WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic mercury poisoning

  1. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  2. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  3. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  4. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  5. 慢性汞中毒致神经系统损害的临床观察%The neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁岩; 宋冉; 李存江

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析慢性汞中毒对患者神经系统损害的表现,以提高对慢性汞中毒的临床认识.方法 总结分析2006--2010年首都医科大学宣武医院神经内科收治的8例慢性汞中毒患者的临床资料.结果 慢性汞中毒造成的神经系统损害包括周围神经病变以及感觉异常(6/8例)、思维缓慢及精神异常(3/8例)、肢体无力萎缩(3/8例)、震颤(4/8例)、睡眠障碍(3/8例)等.结论 慢性汞中毒可以有各种各样的神经系统损害的表现,在临床工作中要注意鉴别.尽早诊治会减少患者痛苦.%Objective To analyze the neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning for the improvement of clinical understanding of this disease.Methods The clinical data of 8 cases diagnosed as chronic mercury poisoning admitted in the department of neurology of Xuanwu hospital during the past 5 years were collected and analysed.Results Neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning involved psychological problems,sleep disorders,ataxia,extremities weakness and atrophy,tremor,peripheral neuropathy and paresthesia.Conclusions There are various kinds of neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning.Identification of these manifestations in clinical practice and early diagnosis are beneficial for the relief of pains in the patients.

  6. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  7. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  8. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  9. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  10. Self poisoning in the home by mercury and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury poisoning can take place in the home. The metal may be present as a toy and the compounds as medicines or cosmetics. Unfortunately these materials are considered to be harmless and the victims do not connect the symptoms of poisoning (if recognised as such) with them. The tissue mercury levels are similar to those found in industrial exposure and as with them no relationship between symptoms and tissue concentrations can be found. (author)

  11. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifian MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality and mortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercury is a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systems and the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present in thermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments and explosives and are used as preservatives in medicine. Mercury was once used to stop fever, and this worked because the immune system was so weakened that it could no longer sustain the attack for which the fever was created. Some medical drugs still contain mercury chloride and mercurous chloride and certain forms of mercury are still used in some laxatives. Mercury toxicity of the nervous system causes anorexia, ataxia, lack of ability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, dementia, depression, dizziness, emotional instability, erethism (abnormal irritability in response to stimulation, incoordination, insomnia, irritability, loss of ability to speak, memory impairment, numbness, saresthesias (sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on the skin, psychosis, tremors, drowsiness, fatigue and weakness.Other organ damages include kidney failure, headaches, hearing impairment, visual impairment, hypertension, dermatitis, digestive tract problems, colitis, diarrhea, stomatitis and excessive salivation, loss of teeth, metallic taste, chromosomal damage, birth defects and ensuing organ failure. Chronic mercury poisoning can cause Acrodynia (Pink disease. Mercury poisoning is a rare cause of hypertension in children. Herein we report 3 cases, the first a child with hypertensive encephalopathy due to severe mercury poisoning and his two siblings with moderate symptoms.Case reportA 10 year old boy was admitted in psychiatric ward of Imam Hossein Hospital with behavioral disorder, irritability, mood

  12. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  13. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noorisafa MD,

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality andmortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercuryis a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systemsand the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present inthermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments andexplosives and are used as preservatives in medicine. Mercury was once usedto stop fever, and this worked because the immune system was so weakenedthat it could no longer sustain the attack for which the fever was created. Somemedical drugs still contain mercury chloride and mercurous chloride and certainforms of mercury are still used in some laxatives.Mercury toxicity of the nervous system causes anorexia, ataxia, lack of abilityto coordinate voluntary muscle movements, dementia, depression, dizziness,emotional instability, erethism (abnormal irritability in response to stimulation,incoordination, insomnia, irritability, loss of ability to speak, memory impairment,numbness, saresthesias (sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on the skin,psychosis, tremors, drowsiness, fatigue and weakness.Other organ damages include kidney failure, headaches, hearing impairment,visual impairment, hypertension, dermatitis, digestive tract problems, colitis,diarrhea, stomatitis and excessive salivation, loss of teeth, metallic taste,chromosomal damage, birth defects and ensuing organ failure. Chronic mercurypoisoning can cause Acrodynia (Pink disease. Mercury poisoning is a rarecause of hypertension in children. Herein we report 3 cases, the first a childwith hypertensive encephalopathy due to severe mercury poisoning and histwo siblings with moderate symptoms.Case reportA 10 year old boy was admitted in psychiatric ward of Imam Hossein Hospitalwith behavioral disorder, irritability, mood change and convulsion

