free radical scavenger. Beyond the activation of noradrenaline and serotonin systems, TIQ also moderately affects the dopamine system. On the basis of the presented behavioral and biochemical studies we suggest that TIQ is a potential new antidepressant which may be effective for the depression therapy in a clinical setting.

  15. Heterocycles 36. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Bound N,N-Diethyl Ethanolamine as Mild and Efficient Racemisation Agent in the Enzymatic DKR of 2-Arylthiazol-4-yl-alanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Leonte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the chemoenzymatic synthesis of enantiopure l-2-arylthiazol-4-yl alanines starting from their racemic N-acetyl derivatives; by combining the lipase-catalysed dynamic kinetic resolution of oxazol-5(4H-ones with a chemical and an enzymatic enantioselective hydrolytic step affording the desired products in good yields (74%–78% and high enantiopurities (ee > 99%. The developed procedure exploits the utility of the single-walled carbon nanotubes-bound diethylaminoethanol as mild and efficient racemisation agent for the dynamic kinetic resolution of the corresponding oxazolones.

  16. Carbon dioxide insufflation or warm-water infusion for unsedated colonoscopy: A randomized controlled trial in patients with chronic constipation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoling Xu; Haihang Zhu; Di Chen; Langui Fan; Ting Lu; Qin Shen; Chaowu Chen; Denghao Deng

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The effect of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation and warm-water infusion during colonoscopy on patients with chronic constipation remains unknown. We evaluated CO 2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation versus air insufflation in unsedated patients with chronic constipation in China. Patients and Methods: This randomized, single-center, controlled trial enrolled 287 consecutive patients, from January 2014 to January 2015, who underwent colonoscopy for chronic constipation. Patients we...

  17. A diferença na qualidade de vida de pacientes com doença venosa crônica leve e grave Differences in the quality of life of patients with mild and severe chronic venous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Fagner Farias Novais dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A doença venosa crônica atinge os indivíduos em sua fase mais produtiva da vida, acarretando dor, perda de mobilidade e afastamento de atividades, podendo interferir diretamente na qualidade de vida. Seus sintomas clínicos decorrem de um estado de hipertensão venosa, causada por refluxo e/ou obstrução venosa. OBJETIVO: Determinar a diferença na qualidade de vida de pacientes com doença venosa crônica leve e grave. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal analítico comparativo na unidade de saúde durante 8 meses. A amostra foi calculada em 88 pacientes e dividida em dois grupos: Grupo A (CEAP clínico 1, 2 e 3 e Grupo B (CEAP clínico 4, 5 e 6. Foi usado o questionário genérico Medical Outcomes Study - 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. A análise estatística para verificar se havia diferença foi através do teste t de Student, com intervalo de confiança de 95% e p BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disease afflicts individuals in their most productive years, resulting in pain and loss of mobility and independence in performing routine daily activities, which may directly interfere with the patient's quality of life. Clinical symptoms result from venous hypertension caused by reflux and/or venous blockage. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in the quality of life of patients with mild and severe chronic venous disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in a health care facility during an 8-month period. The sample was composed of 88 patients divided into two groups: group A (clinical CEAP class 1, 2 and 3 and group B (clinical CEAP class 4, 5 and 6. The Medical Outcomes Study - 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaire was used. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Student t test, with a 95% confidence interval and a level of significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: We analyzed 88 subjects, 47 in group A and 41 in group B. Of the total, 87.5% (77 were women and 34% (30 were

  18. Reduced myocardial carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine retention is associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, M.; Ukkonen, H. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Malminiemi, K. [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital (Finland); Saraste, M. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Naagren, K.; Lehikoinen, P. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Voipio-Pulkki, L.-M. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Dept. of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    Abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system are known to be of prognostic significance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cardiac autonomic innervation in CHF has not been explored previously. We retrospectively studied the survival data of 46 NYHA class II-III CHF patients (mean LVEF 35%{+-}8%) who had undergone carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine ({sup 11}C-HED) studies at the Turku PET Centre between August 1992 and March 1996. The origin of CHF was dilated cardiomyopathy in 13 of the 46 patients and coronary artery disease with at least one prior myocardial infarction in the remaining 33. Data on causes of death and heart transplantation were collected, and the statistically significant predictors of prognosis were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards regression. During the mean follow-up period of 55{+-}19 months, 11 deaths occurred and two patients underwent heart transplantation successfully. Eleven end-points were classified as cardiac (nine sudden cardiac deaths and two deaths due to progressive heart failure) and two as non-cardiac. When divided into two groups based on the median of {sup 11}C-HED retention (mean 0.184{+-}0.061, median 0.183), eight end-points (death or cardiac transplantation) were reached in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention below the median and three in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention above the median (P<0.02). In proportional hazards regression analysis, only peak oxygen uptake (peak VO{sub 2}), left ventricular end-diastolic volume and HED retention were found to be statistically significant. It is concluded that {sup 11}C-HED PET provides independent prognostic information in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  19. 慢性不可预知温和应激抑郁小鼠模型的建立%Establishment of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mice Model of Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张臣颢; 张曼芳; 谢青莲; 成志恒; 邹洪; 金玫蕾

    2011-01-01

    抑郁症是一种以情绪低落为主要症状的情感性精神障碍.利用慢性不可预知温和应激建立抑郁症小鼠模型,以蔗糖水消耗实验作为抑郁核心症状之一——快感缺乏的检测方法.将4周龄雄性小鼠(C57BL/6)持续6周暴露于一系列轻度应激中,每周检测蔗糖水消耗.应激包括:令小鼠恐惧的气味、噪音、饲养笼倾斜、潮湿的垫料、无垫料的新饲养笼、照明过夜以及短暂的同笼饲养.前3周模型组每天随机应用2个不同的应激,后3周应用3个不同的应激.结果:随着应激强度的增加,模型组对蔗糖水的摄取量显著低于对照组.由此表明,慢性不可预知性温和应激能导致小鼠出现对奖赏的反应性下降,快感缺乏等抑郁症状.%Depression is a chronic mental disorder mainly characterized by depressed mood. A series of chronic unpredictable mild stresses (CUMS) was used to set up a mice model of depression. And sucrose consumption test was adopted to estimate the anhedonia, one of the core symptoms of human depression. Mice (C57BL/6) were exposed to CUMS over 6 weeks, and anhedonia was evaluated by weekly monitoring sucrose intake. The stressors included that soiled cage with aversive odour, noise, cage tilt, damp bedding, illumination overnight, paired-housing. Week 1-3, two stressors was used daily. Week 4-6, three stressors was used. The results showed that, with the increasing of the stress frequency, sucrose consumption of the stress group was statistically decreased compared with the control group. This indicated that CUMS causes a decrease in responsiveness to rewards, which reflected the key symptom of depression-anhedonia.

  20. Effect of WeiJia on carbon tetrachloride induced chronic liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pik-Yuen Cheung; Jay Chun; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Meng-su Yang; Qi Zhang; Ya-Ou Zhang; Gan-Rong Bai; Marie Chia-Mi Lin; Bernard Chan; Chi-Chun Fong; Lin Shi; Yue-Feng Shi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of WeiJia on chronic liver injury using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury animal model.METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 180-220g were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (Group A), CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B) and CCl4 induction with WeiJia treatment group (Group C). Each group consisted of 14 rats. Liver damage and fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 in olive oil at 3 mL/kg body weight twice a week for eight weeks for Groups B and C rats whereas olive oil was used for Group A rats. Starting from the third week,Group C rats also received daily intraperitoneal injection of WeiJia at a dose of 1.25 μg/kg body weight. Animals were sacrificed at the fifth week (4 male, 3 female), and eighth week (4 male, 3 female) respectively. Degree of fibrosis were measured and serological markers for liver fibrosis and function including hyaluronic acid (HA), type Ⅳ collagen (CIV), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were also performed.RESULTS: CCl4 induction led to the damage of liver and development of fibrosis in Group B and Group C rats when compared to Group A rats. The treatment of WeiJia in Group C rats could reduce the fibrosis condition significantly compared to Group B rats. The effect could be observed after three weeks of treatment and was more obvious after eight weeks of treatment. Serum HA, CIV,ALT, AST and Y-GT levels after eight weeks of treatment for Group C rats were 58±22 μg/L (P0.05) respectively, similar to normal control group (Group A), but significantly different from CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B). An increase in PCNA and decrease in a-SMA expression level was also observed.CONCLUSION: WeiJia could improve liver function and reduce liver fibrosis

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of sevelamer carbonate in hyperphosphatemic patients who have chronic kidney disease and are not on dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketteler, M.; Rix, M.; Fan, S.;

    2008-01-01

    supplemented with native vitamin D (400 IU). The primary efficacy parameter was the change from baseline in serum phosphorous. Secondary measures included the percentage of serum phosphorus responders; changes in serum lipids, calcium-phosphorus product, and bicarbonate; and safety and tolerability. RESULTS....... There were statistically significant decreases in serum calcium-phosphorus product and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the end of treatment and a statistically significant increase in mean serum bicarbonate levels (from 16.6 to 18.2 mEq/L). Sevelamer carbonate was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS......: Sevelamer carbonate is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for the control of phosphorous levels in hyperphosphatemic patients who have chronic kidney disease and are not on dialysis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  2. Mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.E.; Alekseenko, Y.; Battistin, L.; Ehler, E.; Gerstenbrand, F.; Muresanu, D.F.; Potapov, A.; Stepan, C.A.; Traubner, P.; Vecsei, L.; Wild, K. von

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is among the most frequent neurological disorders. Of all TBIs 90% are considered mild with an annual incidence of 100-300/100.000. Intracranial complications of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) are infrequent (10%), requiring neurosurgical intervention in a minority o

  3. Mild in situ growth of platinum nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotube-poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel electrode for glucose electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shumin; Zheng, Yudong, E-mail: zhengyudong@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Qiao, Kun [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Material Science and Engineering (China); Su, Lei [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering (China); Sanghera, Amendeep; Song, Wenhui [University College London, UCL Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science (United Kingdom); Yue, Lina; Sun, Yi [University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    This investigation describes an effective strategy to fabricate an electrochemically active hybrid hydrogel made from platinum nanoparticles that are highly dense, uniformly dispersed, and tightly embedded throughout the conducting hydrogel network for the electrochemical oxidation of glucose. A suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyvinyl alcohol aqueous was coated on glassy carbon electrode by electrophoretic deposition and then physically crosslinked to form a three-dimensional porous conductive hydrogel network by a process of freezing and thawing. The network offered 3D interconnected mass-transport channels (around 200 nm) and confined nanotemplates for in situ growth of uniform platinum nanoparticles via the moderate reduction agent, ascorbic acid. The resulting hybrid hydrogel electrode membrane demonstrates an effective method for loading platinum nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by the electrostatic adsorption between multiwalled carbon nanotubes and platinum ions within porous hydrogel network. The average diameter of platinum nanoparticles is 37 ± 14 nm, which is less than the particle size by only using the moderate reduction agent. The hybrid hydrogel electrode membrane-coated glassy carbon electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity and good long-term stability toward glucose electrochemical oxidation. The glucose oxidation current exhibited a linear relationship with the concentration of glucose in the presence of chloride ions, promising for potential applications of implantable biofuel cells, biosensors, and electronic devices.

  4. Randomized crossover study comparing the phosphate-binding efficacy of calcium ketoglutarate versus calcium carbonate in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro, S; Rasmussen, R A; Handberg, J; Olgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the phosphate-binding efficacy, side effects, and cost of therapy of calcium ketoglutarate granulate as compared with calcium carbonate tablets in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study design used was a randomized, crossover open trial, and the main outcome measurements were plasma ionized calcium levels, plasma phosphate levels, plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, requirements for supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate therapy, patient tolerance, and cost of therapy. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis were treated with a dialysate calcium concentration of 1.25 mmol/L and a fixed alfacalcidol dose for at least 2 months. All had previously tolerated therapy with calcium carbonate. Of the 19 patients included, 10 completed both treatment arms. After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean (+/-SEM) plasma ionized calcium level was significantly lower in the ketoglutarate arm compared with the calcium carbonate arm (4.8+/-0.1 mg/dL v 5.2+/-0.1 mg/dL; P = 0.004), whereas the mean plasma phosphate (4.5+/-0.3 mg/dL v 5.1+/-0.1 mg/dL) and PTH levels (266+/-125 pg/mL v 301+/-148 pg/mL) did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms. Supplemental aluminum-aminoacetate was not required during calcium ketoglutarate treatment, while two patients needed this supplement when treated with calcium carbonate. Five of 17 (29%) patients were withdrawn from calcium ketoglutarate therapy within 1 to 2 weeks due to intolerance (anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, general uneasiness), whereas the remaining 12 patients did not experience any side effects at all. The five patients with calcium ketoglutarate intolerance all had pre-existing gastrointestinal symptoms; four of them had received treatment with cimetidine or omeprazol before inclusion into the study. Calculations based on median doses after 12 weeks showed that the cost of the therapy in Denmark was 10 times higher for calcium ketoglutarate compared with calcium

  5. Chronic mild stress induces depression-like behavior of rats%慢性应激性刺激对大鼠行为的影响——抑郁症模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉红; 成翔; 张蕾; 衣昕; 郭玉秀; 秦建兵; 金国华; 张新化

    2013-01-01

    目的:以慢性应激性刺激(chronic mild stress,CMS)制作抑郁症动物模型,并以多种方式检测模型鼠的行为学变化,以期获得理想的动物模型.方法:对SD大鼠给予不可预知的慢性应激性刺激,包括:日夜颠倒;笼子弄脏;将笼子倾斜45°;限制它的活动;夜间不给予充足的食物;停止或减少对其水的供应等.每项刺激持续时间≥20 min,每2次刺激间隔时间≥16h,为时5周.在刺激结束后,立即进行行为学测试,包括悬尾实验(tail suspension test,TST);强迫游泳实验(forced swim test,FST);蔗糖饮水实验(sucrose preference test,SPT).结果:经过CMS处理的大鼠在悬尾试验中的不动时间明显大于未经过CMS实验处理的大鼠的不动时间(P<0.05).在强迫游泳实验中,经过CMS处理的大鼠不动次数大于未经CMS实验的大鼠的次数,游泳的次数明显少于未经CMS实验处理的大鼠的游泳次数.未经CMS实验的大鼠蔗糖摄入百分比为(72.10±5.24)%,而经过CMS实验大鼠的摄入蔗糖水百分比为(52.98± 11.14)%,明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:不可预知的缓慢刺激长时间施加到啮齿类动物,可以模拟出类似抑郁症的相关症状.

  6. 海马BDNF和iNOS与慢性应激性抑郁的关系%Sequental Involvement of Hippocampal BDNF and Inducible Nitric Oxide in Depression Induced by Chronic Unpredicted Mild Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2010-01-01

    建立慢性不可预见性抑郁动物模型,采用液体消耗实验(fluid consumption test,FCT)、敞箱实验(Open field test,OFT)和强迫游泳(Forced swimming test,FST)等方法进行行为学测试,并用免疫组织化学的方法检测海马BDNF和iNOS的表达,运用腹腔注射药物的方法探索BDNF和iNOS的作用与关系.探讨了海马脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)和诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)在慢性应激诱导的抑郁症中的关系,及抑郁症的发病机制.与对照组相比,慢性不可预见性应激(Chronic unpredicted mild stress ,CUMS)组大鼠的行为学表现能力下降,BDNF表达下降(n=8,P<0.01),iNOS的表达升高(n=8,P<0.01);阻断内源性BDNF大鼠的行为学表现能力也下降,iNOS的表达升高(n=7,P<0.01);而海马微量注射iNOS的抑制剂SMT均可反转CUMS和BDNF抑制剂所导致的行为学表现能力下降的现象.慢性不可预见性应激引起海马BDNF表达下降,NO过高而导致抑郁.BDNF对神经元具有保护作用, BDNF的抗抑郁作用可能是通过抑制iNOS的表达而起作用的.提示BDNF等神经保护因子通过抑制iNOS的过量表达而保护脑组织可能是治疗抑郁症的一个重要途径.

  7. Evaluating the effects of sevelamer carbonate on cardiovascular structure and function in chronic renal impairment in Birmingham: the CRIB-PHOS randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Steeds Richard P; Townend Jonathan N; Chue Colin D; Ferro Charles J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Serum phosphate is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. There is accumulating evidence that phosphate promotes arterial stiffening through structural vascular alterations such as medial calcification, which are already apparent in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. Aim To determine the effects of phosphate binding with sevelamer carbonate on left ventricular mass and ...

  8. Analysis of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress%慢性应激大鼠脑源性营养因子的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静华; 肖泽萍; 肖世富; 彭素芳; 董晓蔚; 禹顺英; 李华芳; 李霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性不可预知轻度应激(CUMS)大鼠模型各脑区脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的表达及抗抑郁药对BDNF表达的影响.方法 将24只雄性SD大鼠随机分为三组(n=8):A组为对照组;B组为CUMS应激组;C组为CUMS应激+西太普兰用药组(每天腹腔注射西酞普兰水溶液2 mL,10 mg/kg).实验为期6周,每周称量大鼠体质量,每3周测试大鼠的糖水偏爱度,造模前及造模6周末通过旷场试验评价大鼠行为.6周后处死大鼠获取脑组织,采用Real-Time PCR检测各脑区BDNFmRNA表达水平.结果 第6周末,B组大鼠的糖水偏爱度明显低于A、C两组(P<0.05)且行为增多.应激实验开始后,B、C两组大鼠体质量均明显低于A组(P<0.05).B组BDNF mRNA在海马中的表达高于A组,但差异无统计学意义(P=0.07);C组纹状体中BDNF mRNA表达明显低于A组(P<0.05).结论 慢性应激可能引起海马BDNF表达升高,抗抑郁药物可能导致纹状体BDNF表达降低.%Objective To investigate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF) in different areas of brain in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress ( CUMS), and explore the effects of antidepressant on expression of BDNF. Methods Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly assigned to control group ( group A) , CUMS group ( group B) and CUMS + citalpram group (intraperitoneal injection of citalpram 2 mL once a day, 10 nig/kg) (group C), with 8 rats in each group. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured each week, sugar preference was evaluated every 3 weeks, and behavior of rats was assessed through open field tests before model establishment and 6 weeks after model establishment. Animals were sacrificed after 6 weeks, brain tissues were obtained, and Real-Time PCR was employed to detect the expression of BDNF mRNA in different areas of brain. Results At the end of the sixth week, rats in group B had significantly lower sugar preference than group A Bnd group C

  9. Behavioral and hippocampal cytoskeletal alterations in rats following chronic unpredictable mild stress and fluoxetine treatment%慢性应激及氟西汀治疗后大鼠海马细胞支架的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灿; 王高华; 王惠玲; 王晓萍; 刘忠纯; 朱志先

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性不可预见性应激及氟西汀治疗后大鼠细胞支架微管系统的动态性变化及其可能机制.方法 将24只大鼠按随机数字表法分为对照组(空白对照+生理盐水)、慢性不可预见性温和应激(CUMS)组(CUMS+生理盐水)和氟西汀组(CUMS+氟西汀),每组8只.对大鼠进行连续21 d CUMS后,氟西汀组给予氟西汀(10 mg/kg)治疗21 d,对照组和CUMS组给予生理盐水.实验结束后进行行为学观察,并使用免疫印迹法(western blot)检测大鼠海马乙酰化微管蛋白(Acet-Tub),酪氨酸化微管蛋白(Tyr-Tub),微管结合蛋白2(MAP-2)及磷酸化微管结合蛋白2(phospho-MAP-2).结果 (1)CUMS组糖水偏好[(55.13±11.80)%],总行程[(2736.59±511.20)cm],运动平均速度[(5.69±1.08)cm/s]及直立次数[(2.50±2.00)次]均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);氟西汀组上述指标与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)CUMS组与对照组相比,Acet-Tub表达升高[(171.84±10.34)%],Tyr-Tub[(62.06±9.24)%]和phospho-MAP-2[(68.81±8.93)%]的表达降低,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01),MAP-2的表达与对照组比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);经氟西汀治疗后,Acet-Tub的表达降低为[(96.18±8.92)%],Tyr-Tub和phospho-MAP-2的表达分别升高为[(95.06±8.00)%]、[(100.60±7.30)%],与对照组比较均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 慢性应激后微管动态性减低,神经可塑性受损,氟西汀可以逆转海马的这些损伤,上述过程可能与微管相关蛋白磷酸化水平的变化有关.%Objective To investigate behavior and hippocampal cytoskeletal alterations in rats following chronic unpredictable mild stress and fluoxetine treatment, and explore the possible mechanism. Methods Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups, with 8 exposed to 21 consecutive days of chronic unpredicted mild stresses (CUMS) and treated with vehicle, 8 exposed to CUMS and treated with fluoxetine, and 8 as

  10. Avaliação do efeito da concentração de carbonato na eletrodeposição de cobre sobre discos de aço-carbono Evaluation of the effect of carbonate concentration in the copper electrodeposition on mild steel blankets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Inês Ferreira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild steel blankets were covered with electrolytic copper thin layer, from cyanide bath, being evaluated the influence of the carbonate concentration in the physiochemical properties of those deposits. The cell voltage decreased as the current intensity decreased, but the adherence of the deposit was not enhanced, showing that the increment of carbonate concentration causes substantial problems. Chemical solubilization reactions of air-bearing carbon dioxide and oxidation of free cyanide ions through dissolved oxygen evolved in the anodic processes contribute to the copper plating to occur in an inefficient way. The best optimal conditions require a carbonate concentration below 50 g L-1.

  11. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  12. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, Nadia [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  13. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  14. Chronic immobilization stress occludes in vivo cortical activation in an animal model of panic induced by carbon dioxide inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mostafizur eRahman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Breathing high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 can trigger panic and anxiety in humans. CO2 inhalation has been hypothesized to activate neural systems similar to those underlying fear learning, especially those involving the amygdala. Amygdala activity is also upregulated by stress. Recently, however, a separate pathway has been proposed for interoceptive panic and anxiety signals, as patients exhibited CO2-inhalation induced panic responses despite bilateral lesions of the amygdala. This paradoxical observation has raised the possibility that cortical circuits may underlie these responses. We sought to examine these divergent models by comparing in vivo brain activation in unstressed and chronically-stressed rats breathing CO2. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in lightly-anaesthetized rats showed especially strong activation of the somatosensory cortex by CO2 inhalation in the unstressed group. Strikingly, prior exposure to chronic stress occluded this effect on cortical activity. This lends support to recent clinical observations and highlights the importance of looking beyond the traditional focus on limbic structures, such as the hippocampus and amygdala, to investigate a role for cortical areas in panic and anxiety in humans.