  14. Review of treatment and nursing of mercury poisoning%汞中毒治疗及护理综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芸

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the conventional treatment of acute and chronic mercury poisoning and daily care are reviewed, and puts forward measures on how to prevent.%本文就急性及慢性汞中毒的常规治疗及日常护理进行了综述,并就如何预防提出了措施.

  15. The role of chelation in the treatment of arsenic and mercury poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for more than half a century. Animal experiments and in some instances human data indicate that the dithiol chelators enhance arsenic and mercury excretion. Controlled animal experiments support a therapeutic role for these chelators in the prompt treatment of acute poisoning by arsenic and inorganic mercury salts. Treatment should be initiated as rapidly as possible (within minutes to a few hours), as efficacy declines or disappears as the time interval between metal exposure and onset of chelation increases. DMPS and DMSA, which have a higher therapeutic index than BAL and do not redistribute arsenic or mercury to the brain, offer advantages in clinical practice. Although chelation following chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic and inorganic mercury may accelerate metal excretion and diminish metal burden in some organs, potential therapeutic efficacy in terms of decreased morbidity and mortality is largely unestablished in cases of chronic metal intoxication.

  16. [Noncirrhotic liver fibrosis after chronic arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, M; Hengels, K J; Borchard, F; Strohmeyer, G

    1989-10-27

    A 67-year-old woman with portal hypertension, splenomegaly without portal vein thrombosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia of splenic origin had repeated episodes of life-threatening haemorrhage from esophageal varices. Since childhood she had suffered from psoriasis and had been treated over a period of 15 years with Fowler's solution (in all about 25 g of arsenic trioxide). She had the characteristic skin lesions of arsenical poisoning-palmar hyperkeratoses and two basal cell carcinomas on the trunk. Histological examination of a wedge biopsy from the liver showed definite structural changes with fibrosis around the central veins and in the portal tracts. There was no evidence of cirrhotic alteration. The hepatocytes were normal by light microscopy and electron microscopy. This case of noncirrhotic hepatic fibrosis is considered to have been caused by chronic arsenical poisoning.

  17. Evaluation of the chelating action of methicillin in prolonged experimental metallic mercury poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyle, W H

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to measure the effect of methicillin on the urinary excretion of mercury in rabbits poisoned for three months by mercury vapour. Simultaneously, studies were done to compare the quantity of eliminated mercury after treatment with methicillin or penicillamine (Cuprenil). The results show that the urinary excretion of mercury in animals treated with either drug was clearly greater than in untreated controls. Furthermore, the quantity of eliminated mercury after treatment ...