  15. A PET study on brain of chronic unpredictable mild stimulations (CUMS)-induced depressive rats%慢性不可预见性温和刺激抑郁症模型大鼠的脑PET成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金鹏; 刘华; 高峻钰; 刘少君

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过PET成像技术研究慢性不可预见性温和刺激( CUMS)致抑郁症大鼠的全脑代谢特点。方法实验组大鼠给予CUMS 4周后,通过糖水偏嗜度、自发活动距离、体质量等指标分为刺激后抑郁大鼠( D组)及刺激后非抑郁大鼠( ND组),并与正常对照组大鼠( CON组)一起行PET检查,比较不同组大鼠之间全脑的代谢变化。结果(1)D组大鼠的双侧S1、丘脑、苍白球、岛叶、M2、左屏状核较CON组代谢升高,右侧下丘、胼胝体压部、小脑则代谢降低;(2)D组大鼠双侧海马CA3区、M1、M2、纹状体、S1、嗅球等区较ND组代谢增高,左侧楔状核及海马则代谢降低;(3) ND组大鼠与CON组相比,无代谢升高的脑区,而外侧隔核、双侧纹状体、下丘脑室旁核、双侧S1、右侧苍白球则代谢降低。结论以前囟后4 mm处为界,抑郁大鼠脑代谢特点是前高后低,左右大致对称。抑郁症的发生可能与多个脑区功能的异常相互作用有关。%Objective To observe the metabolic changes in the whole brain of chronic unpredictable mild stimulations ( CUMS)-induced depressive rats using PET imaging technology.Methods After 4 weeks’ of CUMS, rats of experimental group were divided into two groups:Group D( depression) and Group ND( no depression) , according to the degree of sugar addiction, distance of spontaneous activity and relative body mass.Then metabolic changes in the whole brain of these rats and those in control group ( CON) were observed using PET technology, and the differences were companred between the threegroups.Results (1)ComparedwithGroupCON,metabolismofGroupDwaselevatedinbilateralS1,thalamus, globus pallidus, insula, M2 and left claustrum, but descended in right inferior colliculus, splenium of corpus callosum and cerebellum.(2) Metabolism of Group D increased in the bilateral CA3 region of hippocampus, M1, M2, striatum, S1 and olfactory bulb

  16. Carbon monoxide in chronic uraemia related to erythropoietin treatment and smoking habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunedborg, P; Nielsen, A L; Brinkenfeldt, H;

    1995-01-01

    In 69 patients on chronic haemodialysis, blood sampled randomly during dialysis was analyzed for carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb). The median value was 1.40% (range 0.9-2.3) in non-smoking patients and (1.4-7.5) in smokers. In non-smokers treated with erythropoietin (EPO) correlation was found between...... because of increased endogenous CO production from the enhanced erythrocyte turnover. As even low COHb levels may negatively influence the oxygen status of the uraemic patient, the addition of exogenous CO from cigarette smoking should be avoided....

  17. Effect of bronchodilatation on single breath pulmonary uptake of carbon monoxide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Simonetta; Fracchia, Claudio; Bruschi, Claudio; Dore, Roberto; Maestri, Roberto; Brusasco, Vito; Pellegrino, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    We studied 21 COPD patients in stable clinical conditions to evaluate whether changes in lung function induced by cumulative doses of salbutamol alter diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and whether this relates to the extent of emphysema as assessed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) quantitative analysis. Spirometry and DLCO were measured before and after cumulative doses of inhaled salbutamol (from 200 μg to 1000 μg). Salbutamol caused significant increments of forced...

  18. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H;

    2014-01-01

    trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three...

  19. A comparison of the long-term effects of lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate on the course of chronic renal failure in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Takashima

    Full Text Available Lanthanum carbonate (LA is an effective phosphate binder. Previous study showed the phosphate-binding potency of LA was twice that of calcium carbonate (CA. No study in which LA and CA were given at an equivalent phosphate-binding potency to rats or humans with chronic renal failure for a long period has been reported to date. The objective of this study was to compare the phosphate level in serum and urine and suppression of renal deterioration during long-term LA and CA treatment when they were given at an equivalent phosphate-binding potency in rats with adriamycin (ADR-induced nephropathy. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated group (ADR group, a CA-treated (ADR-CA group and a LA-treated (ADR-LA group. The daily oral dose of LA was 1.0 g/kg/day and CA was 2.0 g/kg/day for 24 weeks. The serum phosphate was lower in the ADR-CA or ADR-LA group than in the ADR group and significantly lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR group at each point, but there were no significant differences between the ADR and ADR-LA groups. The serum phosphate was also lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR-LA group, and there was significant difference at week 8. The urinary phosphate was significantly lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR or ADR-LA group at each point. The urinary phosphate was also lower in the ADR-LA group than in the ADR group at each point, and significant difference at week 8. There were no significant differences in the serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen among the three groups. In conclusion, this study indicated the phosphate-binding potency of LA isn't twice as strong as CA, and neither LA nor CA suppressed the progression of chronic renal failure in the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, compared to the untreated group.

  20. Does mild COPD affect prognosis in the elderly?

    OpenAIRE

    Forastiere Francesco; Sorino Claudio; Scarlata Simone; Pedone Claudio; Bellia Vincenzo; Antonelli Incalzi Raffaele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects independence and survival in the general population, but it is unknown to which extent this conclusion applies to elderly people with mild disease. The aim of this study was to verify whether mild COPD, defined according to different classification systems (ATS/ERS, BTS, GOLD) impacts independence and survival in elderly (aged 65 to 74 years) or very elderly (aged 75 years or older) patients. Methods We used data coming ...

  1. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters tree allometric relationships: implications for biomass production and carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Inés; Zak, Donald R; Burton, Andrew J; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2016-04-01

    As increasing levels of nitrogen (N) deposition impact many terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the potential effects of higher N availability is critical for forecasting tree carbon allocation patterns and thus future forest productivity. Most regional estimates of forest biomass apply allometric equations, with parameters estimated from a limited number of studies, to forest inventory data (i.e., tree diameter). However most of these allometric equations cannot account for potential effects of increased N availability on biomass allocation patterns. Using 18 yr of tree diameter, height, and mortality data collected for a dominant tree species (Acer saccharum) in an atmospheric N deposition experiment, we evaluated how greater N availability affects allometric relationships in this species. After taking into account site and individual variability, our results reveal significant differences in allometric parameters between ambient and experimental N deposition treatments. Large trees under experimental N deposition reached greater heights at a given diameter; moreover, their estimated maximum height (mean ± standard deviation: 33.7 ± 0.38 m) was significantly higher than that estimated under the ambient condition (31.3 ± 0.31 m). Within small tree sizes (5-10 cm diameter) there was greater mortality under experimental N deposition, whereas the relative growth rates of small trees were greater under experimental N deposition. Calculations of stemwood biomass using our parameter estimates for the diameter-height relationship indicated the potential for significant biases in these estimates (~2.5%), with under predictions of stemwood biomass averaging 4 Mg/ha lower if ambient parameters were to be used to estimate stem biomass of trees in the experimental N deposition treatment. As atmospheric N deposition continues to increase into the future, ignoring changes in tree allometry will contribute to the uncertainty associated with aboveground carbon storage

  2. Effect of the Chronic Use of Lithium Carbonate on Induced Tooth Movement in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Kagy, Viviane; Trevisan Bittencourt Muniz, Luciana; Michels, Arieli Carini; Luiz, Suelen Teixeira; Reis Azevedo Alanis, Luciana; Brancher, João Armando; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido; Camargo, Elisa Souza; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval

    2016-01-01

    Patients who seek dental treatment may have bipolar disorder, and lithium carbonate (LC) is the drug of choice used in the treatment of this disorder. Taking into consideration the controversial results found in the literature, and the possible influence of LC on induced tooth movement, the objective was to evaluate tooth movement induced in rats after administration of lithium carbonate. One hundred and ninety-two rats were divided into 3 groups. In the L group, the animals received daily 60mg/kg of LC, they were not subjected to orthodontic movement, and they were euthanized after 33, 37, 44 or 51 days. In the LM group, the LC was administered for 30 days and during the subsequent 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, corresponding to the period of induced tooth movement, and they received a spring that produced a 30cN force. In the SM group, saline solution was applied. Measurements were made of tooth displacement, the numbers of osteoclasts and serum lithium phosphate (PO4), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine levels. The tooth displacement was lower in the LM group compared to the SM group at 44 days. A tendency toward reduction in the number of osteoclasts was observed in the LM group compared to the SM group at 44 days. The average lithium were higher in the L and LM groups compared to the SM group. The opposite was observed for the PO4 group. A higher value for the ALP was found in the L group. The average creatinine level was lower in the LM group. LC inhibited tooth movement for 14 days, possibly due to the reduction in the number of osteoclasts. PMID:27487121

  3. A comparative study on behavior changes and cerebral morphology and function of chronic restraint stress mice and chronic unpredictable mild stress mice%慢性束缚与慢性不可预期温和应激抑郁模型小鼠的行为学比较及其发生机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖莎; 周佳; 平锋锋; 王倩; 郝娣; 尚靖

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The aim of this study was to explore the pathogenesis of depression by comparing the effects of chronic restraint stress(CRS) and chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) on behavior and cerebral morphology of C57BL/6 mice.【Method】 Mice were randomly divided into the normal control(NC) group,CRS group,and CUMS group.After 3 weeks of stress exposure,open-field test,tail suspension test,and forced swimming test were taken to evaluate the behavior changes of mice.In addition,the cerebral morphology and function changes were investigated by HE staining and immuno-histochemistry analysis.The MAO activity of mice hippocampus was analyzed by fluorescence spectrophotometry.【Result】 The results showed that compared to the NC group,the crossing frequency,hearing frequency and body weight were all decreased significantly in the CRS group,whereas no significant changes in the CUMS group(P0.05).However,the results of tail suspension test and forced swimming test showed that there was a significant increase in the percent of immobility time in the CUMS group compared to the NC group(P0.01).In addition,except the hippocampus CA1 region in the CRS group,the CA1,CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of hippocampus were all atrophied in both stressed groups.Furthermore,the expression of 5-HT1A receptor in hippocampus was decreased and the MAO activity was up-regulated in both CRS and CUMS group.【Conclusion】 The results showed that both CRS and CUMS can induce depressive-like behaviors in C57BL/6 mice.CRS mainly suppresses the exploratory behavior while CUMS induced typical behavioral despair.This praxiology distinction may be relative to the differences in cerebral morphology and function of treated mice between two stressed groups.%【目的】通过比较慢性束缚应激(Chronic restraint stress,CRS)与慢性不可预期温和应激(Chronic unpredictable mild stress,CUMS)对C57BL/6小鼠行为学指标及大脑海马区相关功能的影响,探讨抑

  4. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CURCUMIN ON RATS UNDER CHRONIC UNPREDICTABLE MILD STRESS%姜黄素预处理对慢性心理应激大鼠中枢神经的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安改红; 陈学伟; 王静; 刘洪涛; 张娜; 徐传香; 佘晓俊; 崔博; 马强

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察姜黄素预处理对慢性应激大鼠行为学、单胺类递质水平及血清糖皮质激素的影响,为评价姜黄素对慢性心理应激大鼠中枢神经的保护作用提供依据.方法 48只Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组、慢性应激组、氟西汀干预组、姜黄素(低、中、高剂量)干预组,每天应激前1h灌胃给药.对大鼠进行28 d应激刺激建立慢性不可预知性慢性应激模型.旷场试验测定大鼠行为学指标;糖水试验测定大鼠“快感缺乏”;高效液相-电化学检测法测定海马单胺类递质;ELISA检测血清糖皮质激素.结果 慢性应激组大鼠的体质量、旷场活动性和糖水偏嗜度均明显低于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01);海马5-HT含量下降(P<0.05),血清糖皮质激素水平升高(P<0.01).3个剂量姜黄素组大鼠体质量于第4周分别为(310.60±21.35)、(315.60±23.73)和(319.91±18.76)g,高于慢性应激组[(270.24±19.60)g,P<0.05];旷场竖立时间分别为(18.86±9.49)、(24.14±4.38)和(24.14±5.41)s,高于慢性应激组[(11.00±9.20)s,P<0.05];血清糖皮质激素水平分别为(567.94±22.54)、(338.62±63.79)和(259.96± 17.79)ng/L,低于慢性应激组[(908.57±22.86) ng/L,P<0.01].实验后低、中剂量组海马5-HT含量分别为(1063.89±149.61)和(1340.96±42.62) ng/g,高于慢性应激组[(941.23±80.00) ng/g,P<0.05].结论 姜黄素预处理可改善慢性不可预知性应激大鼠抑郁状态,起到中枢神经保护作用,其作用机制可能与单胺类递质水平的增加和调节HPA轴活性有关.%Objective To observe the effect of curcumin on behavior,monoamine neurotransmitter,and serum glucocorticoid of rats under chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) ,in order to provide theoretical basis for assessing the neuroprotection of curcumin. Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, stress group, curcumin groups (low, moderate, high dose) ,and

  5. EXTENDED MILD-SLOPE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虎; 丁平兴; 吕秀红

    2001-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism for surface waves and the mild-slope approximation were empolyed in handling the case of slowly varying three-dimensional currents and an uneven bottom, thus leading to an extended mild-slope equation. The bottom topography consists of two components: the slowly varying component whose horizontal length scale is longer than the surface wave length, and the fast varying component with the amplitude being smaller than that of the surface wave. The frequency of the fast varying depth component is, however, comparable to that of the surface waves. The extended mild- slope equation is more widely applicable and contains as special cases famous mild-slope equations below: the classical mild-slope equation of Berkhoff , Kirby' s mild-slope equation with current, and Dingemans' s mild-slope equation for rippled bed. The extended shallow water equations for ambient currents and rapidly varying topography are also obtained.

  6. 慢性不可预测性温和应激对大鼠行为及海马微管蛋白表达的影响%The Impact of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress on Behavior and Tubulin Expression of Hippocampus in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学平; 胡尚平; 王高华; 杨灿

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of chronic unpredictable mild stress on behaviors and hippocam-pal neurons microtubules. Methods Twenty - four male rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 8 rats as chronic unpredicted mild stresses group (CUMS) , 8 rats as the fluoxetine administrated group and 8 as normal controls. After 6 weeks ,behavioral changes in these rats were analyzed in an open -field paradigm. The expression of hippocampal cytoskeletal microtubulin ( Acet - Tub or Tyr - Tub ) were analyzed using Western Blot. Results (1) Compared with the normal rats, sucrose prefereneet total traveling distance, velocity and frequencies of rearing were significantly reduced in the depressed rats( P < 0. 01); Behavioral changes could be reversed after 21 day fluoxetine treatment;( 2) The western blotting results showed that compared with the normal rats, the Acet - Tub expression of CUMS group showed a significant increase ( P < 0. 01) and Tyr - Tub expression of CUMS group was significantly decreased following CUMS stress ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion These findings provide evidence that rats exposed to chronic unpredicted mild stresses showed impairment of cytoskeletal microtubular dynamic and structural neuronal plasticity, providing insight into the role of cytoskeleton in the depression.%目的 研究慢性不可预测性温和应激对大鼠行为及海马微管蛋白表达的影响.方法 将SD雄性大鼠24只随机分为对照组、慢性不可预测性温、应激组(chronic unpredicted mild stress,CUMS组)和氟西汀组,每组8只.在实验结束后对三组大鼠进行行为学观察,检测海马微管蛋白的表达.结果 CUMS组大鼠总行程、平均运动速度、直立次数及糖水偏好低于对照组(P<0.01);氟西汀组行为学评价指标与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).免疫印迹结果显示CUMS组海马乙酰化微管蛋白(Acet-Tub)表达升高,酪氨酸化微管蛋白(Tyr-Tub)表达减低,与对照组

  7. 慢性应激抑郁型黄褐斑动物模型建立与现有模型的比较研究%Establishment of Chloasma Guinea pig Model with chronic unpredictable mild stress depression and comparative study of it with existent models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏; 杨慧兰; 麦跃; 戴勇; 孙林潮; 鲁东平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish and authenticate the Chloasma Guinea pig Model with chronic unpredictable mild stress depression and comparative study of it with existent models. Methods After the injection of progesterone,chronic unpredictable sequence of mild stressors stimulated them and gave them partially ultraviolet radiation. Results The Guinea pig model of depression had been established successfully at 28th day.Multiple models of progesterone injection and ultraviolet radiation compounding with chronic unpredictable sequence of mild stressors can heighten MDA,depress SOD,and increase melanocytes of skin. Meanwhile,the ethology of this model showed it's syndrome of Depressive position.The guinea pig showed reduced squares crossing and rearing in open-field test, a significantly reduced consumption of preference for sucrose solutions and an increased pure water consumption as compared with control group. Conclusion The multiple factor Chloasma model of chronic unpredictable mild stress depression has been built successfully. Compared with other existing models of MDA,SOD and skin melanocytes objective indicators of change closer to human Chloasma lesions.%目的:建立并验证慢性应激抑郁型黄褐斑动物模型,并与现有其他模型进行比较.方法:在注射黄体酮同时,进行慢性轻度不可预见的应激刺激,并紫外线局部照射.结果:黄体酮+紫外线+慢性应激抑郁法造模较其他方法更能导致皮肤丙二醛(Malondialdehyde,MDA)升高和超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide dismutase,SOD)降低以及皮肤黑素细胞的增加,并且具有抑郁症的行动学表现.与空白组比较,经慢性轻度不可预见性应激刺激的动物体重显著下降,敞箱试验中穿格次数、理毛时间和次数、直立次数得分显著下降,液体消耗试验中糖水消耗和糖水偏爱百分比明显下降,而纯水消耗显著提高.结论:黄体酮+紫外线+慢性应激抑郁法建立的抑郁型黄褐斑豚鼠多因素模型

  8. Evaluating the effects of sevelamer carbonate on cardiovascular structure and function in chronic renal impairment in Birmingham: the CRIB-PHOS randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeds Richard P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum phosphate is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. There is accumulating evidence that phosphate promotes arterial stiffening through structural vascular alterations such as medial calcification, which are already apparent in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. Aim To determine the effects of phosphate binding with sevelamer carbonate on left ventricular mass and function together with arterial stiffness in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Methods/Design A single-centre, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 120 subjects with stage 3 chronic kidney disease recruited from University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Baseline investigations include transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to assess ventricular mass, volumes and function, applanation tonometry to determine pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning to determine bone density. During an open-label run in phase, subjects will receive 1600 mg sevelamer carbonate with meals for four weeks. They will then be randomised to either continue sevelamer carbonate or receive an identical placebo (60 subjects per arm for the remaining 36 weeks. Four-weekly monitoring of serum electrolytes and bone biochemistry will be performed. All baseline investigations will be repeated at the end of the treatment period. The primary endpoint of the study is a reduction in left ventricular mass after 40 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints are: i change in aortic compliance; ii change in arterial stiffness; iii change in arterial elastance; iv change in left ventricular systolic and diastolic elastance; v change in left ventricular function; and vi change in bone density. Trial Registration This trial is

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study using Genz-644470 and sevelamer carbonate in hyperphosphatemic chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa M

    2014-04-01

    phosphorus lowering per gram of binder compared with sevelamer carbonate. Overall tolerability was similar between active treatment groups. The tolerability of sevelamer carbonate was consistent with prior studies and with the established safety profile of sevelamer. Conclusion: Both Genz-644470 and sevelamer carbonate effectively lowered serum phosphate levels in a dose-dependent fashion in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. However, Genz-644470 did not provide any advantage over sevelamer carbonate in phosphate lowering in vivo, as had been demonstrated in vitro. Keywords: sevelamer carbonate, clinical trial, serum phosphorus, hemodialysis

  10. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  11. Knockout of the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 aggravates the development of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium colitis independently of expression of intestinal cytokines TNFα, TGFB1, and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,2 Christoph Hilgert,1 Monika S Janot,1 Elisabeth Haarmann,1 Martin Albrecht,1 Annette M Müller,3 Thomas Herdegen,2 Ulrich Mittelkötter,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik11Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany; 3Department of Pediatric Pathology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhems-University of Bonn, Bonn, GermanyIntroduction: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs are involved in signal transduction of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the function of JNKs by using a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model in JNK1 knockout mice (Mapk8–/–, JNK2 knockout mice (Mapk9–/–, and wild-type controls (WT1, WT2.Methods: The animals were evaluated daily using a disease activity index. After 30 days, the intestine was evaluated histologically with a crypt damage score. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were quantified using immunofluorescence. Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFB1 expression was carried out using LightCycler® real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Cyclic administration of low-dose DSS (1% was not able to induce features of chronic colitis in Mapk8–/– WT2 mice. By contrast, DSS administration significantly increased the disease activity index in WT1 and Mapk9–/– mice. In Mapk9–/– mice, the crypt damage score and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells as features of chronic colitis/inflammation were also significantly elevated. Expression of TNFα, IL-6, and TGFB1 was not altered by the JNK knockout.Conclusion: Administering DSS at a defined low concentration that is unable to induce colitis in WT animals leads to clinically and histologically detectable chronic colitis in Mapk9–/– mice. The reason for this disease

  12. Study of the mechanism of corrosion of some ferritic steels in high-pressure carbon dioxide with the aid of oxygen-18 as a tracer. 2. High-silicon mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleave, C.; Lees, D.G. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy); Calvert, J.M. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Rowlands, P.C. (Central Electricity Research Labs., Leatherhead (UK))

    1982-02-08

    The oxidation mechanisms of a high-silicon mild steel (a fully killed steel) in high pressure (4.1 MPa) CO/sub 2/ at 773 K have been investigated with the aid of /sup 18/O as a tracer. In the protective region of oxidation oxide formation occurred at the oxide-gas interface, within the scale and possibly also at the oxide-metal interface. The oxide growth within the scale is believed to occur in a relatively stress-free manner. The results for this steel are compared with those for a low-silicon mild steel, Fe-9% Cr alloys, and nickel.

  13. Effect of shuyusan on neuropeptide Y and serotonin expression in the hippocampalneurons of rats with chronic mild unpredictable stress-induced depression%舒郁散对慢性应激抑郁大鼠神经肽及海马神经元5-HT表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利平; 孙艳; 王发渭; 段冬梅; 胡亚卓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Shuyusan decoction on neuropeptide Y (NPY) and serotonin (5-HT) expression in the hippocampus and plasma of rats with chronic mild unpredictable stressors depression. Methods Fifty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely the normal control group, model group, fluoxetine group, and high- and low-dose Shuyusan groups. Except for those in the normal control group, all the rats were subjected to chronic mild unpredicted stress for 21 consecutive days with corresponding treatments. Open-field test was used to assess the behavioral changes of the rats. The content of NPY in the hippocampus and plasma was detected by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunocytochemistry was used to determine the expression of 5-HT in the hippocampus. Results NPY levels in the hippocampus and plasma was significantly decreased in the model group as compared with that in the normal control group (P<0.05). Treatments with fluoxetine and high-dose Shuyusan both significantly increased NPY levels in the hippocampus and plasma in the depressive rats (P<0.05), resulting also in significantly increased 5-HT-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and the average optical density (P<0.05). Conclusion Shuyusan decoction can effectively increase plasma and hippocampus NPY levels and the number of 5-HT-positive neurons in the cerebral cortex and happocampus of rats with chronic mild unpredictable stress-induced depression.%目的 观察中药舒郁散对慢性应激抑郁大鼠神经肽(neuropeptide Y,NPY)及海马5-HT表达的影响.方法 50只Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组、百忧解组、舒郁散小剂量组、舒郁散大剂量组;对大鼠进行21 d的应激刺激建立慢性应激抑郁大鼠模型,采用open-field方法观察各组处理前、后2 min内大鼠行走路线及格子交叉点数的变化,了解大鼠行为的改变,用竞争酶联免疫分析法测定各组大鼠

  14. Eficacia del escitalopram en el manejo de la depresión leve o moderada en el paciente con dolor crónico oncológico Efficacy of escitalopram in the management of mild or moderate depression in patients with chronic cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mendoza Rubio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valorar la eficacia antidepresiva del escitalopram en los pacientes con dolor crónico oncológico que cursen con depresión leve o moderada. Material y método: se realizó un ensayo clínico, cuasi experimental, prospectivo en 46 pacientes con dolor crónico oncológico con depresión leve o moderada en el Servicio de Clínica del Dolor del Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre" del ISSSTE en el periodo del 15 julio al 15 de octubre del 2010. Se determinó el grado de depresión mediante el inventario de Beck y confirmado el cuadro depresivo se inició tratamiento con escitalopram 10 mg vía oral cada 24 horas. Se realizó la valoración previa al tratamiento, a las 2 semanas de iniciado y por último en un intervalo de cada 7 días durante 3 semanas. Además se evaluó la disminución de la EVA durante todas las fases del estudio. Resultados: se estudiaron 46 pacientes, de los cuales fueron 25 femeninos y 21 masculinos. La edad de los pacientes osciló entre 24 a 74 años, con media de 53,9 ± 12,1 años. Se encontró adecuada eficacia antidepresiva al comparar la intensidad según el inventario de Beck inicial con el último control (p Objective: to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram in patients with chronic cancer pain that is accompanied by mild or moderate depression. Material and method: conducted a clinical trial, quasi-experimental, prospective, in 46 patients with chronic cancer pain with mild or moderate depression in the Department of Pain Clinic, National Medical Center "20 de Noviembre" ISSSTE in the period from 15 July to 15 October 2010. We determined the degree of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory and confirmed the depressive symptoms began treatment with escitalopram 10 mg orally every 24 hours. Assessment was performed before treatment, at 2 weeks and finally started at an interval of every 7 days for 3 weeks. In addition to evaluating the reduction of the VAS during all phases of

  15. A randomized, crossover design study of sevelamer carbonate powder and sevelamer hydrochloride tablets in chronic kidney disease patients on haemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Stanley; Ross, Calum; Mitra, Sandip; Kalra, Philip; Heaton, Jeremy; Hunter, John; Plone, Melissa; Pritchard, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background. Sevelamer carbonate is an improved, buffered form of sevelamer hydrochloride developed for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in CKD patients. Sevelamer carbonate formulated as a powder for oral suspension presents a novel, patient-friendly alternative to tablet phosphate binders. This study compared the safety and efficacy of sevelamer carbonate powder with sevelamer hydrochloride tablets in CKD patients on haemodialysis. Methods. This was a multi-centre, open-label, randomized,...