  18. Chronic insomnia in workers poisoned by inorganic mercury: psychological and adaptive aspects Insônia crônica em trabalhadores contaminados por mercúrio inorgânico: aspectos psicológicos e adaptativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUELI REGINA G. ROSSINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is one of the symptoms of inorganic mercury poisoning (IMP. The objective of this study is to analyze the chief psychological aspects in the adjustment of workers with chronic insomnia associated with IMP. For this purpose the Preventive Clinical Interview and the Ryad Simon Operational Adaptive Diagnostic Scale (Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada-EDAO were utilized. Fifteen subjects with mean age of 40 years (10 males and 5 females were studied. Nine were diagnosed with High Adaptive Inefficacy, five with Moderate Inefficient Adaptation and only one with Mild Inefficient Adaptation. Impairment occurred in four adaptive sectors: affective relationship, social-cultural, productivity and organic. Adaptive efficiency indicated that in all the 15 subjects studied the adaptive solutions were frustrating and led to psychic suffering and/or environmental conflict confirming the severity of the involvement in chronic IMP.Insônia é um dos sintomas da contaminação por mercúrio inorgânico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os principais aspectos psicológicos presentes na organização adaptativa de trabalhadores com insônia crônica associada à contaminação por mercúrio inorgânico. Utilizaram a Entrevista Clínica Preventiva e a Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada (EDAO de Ryad Simon. Foram estudadas 15 pessoas, com média de idade de 40 anos (10M; 5 F. Nove foram diagnosticadas como tendo Adaptação Ineficaz Severa; cinco, Adaptação Ineficaz Moderada; e somente um, Adaptação Ineficaz Leve. O comprometimento na adaptação ocorreu nos quatro setores adaptativos: afetivo-emocional, sócio-cultural, da produtividade e orgânico. A eficácia adaptativa indicou que em todos as15 pessoas estudadas, as soluções adaptativas encontradas foram frustrantes e levaram a sofrimento psíquico e/ou atritos ambientais, evidenciando a severidade de comprometimento na intoxicação crônica por mercúrio inorgânico.

  19. EEG spectral analysis and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupationalchronic mercury poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-bin SUN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the features of EEG spectrum and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning.  Methods Eighteen patients with chronic mercury poisoning were collected continuously as poisoning group at Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences from March 2012 to September 2013. At the same time, 12 age- and sex-matched healthy people were selected as control group. All patients underwent video EEG, and EEGLAB in Matlab 2013 software was used to analyze their EEG data. Relevant spectrum data of the 2 groups were compared and analyzed.  Results The frequency-energy curves of 12 normal subjects were similar to sine curve, with obvious energy peak at α band. The frequency-energy curves of 18 patients showed as follows: 5 cases had the peak at slow δ wave, and the energy curve decreased since δ band appeared, with α band peak disappearing. The curve of 10 cases had 2 peaks respectively at α and δ band, and δ peak was higher than α peak. The spectrum in other 3 cases was normal. The quantitative analysis of EEG revealed the proportion of δ band for the total energy. The proportion of δ band for total energy of the poisoning group in right middle temporal (P = 0.018 and left posterior temporal (P = 0.039 channel was significantly higher than that of the normal group, while the proportion of δ band in middle frontal (P = 0.003, right frontal (P = 0.016 and right anterior temporal (P = 0.024, left middle temporal (P = 0.036 and right posterior temporal (P = 0.031 was lower than that of the normal group. Conclusions EEG examination plays an important role in assessing the severity of brain injury for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning. Spectrum analysis is an intuitive and simple method, and can provide some help for clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.013

  20. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature

  1. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wale Jaywant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature.

  2. Clinico-morphological changes and diagnosis of animal poisoning with mercury preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tishkov, A.I.

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines animal poisoning with mercury compounds used to dress seeds. Chickens, guinea pigs, and mice were fed plants grown from seeds dressed with mercury compounds. The chickens exhibited stomatitis, pharyngitis, esophagitis, and leukocytosis. The guinea pigs and mice exhibited a biological accumulation of mercury.

  3. Metal mercury poisoning in two boys initially treated for brucellosis in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, M S; Hadavi, N; Afshari, R; Mousavi, S R; Alizadeh, A; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-02-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg) is the only metal which evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause toxicity. Hg poisoning may occur by mishandling the metal, particularly in children who play with it. Wide-spectrum of the clinical presentations of chronic Hg poisoning may cause misdiagnosis, particularly when history of exposure is unknown. We report two cases of accidental Hg poisoning, which initially had been diagnosed and treated for brucellosis. The patients were two brothers (7 and 14 years old) who presented with pain in their lower extremities, sweating, salivation, weight loss, anorexia and mood changes on admission. Meticulous history taking revealed that they had played with a ball of Hg since 3 months before admission. The level of urinary Hg was 125.9 and 54.2 9 g/L in the younger and older brother, respectively (normal ≤25 g/L). The patients were successfully treated by dimercaprol and discharged in good condition 24 days after admission. These cases are being reported to emphasize the importance of acrodynia as a differential diagnosis for brucellosis in endemic areas. PMID:21803782