  16. Expression and clinical significance of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in liver tissues of patients with mild chronic hepatitis B%轻度慢性乙型肝炎患者肝组织中MMP-2和TIMP-2的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛璐; 潘陈为; 林巍; 方佩佩; 方周溪; 周光耀; 吕夕明; 金玲湘

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨轻度慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)患者肝组织中的基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)和基质金属蛋白酶抑制剂-2(TIMP-2)的表达及临床意义.方法 选取2006年12月至2011年12月温州医学院附属第二医院感染内科收治入院的慢性HBV感染者68例为研究对象,将其分为轻度慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)组(35例)和慢性HBV携带组(33例).采集患者血清,行HBV血清学标志物、HBVDNA、肝纤维化血清学指标检测及肝穿刺活检,光镜下观察肝组织.采用免疫组织化学染色法检测MMP-2和TIMP-2的表达,并进行阳性表达评分及肝组织纤维化分级.用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 轻度CHB组和慢性HBV携带者组血清肝纤维化指标透明质酸(HA)、层黏连蛋白(LN)、Ⅲ型胶原(PC Ⅲ)和Ⅳ型胶原(CⅣ)的差异无统计学意义(t=1.35,1.65,1.88和1.89,P>0.05).轻度CHB组肝组织中MMP-2和TIMP-2评分分别为(4.42±1 37)和(3.89±1.12)分,慢性HBV携带组分别为(3.61 ±1.23)和(3.31±1.07)分,差异有统计学意义(t=2.56和2.18,P<0.05).CHB组的MMP-2/TIMP-2比值为1.15±0.17,而慢性HBV携带组为1.08-±0.11,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.04,P<0.05).MMP-2和TIMP-2评分与纤维化分级的相关系数分别为0.372(P =0.002)和0.439(P =0.000).结论 轻度CHB患者的肝组织中MMP-2和TIMP-2表达增加,且与纤维化分级具有相关性,可用于评估患者肝纤维化的程度.%Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloprotein-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) in liver tissues of patients with mild chronic hepatitis B.Methods A total of 68 subjects with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College during December 2006 and December 2011 were enrolled in the study,including 35 cases of mild chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 33 carriers.Serum samples were collected,and serum HBV markers

  17. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  18. The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging…

  19. [Mild cognitive impairment: could it be a sleep disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as an intermediate state of cognitive impairment whereby individuals present with mild clinical symptoms but with nearly normal daily living activities. These subjects do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia, yet their cognitive functioning is below what we would expect for age and education in healthy people. In the other hand, older adults are at risk for sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavioral disorder and chronic insomnia, which could have an impact on cognitive functioning and are exclusion criteria for the MCI diagnosis. Moreover, REM sleep behavioral disorder represents a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In subjects more 65 years of age the association between chronic insomnia and cognitive changes is still debated. The main aim of this paper is to focus on identification of sleep disorders in the context of cognitive disturbances among professionals working with the elderly. PMID:26395305

  20. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem

    OpenAIRE

    DE O'Donnell; Gebke KB

    2014-01-01

    Denis E O'Donnell,1 Kevin B Gebke2 1Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, patients may not seek medical help unt...

  1. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  2. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Gebke, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, patients may not seek medical help until their symptoms become troublesome and persistent and significant respiratory impairment is already present; as a consequence, further sustained physical inactivity may contribute to disease progression. Ventilatory and gas exchange impairment, cardiac dysfunction, and skeletal muscle dysfunction are present to a variable degree in patients with mild COPD, and collectively may contribute to exercise intolerance. As such, there is increasing interest in evaluating exercise tolerance and physical activity in symptomatic patients with COPD who have mild airway obstruction, as defined by spirometry. Simple questionnaires, eg, the modified British Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and the COPD Assessment Test, or exercise tests, eg, the 6-minute or incremental and endurance exercise tests can be used to assess exercise performance and functional status. Pedometers and accelerometers are used to evaluate physical activity, and endurance tests (cycle or treadmill) using constant work rate protocols are used to assess the effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In addition, alternative outcome measurements, such as tests of small airway dysfunction and laboratory-based exercise tests, are used to measure the extent of physiological impairment in individuals with persistent dyspnea. This review describes the mechanisms of exercise limitation in patients with mild COPD and the interventions that can potentially improve exercise tolerance. Also discussed are the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation and the potential role of pharmacologic treatment in symptomatic patients with mild COPD. PMID:24940054

  3. Should mild COPD be treated? Evidence for early pharmacological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbehairy, Amany F; Webb, Katherine A; Neder, J Alberto; Alberto Neder, J; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2013-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and often progressive inflammatory disease of the airways that is both preventable and treatable. It is well established that those with mild-to-moderate disease severity represent the majority of patients with COPD, yet this subpopulation is relatively under-studied. Because of an insidious pre-clinical phase, COPD is both under-diagnosed and under-treated. Recent studies have confirmed that even patients with mild, grade 1 COPD [i.e. those with a reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio but normal FEV1], have measurable physiological impairment with increased morbidity and a higher risk of mortality compared with non-smoking healthy controls. Beyond the imperative of smoking cessation-the pivotal intervention in all COPD stages-the role of pharmacotherapy for prevention of disease progression has yet to be established. The main objective of this review is to provide a concise overview of the heterogeneous pathophysiology of COPD with only mild airway obstruction on spirometry and obstacles for early diagnosis. We emphasize that the absence of sufficiently powered trials involving a large number of patients precludes definitive recommendations in support of (or against) long-term pharmacological treatment in mild COPD. Despite these limitations, we present a rationale for earlier pharmacological intervention derived from recent physiological studies performed in symptomatic patients with mild COPD.

  4. Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide - A potential marker of impaired gas exchange or of systemic deconditioning in chronic obstructive lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Thomsen, Lars Pilegaard; Brock, Christina; Karbing, Dan Stieper; Rees, Stephen Edward

    2015-11-01

    Gas exchange impairment is primarily caused by ventilation-perfusion mismatch in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) remains the clinical measure. This study investigates whether DLCO: (1) can predict respiratory impairment in COPD, that is, changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2); (2) is associated with combined risk assessment score for COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) score); and (3) is associated with blood glucose and body mass index (BMI). Fifty patients were included retrospectively. DLCO; arterial blood gas at inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.21; oxygen saturation (SpO2) at FiO2 = 0.21 (SpO2 (21)) and FiO2 = 0.15 (SpO2 (15)) were registered. Difference between arterial and end-tidal CO2 (ΔCO2) was calculated. COPD severity was stratified according to GOLD score. The association between DLCO, SpO2, ΔCO2, GOLD score, blood glucose, and BMI was investigated. Multiple regression showed association between DLCO and GOLD score, BMI, and glucose level (R (2) = 0.6, p < 0.0001). Linear and multiple regression showed an association between DLCO and SpO2 (21) (R (2) = 0.3, p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively) without contribution from SpO2 (15) or ΔCO2. A stronger association between DLCO and GOLD score than between DLCO and SpO2 could indicate that DLCO is more descriptive of systemic deconditioning than gas exchange in COPD patients. However, further larger studies are needed. A weaker association is seen between DLCO and SpO2 (21) without contribution from SpO2 (15) and ΔCO2. This could indicate that DLCO is more descriptive of systemic deconditioning than gas exchange in COPD patients. However, further larger studies are needed.

  5. A mild and efficient procedure for the synthesis of ethers from various alkyl halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosstafa Kazemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, mild and practical procedure has been developed for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers by using DMSO, TBAI in the presence of K2CO3. We extended the utility of Potassium carbonate as an efficient base for the preparation of ethers. A wide range of alkyl aryl and dialkyl ethers are synthezied from treatment of aliphatic alcohols and phenols with various alkyl halides in the prescence of efficient base Potassium carbonate. Secondary alkyl halides were easily converted to corresponding ethers in releatively good yields . This is a mild, simple and practical procedure for the preparation of ethers in high yields and suitable times under mild condition.

  6. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell DE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Denis E O'Donnell,1 Kevin B Gebke2 1Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, patients may not seek medical help until their symptoms become troublesome and persistent and significant respiratory impairment is already present; as a consequence, further sustained physical inactivity may contribute to disease progression. Ventilatory and gas exchange impairment, cardiac dysfunction, and skeletal muscle dysfunction are present to a variable degree in patients with mild COPD, and collectively may contribute to exercise intolerance. As such, there is increasing interest in evaluating exercise tolerance and physical activity in symptomatic patients with COPD who have mild airway obstruction, as defined by spirometry. Simple questionnaires, eg, the modified British Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and the COPD Assessment Test, or exercise tests, eg, the 6-minute or incremental and endurance exercise tests can be used to assess exercise performance and functional status. Pedometers and accelerometers are used to evaluate physical activity, and endurance tests (cycle or treadmill using constant work rate protocols are used to assess the effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In addition, alternative outcome measurements, such as tests of small airway dysfunction and laboratory-based exercise tests, are used to measure the extent of physiological impairment in individuals with persistent dyspnea. This review describes the mechanisms of exercise limitation in patients with mild COPD and the interventions that can potentially improve exercise tolerance. Also discussed are the

  7. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L;

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...

  8. 甘丙肽2型受体激动剂对慢性温和应激模型大鼠抑郁样行为的影响%Effects of Galanin Receptor 2 Agonist on Depression-like Behavior in Chronic Mild Stress Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张攀; 刘博; 王彤; 李慧; 杨予涛; 徐志卿

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of AR-M1896, a galanin receptor 2 agonist, on depres-sion-like behavior in rat chronic mild stress (CMS) model. Methods 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into control group, CMS group, CMS artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) group and CMS AR-M1896 group equally. The control group received no interven-tion, and the other groups were established chronic mild stress model. After six-week of stress, forced swim test and sucrose preference test were conducted to identify the CMS rats. AR-M1896 or aCSF was injected into the lateral ventricle of CMS AR-M1896 group and CMS aC-SF group, respectively. The immobility time and climbing time in the forced swim test were analysed, and the sucrose consumption percent-age in the sucrose preference test was measured. Results The immobility time decreased (F=11.998, P<0.01), climbing time increased (F=8.268, P<0.05), and the sucrose consumption percentage increased (F=10.352, P<0.01) in CMS AR-M1896 group, compared with CMS aC-SF group. Conclusion Intracerebroventricular administration of galanin receptor 2 agonist AR-M1896 is effective on depression in CMS model rats.%目的 侧脑室注射甘丙肽2型受体(GalR2)激动剂AR-M1896,探讨其对慢性温和应激模型(CMS)大鼠抑郁样行为的影响.方法 48只Sprague-Dawley大鼠随机等分为对照组、CMS组、CMS人工脑脊液(aCSF)组、CMS AR-M1896组.对照组不作任何处理,其他3组制备大鼠慢性温和应激模型.应激6周后,通过强迫游泳及糖水偏好实验验证抑郁样行为;挑选造模成功大鼠,CMS aCSF组和CMS AR-M1896组侧脑室分别注射aCSF和AR-M1896.观察强迫游泳实验中的不动时间、攀爬时间,以及糖水偏好实验中的糖水饮用百分比.结果 与CMS aCSF组相比,CMS AR-M1896组不动时间明显缩短(F=11.998,P<0.01),攀爬时间延长(F=8.268,P<0.05),糖水饮用百分比明显增加(F=10.352,P<0.01).结论

  9. Chronic post-traumatic headache after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dorte; Forchhammer, Hysse; Teasdale, Tom;

    2014-01-01

    ( P self-perceived health as more affected in terms of physical function ( P = 0.036), physical role function ( P = 0.012) and social function ( P = 0.012) than the control group. Surprisingly, 31% of the CPTH group had a score equal...... to or above the cut-off score for having post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to the HTQ. In terms of demographics and headache, the groups were comparable except the CPTH group were more often without affiliation to the labour market ( P

  10. Study of the mechanism of corrosion of some ferritic steels in high-pressure carbon dioxide with the aid of oxygen-18 as a tracer. 1. Low-silicon mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleave, C.; Lees, D.G. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy); Calvert, J.M. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Rowlands, P.C. (Central Electricity Research Labs., Leatherhead (UK))

    1982-02-08

    The oxidation of low-silicon mild steel (a rimming steel) has been studied in CO/sub 2/ at a pressure of 4.1 MPa and a temperature of 773 K. A range of oxidation times between 70 and 5400 h was used. Oxygen-18 was used as a tracer to elucidate the oxidation mechanism, the /sup 18/O being identified and located by using a nuclear technique. The exposure times provided samples showing protective, transitional and breakaway oxidation. The measurements show that, in the protective regime, oxide growth is predominantly at the oxide-gas interface with a limited amount of growth within the scale. In the transitional period before breakaway, oxide grows at the oxide-gas interface and to a substantial extent within the scale. In the breakaway regime, the evidence is that no substantial growth occurs at the oxide-gas interface.

  11. Mild Hypertransaminasemia in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Busafi, Said A; Hilzenrat, Nir

    2013-01-01

    The liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST), are commonly used in clinical practice as screening as well as diagnostic tests for liver diseases. ALT is more specific for liver injury than AST and has been shown to be a good predictor of liver related and all-cause mortality. Asymptomatic mild hypertransaminasemia (i.e., less than five times normal) is a common finding in primary care and this could be attributed to serious underlying condition or has transien...

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz Ocaña, Iván; Cano, Heidis

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; I. Díaz; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  14. Assessing the Cytotoxicity of Black Carbon As A Model for Ultrafine Anthropogenic Aerosol Across Human and Murine Cells: A Chronic Exposure Model of Nanosized Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, E.

    2015-12-01

    Combustion-derived nanomaterials or ultrafine (Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, comprising the Paso del Norte air basin. A study conducted by scientists from the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina, analyzed sites adjacent to heavy-traffic highways in El Paso and elucidated higher UFP concentrations in comparison to previously published work exploring pollution and adverse health effects in the basin. UFPs can penetrate deep into the alveolar sacs of the lung, reaching distant alveolar sacs and inducing a series of immune responses that are detrimental to the body: evidence suggests that UFPs can also cross the alveolar-blood barrier and potentially endanger the body's immune response. The physical properties of UFPs and the dynamics of local atmospheric and topographical conditions indicate that emissions of nanosized carbonaceous aerosols could pose significant threats to biological tissues upon inhalation by local residents of the Paso del Norte. This study utilizes Black Carbon (BC) as a model for environmental UFPs and its effects on the immunological response. An in vitro approach is used to measure the ability of BC to promote cell death upon long-term exposure. Human epithelial lung cells (A549), human peripheral-blood monocytes (THP-1), murine macrophages (RAW264.7), and murine epithelial lung cells (LA-4) were treated with BC and assessed for metabolic activity after chronic exposure utilizing three distinct and independent cell viability assays. The cell viability experiments included a chronic study at 7, 10, and 14 days of UFP exposure at six different concentrations of BC: 100μM, 300μM, 600μM, 1,250μM, 2,500μM, and 5,000μM conducting the Trypan Blue (TB) Exclusion Assay, Calcein-AM Viability Assay, and CellTiter-Glo Viability Assay.

  15. Increase of mild disability in Japanese elders: A seven year follow-up cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okochi Jiro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan has the highest life expectancy in the world. In a 2002 census government report, 18.5% of Japanese were 65 years old and over and 7.9% were over 75 years old. In this ageing population, the increase in the number of dependent older persons, especially those with mild levels of disability, has had a significant impact on the insurance budget. This study examines the increase of mild disability and its related factors. Methods All community-dwelling residents aged 65 and over and without functional decline (n = 1560, of Omishima town, Japan, were assessed in 1996 using a simple illustrative measure, "the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations" to establish a baseline level of function and were followed annually until 2002. The prevalence and incidence of low to severe disability, and their association with chronic conditions present at the commencement of the study, was analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association of each chronic condition with two levels of disability. Results An increase in mild functional decline was more prevalent than severe functional decline. The accumulation of mild disability was more prominent in women. The major chronic conditions associated with mild disability were chronic arthritis and diabetes in women, and cerebrovascular accident and malignancy in men. Conclusion This study showed a tendency for mild disability prevalence to increase in Japanese elders, and some risk factors were identified. As mild disability increasingly prevalent, these findings will help determine priorities for its prevention in Japanese elders.

  16. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost

    2014-04-01

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity.

  17. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic root extract of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ottu OJ; Atawodi SE; Onyike E

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the methanolic extract of the root of Cassia singueana in rats following acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Methods: Malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin as indices of liver damage and lipid peroxidation were detected in rats after intraperitoneal administration of extract (5 mg/kg). Results: The liver, kidney and heart showed significant reduction (P<0.05) in the levels of MDA from (0.18±0.04), (0.23±0.07) and (0.26±0.10) nmol/mg respectively in the CCl4 control to (0.15±0.03), (0.17±0.04) and (0.17±0.07) nmol/mg protein in groups pre-treated with the extract for three days at 5 mg/kg). Similarly, compared to the CCl4 control, significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum AST, ALT and bilirubin as well as in level of total cholesterol and MDA with concomitant increase in HDL cholesterol, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels when CCl4-intoxicated rats were treated with Cassia singueana root extract for two weeks. Conclusions:These results suggest that methanolic extract of Cassia singueana contain potent antioxidant compounds that can offer significant protection against hepatic and oxidative injuries.

  18. Exposure to a Mycobacterial Antigen, ESAT-6, Exacerbates Granulomatous and Fibrotic Changes in a Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Model of Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malur, Anagha; Barna, Barbara P; Patel, Janki; McPeek, Matthew; Wingard, Christopher J; Dobbs, Larry; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest additive effects of environmental pollutants and microbial antigens on respiratory disease. We established a granuloma model in which instilled multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) elicit granulomatous pathology. We hypothesized that mycobacterial antigen ESAT-6, a T cell activator associated with tuberculosis and sarcoidosis, might alter pathology. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice received MWCNT with or without ESAT-6 peptide. Controls received vehicle (surfactant-PBS) or ESAT-6 alone. Mice were evaluated 60 days later for granulomas, fibrosis, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell expression of inflammatory mediators (CCL2, MMP-12, and Osteopontin). Results indicated increased granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammatory mediators in mice receiving the combination of MWCNT+ESAT-6 compared to MWCNT or vehicle alone. ESAT-6 alone showed no significant effect on these pathological endpoints. However, CD3 (+) lymphocyte infiltration of lung tissue increased with MWCNT+ESAT-6 versus MWCNT alone. Findings suggest that concurrent exposure to microbial antigen and MWCNT exacerbates chronic pulmonary disease. PMID:27019768

  19. 慢性不可预见性温和应激后大鼠行为及微管相关蛋白tau磷酸化的改变%Behavioral and tau protein alterations in rats following chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灿; 王高华; 王惠玲; 刘忠纯; 朱志先

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究慢性不可预见性温和应激所致的动物行为学改变及微管相关蛋白tau磷酸化的改变.方法 将大鼠随机分为慢性不可预见性温和应激抑郁(CUMS)组和对照组,对模型组大鼠进行连续21d的慢性不可预见性应激.进行行为学观察,使用western blotting检测总tau,tau磷酸化(Ser356,Thr231)水平的改变.结果 CUMS组大鼠慢性应激后糖水偏好及自主活动显著减低,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);CUMS组大鼠慢性应激后海马tau磷酸化表达升高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 慢性应激后微管相关蛋白tau磷酸化水平升高,神经可塑性受损,提示了新的抑郁症和阿尔茨海默病联系的生化机制.%Objective To investigate the behavior and hippocampal microtubule-associated proteins tau alterations.Methods Sixteen rats were divided into two groups,with 8 exposed to 21 consecutive days of chronic unpredicted mild stresses (CUMS) as depression models,and 8 as normal controls.Behavioral changes in these rats were analyzed in sucrose preference and open-field paradigm,and compared to a control group of normal rats.The expressions of hippocampal cytoskeletal microtubule-associated proteins p-tau were analyzed using Western Blot.Results (1)Compared with the normal rats,sucrose preference,total traveling distance,velocity and frequencies of rearing were reduced (P <0.05)in the depressed rats; (2) Compared with the normal rats,the p-tau expression of CUMS group showed a obvious increase (P <0.05) in rats submitted to CUMS,which had statistical significance.Conclusions These findings provide evidence that rats exposed to CUMS showed increased p-tau expression which suggests impairment of structural neuronal plasticity,providing insight into the link between depression and Alzheimer disease.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song-Chow; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Chen, I-Cheng; Wang, Li-Ya

    2002-01-01

    Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s).