  4. Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehrdad; Rafati-Rahimzadeh, Mehravar; Kazemi, Sohrab; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Mercury poisoning cases have been reported in many parts of the world, resulting in many deaths every year. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Long term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources e.g. water, food, soil and air lead to toxic effects on cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, neurological systems and skin. Mercury level can be measured in plasma, urine, feces and hair samples. Urinary concentration is a good indicator of poisoning of elemental and inorganic mercury, but organic mercury (e.g. methyl mercury) can be detected easily in feces. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a rapid, cheap and sensitive method for detection of thymine bound mercuric ions. Silver nanoparticles are used as a sensitive detector of low concentration Hg2+ ions in homogeneous aqueous solutions. Besides supportive therapy, British anti lewisite, dimercaprol (BAL), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. succimer) and dimercaptopropanesulfoxid acid (DMPS) are currently used as chelating agents in mercury poisoning. Natural biologic scavengers such as algae, azolla and other aquatic plants possess the ability to uptake mercury traces from the environment. PMID:24888360

  5. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning.

  6. Mercury and health care

    OpenAIRE

    Rustagi Neeti; Singh Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world ha...

  7. Semiquantitative mercury determination in fish: a tool for poisoning prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YALLOUZ ALLEGRA V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mercury intoxication through contaminated fish ingestion has been well studied, mainly among Japanese population. The Brazilian population, particulaly in the Amazon region, is now in focus due to findings of fish contamination. Major health impacts caused by mercury affect mostly people who have a regular fish diet. A continuous checking for mercury content in the most consumed fish could prevent human intoxication. A simple, non-instrumental method to allow a continuous checking of the mercury content in fish was developed. Based on this method, we are proposing a prevention action where community agents can be trained to perform fish analysis. Technical Schools and Universities located nearby the affected areas would be in charge of quality control programs for the fish analysis as well as for the selection, training and update for operators.

  8. Elevated mercury bound to serum proteins in methylmercury poisoned rats after selenium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhao, Jiating; Xu, Xiaohan; Jing, Hui; Shang, Lihai; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant and is generated by microbial methylation of elemental or inorganic mercury in the environment. Previous study found decreased hepatic MDA levels and urinary mercury levels in methylmercury poisoned rats after sodium selenite treatment. This study further found increased mercury levels in serum samples from methylmercury poisoned rats after selenium treatment. By using size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, three Hg- binding protein fractions and two Se-binding protein fractions were identified with the molecular weight of approximately 21, 40, and 75 kDa and of 40 and 75 kDa, respectively. Elevated mercury level in the 75 kDa protein fraction was found binding with both Hg and Se, which may explain the decreased urinary Hg excretion in MeHg poisoned rats after Se treatment. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of the serum found that the 75 kDa protein fractions were albumin binding with both Hg and Se and the 21 kDa fraction was Hg- binding metallothionein. PMID:27542163

  9. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, M.E.; Albores, A.; Aguilar, M.; Blakely, E.

    1983-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations. The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg/l, and 0.007 mg/l in the control population. The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form. The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic ingestion of arsenic in contaminated water. In the exposed population, 21.6% of the sample, showed at least one of the cutaneous signs of chronic arsenic poisoning against 2.2% in the control town. Non-specific symptoms were more prevalent in the exposed population and they occurred more frequently in those individuals with skin signs. The relative risk of suffering a particular manifestation of poisoning, ranged from 1.9 to 36 times higher in the exposed population. We estimated the risks above mentioned, which were derived from exposure to minute quantities of arsenic in a known proportion of its oxidation states during a life time period.