  1. Carbon dioxide insufflation or warm-water infusion for unsedated colonoscopy: A randomized controlled trial in patients with chronic constipation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbon dioxide (CO 2 insufflation and warm-water infusion during colonoscopy on patients with chronic constipation remains unknown. We evaluated CO 2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation versus air insufflation in unsedated patients with chronic constipation in China. Patients and Methods: This randomized, single-center, controlled trial enrolled 287 consecutive patients, from January 2014 to January 2015, who underwent colonoscopy for chronic constipation. Patients were randomized to CO 2 insufflation, warm-water irrigation and air insufflation colonoscopy insertion phase groups. Pain scores were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS. The primary outcome was real-time maximum insertion pain, recorded by an unblinded nurse assistant. At discharge, the recalled maximum insertion pain was recorded. Meanwhile, patients were requested to select the VAS at 0, 10, 30, and 60 min after the procedure. In addition, cecal intubation and withdrawal time, total procedure time, and adjunct measures were recorded. Results: A total of 287 patients were randomized. The correlation between real-time and recalled maximum insertion pain ((Pearson coefficient r = 0.929; P < 0.0001 confirmed internal validation of the primary outcome. The mean real-time maximum pain scores during insertion 2.9 ± 2.1 for CO 2 , 2.7 ± 1.9 for water achieved a significantly lower pain score compared with air (5.7 ± 2.5 group (air vs CO 2 P < 0.001; air vs water P < 0.001. However, no significant pain score differences were found between the patients in the CO 2 and water groups (CO 2 vs water, P = 0.0535. P values in painless colonoscopy and only discomfort colonoscopy (pain 1-2 were, respectively, 6 (6.4% and 8 (8.5% for air; 17 (17.7% and 29 (30.2% for CO 2 ; 16 (16.5% and 31 (31.9% for water. At 0, 10, 30, and 60 min postprocedure, pain scores showed in the CO 2 and water groups had significantly reduced than in air group. Insertion time was signi

  2. Effects of exercise on behavior and serum cortisol in depression due to chronic mild stress%不同时程游泳运动对抑郁症模型大鼠行为及血清皮质醇的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何松彬; 王小同; 唐闻捷

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察不同时程游泳运动对抑郁症模型大鼠行为及血清皮质醇的影响.方法 选取48只SD大鼠随机分为3个大组,每个大组各设3个亚组(每个亚组6只大鼠),第一大组观察造模时运动对大鼠的影响(造模伴运动组),包括空白对照组、造模对照组、造模伴运动组;第二大组观察造模后运动对大鼠的影响(造模后运动组),包括空白对照组、造模对照组、造模后运动组;第三大组观察造模前运动对大鼠的影响(造模前运动组),包括空白对照组、造模对照组、造模前运动组(造模后运动组与造模前运动组为同一组).所有造模大鼠均给予21 d慢性轻度不可预见性应激,记录大鼠旷野试验、糖水试验相关数据,用放射免疫法测定血清皮质醇含量.结果 造模可使大鼠出现糖水摄入减少、糖水偏爱度降低,在旷野试验中水平运动能力减弱、垂直运动能力减弱、排粪便数增加.造模伴运动组大鼠上述现象得到抑制,造模前运动组及造模后运动组的大鼠均未能显示抑制现象,造模可使大鼠血皮质醇含量升高,造模伴运动组及造模前运动组能有效降低血清皮质醇含量,其中造模伴运动组尤为明显.结论 不同时程的游泳运动对抑郁症模型大鼠行为学及血清皮质醇具有不同的影响作用;运动可以降低血清皮质醇含量,并且具有一定的累积效应;运动对抑郁症状的改变以即刻作用为主,没有长期累积作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of exercise on behavior and serum cortisol levels in depression caused by chronic,unpredictable,mild stress(CUMS).Methods Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:A,B and C.Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups:a blank control subgroup,a model subgroup,and an intervention subgroup.CUMS such as unpredictable forced swimming in cold water,electric stimulation of the animals'feet and shaking of the

  3. Effects of Chaihu Shugan San on behavior and CRHmRNA expression in the brain of mice with chronic mild unpredicted stress depression%柴胡疏肝散对慢性应激抑郁模型小鼠行为与脑促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春虎; 胡随瑜; 李云辉; 黄熙; 邓颖; 王杨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Chaihu Shugan San(CHSGS) ,a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine,on the behavior and plasma levels of corticosterone level and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( CRH) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus of mice with chronic mild unpredicted stress depression. Methods 40 adult male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal control group,the model control group,the fluoxetine group and CHSGS group. Except the normal control group, mice were exposed to an unpredicted sequence of mild stressor for continuous 21 days to induce depression. Since the 8th day, mice were intragastrically administered with equal volume agents respectively for 14 days (normal saline for the normal control group and the model group,fluoxetine(2. 6 mg · kg-1 ) for fluoxetine group and CHSGS (8.45 g · kg-1) for CHSGS group). Body weight and behaviors were investigated,the plasma levels of CORT in different groups were detected by radioimmunoassay, and the mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus were semiquantified by the RT-PCR method. Results In comparision with the model group, body weight changes ( (13.22 ±3.57)g) and consumption of sucrose solution((1. 90 ±0. 74) ml) of CHSGS groups were significantly increased, and the duration of immobility during the forced swimming ((62.20±13.73)s) and tail suspension((58. 10 ± 11.71 )s) ,the levels of plasma CORT((12.61 ±4.63)ng/L) and the CRHmRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex(0.34 ±0.10) and the hypothalamus(0.70 ±0.09) were significantly decreased. Conclusion CHSGS can reverse the depressive behavior, reduced the levels of plasma CORT and down-regulated CRHmRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus of the depressive mouse caused chronic stress.%目的 研究柴胡疏肝散对慢性应激抑郁模型小鼠行为学和血浆皮质醇水平及额叶皮质、下丘脑促肾上腺皮质激素释放激

  4. 长期温和的能量限制改善C57BL/6小鼠高脂喂养后的脂代谢紊乱%Chronic mild energy restriction improves dyslipidemia in C57BL/6 mice fed with western type diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平; 唐蔚青; 李红霞; 满永; 黎健; 陈保生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨温和的能量限制对小鼠脂代谢的影响.方法 给予3周龄C57BL/6小鼠高脂饮食12周后,按随机数字表法分组,对照组不限制饮食,实验组小鼠喂食对照组小鼠摄食量的85%,喂养12周后,收集小鼠血浆并冻存肝脏.抽提肝脏脂质并用酶法检测脂质含量,油红O染色观察肝脏的脂质沉积;用实时定量聚合酶链反应法检测肝脏脂肪代谢相关基因的表达;并测定LDL、TG分泌速率和小鼠原代肝细胞脂肪酸氧化速率.结果 实验组小鼠与对照组小鼠相比,在限食12周后:(1)体质量:(32.8±1.3)g比(38.9±3.5)g(P=0.007);(2)血浆TG水平:(0.26±0.01) mmol/L比(0.41 ±0.02) mmol/L(P =0.02),肝脏内TG含量:(435.7±26.3)μg/mg蛋白质比(812.4±38.2)μg/mg蛋白质(P=0.001);(3)实时定量聚合酶链反应结果显示,肝脏内长链脂肪酸和胆固醇合成相关基因mRNA表达水平无变化,但脂肪酸氧化基因mRNA表达水平显著增加(P=0.03).肝脏原代细胞内脂肪酸的氧化速度增加了53.1%±7.2%(P=0.01),血浆游离脂肪酸水平:(0.41±0.04)mmol/L比(0.62±0.02) mmol/L(P =0.04);(4)肝脏中胆固醇:(85.2±9.8)μg/mg蛋白质比(169.3±13.5) μg/mg蛋白质(P=0.001),但血浆TC水平无显著改变.结论 长期温和的能量限制可以有效缓解高脂饮食引起的小鼠肝脏的脂肪变性,这与肝脏中游离脂肪酸的氧化速度升高及摄取量降低密切相关;同时降低了小鼠血浆TG的水平,但没有改变血浆TC水平.%Objective To determine the effect of chronic mild energy restriction on dyslipidemia induced by western type diet in C57BI/6 mice. Methods Thirty three-week-old C57BI/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups after being fed with western-type diet for 12 weeks. In control group,the mice were still fed with regular food and water. In the other group,mice were fed 15% less food intake for 12 weeks. The mice were anaesthetized during last day. Livers were harvested and

  5. 音乐治疗对慢性应激大鼠脑内5-羟色胺及微管蛋白的影响%Effects of the music therapy on the serotonin and tubulin in brain tissue of chronic unpredictable mild stress rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涵; 牟晓洁

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨音乐治疗对慢性轻度不可预测性应激(CUMS)大鼠脑内前额叶、海马、下丘脑等脑区5-羟色胺及微管蛋白的水平及可能作用机制.方法 随机将24只SD雄性大鼠分为音乐治疗应激组(n=8)、应激组(n=8)和正常对照组(n=8).采用慢性轻度不可预测性应激(CUMS)模型连续刺激大鼠21 d,音乐治疗应激组在应激的同时给予音乐治疗.实验结束后对每组大鼠进行行为学观察,然后处死大鼠,检测下丘脑、海马和前额叶皮质中5-羟色胺(5-HT)及其代谢产物5-羟吲哚乙酸(5-HIAA)的含量和微管蛋白的表达.结果 旷场试验的中央格停留时间比较,应激组大鼠显著低于对照组(P<0.01),而音乐治疗应激组与对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).与应激组相比,对照组和音乐治疗应激组的海马、前额叶中5-HT及5-HIAA含量均显著升高(P<0.01);但三组下丘脑中5-HT及5-HIAA含量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).与应激组相比,对照组和音乐治疗应激组的海马中乙酰化微管蛋白表达均显著降低(P<0.01),酪氨酸化微管蛋白表达均显著升高(P<0.01);但三组的前额叶和下丘脑中乙酰化微管蛋白、酪氨酸化微管蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 音乐治疗能改善应激所致的前额叶、海马5-羟色胺水平的低下和海马微管蛋白的降低.%Objective To study the effect of the music therapy on the serotonin and tubulin in frontal cortex,hippocampus and hypothalamus of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats,and to explore the neurobiology of the music therapy on stress disorders.Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided equally to music therapy stress group(n=8),stress group(n=8) and normal control group(n=8).Mild chronic unpredictable stress was used for 21 days in a continuous stimulation pattern to establish the CUMS model.The 5-HT,5-HIAA and tubulin levels in the the frontal cortex

  6. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 on hippocampus of rat with chronic unpredictable mild stress%11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶-1在慢性温和应激抑郁大鼠海马组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程世翔; 涂悦; 张赛; 文立; 刘晓智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 ( 11 β-HSD1 )on hippocampus of rat with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS).Methods Twenty-four male SpragueDawley rats were randomly divided into control group and depressive model group. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to make up depressive animal model.Behavioral changes were recorded by body weight measuring,sucrose consumption test (SCT) and open field test (OFT),respectively.The mRNA transcription of 11β-HSD1 in hippocampus tissues of the rats were detected by real-time RT-PCR,and the protein expression of 11β-HSD1 were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence.Results Bcforc starting CUMS protocol,the rats exhibited equivalent weight and sucrose consumption.Twenty-eight days after CUMS protocol,behavior parameters such as body weight,sucrose consumption,nunber of crossing,and number of rearing were significantly decreased in rats exposed to CUMS group compared with control group (P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ).Correspondingly,realtime RT-PCR assays showed the mRNA expression of 11 β-HSD1 in the hippocampus of CUMS group,which was (31 ±9) % lower than that of control group.Meanwhile,the protein expression of it in CUMS group was lower than that of control group (P < 0.05 ).Inmunofluorescence revealed that the number of positive 11 3-HSD1 cells was high (223 ± 13) in the control group,while the number was decreased prominently (92 ± 11 ) in the CUMS group (P < 0.01 ).Conclusion Depressive behavior of rats is induced and the expression of 11 β-HSD1 in the hippocampus is decreased prominently by CUMS,the mechanism of which is at least related to the low expression of 11β-HSD1 and disturbance of glucocorticoid metabolism caused by CUMS.%目的 应用慢性温和不可预知刺激( CUMS)建立抑郁症动物模型,探讨大鼠海马组织中11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶-1(11β-HSD1)蛋白表达以及抑郁症的发病机制.方法 将24只Sprague

  7. Orbitofrontal Cortex 5-HT1A Receptor Modulate Glutamate and GABA in Depression Induced by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress%应激性抑郁样行为发生中眶额叶5-HT1A受体对谷氨酸和γ-氨基丁酸的调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江娜; 安书成; 李珍

    2015-01-01

    Stress response and depression have a crucial impact on modern society. Although the symptoms are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying depression are largely unknown. Currently, the monoaminergic systems, especially serotonergic systems, have received the most attention in the research of depression. Accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic and GABAergic system play an important role in the neurobiology and treatment of this disease. Multiple studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT) could modulate the neurotransmission of glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which is involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression, plays a critical role in the control of higher brain functions and it mainly receives a dense 5-HT innervation from the dorsal raphe nucleus. There exist some 5-HT1A receptors on glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the OFC. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the modulatory action of 5-HT1A receptor on the functions of Glu and GABA, which are the principal neurotransmitters mediating excitatory and inhibitory signals in the OFC respectively, in a well-established animal model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). We used CUMS in rat to mimic the core symptoms in human. Using the pharmacology approaches by microinjecting of 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and its antagonist WAY100635 to the OFC, we detected behavioral changes by using behavior tests including sucrose preference test, open field test and tail suspension test. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect the level of neurotransmitters such as 5-HT, Glu and GABA in the OFC, respectively. CUMS group showed a variety of behavioral characteristics of depression, including a significant reduction in the sucrose preference, and locomotion, rearing and grooming in the open field test, and a significant increase in

  8. Dessaturação noturna: preditores e influência no padrão do sono de pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica com hipoxemia leve em vigília Nocturnal desaturation: predictors and the effect on sleep patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and concomitant mild daytime hypoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Claudia Zanchet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o padrão da oximetria noturna em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica sem apnéia do sono e com hipoxemia leve em vigília, identificar prováveis parâmetros diurnos capazes de predizer a dessaturação noturna e verificar sua influência no padrão de sono. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 25 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos: com e sem dessaturação noturna. RESULTADOS: Comparando-se o primeiro grupo (52% com o segundo observou-se: idade, 63 ± 5 versus 63 ± 6 anos; volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, 53 ± 31% versus 56 ± 19% do previsto; relação entre volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e capacidade vital forçada, 49 ± 14% versus 52 ± 10%; pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial, 68 ± 8mmHg versus 72 ± 68mmHg; saturação arterial de oxigênio, 93 ± 2% versus 94 ± 1%. O grupo com dessaturação noturna apresentou menores valores de saturação arterial de oxigênio diurna e saturação periférica de oxigênio noturna. Não houve diferença no padrão de sono entre os grupos. Houve correlação da relação entre o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e a capacidade vital forçada, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial e saturação arterial de oxigênio diurnas, e saturação periférica de oxigênio no exercício com os níveis de saturação periférica de oxigênio noturna, porém somente a saturação arterial de oxigênio diurna foi preditora da dessaturação noturna. CONCLUSÃO: A única variável capaz de predizer dessaturação noturna foi a saturação arterial de oxigênio diurna. A dessaturação noturna não influencia o padrão de sono de portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica com hipoxemia diurna leve.OBJECTIVE: To determine the nocturnal oximetry pattern in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients having no sleep apnea and presenting mild daytime hypoxemia, to identify probable daytime parameters capable of

  9. Role of Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Its Modulation to NMDA Receptor and AMPA Receptor in Depression Induced by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress%应激性抑郁样行为发生中海马5-羟色胺1A受体的作用及其对NMDA受体和AMPA受体的调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    问黎敏; 安书成; 刘慧

    2012-01-01

    为探讨慢性不可预见性温和应激(chronic unpredictable mild stress,CUMS)诱发抑郁样行为发生中海马5-羟色胺1A受体(5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A,5-HT1AR)表达与作用,及其对谷氨酸N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸(N-methyl-D-aspartic acid,NMDA)受体和α-氨基羟甲基异恶唑丙酸(α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid,AMPA)受体的影响.通过建立CUMS动物模型,给应激抑郁模型大鼠海马微量注射5-HT1A受体激动剂、给正常大鼠海马微量注射5-HT1A受体拮抗剂,测量大鼠体重变化率,并采用糖水偏爱测试、旷场实验和悬尾实验等方法对大鼠进行行为学检测,运用Western blot和ELISA方法检测大鼠海马组织中5-HT1AR和NMDAR和AMPAR的关键亚基的表达以及磷酸化水平.结果显示,与对照组相比,CUMS组大鼠表现出抑郁样行为,海马5-HT1AR、AMPA受体的GluR2/3亚基表达及磷酸化明显降低,NMDA受体的NR1和NR2B亚基表达及磷酸化显著增加;正常大鼠海马微量注射5-HT1A受体拮抗剂WAY100635,动物行为学表现及AMPA受体、NMDA受体表达及磷酸化水平均与CUMS组相同;注射5-HT1A受体激动剂8-OH-DPAT能逆转应激诱导的上述改变.以上结果表明,CUMS诱发抑郁榉行为与海马5-HT1AR表达下降,AMPAR表达量及磷酸化水平降低,NMDAR表达量及磷酸化水平升高有关.5-HT通过5-HT1AR产生抗抑郁作用.5-HT1AR激动剂抗抑郁作用与降低NMDAR表达量及磷酸化水平,提高AMPAR表达量及磷酸化水平密切相关.%Stressors markedly influence central neurochemical and hormonal processes and thus play a pivotal role in the occurrence of depressive illnesses. As the center for stress response and the potential target for stressfulprovocation, the hippocampus is becoming a focus in depression research. Although a large number of behavioral paradigms have been proposed as animal models of depression, only a few are considered potentially useful research tools with

  10. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  11. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P.; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma.

  12. A diagnostic approach to mild bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, J; Kruip, M J H A; Leebeek, F W G

    2016-08-01

    Mild inherited bleeding disorders are relatively common in the general population. Despite recent advances in diagnostic approaches, mild inherited bleeding disorders still pose a significant diagnostic challenge. Hemorrhagic diathesis can be caused by disorders in primary hemostasis (von Willebrand disease, inherited platelet function disorders), secondary hemostasis (hemophilia A and B, other (rare) coagulant factor deficiencies) and fibrinolysis, and in connective tissue or vascular formation. This review summarizes the currently available diagnostic methods for mild bleeding disorders and their pitfalls, from structured patient history to highly specialized laboratory diagnosis. A comprehensive framework for a diagnostic approach to mild inherited bleeding disorders is proposed. PMID:27208505

  13. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2, the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

  14. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  15. Effects of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress with Different Time Courses on Neuroplasticity-related Proteins Expression in Rat Hippocampus%不同时程的慢性不可预计温和应激对大鼠海马神经可塑性相关蛋白水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玲; 舒畅; 唐记华; 王晓萍; 王高华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of different time courses of chronic unpredictable mild stress on neu-roplasticity-related proteins expression in the adult rat hippocampus. Methods:Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups with 6 rats in each group:the control group, rats without stress;M1 group in which rats were subjected to CUMS for 1 week; M2 group, in which rats were subjected to CUMS for 2 weeks; and M3 group in which rats were subjected to CUMS for 3 weeks. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BD-NF), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein in the hippocampus were detected using Weston blot. Results:when compared to the expression of BDNF, CREB, and Bcl-2 proteins in the controlled group, those in the M1 and M3 groups were significantly decreased ( <0.05), and there was no different changes in those protein in the M2 group. The amounts of BDNF, CREB, and Bcl-2 protein showed no significant difference between the M1 group and M3 group. Conclusion:Different time courses of CUMS might affect the expression of proteins implicated in neuroplasticity, providing insight into the role of neuroplasticity-related proteins in the depression.%目的:探讨不同时程的慢性不可预计温和应激对大鼠海马区神经可塑性相关蛋白水平的影响。方法:24只大鼠随机分为4组,各6只:正常对照组、应激1周组、应激2周组、应激3周组,分别给予应激0、1、2、 3周。采用Western blot 方法检测海马脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)、cAMP 反应元件结合蛋白(CREB)、B 淋巴细胞瘤-2(Bcl-2)的蛋白水平。结果:与正常对照组对比,应激1周组、应激3周组的BDNF、CREB、 Bcl-2的蛋白水平较低(<0.05),应激2周组无明显差异;应激1周组和应激3周组之间的BDNF、CREB、 Bcl-2蛋白水平无明显差异。结论:海马区的神经可塑性相关蛋白BDNF、CREB、Bcl-2的水平变化可能

  16. 米邦塔仙人掌果胶对慢性不可预知温和应激小鼠绝望症状的改善作用%Study on the improvement of milpa alta cactus pectin on desperate symptoms in mice exposed to chronic unpreditc able mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖同楚; 黄朝明; 杨兴娥; 湛进进; 郭莲军

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究米邦塔仙人掌果胶( MCP)对慢性不可预知温和应激( CUMS)小鼠绝望症状的改善作用。方法雄性昆明种小鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、MCP低剂量组(50 mg/kg)、MCP中剂量组(100 mg/kg)、MCP高剂量组(200 mg/kg)。除空白对照组不进行任何应激处理外,其余组均进行CUMS,各MCP组均在进行CUMS期间每天灌胃相应剂量MCP。造模结束24 h后进行悬尾实验,48 h后进行强迫游泳实验。结果模型组悬尾实验潜伏期显著短于空白对照组(P<0.01),累计不动时间显著长于空白对照组(P<0.01);MCP高剂量组潜伏期显著长于模型组(P<0.05),MCP中、高剂量组累计不动时间显著短于模型组(P均<0.01)。模型组强迫游泳实验潜伏期显著短于空白对照组(P<0.01),累计不动时间显著长于空白对照组(P<0.01);MCP各给药组潜伏期与空白对照组比较差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05),而MCP高剂量组累计不动时间显著短于模型组(P<0.05)。结论 MCP能较好地缓解CMS小鼠的行为绝望症状。%Objetc ive It is to investigate the effect of milpa alta cactus pectin ( MCP) on desperate symptoms in mice ex-posed to chronic unpredictable mild stress ( CUMS) .Methods The male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups such as control group, CUMS+Vehicle group, CUMS+MCP 50 mg/kg group, CUMS+MCP 100 mg/kg group, and CUMS+MCP 200 mg/kg group.Except the control group, the other groups were exposed to CUMS for 6 weeks.And during this peri-od, the animals were treated with corresponding drug by intragastric administration.While the ends of the model, the tail sus-pension test ( TST) was carried out after 24 hours, and the forced swimming test ( FST) were conducted after 48 hours.Re-sults In TST, the latency of the CUMS+Vehicle group was significantly shorter (P0.05), and the immobility time of the

  17. 人参皂苷对慢性应激抑郁模型大鼠行为学及HPA轴、BDNF的影响%Effects of ginsenosides on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽琴; 罗艳; 张瑞睿; 郭建友

    2011-01-01

    Gingseng is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine community for the treatment of depression-like dis, orders. Ginsenosides is considered to be the major active components of ginseng. Previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenosides produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. The present study aimed to examine whether ginsenosides could affect the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression in rats. The mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like action was investigated by measuring serum corticesterone level, glucocorticoid receptor ( GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA levels in brain tissues. CUMS, being lasted for 6 weeks, caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Whereas serum corticosterone level was significantly increased in rats exposed to CUMS, expressions of GR mRNA in hippocampus, and BDNF mRNA in hippocampus and frontal cortex, were decreased in CUMS-treated rats. Daily intragastric administration of ginsenosides (12. 5, 25, 50 mg · kg-1) during the six weeks of CUMS significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes induced by CUMS. However, there was no significant difference in MR mRNA level among groups. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like action of ginsenosides is likely mediated by modulating the function of hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal axis and increasing the expression of BDNF in brain tissues.%目的:探讨人参皂苷对慢性应激所致大鼠抑郁模型的干预作用.方法:通过测定大鼠血清中皮质酮(COR)、糖皮质激素受体(GR)、盐皮质激素受体(MR)和脑组织中神经营养(BDNF)的mRNA表达水平,探讨人参皂苷的抗抑郁机制.结果:与正常组大鼠比较,经过慢性应激6周后大鼠糖水偏好显著下降,强迫游泳测试不动时间

  18. 不同强度有氧训练对轻中度慢性阻塞性肺疾病的作用%Effect of aerobic exercises in different intensities on patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜文君; 鲍军; 王磊; 张洪斌; 陆甘; 丁明; 刘剑南

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of high-intensity and low-intensity aerobic exercises on pulmonary ventilation function and exercise endurance of patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: Sixty patients with COPD were divided into high-intensity (with 70% peak power) aerobic exercise group (n=20) , low-intensity (with 50% peak power) aerobic exercise group (n=20) and control group (n=20). All patients administered cardiopulmonary exercise test(CPET) before and after training period, aerobic exercise duration was 8 weeks, 3 times every week. High intensity group did exercise for 40min per time with 4 sections,and each section lasted 5min with 5min interval,while low-intensity group administered 20min continuously exercise every time.Result:There was no significant difference(P>0.05) in all variables in three groups before training. After training, compared with before training the differences of exercise endurance duration, peak power and peak VO2 among three groups were significantly different (P0.05),but significant difference between high-intensity group and other groups(P<0.05). Anaerobic threshold (AT) of high-intensity group increased more than that of control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Comparing with lower-intensity aerobic exercise, high-intensity interval aerobic exercise can significant-ly improve the pulmonary ventilation function and exercise endurance in patients with mild to moderate COPD.%目的:比较不同强度有氧训练对轻中度稳定期慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者肺的通气功能和运动耐力的影响.方法:将60例轻中度稳定期COPD患者随机分为高强度(峰值功率的70%)有氧训练组20例、低强度(峰值功率的50%)有氧训练组20例、对照组20例,所有患者训练前后均进行心肺运动试验(CPET)评估,高强度与低强度有氧训练组均进行8周训练,每周3次,高强度训练组每次训练4组,每组以5min训练、5min休息

  19. 高半胱氨酸对慢性应激性抑郁大鼠海马谷氨酸及其受体的调节%Modulation of hippocampal glutamate and NMDA/AMPA receptor by homocysteine in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced rat depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 问黎敏; 乔卉; 安书成

    2013-01-01

    The study was to investigate the role of homocysteine (Hey) which was released by hippocampal glial cells and its relationship with NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor in depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and explore the mechanism of changes of Glu/Glu receptor in glial cells and neurons. CUMS-induced depression model was established. The body weight of rats was weighed on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st days during the experiment. The behavioral performances were observed by means of sucrose consumption test, open field test and tail suspension test. Intrahippocampal microinjection of Hcy, NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX was performed under stereotaxic guide cannula. The concentration of Glu and the expression of its receptors' subunits were detected respectively by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Western blot. The Hey content and the levels of phosphorylation of NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor in hippocampus were separately determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CUMS significantly induced the depression-like behaviors in rats, and the content of Glu and Hcy, the expression of NMDA receptors' subunits NR1/NR2B and the level of phosphorylation of NMDA receptor (p-NMDAR) in hippocampus increased significantly, while the expression of AMPA receptors' subunits GluR2/3 and the level of phosphorylation of AMPA receptor (p-AMPAR) decreased significantly. Microinjection of Hcy into hippocampus resulted in similar animal depression-like behaviors and increased Glu content compared to the CON/SAL group, the expression of NRl/NR2B/GluR2/3 and the level of p-NMDAR increased significantly, but the level of p-AMPAR reduced observably. Intrahippocampal injections of MK-801 effectively improved the depression-like behaviors induced by CUMS and Hcy, and attenuated the elevation of Glu content induced by Hcy in hippocampus, whereas NBQX could not improve the

  20. Ballistic Perforation of Surface Hardened Mild Steel Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsen, Henrik; Orthe, Erlend

    2014-01-01

    The main objective with this thesis was to investigate experimentally and numerically the effect surface hardening has on the ballistic properties of monolithic and laminated mild steel plates. 300x300 mm^2 plates of thicknesses 12 mm, 6 mm, and 4 mm were made from a low carbon structural steel (NVE36) and combined in such a way that the total thickness always was 12 mm. Some of the plates were then surface hardened by the Kverneland Group to obtain different hardness profiles; (1) as-receive...