  10. Recommended Diagnostic Criteria for Occupational Chronic Lead Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIN-BAI; WANGJIN-PING

    1995-01-01

    The present study aims to recommend the normal upper limit,the acceptable upper limit,the subclinical lead absorption and intoxication diagnostic criteria in an effort to re-evaluate the current national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning.The study was conducted on 330 lead exposed workers and 100 non-exposed controls based on the determination of blood and urinary lead,porphyrin metabolism indices,as well as other indices under a nationwide quality control program.The data were subsequently treated by the curve fitting,multi-step transformation to Gauss distribution,and discriminant analysis with the aid of a SAS software package.The relationships between the air lead and blood lead level with certain biological parameters indicative of excessive lead exposure and poisoning were well established.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,false positive and false negative results of these critical values were also fully evaluated.This study would be useful for the amendment of the new edition of the national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning in China and would provide new approaches for similar investigations.

  11. Wide use of skin-lightening soap may cause mercury poisoning in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, M; Nakachi, S; Tasaka, K; Sakashita, S; Muta, K; Yanagida, K; Doi, R; Kizaki, T; Ohno, H

    2001-03-26

    In a previous study, we speculated that some of the high mercury levels observed in head hair from a total of 14 subjects who resided around Lake Victoria, Tanzania, might be attributable to the habitual use of toilet soap containing considerable amounts of mercury (Harada et al. Sci Total Environ 1999;227:249-256). In August 1998, the current study was conducted to investigate if such mercury-containing soap was also available in the surroundings of Lake Victoria, Kenya, and if so, its toxic effects. A total of nine goldminers, 44 fishermen and their families, and 12 residents of Kisumu City, Kenya, volunteered for the study. Fourteen types of toilet soap were collected in Kisumu. Total mercury content was very significantly higher than in European-made soap (0.47-1.7%, as mercury iodide) compared with Kenya-made soap (0.41 x 10(-4)-6.2 x 10(-4)%). Indeed, all the subjects with a high hair mercury level (> 36.1 ppm) had made habitual use of European-made soap, accompanied by various symptoms, such as tremor, lassitude, vertigo, neurosthenia, and black and white blots, suggesting inorganic-mercury poisoning. On the other hand, any subject who had used soap other than the European-made soap, did not exceed a mercury level of 10 ppm in hair that is well within normal limits (Harada et al. Sci Total Environ 1999:227:249-256). The findings obtained suggest that the mercury-containing soap must be barred from circulation without delay, and that the residents' health in addition to the environmental pollution in Lake Victoria (Kenya as well as Tanzania) should be kept under close observation. PMID:11305339

  12. Correlation between tibial nerve ultrastructural abnormalities and post-mercury poison-induced muscular pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Dai; Yongtian Zhou; Xudong Xu; Jingyun Du; Lin Xie; Juan Li; Mingyi Xu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathways induced/activated by mercury poisoning that lead to muscle pain remain unclear. The present study addressed the structural changes observed in the peripheral nerve following mercury poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To establish the mercury poison rat model, rats were intragastrically administered mercury. The correlation between post-mercury poison-induced muscular pain and tibial nerve morphological changes were observed. DESIGN: Observational contrast animal study.SETTING: Shangdong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine.MATERIALS: Thirty adult Sprague Dawley rats of equal gender. Mercury chloride (HgCl2, analytical grade: 99.99%; batch number: 990402) was provided by Shanghai Chemical Reagent Factory, and sodium dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) injection by Shanghai Harvest Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (batch number: 0309011).METHODS: This study was performed at the Animal Experimental Center of Shangdong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine from December 2005 to January 2006. Rats were randomly divided into high-dose mercury, low-dose mercury, and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in the two mercury groups were intragastrically administered 17 mg/kg and 8.5 mg/kg HgCl2 solution, respectively, once a day to establish a rat model of subacute mercury poisoning. Rats in the control group were intragastrically administered 2 mL saline, once a day. Intragastric administration in the three groups lasted for (20 ± 2) days. After model establishment, rats in the two mercury groups were injected DMPS once a day to remove mercury. The injection lasted for 3 days after every 4-day interval. Seven days was regarded as one treatment cycle, and there were two treatment cycles in total.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mercury-induced muscular pain status; ultrastructural changes of the right tibial nerve following model establishment and mercury removal under transmission electron microscope.RESULTS: Thirty rats were

  13. Mercuralismo metálico crônico ocupacional Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcília de Araújo Medrado Faria

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Revisão que analisa os conhecimento atuais das manifestações do mercuralismo crônico ocupacional. Avaliaram-se os principais estudos e revisões científicas concernentes às formas clínicas e fisiopatogenia desta intoxicação. Foram pesquisadas, entre outras fontes, as bases de dados Medline e Lilacs. O eretismo ou a síndrome neuropsíquica caracterizada por sintomas de irritabilidade, ansiedade, mudanças de comportamento, apatia, perda da auto-estima e de memória, depressão, insônia, delírio, cefaléia, dores musculares e tremores é observada após a exposição ao mercúrio metálico. Manifestações de hipertensão arterial, renais, imunológicas e alérgicas são freqüentes. A falta de medidas preventivas aumenta o risco da doença em indústrias, no garimpo e consultórios odontológicos. A legislação brasileira assinala 16 manifestações clínicas determinadas pela intoxicação, todavia ocorre subdiagnóstico. O diagnóstico clínico é importante e as novas tecnologias médicas podem detectar alterações do sistema nervoso central, renal e imunológico, proporcionando avanços no conhecimento neuro-imuno-toxicológico e nas medidas de prevenção do mercuralismo.This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing

  14. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  15. Mercury and health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustagi Neeti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP have issued guidelines for the countries′ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now.

  16. Mercury and health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries’ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now. PMID:21120080

  17. Mercury and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-08-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries' health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now.

  18. Peripheral vascular diseases resulting from chronic arsenical poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2002-03-01

    Drinking water contaminated by arsenic remains a major public health problem. Long-term arsenic exposure has been found to be associated with peripheral vascular diseases in a variety of studies. Reports of vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water, which span almost 100 years, have been published in Taiwan, Chile, Mexico, and China. This paper reviewed the association of peripheral vascular diseases resulting from arsenic exposure to drinking water from the clinical and pathological points of view. An endemic peripheral vascular disorder called "blackfoot disease" has been noticed in a limited area in Taiwan. This disease results in gangrene in the extremities. It has been associated with the ingestion of high concentrations of arsenic-tainted artesian well water. Epidemiological studies confirmed a dose-response relationship between long-term arsenic exposure and the occurrence of blackfoot disease. Whereas arsenic has induced various clinical manifestations of vascular effects in Chile, Mexico and China, they do not compare in magnitude or severity to the blackfoot disease found in Taiwan. The pathogenesis of vascular effects induced by arsenic is still controversial. The possible mechanisms include endothelial cell destruction, arsenic-associated atherogenesis, carotene and zinc deficiency, and/or some immunological mechanism. Microcirculatory assessments revealed that deficits of capillary blood flow and permeability exist in clinically normal skin of patients with chronic arsenical poisoning. The vascular effects of chronic arsenic poisoning may involve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems as well. In view of the increasing public health problems caused by arsenic exposure, vascular effects should be included in the future study of health effects of arsenic.

  19. Human health effects from chronic arsenic poisoning--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaj, Simon; Peterson, Hans; Liber, Karsten; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2006-01-01