  1. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.

    La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.

  2. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  3. 高脂血症叠加慢性不可预见性应激模型大鼠open-field行为学特征分析%Open-field behavioral study in rat hyperlipidemia combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华; 张迎春; 许烨勍; 刘春风; 王立伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate behavioral changes in a rat hyperlipidemia model induced by high lipid feed combined with depression by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS).Methods A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into control (CON),control feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (CON + CUMS),high fat diet (HFD) and high lipid feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (HFD + CUMS) (n =10 each).Open-field test was individually measured at baseline,week 9 and week 13.Results (1) Serum lipids:total cholesterol [(2.67 ± 0.04) mmol/L,(2.68 ± 0.02) mmol/L] and low density lipoprotein [(1.08 ± 0.03) mmol/L,(1.06 ± 0.01) mmol/L] of HFD and HFD + CUMS were both significantly higher than those of CON and CON + CUMS [(1.78 ± 0.12) mmol/L,(0.79 ± 0.04) mmol/L;(1.76 ±0.09)mmol/L,(0.76 ±0.06)mmol/L,all P <0.01].(2) Open-field test:at week 13,compared to CON rats,CON + CUMS rats exhibited enhanced locomotor activity during the first minute,reduced activity in the center squares and rearing,and increased the number of grooming and defecation (all P < 0.05).In comparison to the CON rats,a decrease in total squares in 5 min,central squares and peripheral squares was observed in HFD rats at week 13 (all P < 0.05).However,compared with HFD,CON,CON + CUMS rats,when high lipid feed for 9 weeks combined with depression,significant decrease activities in total squares in 5 min,central squares and peripheral squares were observed in HFD + CUMS rats at week 13.Besides these,the number of rearing was reduced,however,locomotor activity during the first minute and the number of grooming and defecation was significantly increased (all P < 0.001).Conclusion Under uncontrolled hyperlipidemia,severe depressive symptoms will present more early once exposure to a series of chronic stressors followed by significant autonomic nervous dysfunctional symptoms.%目的 观察高脂血症叠加抑郁症大鼠open-field行为学特征.方法 40只SD大鼠按随机数字表法

  4. Self-rated health in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: baseline data from the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nielsen, Anni B S; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    , but the validity and the influence on other factors on SRH among cognitively impaired persons remain unknown. This study reports how patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) report SRH and which factors influence SRH. The study was based on baseline data from 321 home living patients with mild AD who...... participated in the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY). Analysis using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models revealed that good/excellent SRH among patients with mild AD were associated with longer education, lack of other chronic conditions, higher scores of quality of life (QOL), lower...

  5. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy

  6. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil [School of Applied Physic, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Magni, Chiara; Bonti, Viola; Diciotti, Stefano; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema) and severity (mild and severe diseases) were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide %) and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively). IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed significantly in predominant emphysema, and ischemic heart disease and PVD prevailed in mild COPD. All cardiovascular comorbidities prevailed significantly in predominant airway phenotype of COPD and mild COPD severity. Conclusion Specific comorbidities prevail in different phenotypes of COPD; this fact may be relevant to identify patients at risk for specific, phenotype-related comorbidities. The highest prevalence of comorbidities in patients with mild disease indicates that these patients should be investigated for coexisting diseases or syndromes even in the less severe, pauci-symptomatic stages of COPD. The simple method employed to phenotype and

  9. [Mild brain injuries in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Niskakangas, Tero; Ohman, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostics and correct classification of mild brain injuries is challenging. Problems caused by insufficient documentation at the acute phase become more obvious in situations in which legal insurance issues are to be considered. A small proportion of patients with mild brain injury suffer from prolonged symptoms. Medical recording and classification of the brain injury at the initial phase should therefore be carried out in a structured manner. The review deals with the diagnostic problems of mild brain injuries and presents a treatment protocol for adult patients at the acute phase, aiming at avoiding prolonged problems. PMID:22238915

  10. [Mild brain injuries in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Niskakangas, Tero; Ohman, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostics and correct classification of mild brain injuries is challenging. Problems caused by insufficient documentation at the acute phase become more obvious in situations in which legal insurance issues are to be considered. A small proportion of patients with mild brain injury suffer from prolonged symptoms. Medical recording and classification of the brain injury at the initial phase should therefore be carried out in a structured manner. The review deals with the diagnostic problems of mild brain injuries and presents a treatment protocol for adult patients at the acute phase, aiming at avoiding prolonged problems.

  11. Mild Viral Gastroenteritis and Afebrile Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded in six patients (2 male, 4 female; ages 14 mo to 38 mo) with afebrile convulsions and mild gastroenteritis (CwG), in a study at Nagoya, Japan. None had febrile convulsions.

  12. ADHD Symptoms Associated with Mild Cognitive Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between ADHD symptoms and mild intellectual disability (ID was investigated and compared to subjects with average ability, in a study at King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, UK.

  13. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Arandelovic; Ivana Stankovic; Maja Nikolic

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45) and control group B (n = 20). Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group ...

  14. efficacy and safety of a willow bark extract (salicin) and St John`s wort extract (hypericum): Two observational studies in patients with chronic back pain and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Zielisch, Heide

    2010-01-01

    Phytotherapy (Herbal medicine) for chronic back pain: Efficacy and Safety of a willow bark extract (salicin) and St. John`s wort extract (hypericum): Two observational studies in patients with chronic back pain and mild to moderate depression

  15. N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed synthesis of dimethyl carbonate via transesterification of ethylene carbonate with methanol

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Fen Du; Hao Guo; Ying Wang; Wen-Juan Li; Wei-Jie Shi; Bin Dai

    2015-01-01

    An organocatalytic protocol for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate has been developed. Under the catalysis of 5 mol% N-heterocyclic carbenes, ethylene carbonate undergoes transesterification reaction with methanol under very mild reaction conditions, producing dimethyl carbonate with high efficiency. Furthermore, this N-heterocyclic carbene promoted transesterification can be scaled-up easily without lose of the conversion of dimethyl carbonate.

  16. Left Atrial Volume as Predictor of Valve Replacement and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Asymptomatic Mild to Moderate Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Egstrup, Kenneth; Wachtell, Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) size is known to increase with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. We hypothesized that LA volume was predictive of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiovascular events in a large cohort of patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic valve ste...

  17. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P; Naismith, Laura M; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = -.43 to -.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  18. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Chaput

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1 and 8 weeks (Time 2 after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r=.31 to .44, number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r=.35 to .45, psychological distress (r=.57 to .67, and level of functionality (r=-.43 to -.29. Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms.

  19. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  20. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

  1. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, N; Veerarajkumar, N; Madeswaran, K

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old child presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) following a trivial head injury. CT was normal. MRI revealed a pontine lesion. Two months after the injury the patient was neurologically normal. INO following head injury is rare. Rarer still is INO following mild head injury. To date, only four cases of INO had been reported following mild head injury; the present case is the fifth and the first in which the lesion was documented using MRI. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11417420

  2. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. PMID:26542830

  3. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  4. Surgical strategy for mild ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cheng-xiong; WEI Hua; YU Yang

    2010-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: We read with the interest the article by FAN Hong-guang and colleagues~1 having obtained outstanding early and long-term clinical outcomes of left ventricular restoration for the patients with postinfarction ventricular aneurysm and low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of mean 37.7%. We would like to comment on surgical strategy for mild ischemic mitral insufficiency.

  5. Mild hyperthermia influence on Herceptin (R) properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escoffre, JM; Deckers, RHR; Sasaki, Noboru; Bos, Clemens; Moonen, Chrit

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mild hyperthermia (mHT) increases the tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, and reduces the interstitial fluid pressure, resulting in better intra-tumoral bioavailability of low molecular weight drugs. This approach is potentially also attractive for delivery of therapeutic macromol

  6. Effect of mild diarrhea on tacrolimus exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, G.A.J van; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Heijden, J.J. van der; Hoogtanders, K.E.; Hilbrands, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event in patients treated with the combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). In case of severe diarrhea, the total exposure to tacrolimus can substantially increase, which is reflected in a rise of the predose trough level (C0). In mild dia

  7. Three sibs with mild variety of osteopetrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available We report three sibs with mild autosomal recessive variety of osteopetrosis. The prominent clinical features were short stature, malocclusion of teeth, hepatosplenomegaly and a typical facial appearance. The only atypical features were microcephaly, a normal upper segment to lower segment ratio and a normal arm span.

  8. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Facilitating School Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hux, Karen; Hacksley, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    A case study is used to demonstrate the effects of mild traumatic brain injury on educational efforts. Discussion covers factors complicating school reintegration, ways to facilitate school reintegration, identification of cognitive and behavioral consequences, minimization of educators' discomfort, reintegration program design, and family…

  9. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women diagn

  10. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron AM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimee M Caron, Richard Stephenson Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs (and concussion occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons, and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%. Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%, and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%. Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. Keywords: sleep deprivation, concussion, traumatic brain injury, dark neuron, neurodegeneration, rat cortex

  11. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respira...

  12. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  13. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  14. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; SUZUKI, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wr...

  15. 慢性间断性缺氧伴二氧化碳潴留小鼠模型的建立%A Mice Mode of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia with Carbon Dioxide Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海林; 张子彦; 郭云云; 李景春; 宋永斌; 徐江涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立慢性间断性缺氧伴二氧化碳潴留(chronic intermittent hypoxia with carbon dioxide retention,CIH-CR)小鼠模型.方法 选取雄性昆明小鼠22只,随机分为常氧组(normal control group,NC)和CIH-CR组,每组11只.CIH-CR组小鼠每天CIH-CR处理8h,共4周,实验期间监测箱内O2和CO2浓度及小鼠尾部末端血氧饱和度( SO2).实验终点测定右室肥厚指数并观察心、肺、肾、脑组织病理改变.结果 CIH-CR组箱内O2浓度、CO2浓度和小鼠尾部末端SO2随实验仓的关闭和开启出现周期性的变化;与NC组相比CIH-CR组右心室明显肥大(P<0.01);小鼠心、肺、肾和脑组织均出现明显缺氧改变.结论 成功建立了CIH-CR小鼠模型.%Objective To establish a chronic intermittent hypoxia with carbon dioxide retention (CIH-CR)model in mice. Methods 22 male Kun Ming mice were divided into the normal control (NC) group and CIH-CR group. The mice of CIH-CR group suffered 8 hours intermittent hypoxia everyday for 4 weeks. The concentration of O2 and CO2 in the cabin was detected by oxygen analyzer and Carbon dioxide detector, meanwhile, the blood oxygen saturation were detected by blood oximeter. At the end of the experiment, weight of right and left ventricles was measured. The general pathological changes of myocardium, pulmonary, kidney and brain were observed by HE staining. Result The concentration of O2 and CO2 in the cabin and the SO2in the empennage of mouse accord with the cyclical change process. Compared with the NC group, the right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in the CIH-CR groups ( P < 0. 01 ). The tissue of myocardium, pulmonary, kidney and brain were showen obvious hypoxic change in CIH-CR group. Conclusion A CIH-CR animal model were be established successfully.

  16. Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Alejandra Paola; Bergesio, Maria Virginia; Tancredi, Nestor; Magnoli, Carina E; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins that often co-occur in feedstuffs. The ingestion of AFB1 causes aflatoxicosis in humans and animals. Sodium bentonite (NaB), a cheap non-nutritive unselective sequestering agent incorporated in animal diets, can effectively prevent aflatoxicosis. Fumonisins are responsible for equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary oedema, and often have subclinical toxic effects in poultries. Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 are both strongly adsorbed in vitro on sodium bentonite. Co-adsorption studies, carried out with a weight ratio of FB1 to AFB1 that mimics the natural occurrence (200:1), showed that FB1 greatly decreases the in vitro ability of NaB to adsorb AFB1. The ability of two activated carbons to adsorb FB1 was also investigated. Both carbons showed high affinity for FB1. A complex behaviour of the FB1 adsorption isotherms with pH was observed. In vitro results suggest that under natural contamination levels of AFB1 and FB1, a mixture of activated carbon and sodium bentonite might be potentially useful for prevention of sub-acute aflatoxicosis. PMID:27159550

  17. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONTAINING ANTI-CORROSION FILMS ON MILD STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuan Feng

    2010-01-01

    Under normal conditions, cathodically protected mild steel in seawater is protected by a precipitated film of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide, the so-called calcareous film. This study has attempted to investigate the dynamics of calcareous deposit formation during cathodic protection and the composition of calcareous deposits formed under different applied current densities, and also the role played by the initial current density in forming a good quality calcareous deposit. In add...

  18. Efficient fixation of CO2 at mild conditions by a Cr-conjugated microporous polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Xie; Rui-Xia; Yang; Nian-Yu; Huang; Hua-Jun; Luo; Wei-Qiao; Deng

    2014-01-01

    We reported a bifunctional material, Cr-salen implanted conjugated microporous polymer(Cr-CMP), which is able to capture excellent CO2amounts and has a remarkable catalytic activity towards the cycloaddition reaction of CO2to epoxides forming cyclic carbonates at mild conditions without additional solvents. This heterogeneous Cr-CMP catalyst has a superior catalytic activity to its related homogeneous catalyst and can be reused more than ten times without a significant decrease in catalytic activity.

  19. An Extended Mild-Slope Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Junning; HONG Guangwen; ZUO Qihua

    2000-01-01

    On the assumption that the vortex and the vertical velocity component of the current are small, a mild-slope equation for wave propagation on non-uniform flows is deduced from the basic hydrodynamic equations, with the terms of ( h h)2 and /2h h included in the equation. The terms of bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are also introduced into the equation. The wind energy input functions for wind waves and swells are separately considered by adopting Wen′s (1989) empirical formula for wind waves and Snyder′s observation results for swells. Thus, an extended mild-slope equation is obtained, in which the effects of refraction, diffraction, reflection, current, bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are considered synthetically.

  20. Early supported discharge following mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Stina; Carstensen, Kathrine; Møldrup, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early supported discharge (ESD) allows mild-to-moderate stroke patients to return home as soon as possible and continue rehabilitation at their own pace in familiar surroundings. Thus, the main responsibility for continued rehabilitation is in the hands of patients and their partners......, who must collaborate to adjust to poststroke everyday life. However, couples' joint experiences of stroke, early discharge and rehabilitation at home remain minimally investigated. AIM: To investigate how mild stroke patients' and their partners' experience and manage everyday life in a context of ESD....... METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 22 ESD patients and 18 partners. Interviews were conducted 3-6 weeks after stroke, and we used thematic analysis to analyse the data. FINDINGS: The analysis identified three themes. First, 'Home as a healing place' involved...

  1. A mild form of Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  2. [Nonsurgical management of mild primary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism(PHPT)is one of the common endocrine disorders, which results clinically in nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, cardiac and psychiatric abnormalities even in a mild or asymptomatic disease. Parathyroidectomy(PTX)is the only definitive treatment for PHPT, however, some patients with sporadic PHPT refuse surgery, are medically unfit, or have residual or recurrent disease inaccessible to further surgery. These patients may require intervention for management of symptomatic or moderate to severe hypercalcemia, bone loss or kidney calculi. PMID:27230840

  3. Caffeine restriction: effect on mild hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, T. M.; Sharpe, K; Fowler, G; Lyons, D; FREESTONE, S.; Lovell, H. G.; Webster, J.; Petrie, J C

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effects on blood pressure of modifying dietary caffeine intake in patients with mild and borderline hypertension by monitoring ambulatory and clinic blood pressure. DESIGN--Four way, randomised, crossover trial of four consecutive two week dietary regimens: normal diet, caffeine free diet alone, caffeine free diet with decaffeinated instant coffee, caffeine free diet with caffeinated instant coffee (instant coffee phases conducted double blind). SETTING--Hospital h...

  4. Strange taste and mild lithium intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Terao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shosuke; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Hoaki, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    So far, it has not been emphasised that lithium can lose or change taste in some patients. This report addresses such side effect of lithium. A 61-year-old bipolar patient experienced taste changes while increasing lithium levels up to 1.28 mEq/l and the taste changes returned to normal after lithium discontinuation. The present findings suggest that changes in tastes may be a symptom of mild lithium intoxication.

  5. Home blood pressure monitoring for mild hypertensives.

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, L T; Resnick, B; Hurley, L B; Smith, E J; Mccarthy, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinical trial of 204 untreated patients with mild hypertension was conducted to assess the effect of home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure level, pharmacologic treatment, reduction of risk factors, and use of health services. After 1 year, no statistically significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups. The findings indicate that, while home blood pressure monitoring may be useful, it has no measurable short-term impact on these aspects of blood pres...

  6. Chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-described 10% risk of chronic pain affecting daily activities after adult groin hernia repair, chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair has never been investigated. Studies of other childhood surgery before the age of 3 months suggest a risk of increased...... pain responsiveness later in life, but its potential relationship to chronic pain in adult life is unknown. METHODS: This was a nationwide detailed questionnaire study of chronic groin pain in adults having surgery for a groin hernia repair before the age of 5 years (n = 1075). RESULTS: The response...... the age of 3 months (n = 122) did not report groin pain more often or with higher intensity than other patients did. CONCLUSIONS: Groin pain in adult patients operated on for a groin hernia in childhood is uncommon and usually mild and occurs in relation to physical activity. Operation before the age...

  7. Mild obstructive sleep apnea: beyond the AHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Iannotti J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A common conundrum faced by sleep medicine practitioners is how to manage the large group of patients with mild sleep apnea. Many patients are referred for sleep evaluation, with symptoms thought to be due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Often polysomnography demonstrates only mild sleep apnea, and the clinician and patient are faced with the dilemma of whether to use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy or an oral appliance. In making this important decision the clinician incorporates the commonly used definition of mild sleep apnea as an apnea-hypopnea index of between 5 and 14 apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep. Moderate sleep apnea is defined as 15-29 events per hour, and severe is 30 and above events per hour. These arbitrary thresholds originated in the early 1980s when knowledge of this condition was in its infancy and little was known about the long term health effects. The definition ...

  8. Histological study of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tochigi, Naobumi; Ishiwatari, Takao; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Shinozaki, Minoru; Aki, Kyoko; GOCHO, KYOKO; Hata, Yoshinobu; Murayama, Somay Y.; Wakayama, Megumi; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Hori, Yasuhiro; SHIBUYA, KAZUTOSHI

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has been accepted the criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Whereas, either pathophysiology or signs of CPA remains still controversial. Methods In this study, we histopathologically investigated 25 specimens of CPA, surgically resected. Results 21 (84 %) of that comprised male. There were 21 cases with mild impairment of the immune system and/or a scar mostly due to old tuberculosis. There is a tendency for a negative ...

  9. Anxiety and depression in patients suffering from chronic low backache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low backache and to document other co-morbidities among these patients presenting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from July 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 170 chronic low backache patients were administered urdu translated Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scales. Scoring was done on Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time) with overall assessment by cumulative score ranging from 20 to 80, where 20-44 was normal range, 45-59 mildly depressed/anxious, 60-69 moderately depressed / anxious and 70 and above severely depressed / anxious. Results: Out of 170 patients, 157 patients above 18 years of age with male to female ratio 2:3 completed the study. Among study sample 72.2% had mild depression, 21.6% had mild anxiety, 32% had mixed mild anxiety and depression, 0.8% had severe depression, 1.6% had severe anxiety while 2.4% suffered from severe mixed symptoms. Overall, 125 (79.6%) patients were suffering from mild to severe form of depression and anxiety both alone or mixed. Obesity was present in 34 (21.66%) of patients with chronic backache and out of these 29 (85.3%) had psychological co-morbidity. Conclusion: Two thirds of the chronic backache patients reporting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital were suffering from mild to severe degree of depression and anxiety. This worrying situation calls for thorough systematic evaluation of all chronic backache patient arriving at rheumatology clinic for mood disorders and psychological ailment. (author)

  10. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  11. Prolactinoma presenting as chronic anaemia with osteoporosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley John P; MacLean Fergus R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Unexplained anaemia is a rare mode of presentation for prolactinoma. We describe a case of a man, with chronic anaemia ascribed to old age. Six years later, he was evaluated and diagnosed with a prolactinoma and resultant osteoporosis. Prolactinoma in old people may present insidiously with chronic anaemia and osteoporosis with or without sexual dysfunction. Case presentation We describe the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who presented with mild anaemia and tirednes...

  12. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  14. [The two components of carbon monoxide global exchange: CO intake and ductance. Relations with hematosis in invalidating chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy (COBP) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breant, J; Fleury, M F

    1980-01-01

    In lasting rest, V'COs (or CO intake standardized for FICO = 0.0001) measures for this gas the activity of the exchange and its yield by DuCO. When V'COs (ml) is expressed for one litre of CO2 reject measured simultaneously, that is for a given metabolic activity, a constant standard is obtained in a healthy non smoking subject independent of its age and of ventilatory or morphometric data. Its lower limit (-2 standard deviations) is 12. V'COs/v'co2 and DuCO express 2 complementary data of the global CO exchange: the specific capacity of CO exchange (relatively to the exchange of the respiratory gas) and its quality. They are linked by ERCO2 indicating the degree of ventilatory compensation. In 65 cases of invalidating chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy (COBP), the proposed test and the classic CO criteria were measured. A sample was taken simultaneously for arterial gasometry. Among all criteria of CO exchange, V'COs/V'CO2 appears as the most closely related to blood gases. The relationships of PaCO2 with the elements of the CO global exchange reflect and explain in the exchanges the clinical diversities of COBP. PMID:6770356

  15. Mild cognitive impairment is becoming more psychosocial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Frans; de Vugt, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have underlined the need for more studies of early psychosocial interventions for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia (Moniz-Cook, Vernooij-Dassen, Woods, & Orrell, 2011 ). In the last 10 years, MCI has become more 'psychosocial' and a starting point for professionals to help patients and their nearest ones to deal with their handicaps, to cope with a future that is insecure and gloomy, and to get prepared for the possibility of further decline and dependency. It is timely that Aging & Mental Health is devoting this paper, a special section in this issue with contributions dealing with psychological and social aspects of MCI. PMID:23402425

  16. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS......MCI), nonmemory domains (naMCI), and multiple domains (mdMCI). Linear regression models were used to assess the association between MCI status and mobility performance in the Habitual Gait Speed, Figure of 8 Walk, Short Physical Performance Battery, and self-reported Late Life Function and Disability Instrument...

  17. Eddy current inspection of mildly ferromagnetic tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past decade has seen the development of eddy current probes for inspection of the mildly ferro-magnetic alloy Monel 400. Due to the rapid advances in permanent magnet technology similar probes have been upgraded to magnetically saturate, and hence inspect, the duplex stainless steel Sandvik 3RE60, which has saturation induction more than twice that of Monel 400. Prototypes of these probes have been tested in three ways: saturation capability, quality of typical eddy current data, and ability to eliminate permeability induced signals. Successful laboratory testing, potential applications, and limitations of these type probes are discussed

  18. Depression among Chronic Pain Patients: Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis and Effect on Rehabilitation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Robert D.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined relevance of depression to chronic pain. Found significant differences among 131 depressed, mildly depressed, and nondepressed chronic pain sufferers on instrumental activities and coping skills, with more depressed subjects reporting lower levels of functioning and less support. Depressed pain patients showed greater tendency to drop out…

  19. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  20. Chronic pain - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  1. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  2. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  3. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  4. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  5. Hubungan Antara Psychological Distress Dengan Mild Cognitive Impairment Pada Pasien Lanjut Usia Dengan Nyeri Punggung Bawah Kronik

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Irina Kemala

    2014-01-01

    Background In old age, some people exhibit cognitive impairment yet do not meet criteria for dementia. This state, most commonly referred to as mild cognitive impairment. In large prospective studies, higher level of chronic distress has been associated with cognitive decline and risk of AD in older person initially free of dementia. Here we test the hypothesis that psychological distress is associated with increased incidence of MCI in old age. Methods In all 30 patients with chroni...

  6. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru [Graduate School of Health Science, Suauka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed.

  7. Mild behavioral impairment and risk of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taragano, FE; Allegri, RF; Krupitzki, H; Sarasola, D; Serrano, CM; Loñ, L; Lyketsos, CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia, at least for some patients. Behavioral symptoms in MCI are associated with a higher risk of dementia, but their association with dementia risk in patients without MCI is unknown. Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI) refers to a late life syndrome with prominent psychiatric and related behavioral symptoms in the absence of prominent cognitive symptoms, which may also be a dementia prodrome. Objective To compare MCI and MBI patients and to estimate the risk of dementia development in these two groups. Method A consecutive series of 358 patients (239 with MCI; and 119 with MBI) presenting to an outpatient general hospital specialty clinic were followed for up to 5 years until conversion to dementia or censoring. Results 34% of MCI patients and over 70% of patients with MBI developed dementia (Logrank p=0.011). MBI patients without cognitive symptoms were more likely to develop dementia (Logrank p<0.001). MBI patients were more likely to develop dementia due to frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) as opposed to Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Conclusion MBI appears to be a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. MBI (specifically those without cognitive symptoms) may confer a higher risk for dementia than MCI and is likely an FTD prodrome in many cases. These findings have implications for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of patients with dementia in late life, by focusing on the emergence of new behavioral symptoms. PMID:19323967

  8. Clinical characteristics of the patients with occupational chronic carbon disulfide poisoning in a chemical fiber factory of Nanjing%某化纤厂职业性慢性轻度二硫化碳中毒病例临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季春萍; 朱宝立; 倪春辉; 宋海燕; 徐进; 王美林; 侯志国; 魏春龙; 董秋; 王守宇; 乔善磊

    2012-01-01

    patients with mild CS2 poisoning diagnosed according to "Diagnostic Criteria of Occupational Chronic Carbon Disulfide Poisoning (GBZ4-2002)" from April in 2006 to May in 2010.All patients were from the same chemical fiber factory.When a subject was diagnosed as patient with CS2 poisoning,who should interview with questionnaire which included the illness and occupational history,symptoms,individual habits.The physical examination,nervous test,cardiovascular test,biochemical test and electromyogram were performed.Results The rate of decreased motor conduction velocity was 87.3% (233/267roots).The highest detection rate of slowing conduction velocity was the common peroneal motor nerve which was 48.6% ( 138/248 roots) and the second was median motor nerve with delay rate of 37% ( 155/419 roots).The main symptoms of the patients were neurasthenia,numbness and paresthesia.The rates of abnormal achilles tendon reflex and knee jerk reflex in patients were were 79.4% and 49.8%,respectively.The detected rates of patients with ST-segment changes and hypertension were 19.1% and 27.5%,respectively.The rates of hypertension,systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were 27.3%,22.5% and 21.1%,respectively.The rates of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were high.The detected rates of urine acid,indirect bilirubin and total bilirubin in male patients were higher than those in female patients.In addition,the abnormal detected rate of urea nitrogen and indirect bilirubin increased with exposure years.Conclusion Occupational chronic CS2 poisoning mainly affects the nervous system,as well as liver and kidney function.Detecting the median and common peroneal motor nerve conduction velocities could be the screening indicators for the peripheral nerve injury induced by CS2 in the occupational exposure population during the periodical occupational medical examinations.

  9. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  10. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  11. Mallory-Denk Bodies in chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Basaranoglu; Nesrin Turhan; Abdullah Sonsuz; G(o)kcen Basaranoglu

    2011-01-01

    Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDB) are important as investigators, suggesting MDB as an indicator of the histologic severity of chronic hepatitis, causes of which include hepatitis C, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Matteoni et al scored MDB in patients with NAFLD as none, rare and many, and reported that MDB plays a prominent role in this classification scheme in an earlier classification system. In this study, we evaluated 258 patients with chronic hepatitis due to metabolic, autoimmune and viral etiologies. Liver biopsy samples were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff-diastase, Gordon and Sweet's reticulin, Masson's trichrome, and iron stains. Both staging and grading were performed. Additionally, MDB were evaluated and discussed for each disease. We examined patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH;50 patients), alcoholic hepatitis (10 patients), PBC (50 patients), Wilson disease (WD;20 patients), hepatitis B (50 patients), hepatitis C (50 pati patients) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC;30 patients). Frequency of MDB was as follows;NASH: 10 patients with mild in 60% and moderate in 40% and observed in every stage of the disease and frequently seen in zone 3. PBC: 11 patients with mild in 10%, moderate in 70%, and cirrhosis in 20%, and frequently seen in zone 1. WD: 16 patients with moderate and severe in 60% and cirrhosis in 40% and frequently seen in zone 1. Hep B: 3 patients with mild in 66% and severe in 34%. Hep C: 7 patients with mild in 40% and moderate in 60% and observed in every stage. HCC: 3 patients with hep B in 2 patients. We found that there is no relationship between MDB and any form of chronic hepatitis regarding histologic severity such as alcoholic steatohepatitis and NAFLD and variable zone distribution by etiology.

  12. Relationships between diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and quantitative computed tomography measurements and visual assessment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quantitative CT measurements significantly correlated with DLCO/VA. • 15th percentile HU had the strongest correlation with DLCO/VA. • Visual scoring of emphysema had independent significant correlations with DLCO/VA. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the relationships between DLCO, and Quantitative CT (QCT) measurements and visual assessment of pulmonary emphysema and to test the relative roles of visual and quantitative assessment of emphysema. Materials and methods: The subjects included 199 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for alveolar volume (DLCO/VA). Quantitative CT measurements included % low attenuation areas (%LAA−950ins = voxels ≤−950 Hounsfield unit (HU), % LAA−910ins, and % LAA−856ins), mean CT attenuation and 15th percentile HU value on inspiratory CT, and %LAA−856exp (voxels ≤−856 HU on expiratory CT). The extent of emphysema was visually assessed using a 5-point grading system. Univariate and multiple variable linear regression analyses were employed to evaluate the correlations between DLCO/VA and QCT parameters and visual extent of emphysema. Results: The DLCO/VA correlated most strongly with 15th percentile HU (R2 = 0.440, p < 0.001) closely followed by % LAA−950ins (R2 = 0.417, p < 0.001) and visual extent of emphysema (R2 = 0.411, p < 0.001). Multiple variable analysis showed that visual extent of emphysema and 15th percentile HU were independent significant predictors of DLCO/VA at an R2 of 0.599. Conclusions: 15th percentile HU seems the best parameter to represent the respiratory condition of COPD. Visual and Quantitative CT assessment of emphysema provide complementary information to QCT analysis

  13. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Arandelovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine

  14. Qualitative assessment of red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Nubesh S.; Luke, Roji; Soman, Rino Roopak; Krishna, Praveen M.; Safar, Iqbal P.; Swaminathan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anemia of chronic disease is defined as anemia occurring in chronic infections and inflammatory conditions that is not caused by marrow deficiencies or other diseases and in the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. The present case control study was aimed to assess the red blood cell parameters for signs of anemia in patients with mild, moderate, and severe chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A simple random sampling method was used to select 80 healthy male patients,...

  15. Acute and chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter S; Leach, Amanda J

    2009-12-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common illness in young children. OM has historically been associated with frequent and severe complications. Nowadays it is usually a mild condition that often resolves without treatment. For most children, progression to tympanic membrane perforation and chronic suppurative OM is unusual (low-risk populations); this has led to reevaluation of many interventions that were used routinely in the past. Evidence from a large number of randomized controlled trials can help when discussing treatment options with families. Indigenous children in the United States, Canada, Northern Europe, Australia, and New Zealand experience more OM than other children. In some places, Indigenous children continue to suffer from the most severe forms of the disease. Communities with more than 4% of the children affected by chronic tympanic membrane perforation have a major public health problem (high-risk populations). Higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative lung disease (including bronchiectasis) are also seen. These children will often benefit from effective treatment of persistent (or recurrent) bacterial infection. PMID:19962027

  16. Relationships between diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (D{sub L}CO), and quantitative computed tomography measurements and visual assessment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Atsushi, E-mail: nambu-a@gray.plala.or.jp [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Department of Radiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital (Japan); Zach, Jordan, E-mail: ZachJ@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Schroeder, Joyce, E-mail: Joyce.schroeder@stanfordalumni.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Jin, Gong Yong, E-mail: gyjin@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Department of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Soo, E-mail: haneul88@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-IL, E-mail: kyionly@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Schnell, Christina, E-mail: SchnellC@NJHealth.org [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Bowler, Russell, E-mail: BowlerR@NJHealth.org [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health (United States); Lynch, David A., E-mail: LynchD@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative CT measurements significantly correlated with D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}. • 15{sup th} percentile HU had the strongest correlation with D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}. • Visual scoring of emphysema had independent significant correlations with D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the relationships between D{sub L}CO, and Quantitative CT (QCT) measurements and visual assessment of pulmonary emphysema and to test the relative roles of visual and quantitative assessment of emphysema. Materials and methods: The subjects included 199 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for alveolar volume (D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}). Quantitative CT measurements included % low attenuation areas (%LAA−950ins = voxels ≤−950 Hounsfield unit (HU), % LAA{sub −910ins}, and % LAA{sub −856ins}), mean CT attenuation and 15th percentile HU value on inspiratory CT, and %LAA{sub −856exp} (voxels ≤−856 HU on expiratory CT). The extent of emphysema was visually assessed using a 5-point grading system. Univariate and multiple variable linear regression analyses were employed to evaluate the correlations between D{sub L}CO/V{sub A} and QCT parameters and visual extent of emphysema. Results: The D{sub L}CO/V{sub A} correlated most strongly with 15th percentile HU (R{sup 2} = 0.440, p < 0.001) closely followed by % LAA{sub −950ins} (R{sup 2} = 0.417, p < 0.001) and visual extent of emphysema (R{sup 2} = 0.411, p < 0.001). Multiple variable analysis showed that visual extent of emphysema and 15th percentile HU were independent significant predictors of D{sub L}CO/V{sub A} at an R{sup 2} of 0.599. Conclusions: 15th percentile HU seems the best parameter to represent the respiratory condition of COPD. Visual and Quantitative CT assessment of emphysema provide complementary information to QCT analysis.

  17. N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed synthesis of dimethyl carbonate via transesterification of ethylene carbonate with methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Fen Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An organocatalytic protocol for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate has been developed. Under the catalysis of 5 mol% N-heterocyclic carbenes, ethylene carbonate undergoes transesterification reaction with methanol under very mild reaction conditions, producing dimethyl carbonate with high efficiency. Furthermore, this N-heterocyclic carbene promoted transesterification can be scaled-up easily without lose of the conversion of dimethyl carbonate.

  18. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project (www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale.

  20. Accommodation in mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Green, MS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Accommodative dysfunction in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI can have a negative impact on quality of life, functional abilities, and rehabilitative progress. In this study, we used a range of dynamic and static objective laboratory and clinical measurements of accommodation to assess 12 adult patients (ages 18-40 years with mTBI. The results were compared with either 10 control subjects with no visual impairment or normative literature values where available. Regarding the dynamic parameters, responses in those with mTBI were slowed and exhibited fatigue effects. With respect to static parameters, reduced accommodative amplitude and abnormal accommodative interactions were found in those with mTBI. These results provide further evidence for the substantial impact of mTBI on accommodative function. These findings suggest that a range of accommodative tests should be included in the comprehensive vision examination of individuals with mTBI.

  1. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher, E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K. [College of Science, Department of Physics (Oman)

    2006-01-15

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  2. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project (www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale. PMID:26204068

  3. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Mossbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Moessbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

  5. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  6. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M;

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov...

  7. Examining the role of activity, exercise, and pharmacology in mild COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Gebke, Kevin B

    2014-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, although it is a preventable and treatable disease, it often remains undiagnosed in patients with mild disease. It is now evident that pathologic changes and physiologic impairment start early in disease progression, and even patients with mild airflow limitation have impairment in the form of exertional dyspnea, general fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Primary care physicians are optimally positioned to recognize these progressive activity restrictions in their patients, usually involving little more than a detailed patient history and a simple symptom questionnaire. Once a patient with persistent activity-related dyspnea has been diagnosed with COPD, bronchodilators can effectively address expiratory airflow limitation and lung hyperinflation that underlie symptoms. These pharmacologic interventions work in conjunction with nonpharmacologic interventions, including smoking cessation, exercise training, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Although the benefits of exercise intervention are well established in patients with more severe COPD, a small amount of new data is emerging that supports the benefits of both pharmacologic treatment and exercise training for improving exercise endurance in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. This review examines the growing body of data that suggests that early identification-most likely by primary care physicians-and appropriate intervention can favorably impact the symptoms, exercise tolerance, health status, quality of life, hospitalizations, and economic costs of COPD. PMID:25295658

  8. Pragmatic abilities of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Šilc, Mateja

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis examines characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. The research analyses the characteristics of vocabulary, grammatical and substantive structures of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities in storytelling, and concludes the characteristics of storytelling according to gender and age. Uncoincidental, scheduled pattern has been used in data collection of 60 pupils with mild intellectual disabilities, aging from 7 to 9 years. ...

  9. Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries : A 10-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth; Bedics, Beate Kärrdahl; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2011-01-01

    Objective and design: Long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries were investigated based on a 10-year follow-up of patients from a previously published randomized controlled study of mild traumatic brain injuries. One aim was to describe changes over time after mild traumatic brain injuries in terms of the extent of persisting post-concussion symptoms, life satisfaction, perceived health, activities of daily living, changes in life roles and sick leave. Another aim was to identif...

  10. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  11. Quality of Life in Adolescents With Mild Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstrand, Teal S.; Curtis, J. Randall; Aitken, Moira L.; Sullivan, Sean D.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of individuals with asthma have mild disease, often in conjunction with allergic rhinitis and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Although health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) is reduced in moderate to severe asthma and allergic rhinitis, little is known about the effect of mild asthma, mild allergic rhinitis, and EIB on HRQoL outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mild asthma, allergic rhinitis, and EIB on HRQoL. A cross-sectional study wa...

  12. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  13. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.

  14. Progression to vascular dementia of patients with mild cognitive impairment: relevance of mild parkinsonian signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mauri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Marco Mauri, Simona Corbetta, Cristina Pianezzola, Elena Ambrosoni, Giulio Riboldazzi, Giorgio BonoUnit of Neurology, Dept of Clinical Medicine, Ospedale di Circolo – University of Insubria, Varese, ItalyAbstract: Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS may be found among patients presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, but few data are available about the relation of these signs with the prospective risk for dementia. Our retrospective investigation considered a case-series of 119 MCI subjects followed over a three-year period: their baseline clinical picture has been analyzed in search of correlation between the cognito-motor profile and the final diagnosis. The population included 66 patients with amnesic MCI and 53 with an involvement of other cognitive areas (nonamnesic MCI. MPS were detected in 22 subjects (18.5%. At the first observation, MPS cases showed an higher frequency of nonamnesic MCI and more pronounced deficits at the Trail Making Test (p < 0.05. After a three-year follow-up, 48 patients had converted to dementia. The presence of MPS at the baseline evaluation was significantly related to the development of a vascular-type dementia. The study investigates the association between MPS and MCI and might indicate for these cases a greater risk for an involvement of executive functions and the subsequent development of vascular dementia.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, parkinsonism

  15. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest in decadal scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Koehler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide CO2 efflux to long-term experimental N-addition (125 kg N ha−1 yr-1 in mature lowland and montane forests in Panamá. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1 explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2 determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger from the lowland (15.20±1.25 Mg C ha−1 than the montane forest (9.36±0.29 Mg C ha−1. In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9–11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance in decadal scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2- and 3 yr N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots where stem diameter growth was promoted.

  16. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest on a decadal time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Koehler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux to long-term experimental N addition (125 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in mature lowland and montane forests in Panama. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1 explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2 determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger in the lowland (15.44 ± 1.02 Mg C ha−1 than in the montane forest (9.37 ± 0.28 Mg C ha−1. In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9–11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance on a decadal time scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2nd and 3rd year N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots in which stem diameter growth was promoted.

  17. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... 2012_CKD_GL.pdf . McCullough PA. Interface between renal disease ... patients with kidney failure. N Engl J Med . 2010;362(14):1312- ...

  18. 小干扰RNA沉默Toll样受体4表达对慢性温和应激ApoE-/-小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞TLR4/NF-κB途径基因表达的影响%Effects of Silencing Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression on the Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4/ Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway in Peritoneal Macrophages of Chronic Mild Stress ApoE-/-Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾洪丰; 唐朝克; 唐雅玲; 覃丽; 杨永宗

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine the effect of Toil-like receptor 4(TLR4) gene silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of cytokines produced by peritoneal macrophages in chronic mild stress (CMS) ApeE -/- mice.Methods Two siRNA sequences and one negative control sequence were designed targeting the mouse TLR4 gene.Two complementary single-strand DNA were designed and synthesized based on siRNA sequences.The DNA fragments were annealed and ligated to the GFP expression vector pRNAT-H1, 1/Adeno.One siRNA with higher interference efficiency than the other was found after siRNA plasmid transfection into 293A cells mediated by liposome.After adenovirus partical packaging and production, the 293A cells were infected, and the single cell clone was acquired and cultured to establish the stable cell strain.The titer of concentrated virus was detected by hole-by-dilution titer assay.One hundred twenty male ApoE-/- mice were divided into groups of CMS control, CMS + empty vector and CMS + siRNA (tail vein injection, 10 μL/mouse; n = 40 per group).All mice were fed a high-fat ( 5 %, wt/w), high-cholesterol ( 1%, wt/wt) diet and subjected to daily CMS for 0, 4, 12 weeks, respectively.Peritoneal macrophages were prepared from APoE -/- mice and then total proteins from cells were extracted.Western Blotting was used to determine the expressions of TLR4 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) of peritoneal macrophages.The supernatants of cultured peritoneal macrophages were collected.and then used for detection of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels by ELISA.Results Compared with the blank control group, real-time PCR showed that the expression of TLR4 mRNA in 293A cells was decreased by 56% and 67% after 48 h transfection with siRNA1 and siRNA2, respectively.The hole-by-dilution titer assay showed that viral titer was 3.4 × 1014 TU/L.After exposure to CMS for 4 and 12 weeks, there was no difference in serum corticosterone levels between si

  19. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  20. Mild Wear Prediction of Boundary-Lubricated Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, R.; Schipper, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a wear model is introduced for the mild wear present in boundary-lubricated systems protected by additive-rich lubricants. The model is based on the hypothesis that the mild wear is mainly originating from the removal of the sacrificial layer formed by a chemical reaction between the

  1. Teaching Elementary Social Studies to Students with Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Larson, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains what mild disabilities are and discusses the issue of mainstreaming within the realm of elementary school social studies. Provides strategies for social studies teachers to use when addressing the needs of students with learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, mild mental retardation, and other health impairments. (CMK)

  2. Effect of montelukast as monotherapy in mild persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Senthilvelan

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Montelukast provides significant symptom control and improvement in PEFR in mild persistent asthma compared to placebo. It is effective as monotherapy in mild persistent asthma in children aged 2-12 years. Symptom control is good during therapy and until three months after discontinuation of drug. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3786-3789

  3. Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Gade, Anders; Vogel, A.;

    2006-01-01

    The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison. Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe...

  4. An Effect of Layer on Surface Morphology TiO2 Nanocoating Deposited on Mild Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Achoi, Mohd Faizal; Nor, Asiah Mohd; Abdullah, Saifollah; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2011-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) Nanocoating is very useful materials and has wide applications especially in thin film applications [1]. Mild steel has tendency to corrode and lack of ductility but has an excellent of mechanical strength. Mild steel was used because of low cost and used as starting materials. TiO2 nanocoating was coated on low carbon mild steel surface with amount of carbon 0.16% to 0.19% [2]. The mild steel substrate coated TiO2 was prepared using sol-gel spin coating technique [3], layer by layer deposition which speed (rpm) of spin-coating and concentration of sol-gel solutions were fixed. The surface topography and roughness of coating were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) while phase and structure of the coating was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphologies of coating were also measured through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The suggested results were useful for coating of wall's operation room. TiO2 Nanocoating is very useful coating protection and high potential demand due to high effectiveness of corrosion protection. This laboratory results can be expended to bigger scale coating process. It will contribute new technique and advance corrosion protection.

  5. Probabilistic Sequence Learning in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso eNemeth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI causes slight but noticeable disruption in cognitive systems, primarily executive and memory functions. However, it is not clear if the development of sequence learning is affected by an impaired cognitive system and, if so, how. The goal of our study was to investigate the development of probabilistic sequence learning, from the initial acquisition to consolidation, in MCI and healthy elderly control groups. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT to measure probabilistic sequence learning. Individuals with MCI showed weaker learning performance than the healthy elderly group. However, using the reaction times only from the second half of each learning block – after the reactivation phase - we found intact learning in MCI. Based on the assumption that the first part of each learning block is related to reactivation/recall processes, we suggest that these processes are affected in MCI. The 24-hour offline period showed no effect on sequence-specific learning in either group but did on general skill learning: the healthy elderly group showed offline improvement in general reaction times while individuals with MCI did not. Our findings deepen our understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and time course of sequence acquisition and consolidation.

  6. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Latif; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model - like the MSSM - has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10-20 TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of mu -> e gamma and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also epsilon_K neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  7. Mild hypothermia protects liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-You Wang; Yong Ni; Yan Liu; Zhi-Heng Huang; Min-Jie Zhang; Yong-Qiang Zhan; Hai-Bin Gao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether mild hypothermia could protect liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury in pigs. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy pigs were randomly divided into normothermia, mild hypothermia and normal control groups. The experimental procedure consisted of temporary interruption of blood flow to total hepatic lobe for different lengths of time and subsequent reperfusion. Hepatic tissue oxygen pressure (PtiO2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values were evaluated, and ultrastructural analysis was carried out for all samples.RESULTS: Serum AST was significantly lower, and hepatic P,O2 values were significantly higher in the mild hypothermia group than in the normothermia group during liver ischemiareperfusion periods (P = 0.032, P = 0.028). Meanwhile, the histopathologic injury of liver induced by ischemiareperfusion was significantly improved in the mild hypothermia group, compared with that in the normothermia group. CONCLUSION: Mild hypothermia can protect the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury in pigs.

  8. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  9. Grading the intensity of nondental orofacial pain: identification of cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brailo V

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vlaho Brailo,1 Joanna M Zakrzewska2 1Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Facial Pain Unit, Division of Diagnostic, Surgical and Medical Sciences, Eastman Dental Hospital, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust/University College London, London, UK Background: When assessing pain in clinical practice, clinicians often label pain as mild, moderate, and severe. However, these categories are not distinctly defined, and are often used arbitrarily. Instruments for pain assessment use more sophisticated scales, such as a 0–10 numerical rating scale, and apart from pain intensity assess pain-related interference and disability. The aim of the study was to identify cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe nondental orofacial pain using a numerical rating scale, a pain-related interference scale, and a disability measurement. Materials and methods: A total of 245 patients referred to the Facial Pain Unit in London were included in the study. Intensity and pain-related interference were assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain-related disability was assessed by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Average pain intensity (0–10 was classified into nine schemes with varying cutoff points of mild, moderate, and severe pain. The scheme with the most significant intergroup difference, expressed by multivariate analysis of variance, provided the cutoffs between mild, moderate, and severe pain. Results: The combination that showed the greatest intergroup differences for all patients was scheme 47 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–7, severe 8–10. The same combination provided the greatest intergroup differences in subgroups of patients with temporomandibular disorder and chronic idiopathic facial pain, respectively. Among the trigeminal neuralgia patients alone, the combination with the highest intergroup differences was scheme 48 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–8, severe 9–10. Conclusion: The cutoff points established in

  10. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solution by New Coumarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Amir H. Kadhum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new coumarin derivative, N,N′-((2E,2′E-2,2′-(1,4-phenylenebis (methanylylidenebis(hydrazinecarbonothioylbis(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide PMBH, was synthesized and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (Infrared spectroscopy IR, Proton nuclear  magnetic resonance, 1H-NMR and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance 13C-NMR. The corrosion inhibition effect of PMBH on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl was investigated using corrosion potential (ECORR, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM measurements. The obtained results indicated that PMBH has promising inhibitive effects on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl across all of the conditions examined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to investigate the morphology of the mild steel before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl solution containing 0.5 mM of PMBH. Surface analysis revealed improvement of corrosion resistance in presence of PMBH.

  11. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  12. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  13. Intraluminal gastric pH in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, P; Cataudella, G; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Filippini, M; Marcori, M; Montesi, G; Rigo, L; Frulloni, L; Brunori, M P

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the circadian variations of intragastric pH in 28 inpatients with chronic pancreatitis (mean (SD) age 46.8 (12.4) years) and in 14 controls (45.4 (9.8)). pH Metry was performed using a monocrystalline antimony electrode placed in the body of the stomach under fluoroscopic control and connected up to a recorder (MKII Digitrapper, Synectics). The evaluation parameters, expressed as median and interquartile range, were: total period, postprandial periods (P1 and P2), interdigestive, and nocturnal phases. Patients with chronic pancreatitis were subdivided into three groups on the basis of severity of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (secretin-caerulein test: lipase output at 60-90 min)--that is, those with severe insufficiency (chronic pancreatitis-SI: 13 patients, lipase output < 10% normal values and pancreolauryl test < 20%), those with only mild insufficiency (chronic pancreatitis-MI: seven patients), and those with normal secretion (chronic pancreatitis-NF: eight patients). The chronic pancreatitis-SI patients present significantly greater gastric acidification in the postprandial periods compared with controls (P1: p < 0.001; P2: p < 0.01), and with chronic pancreatitis-MI plus chronic pancreatitis-NF subjects (P1: p < 0.01; P2: p < 0.05), taken together. In conclusion, gastric acidity, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and impaired digestion are closely related during the course of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:7883232

  14. Characteristics and therapeutic efficacy of sulfasalazine in patients with mildly and moderately active ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Kui Chen; Zhong-Lin Yu; Shi-Zheng Yuan; Zhuo-Fu Wen; Ying-Qiang Zhong; Cu-Jun Li; Hui-Sheng Wu; Can-Rong Mai; Peng-Yan Xie; Yu-Min Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics and short-term efficacy of sulfasalazine (SASP) in patients with mildly and moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with mildly and moderately active UC were recruited, 106patients in 1993-1995, and 122 patients in 2000-2002,they were assigned as the 1990s group (n = 106) and the 2000s group (n = 122), prospectively. The general characteristics, clinical manifestations, colonoscopic and histological data were compared between the two groups.The short-term efficacy and safety of SASP 3 g per d were evaluated.RESULTS: Between 2000s and 1990s groups, the gender ratio of men to women was 1:1.18 and 1:1.04, 57.4%and 50.9% of the patients were between 30 and 49 years old. The gender ratio and age of UC patients were not significantly different. The total course of 50.0% and 37.1% of UC patients was less than 1 year (P<0.05), 10.6% and 31.2% of the cases had a duration of more than 5 years (P<0.05) in 2000s and 1990s groups, respectively. The most common clinical type was first episode in 2000s group and chronic relapse in 1990s group. The patients showed a higher frequency of abdominal pain and tenderness in 1990s group than in 2000s group. Erosions were found in 84.4% and 67.9% of patients in 2000s and 1990s groups (P<0.05). Rough and granular mucosa (67.9%vs43.4%, P<0.05)and polyps (47.2% vs 32.8%, P<0.05)were identified in 1990s group more than in 2000s group.There were no significant differences in clinical, colonoscopic and histological classifications. After SASP (1 g thrice per d) treatment for 6 wk, the clinical, colonoscopic and histological remission rates were 71.8%, 21.8% and 16.4%,respectively. In 79 patients with clinical remission, 58.2%and 67.1% remained grade 1 in colonoscopic and histological findings, respectively. The overall effects in first episode type (complete remission in 10, 18.9%, partial remission in 28, 52.8%, and improvement in 9, 17.0%) were

  15. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  16. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  17. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.;

    2005-01-01

    . The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of improved...

  19. DISTURBANCES OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS IN A RAT CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Wiborg, Ove; Bouzinova, Elena

    with disturbances in circadian related processes. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is well known for its function as the master clock and regulates several circadian systems by clock genes expression. In addition to central expression, peripheral clock genes have been found. Methods: The study is based on a highly...... rhythm. Conclusion: Abnormalities in circadian rhythms, both centrally and peripherally, are related to depression-like state in the CMS model. Research support: This study is supported by Aarhus University and Illum fondet...

  20. NLRP3 Inflammasome Mediates Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression in Mice via Neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Lei; Liu, Yun-Zi; Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Xia; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from both clinical and experimental research indicates that the immune-brain interaction plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. A multi-protein complex of the innate immune system, the NLRP3 inflammasome regulates cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. The inflammasome detects various pathogen-associated molecule patterns and damage-associated molecule patterns, which then leads to a series of immune-inflammatory reactions. ...

  1. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Khedr LH; Nassar NN; El-Denshary ES; Abdel-tawab AM

    2015-01-01

    Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chro...

  2. The evolution of mild parkinsonian signs in aging

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Allali, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    The progression of mild parkinsonian signs in the absence of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in aging is unclear. This study aims to identify predictors of the evolution of mild parkinsonian signs in non-demented older adults. Two hundred ten participants (76.25 ± 7.10 years, 57 % women) were assessed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Mild parkinsonian signs were defined as the presence of bradykinesia, rigidity and/or rest tremor. Depending upon the presence of these features at baseline and ...

  3. Mild obstructive sleep apnea does not modulate baroreflex sensitivity in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomster H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry Blomster,1 Tomi P Laitinen,2 Juha EK Hartikainen,3,6 Tiina M Laitinen,2 Esko Vanninen,2 Helena Gylling,4,8 Johanna Sahlman,1 Jouko Kokkarinen,5 Jukka Randell,5 Juha Seppä,1 Henri Tuomilehto4,7 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, 6Heart Center, Kuopio University Hospital, 7Oivauni Sleep Clinic, Kuopio, 8Department of Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a chronic and progressive disease. OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the risk being more frequently encountered with severe degrees of OSA. Increased sympathetic activation and impaired cardiac autonomic control as reflected by depressed baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS are possible mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular complications of OSA. However, it is not known at what stage of OSA that changes in BRS appear. The aim of this study was to evaluate BRS in patients with mild OSA. Methods: The study population consisted of 81 overweight patients with mild OSA and 46 body weight-matched non-OSA subjects. BRS, apnea-hypopnea index, body mass index, and metabolic parameters were assessed. The phenylephrine test was used to measure BRS. Results: Patients in the OSA group were slightly but significantly older than the non-OSA population (50.3±9.3 years vs 45.7±11.1 years, P=0.02. Body mass index, percentage body fat, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid levels did not differ between the OSA patients and non-OSA subjects. Absolute BRS values in patients with mild OSA and non-OSA subjects (9.97±6.70 ms/mmHg vs 10.51±7.16 ms/mmHg, P=0.67 and BRS values proportional

  4. Degradation of Corn Oil Wastes by Fenton Reaction and Under Mildly Basic Media in the Presence of Oxidants Assisted with Sun Light

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina V.  Sanchez; Susana S.  Martinez; Maria D.F.T.  Hernandez

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of water soluble corn oil wastes was carried out by Fenton reaction and also under mildly basic media in the presence of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and persulfate, assisted with solar light. The degradation efficiency was obtained by analysis of chemical oxygen demand, carbon dioxide and gas chromatography. Over 90% of both chemical oxygen demand abatement and carbon dioxide recovery was accomplished by Fenton reaction. The presence of oxidants during the photodegrada...

  5. Time estimation in mild Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelli Paolo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time information processing relies on memory, which greatly supports the operations of hypothetical internal timekeepers. Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET postulates the existence of a memory component that is functionally separated from an internal clock and other processing stages. SET has devised several experimental procedures to map these cognitive stages onto cerebral regions and neurotransmitter systems. One of these, the time bisection procedure, has provided support for a dissociation between the clock stage, controlled by dopaminergic systems, and the memory stage, mainly supported by cholinergic neuronal networks. This study aimed at linking the specific memory processes predicted by SET to brain mechanisms, by submitting time bisection tasks to patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD, that are known to present substantial degeneration of the fronto-temporal regions underpinning memory. Methods Twelve mild AD patients were required to make temporal judgments about intervals either ranging from 100 to 600 ms (short time bisection task or from 1000 to 3000 ms (long time bisection task. Their performance was compared with that of a group of aged-matched control participants and a group of young control subjects. Results Long time bisection scores of AD patients were not significantly different from those of the two control groups. In contrast, AD patients showed increased variability (as indexed by increased WR values in timing millisecond durations and a generalized inconsistency of responses over the same interval in both the short and long bisection tasks. A similar, though milder, decreased millisecond interval sensitivity was found for elderly subjects. Conclusion The present results, that are consistent with those of previous timing studies in AD, are interpreted within the SET framework as not selectively dependent on working or reference memory disruptions but as possibly due to distortions in different

  6. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Jensen, Rigmor H; Antal, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even...

  7. ALMOST AUTOMORPHIC MILD SOLUTIONS TO SOME FRACTIONAL DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a new and general existence and uniqueness theorem of almost automorphic mild solutions is obtained for some fractional delay differential equations,using sectorial operators and the Banach contraction principle.

  8. Inferential reading abilities of mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, C S; Tierney, R J

    1984-07-01

    The inferential operations of mildly mentally retarded students reading at the intermediate level were investigated using methods based on discourse comprehension theory. We hypothesized that problems encountered in reading by these students are related to difficulties in generating logical inferences. Mildly retarded junior-high students and nonretarded third-grade students of the same reading comprehension level read and recalled a descriptive expository and a narrative passage. On the expository passage mildly retarded students generated the same quantity of inferences as did nonretarded students, but the inferences were qualitatively inferior. On the narrative passage the differences between the two groups were not significant. These findings were discussed in relation to the cognitive functioning of mildly retarded students.

  9. Cognitive Profile of Elderly Patients with Mild Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Gramstad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.

  10. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head trauma linked to psychiatric, financial issues as adults, study ... HealthDay News) -- Young people who suffer even mild head trauma are more likely to have serious issues later ...

  11. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal. Neurology 2014;82:317 – 325. 2. Norton M, Breitner ... 42:1252 – 1256. e34 © 2014 American Academy of Neurology PATIENT PAGE Section Editors David C. Spencer, MD ...

  12. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  13. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  14. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  15. Dysexecutive syndrome in amnesic mild cognitive impairment: a multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Martín, E.; Ugarriza Serrano, I.; Elcoroaristizabal Martín, X.; Galdos Alcelay, L.; Molano Salazar, A.; Bereincua Gandarias, R.; Inglés Borda, S.; Uterga Valiente, J. M.; Indakoetxea Juanbeltz, M. B.; Moraza Lopez, J.; Barandiarán Amillano, M.; Fernández-Martínez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Executive functions (EF) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), classically related to the prefrontal cortex, have been forgotten in mild stages, given more importance to temporal lobe associated disorders, such as memory. The study of disexecutive syndrome (DS) has been relegated to advanced stages of the disease. Our goal is to demonstrate that EF are already present in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Furthermore, we are interested in knowing whether poor scores in EF tests are r...

  16. Perforated Hepatic Hydatid Cyst into the Peritoneum with Mild Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dirican, A.; Unal, B; Ozgor, D.; Piskin, T.; Aydin, C.; Sumer, F.; Kayaalp, C.

    2008-01-01

    Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease that necessitates emergency surgical intervention. We present herein a case with mild abdominal symptoms due to hydatid cyst rupture into the peritoneum after trauma. A 24-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with mild abdominal pain. His symptoms had started after a fall four days earlier. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intraabdomi...

  17. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen Tatjana; Krivokapić Mirjana; Zlatković Branislav; Antić Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  18. Mild Neurocognitive Disorder: An Old Wine in a New Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Stokin, Gorazd B.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American Psychiatric Association has recently published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-IV category “Dementia, Delirium, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders” has undergone extensive revision. DSM-5 has renamed this category as “Neurocognitive Disorders” (NCD), which now covers three entities: delirium, major NCD, and mild NCD. The DSM-IV version of mild NCD resembles the DSM-5 version in name only. DSM-IV defined...

  19. A better mild traumatic brain injury model in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Otani, Naoki; Osada, Hideo; Wada, Kojiro; Shima, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    The primary pathology associated with mild -traumatic brain injury (TBI) is selective axonal injury, which may characterize the vast majority of blast-induced TBIs. Axonal injuries in cases of mild TBI have been considered to be the main factors responsible for the long-lasting memory or attentional impairment in affected subjects. Among these axonal injuries, recent attention has been focused on the cingulum bundle (CB). Furthermore, recent studies with diffusion tensor MR imaging have shown the presence of injuries of the CB in cases of mild TBI in humans. This study aimed to provide a better laboratory model of mild TBI.Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to mild TBI using laser-induced shock waves (LISW) (sham, 0.5 J/cm(2), or 1.0 J/cm(2); n = 4 per group). Bodian-stained brain sections 14 days after LISW at 0.5 J/cm(2) or 1.0 J/cm(2) showed a decrease in the CB axonal density compared with the sham group, whereas there were no differences in the axonal density of the corpus callosum.The present study shows that this model is capable of reproducing the histological changes associated with mild TBI. PMID:23564112

  20. Incidental mild hyperglycemia in children: two MODY 2 families identified in Brazilian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Lílian A; Jorge, Alexander A L; Malaquias, Alexsandra C; Trarbach, Ericka B; Queiroz, Márcia S; Nery, Márcia; Teles, Milena G

    2012-11-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, early onset of hyperglycemia, and defects of insulin secretion. MODY subtypes described present genetic, metabolic, and clinical differences. MODY 2 is characterized by mild asymptomatic fasting hyperglycemia, and rarely requires pharmacological treatment. Hence, precise diagnosis of MODY is important for determining management and prognosis. We report two heterozygous GCK mutations identified during the investigation of short stature. Case 1: a prepubertal 14-year-old boy was evaluated for constitutional delay of growth and puberty. During follow-up, he showed abnormal fasting glucose (113 mg/dL), increased level of HbA1c (6.6%), and negative β-cell antibodies. His father and two siblings also had slightly elevated blood glucose levels. The mother had normal glycemia. A GCK heterozygous missense mutation, p.Arg191Trp, was identified in the proband. Eighteen family members were screened for this mutation, and 11 had the mutation in heterozygous state. Case 2: a 4-year-old boy investigated for short stature revealed no other laboratorial alterations than elevated glycemia (118 mg/dL); β-cell antibodies were negative. His father, a paternal aunt, and the paternal grandmother also had slightly elevated glycemia, whereas his mother had normal glycemia. A GCK heterozygous missense mutation, p.Glu221Lys, was identified in the index patient and in four family members. All affected patients had mild elevated glycemia. Individuals with normal glycemia did not harbor mutations. GCK mutation screening should be considered in patients with chronic mild early-onset hyperglycemia, family history of impaired glycemia, and negative β-cell antibodies. PMID:23295292

  1. Modeling community integration in workers with delayed recovery from mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, T.; Shapiro, C. M.; Mollayeva, S.;

    2015-01-01

    assessments, and insurers' referral files. Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores were compared using analysis of variance or Spearman's correlation tests. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations with CI. Results: Ninety-four workers with mTBI (45......Background: Delayed recovery in persons after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is poorly understood. Community integration (CI) is endorsed by persons with neurological disorders as an important outcome. We aimed to describe CI and its associated factors in insured Ontario workers with delayed...... recovery following mTBI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of insured workers in the chronic phase following mTBI was performed at a rehabilitation hospital in Ontario, Canada. Sociodemographic, occupational, injury-related, clinical, and claim-related data were collected from self-reports, medical...

  2. A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ditkovskaya, L;

    A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism.......A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism....

  3. Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.

  4. Occurrence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Brazilians with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Cortelli; Caio Vinícius Gonçalves Roman-Torres; Davi Romeiro Aquino; Gilson Cesar Nobre Franco; Fernando Oliveira Costa; Sheila Cavalca Cortelli

    2010-01-01

    Studies have suggested that A. actinomycetemcomitans is involved in the aetiology of aggressive periodontitis as well as in chronic periodontitis. This study was aimed at elucidating the occurrence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in a Brazilian population with chronic periodontitis. A total of 555 (mean age 33.04 ± 12.45) individuals, living in two large areas of the São Paulo State, namely "Baixada Santista" and "Vale do Paraíba", and diagnosed with mild [180 (mean age 29.59 ± 10.94)], moderate ...

  5. COGKNOW development and evaluation of an ICT-device for people with mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiland, F J M; Reinersmann, A; Bergvall-Kareborn, B; Craig, D; Moelaert, F; Mulvenna, M D; Nugent, C; Scully, T; Bengtsson, J E; Dröes, R M

    2007-01-01

    Dementia is a progressive, chronic disease affecting 5% of all persons above 65 and over 40% of people over 90. The aim of the COGKNOW project is to achieve a breakthrough with research that addresses the needs of those with dementia, particularly those with mild dementia living in the community. This entails cognitive reinforcement in four main areas: helping people to remember, helping to maintain social contact, helping with performing daily life and recreational activities and finally enhance feelings of safety. Based on a sound foundation of needs reported in dementia literature, workshops and individual interviews have been carried out with dementia sufferers and their carers in three European countries. A ranked analysis of information from workshops and interviews, and the state of the art of successful ICT solutions will be the basis for formulating the functionalities of the technical solution and for the development of a cognitive prosthetic device with associated services for people with mild dementia. The research and evaluation will be conducted from human factors, technology, and business perspectives in three phases of one year each. In this paper we discuss the design of the COGKNOW project, the first results of the user needs inquiry workshops and the ICT solutions the COGKNOW project will focus on in the first year. PMID:17901610

  6. Unmet needs in severe chronic upper airway disease (SCUAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Canonica, Giorgio W; Casale, Thomas B; Cruz, Alvaro A; Lockey, Richard J; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2009-09-01

    Although the majority of patients with chronic upper airway diseases have controlled symptoms during treatment, many patients have severe chronic upper airway diseases (SCUADs). SCUAD defines those patients whose symptoms are inadequately controlled despite adequate (ie, effective, safe, and acceptable) pharmacologic treatment based on guidelines. These patients have impaired quality of life, social functioning, sleep, and school/work performance. Severe uncontrolled allergic rhinitis, nonallergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases, or occupational airway diseases are defined as SCUADs. Pediatric SCUADs are still unclear. In developing countries SCUADs exist, but risk factors can differ from those seen in developed countries. Comorbidities are common in patients with SCUADs and might increase their severity. The present document is the position of a group of experts considering that SCUADs should be considered differently from mild chronic upper airway diseases. It reviews the state of the art, highlighting gaps in our knowledge, and proposes several areas for a better understanding, prevention, and management of SCUADs. This document can also serve to optimize the pharmacoeconomic evaluation of SCUADs by means of comparison with mild chronic upper airway diseases. PMID:19660803

  7. Phosphate diabetes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, F.; Hargreaves, J.; Kakkar, V V

    1998-01-01

    Phosphate depletion is associated with neuromuscular dysfunction due to changes in mitochondrial respiration that result in a defect of intracellular oxidative metabolism. Phosphate diabetes causes phosphate depletion due to abnormal renal re-absorption of phosphate be the proximal renal tubule. Most of the symptoms presented by patients with phosphate diabetes such as myalgia, fatigue and mild depression, are also common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but this differential diagno...

  8. Comparison Of Levocetirizine And Cetirizine In Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare efficacy, onset of action, and sedative effects of cetirizine (CTZ and levocetirizine (levoCTZ in chronic idiopathic urtcaria with fifteen patients in each group. They were found to be equipotent and the onset of action was almost same. Twenty percent in CTZ and 13.33% in levoCTZ exhibited mild sedation.

  9. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Kammon; Singh, J; Banga, H. S.; Sodhi, S.; Brar, R. S.; Nagra, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) (1/50 LD50) chlorpyrifos (Radar®), produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative change...

  10. Are NSAIDs useful to treat Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P Imbimbo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies suggest that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may protect subjects carrying one or more ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 against the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The biological mechanism of this protection is not completely understood and may involve the anti-inflammatory properties of NSAIDs or their ability of interfering with the β-amyloid (Aβ cascade. Unfortunately, long-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials with both non-selective and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selective inhibitors in mild-to-moderate AD patients produced negative results. A secondary prevention study with rofecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, in patients with mild cognitive impairment was also negative. A primary prevention study (ADAPT trial of naproxen (a non-selective COX inhibitor and celecoxib (a COX-2 selective inhibitor in cognitively normal elderly subjects with a family history of AD was prematurely interrupted for safety reasons after a median period of treatment of 2 years. Although both drugs did not reduce the incidence of dementia after two years of treatment, a 4-year follow up assessment surprisingly revealed that subjects previously exposed to naproxen were protected from the onset of AD by 67% compared to placebo. Thus, it could be hypothesized that the chronic use of NSAIDs may be beneficial only in the very early stages of the AD process in coincidence of initial Aβ deposition, microglia activation and consequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators. When the Aβ deposition process is already started, NSAIDs are no longer effective and may even be detrimental because of their inhibitory activity on chronically activated microglia that on long-term may mediate Aβ clearance. The research community should conduct long-term trials with NSAIDs in cognitively normal APOE ε4 carriers.

  11. Association analyses of oxidative stress, aerobic capacity, daily physical activity, and body composition parameters in patients with mild to moderate COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Genç, Abdurrahman; ÜÇOK, Kağan; ŞENER, Ümit; KOYUNCU, Tülay; AKAR, Olcay; ÇELİK, Sefa; Ünlü, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    To investigate total oxidant and antioxidant status, maximal aerobic capacity, daily physical activity, pulmonary functions, and body composition changes, as well as the associations among these parameters, in patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) versus healthy controls. Materials and methods: The study included 30 male patients newly diagnosed with COPD and 30 body mass index-matched, nonsmoker male controls. Maximal aerobic capacity, daily physical ac...

  12. Effects of adjunctive daily phototherapy on chronic periodontitis: a randomized single-blind controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Gyu-Un; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong; Pang, Eun-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this randomized single-blind controlled trial was to elucidate the clinical and antimicrobial effects of daily phototherapy (PT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods The study was conducted from December 2013 to May 2014 at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Forty-one patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis were randomly divided into two therapeutic groups in a 1:1 ratio: SRP+PT ...

  13. THE EFFECTS OF PRACTICING SWIMMING IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu S.; Ciolan G. A.; Păunescu M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is comprised primarily of two related diseases - chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Clinical research on the effects of swimming on the quality of the life of patients with various lung diseases showed that the use of water therapy programs have significant effects on the induction of pulmonary edema as well as on mild to moderate asthma. The case study presented in this study, aged 52, male, from urban area, smoker (30PA), with a weight of 96 kg an...

  14. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2

    OpenAIRE

    Graw, Jan A.; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated wi...

  15. Lumbar Discectomy of a Patient of Mitral Stenosis with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation Under Epidural Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya R Kulkarni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female patient posted for discectomy of lumbar region L 3 -L 4 was accidently diagnosed to have chronic atrial fibrillation of rheumatic aetiology.This is a case report of this patient of critical mitral stenosis with mild mitral regurgitation with chronic atrial fibrillation managed successfully under lower thoracic epidural anaesthesia,in prone position without any compli-cation.

  16. [Chronic illness and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikoski, S

    1987-01-01

    In recent years sterilization that can cause problems of the psyche and marital life has been recommended much less frequently with respect to chronic diseases. As regards heart and hypertensive diseases pregnancy is always contraindicated in case of 3rd and 4th disease categories and sterilization is recommended according to the New York Heart Association. As far as 1st and 2nd category patients are concerned if the load carrying capacity is normal pregnancy could be undertaken. Combination pills are not recommended for contraception because they can cause fluid retention or increase the risk of thrombosis. If the patient has a higher-than-normal risk of developing thrombosis or infection, for instance, those who wear pacemakers only tablets containing progesterone or subdermal capsule implants can be used. In those with blood pressure problems the additional use of the IUD is also advised. Among diseases of neurological and psychic origin the effect of hormonal contraceptives is weakened by antiepileptics, but even in such cases older combination pills of larger doses of active ingredients can be employed. Migraine is exacerbated in 1/3 of patients; here IUDs can be used. Even the contraceptive tablets themselves can induce depression. In psychosis methods requiring regular attention can be easily forgotten, therefore the IUD is the most suitable device. In diabetes progesterone and other progestogens reduce insulin response, harm carbohydrate metabolism; therefore in young people the IUD is preferred an in older women with children even sterilization can be employed. Hormonal tablets must not be used in hyperlipidemia and liver diseases. Caution must be exercised in hyperthyroidism and in endocrine disorders (e.g., Cushing's syndrome); if it is accompanied by blood pressure disorders appropriate treatment is required. In kidney diseases pregnancy is contraindicated if it is accompanied by blood pressure increase or a higher level of creatine. On the other hand

  17. Association between Obese Phenotype and Mildly Reduced eGFR among the General Population from Rural Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity contributes to reduced kidney function; however, whether this is due to obesity itself or the metabolic abnormalities that accompany it is unclear. Besides, most previous studies enrolled participants with moderate or severe stage of chronic kidney disease. In the present study, we aim to investigate the possible relationship between obesity, metabolic abnormalities and mildly reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. A total of 11,127 Chinese participants (age ≥ 35 years were enrolled in a survey conducted from January 2012 to August 2013. eGFR 60–90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined as mildly reduced eGFR. Obese phenotype was divided into four types: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO, metabolically healthy obese (MHO, metabolically abnormal non-obese (MANO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO. Among all participants, 1941 (17.4% of them had mildly reduced eGFR (16.7% for men and 18.1% for women, p = 0.025. The prevalence of obese phenotype was 22.5% for MHNO, 9.1% for MHO, 32.1% for MANO and 36.4% for MAO. The prevalence of mildly reduced eGFR was 9.0% among MHNO, 7.0% among MHO, 22.6% among MANO and 20.7% among MAO (p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that obese phenotype did not statically contributed to mildly reduced eGFR (MHO: OR = 1.107, p = 0.662; MANO: OR = 0.800, p = 0.127; MAO: OR = 1.119, p = 0.525. However, gender (OR = 1.475, p < 0.001, aging (OR = 1.283, p < 0.001, dyslipidemia (OR = 1.544, 95%CI: 1.315, 1.814, p < 0.001 and hyperglycemia (OR = 1.247, 95%CI: 1.068, 1.455, p = 0.005 was associated with increased risk of mild reduced eGFR. Among the general population from rural Northeast China, mildly reduced eGFR was associated with metabolic disorders like dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, but not obesity.

  18. DOUBLE-BLIND PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY OF IBOPAMINE AND DIGOXIN IN PATIENTS WITH MILD-TO-MODERATE HEART-FAILURE - RESULTS OF THE DUTCH IBOPAMINE MULTICENTER TRIAL (DIMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; MANINTVELD, AJ; DUNSELMAN, PHJM; LOK, DJA; DOHMEN, HJM; POORTERMANS, JC; WITHAGEN, AJAM; PASTEUNING, WH; BROUWER, J; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with the orally active dopamine agonist ibopamine in patients with mild to moderate chronic congestive heart failure and to compare the results with those of treatment with digoxin and placebo. Backgroun

  19. Differential regional responsiveness of astroglia in mild hepatic encephalopathy: An Immunohistochemical approach in bile duct ligated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiba, Omar El; Elgot, Abdeljalil; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that occurs in both acute and chronic liver failure. However, the pathomechanisms of the disease remains obscure. Neuropathological studies have demonstrated a primary gliopathy in humans as well as in animal models of chronic and acute liver failure. Here, we have investigated in an animal model of mild HE: the bile duct ligated rat (BDL) at the cirrhotic stage (4 weeks after surgery), the expression of the key marker of mature astrocytes; the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in different brain areas such as: Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), Ventral tegmental area (VTA), hippocampus, dorsal striatum and brain cortex by means of immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemical study showed, in BDL compared to the operated controls (shams), a diminished astrocyte reactivity corresponding to a loss of GFAP expression within SNc, VTA, hippocampus and dorsal striatum (phepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26995310

  20. Hyperkalaemia induced by carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    An 81-year-old man developed hyperkalaemic and hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis following treatment with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for his glaucoma. He had mild renal failure and selective aldosterone deficiency was confirmed. In this case the treatment did not lead to hypokalaemia because of the limited potassium secretory capacity in the renal tubules from selective aldosterone deficiency; rather, it may have led to hyperkalaemia because metabolic acidosis induced by the carbonic anh...

  1. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  2. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  3. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... CIDP is one cause of damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord ( peripheral neuropathy ). Polyneuropathy ...

  4. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett RM. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 274. Engleberg NC. Chronic ...

  5. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  6. Triglyceride levels are closely associated with mild declines in estimated glomerular filtration rates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with normal serum lipid levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Hou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, we included 2647 participants who were ≥ 40 years old and had normal serum lipid levels. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation was used to estimate the GFR. A mildly reduced eGFR was defined as 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m(2. First, multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association of lipid profiles with the eGFR. Then, the levels of each lipid component were divided into four groups, using the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles as cut-off points. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of different lipid components with the risk of mildly reduced eGFR. RESULTS: In the group with a mildly reduced eGFR, TG and LDL-C levels were significantly increased, but HDL-C levels were significantly decreased. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, smoking and drinking, only TC and TG were independently related to the eGFR. Additionally, only TG showed a linear relationship with an increased risk of a mildly reduced eGFR, with the highest quartile group (TG: 108-150 mg/dl [1.22-1.70 mmol/L] having a significantly increased risk after adjusting for the above factors. CONCLUSIONS: Triglyceride levels are closely associated with a mildly reduced eGFR in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. Dyslipidemia with lower TG levels could be used as new diagnostic criteria for subjects with mildly reduced renal function.

  7. Application of Carbonate Looping to Cement Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    of sorbents in carbonate looping processes. The results show that the CO2 carrying capacity of limestone is much lower at realistic conditions than at mild conditions, which are often used in laboratory experiments. BET and SEM analyses show that the surface area of calcined limestone decreases significantly...

  8. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao

    1993-01-01

    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  9. Prostaglandins and chronic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is the basis of various chronic illnesses including cancer and vascular diseases. However, much has yet to be learned how inflammation becomes chronic. Prostaglandins (PGs) are well established as mediators of acute inflammation, and recent studies in experimental animals have provided evidence that they also function in transition to and maintenance of chronic inflammation. One role PGs play in such processes is amplification of cytokine signaling. As such, PGs can facil...

  10. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treat...

  11. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  12. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater blinded trial. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics in five...... Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their 330 primary care givers. INTERVENTIONS: Participating dyads (patient and primary care giver) were randomised to control support during follow-up or to control support plus DAISY intervention (multifaceted and semi...... for attrition (P = 0.0146 and P = 0.0103 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The multifaceted, semi-tailored intervention with counselling, education, and support for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their care givers did not have any significant effect beyond that with well structured follow-up support at 12...

  13. Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…

  14. 77 FR 30293 - Recommendations for the Identification of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... chronic infection, which places infected persons at risk for liver cirrhosis, liver cancer or... liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong... health services to prevent additional harm to the liver (e.g., hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B...

  15. Vascular endothelial cell function and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...

  16. Function of monocytes in chronic HCV infection: Role for IL-10 and interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Liu (Bi Sheng)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistent infection in about 80% of the infected individuals. The symptoms are initially mild in those persistently infected patients, and it may take decades before the serious consequences of chronic HCV infection become apparent. Up to 20% of infec

  17. Carbon price volatility: Evidence from EU ETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines carbon price volatility using data from the European Union Emission Trading Scheme from a nonlinear dynamics point of view. First, we use a random walk model, including serial correlation and variance ratio tests, to determine whether carbon price history information is fully reflected in current carbon price. The empirical research results show that carbon price is not a random walk: the price history information is not fully reflected in current carbon price. Second, use R/S, modified R/S and ARFIMA to analyse the memory of carbon price history. For the period April 2005-December 2008, the modified Hurst index of the carbon price is 0.4859 and the d value of ARFIMA is -0.1191, indicating short-term memory of the carbon price. Third, we use chaos theory to analyse the influence of the carbon market internal mechanism on carbon price, i.e., the market's positive and negative feedback mechanism and the heterogeneous environment. Chaos theory proves that the correlation dimension of carbon price increases. The maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive and large. There is no obvious complex endogenous phenomenon of nonlinear dynamics the carbon price fluctuation. The carbon market is mildly chaotic, showing both market and fractal market characteristics. Price fluctuation is not only influenced by the internal market mechanism, but is also impacted by the heterogeneous environment. Finally, we provide suggestions for regulation and development of carbon market.

  18. Mild Wear Prediction of Boundary-Lubricated Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bosman; Schipper, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a wear model is introduced for the mild wear present in boundary-lubricated systems protected by additive-rich lubricants. The model is based on the hypothesis that the mild wear is mainly originating from the removal of the sacrificial layer formed by a chemical reaction between the base material and the additive packages present in the lubricant. By removing a part of this layer, the chemical balance of the system is disturbed and the system will try to restore the balance fo...

  19. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  20. Perforated Hepatic Hydatid Cyst into the Peritoneum with Mild Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dirican

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease that necessitates emergency surgical intervention. We present herein a case with mild abdominal symptoms due to hydatid cyst rupture into the peritoneum after trauma. A 24-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with mild abdominal pain. His symptoms had started after a fall four days earlier. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intraabdominal free fluid. He was treated surgically with partial cystectomy and falciformoplasty. Postoperative albendazole therapy was given for two months. There was not recurrence four months postoperatively at control computed tomography.

  1. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI; JAMIU KOLAWOLE ODUSOTE; RAHEEM ABOLORE YAHYA

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract conce...

  2. Comparison between characteristics of mild slope equations and Boussinesq equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Boussinesq-type equations and mild-slope equations are compared in terms of their basic forms and characteristics. It is concluded that linear mild-slope equations on dispersion relation are better than non-linear Boussinesq equations. In addition, Berkhoff experiments are computed and compared by the two models, and agreement between model results and available experimental data is found to be quite reasonable, which demonstrates the two models' capacity to simulate wave transformation. However they can deal with different physical processes respectively, and they have their own characteristics.

  3. R\\'edei symbols and arithmetical mild pro-2-groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Generalizing results of Morishita and Vogel, an explicit description of the triple Massey product for the Galois group $G_S(2)$ of the maximal 2-extension of $\\mathbb{Q}$ unramified outside a finite set of prime numbers $S$ containing 2 is given in terms of R\\'edei symbols. We show that mild pro-2-groups with Zassenhaus invariant 3 occur as Galois groups of the form $G_S(2)$. Furthermore, a non-analytic mild fab pro-2-group having only 3 generators is constructed .

  4. Mild pro-p-groups with trivial cup-product

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Generalizing previous results due to A. Schmidt and J. Labute, we prove sufficient criteria involving higher Massey products for finitely presented pro-p-groups to be mild and hence of cohomological dimension 2. Further investigations are pursued in the special case of one-relator pro-p-groups. We construct a class of mild pro-2-groups having trivial cup-product, which occur as Galois groups of the maximal 2-extensions of the rationals with ramification restricted to given finite sets of plac...

  5. Nitrogen-doped hydrothermal carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; White, Robin J. [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. of Colloid Chemistry; Zhao, Li [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. of Colloid Chemistry; National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon materials are now playing an important role in cutting edge innovations for energy conversion and storage technologies such as supercapacitors and proton exchange membrane fuel cells as well as in catalytic applications, adsorption and CO{sub 2} capture. The production of such materials using benign aqueous based processes, mild temperatures and renewable precursors is of great promise in addressing growing environmental concerns for cleaner power sources at a time of increasing global demand for energy. In this perspective, we show that nitrogen doped carbons prepared using sustainable processes such as ''Hydrothermal Carbonisation'' has advantages in many applications over the conventional carbons. We also summarize an array of synthetic strategies used to create such nitrogen doped carbons, and discuss the application of these novel materials. (orig.)

  6. [Treatment of chronic inflammation of the upper respiratory airways by inhalation thermal therapy with sulfur-sulfate-bicarbonate- carbonate-alkaline earth mineral water: a study of nasal cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristalli, G; Abramo, A; Pollastrini, L

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to better characterise changes occurred in nose cytology in a group of 50 subjects affected by chronic inflammation of upper respiratory airway. The patients were random shared in two groups: group A 40 subjects treated using sulphurous thermal water and a group B (control), 10 cases, treated using placebo saline solution. The post-therapy evaluation of nasal cytology showed an improvement of the chronic inflammation in 65% of group A patients (diminution of bacterial dust 65%, diminution of PMN cells in 60% of cases and disappearance of metaplasy notes in all the cases of group A. No statistical modifications were observed in control group. Moreover were observed a increase of plasma-cell number much more in group A. The author conclusion is that a period of thermal therapy using sulphur-sulphate-alkaline-earth metals water in chronic inflammation of the nose, throw pharmacological and physical actions, cause an improvement of the chronic inflammation and a normalisation of nose cytology. PMID:9381939

  7. Chronic methylmercurialism in a horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, A.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Costigan, P.

    1978-02-01

    Chronic methylmercurialism was produced in a horse given 10 g methylmercury chloride over 10 weeks. Neurological signs, particularly proprioceptive disturbances, were apparent by the final week of dosing and became more severe thereafter. An exudative dermatitis, a reluctance to move, weight loss, reduced appetite and dullness were among the earlier clinical signs, and renal changes characterized by a steadily increasing BUN and glucosuria were detected later. Pathological lesions were confined to the kidneys and the nervous system. There was mild neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellar cortex, axonal demyelination in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and extensive degeneration of ganglion cells in the dorsal root ganglia. The blood organic mercury level, which had plateaued in the second month, increased rapidly in the last weeks of dosing with a sharp rise terminally. This pattern was repeated for the much lower inorganic mercury levels except for a terminal decrease. The proportion of inorganic mercury was five times greater in the dorsal root ganglia than elsewhere in the CNS, although total mercury levels were similar. Highest tissue mercury levels were found in the liver and kidneys, over 50% being in the form of inorganic mercury. As dealkylation of the methylmercury appeared to be more efficient in the dorsal root ganglia and the kidneys, inorganic mercury derived therefrom may have been responsible for some of the clinical and pathological features of this intoxication in the horse. 21 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural.

  9. Biofilms affecting progression of mild steel corrosion by Gram positive Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Madida, Bafana B

    2015-10-01

    The biodeterioration of metals have detrimental effects on the environment with economic implications. The deterioration of metals is of great concern to industry. In this study, mild steel coupons which were immersed in a medium containing Gram-positive Bacillus spp. and different nutrient sources were compared with the control in sterile deionized water. The weight loss of the coupons in the presence of Bacillus spp. alone was lower than the control and was further reduced when additional carbon sources, especially fructose, were added. The level of metal corrosion was significantly increased in the presence of nitrate with or without bacteria. There was a significant strong correlation between the weight loss and biofilm level (r =  0.64; p level of metal corrosion under different environmental conditions, thereby, supporting the development of a preventive strategy against corrosion. PMID:25847372

  10. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik;

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a patient with carbon dioxide retention: a therapeutic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Tristan RA; Williamson, Wilby J; Brostoff, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 70 year-old man with carbon monoxide poisoning following a house fire. A significant smoking history and likely underlying chronic lung pathology complicated treatment, as due to symptomatic retention of carbon dioxide we were unable to use high-flow oxygen to facilitate the elimination of carbon monoxide. We suggest that patients with risk factors for obstructive lung disease be monitored extremely carefully during treatment for carbon monoxide toxicity.

  12. Establishment of a model of renal impairment with mild renal insufficiency associated with atrial fibrillation in canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Liang

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF are closely related. No studies have examined whether renal impairment (RI without severe renal dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of AF.Unilateral RI with mild renal insufficiency was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney for 2 weeks using gelatin sponge granules in the model group (n = 5. The sham group (n = 5 underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Parameters associated with RI and renal function were tested, cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, and AF vulnerability were investigated. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured. Histological studies associated with atrial interstitial fibrosis were performed.Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney led to ischemic RI with mild renal insufficiency. The following changes occurred after embolization. Heart rate and P wave duration were increased. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure were elevated. The atrial effective refractory period and antegrade Wenckebach point were shortened. Episodes and duration of AF, as well as atrial and ventricular rate during AF were increased in the model group. Plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone were increased, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced after 2 weeks of embolization in the model group.We successfully established a model of RI with mild renal insufficiency in a large animal. We found that RI with mild renal insufficiency was associated with AF in this model.

  13. Project Based Learning for Children with Mild Mental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Yildiz; Duman, Hulya Gulay

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of a project-based learning program delivered to children with mild mental disabilities. The 7 children (4 girls and 3 boys) selected for this experimental study were from an elementary school and attending a special class. The theme of the project was "Patisserie." At posttest the…

  14. An update on topical therapies for mild-moderate psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapies are the mainstream treatment of psoriasis because most patients have mild disease. First-line treatments are vitamin D derivatives and corticosteroids. These treatments are usually given in combination schedules. For topical treatments the selection of the most appropriate vehicle

  15. Proton MR spectroscopy in mild traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the role of 1H MRS in the detection of changes in cerebral metabolite levels in pyramidal tracts after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to compare metabolite alterations to the clinical status (Glasgow Coma Scale). Study group consisted of 25 patients after mild traumatic brain injury, with a score of 11 to 15 in GCS. The MR studies were performed with a 1.5 T scanner. The results of spectra approximation (presented as metabolite ratios: NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr, lac/Cr, lip/Cr, Glx/Cr) were subjected to statistical analysis. MR spectra were recorded from a normal-appearing brain region: internal capsules and cerebral peduncles. Spectra from traumatic patients were compared with a control group including 34 healthy volunteers recorded with the same techniques. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the data obtained from various brain regions of the same patients after an MTBI and between the study and the control group. Proton MR spectroscopy detects changes in cerebral metabolite levels in apparently normal regions. In pyramidal tracts (internal capsules, cerebral peduncles), we noticed a significant reduction of NAA /Cho, lip/Cr, lac/Cr and Glx/Cr. In patients with mild brain injury, we can detect some metabolite abnormalities in normal-appearing brain structures. Proton MRS is a very useful tool for evaluation of major changes in metabolite levels in pyramidal tracts after mild traumatic brain injury

  16. Farmakologisk behandling af mild ukompliceret hypertension i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Denmark, patients with hypertension are primarily managed in primary care. A recent Cochrane review concluded that pharmacotherapy of patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg; diastolic blood pres...

  17. SCANDIUM TRIFLATE CATALYZED ACETYLATION OF STARCH UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandium (III) trifluoromethan sulfonate (Sc(OTf)3) was investigated as a catalyst for the acetylation of starch in order to determine the potential for preparing new types of starch esters under mild conditions. At room temperature, dry granular corn starch reacts with acetic anhydride in the pres...

  18. Microbial corrosion inhibition of mild steel in salty water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor is increasingly being curtailed by recent corrosion restrictions. This paper represents the results of the study of new biocide, antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor named 8-hydroxy-N'-(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetyl)quinoline-5-sulfonohydrazide (HQS) was used to inhibit corrosion causing sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). The effects of the inhibitor on mild steel dissolution in salty water environment were studied through weight loss measurements, electrochemical and microorganism tests. The results obtained from this study show that, the new inhibitor can decrease corrosion and microbial growth under the conditions tested. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons shows lower corrosion rate compared to the unprotected once. Cyclic polarization test reveals that, the biocide minimizes the pitting area (hysteresis). The nature of protective film formed on mild steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed that, the corrosion inhibition by the HQS on the mild steel surface significantly improved in the presence of biocide

  19. Microbial corrosion inhibition of mild steel in salty water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, A.M. [Electrochemistry and Corrosion Lab., Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Soror, T.Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Dahan, H.A. [Electrochemistry and Corrosion Lab., Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: hosnieldahan@yahoo.com; Ghazy, E.A. [Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Eweas, A.F. [Medicinal Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The use of antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor is increasingly being curtailed by recent corrosion restrictions. This paper represents the results of the study of new biocide, antimicrobial corrosion inhibitor named 8-hydroxy-N'-(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetyl)quinoline-5-sulfonohydrazide (HQS) was used to inhibit corrosion causing sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). The effects of the inhibitor on mild steel dissolution in salty water environment were studied through weight loss measurements, electrochemical and microorganism tests. The results obtained from this study show that, the new inhibitor can decrease corrosion and microbial growth under the conditions tested. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons shows lower corrosion rate compared to the unprotected once. Cyclic polarization test reveals that, the biocide minimizes the pitting area (hysteresis). The nature of protective film formed on mild steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed that, the corrosion inhibition by the HQS on the mild steel surface significantly improved in the presence of biocide.

  20. Plesiomonas shigelloides bacteremia in a healthy girl with mild gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, R; Siitonen, A.; Kärkkäinen, P

    1990-01-01

    A previously healthy 15-year-old girl fell ill with febrile gastroenteritis; Plesiomonas shigelloides was isolated from the blood 6 h after she had received one tablet of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine on the third day of symptoms. She recovered uneventfully. P. shigelloides may be isolated from the blood in immunocompetent patients with mild, uncomplicated gastroenteritis.