    The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 microg/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 microg/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5 microg/L. The reason for these regulatory changes is the realization that As can cause deleterious effects at lower concentrations than was previously thought. There is a strong relationship between chronic ingestion of As and deleterious human health effects and here we provide an overview of some of the major effects documented in the scientific literature. As regulatory levels of As have been decreased, an increasing number of water supplies will now require removal of As before the water can be used for human consumption. While As exposure can occur from food, air and water, all major chronic As poisonings have stemmed from water and this is usually the predominant exposure route. Exposure to As leads to an accumulation of As in tissues such as skin, hair and nails, resulting in various clinical symptoms such as hyperpigmentation and keratosis. There is also an increased risk of skin, internal organ, and lung cancers. Cardiovascular disease and neuropathy have also been linked to As consumption. Verbal IQ and long term memory can also be affected, and As can suppress hormone regulation and hormone mediated gene transcription. Increases in fetal loss and premature delivery, and decreased birth weights of infants, can occur even at low (poisoning can be made by examining As levels in urine, hair and toenails. Communities and individuals relying on groundwater sources for drinking water need to measure As levels to ensure that their supplies are safe. Communities with water As levels greater than 5 microg/L should consider a program to document As levels in the population.

  20. Chronic atrophic gastritis in association with hair mercury level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zeyun; Xue, Huiping; Jiang, Jianlan; Lin, Bing; Zeng, Si; Huang, Xiaoyun; An, Jianfu

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore hair mercury level in association with chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous stage of gastric cancer (GC), and thus provide a brand new angle of view on the timely intervention of precancerous stage of GC. We recruited 149 healthy volunteers as controls and 152 patients suffering from chronic gastritis as cases. The controls denied upper gastrointestinal discomforts, and the cases were diagnosed as chronic superficial gastritis (n=68) or chronic atrophic gastritis (n=84). We utilized Mercury Automated Analyzer (NIC MA-3000) to detect hair mercury level of both healthy controls and cases of chronic gastritis. The statistic of measurement data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, which was analyzed using Levene variance equality test and t test. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to determine associated factors affecting hair mercury levels, and multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to deduce regression equations. Statistical significance is considered if p value is less than 0.05. The overall hair mercury level was 0.908949 ± 0.8844490 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in gastritis cases and 0.460198 ± 0.2712187 ng/g (mean±SD) in healthy controls; the former level was significantly higher than the latter one (p=0.000Pearson correlation analysis indicated that eating seafood was most correlated with hair mercury level and positively correlated in the healthy controls and that the severity of gastritis was most correlated with hair mercury level and positively correlated in the gastritis cases. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the regression equation of hair mercury level in controls could be expressed as 0.262 multiplied the value of eating seafood plus 0.434, the model that was statistically significant (p<0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis also indicated that the regression equation of hair mercury level in gastritis cases could be expressed as 0

  1. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhatrak Sarang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.

  2. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatrak, Sarang V; Nandi, Subroto S

    2009-08-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.

  3. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatrak, Sarang V; Nandi, Subroto S

    2009-08-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants. PMID:20386621

  4. Membranous glomerulonephropathy and nephrotic syndrome associated with iatrogenic metallic mercury poisoning in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, R M; Stowe, C M; Osborne, C A; O'Leary, T P; Vernier, R L; Hammer, R F

    1981-02-01

    The nephrotic syndrome, characterized by nonselective proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and ascites, was observed in a 10-month-old male cat. Profound glomerular changes and renal tubular changes appear to have been induced by iatrogenic chronic exposure to metallic mercury originally contained in a rectal thermometer. Large concentrations of mercury were present in the kidneys, liver, spleen, and urine. Evaluation of glomeruli by immunofluorescent microscopy revealed interrupted granular deposition of immuno-globulin G and the third component of complement in glomerular capillary walls and the mesangium. Electron microscopic evaluation of glomeruli revealed diffuse alterations in glomerular basement membranes and visceral epithelial cells. Small electron dense deposits were observed in capillary walls, but they were not characteristic of immune complexes. The mechanism(s) responsible for the mercury induced glomerulonephropathy in this patient could not be determined on the basis of available data. PMID:7257162

  5. 现行《职业性汞中毒诊断标准》的应用研究%Application of the national diagnostic criteria of occupational mercury poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡兴亚; 冯玉妹; 张雪涛; 张顺荣; 姚峰; 鲁翼雯; 罗月青; 倪为民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical manifestation of patients with renal injury induced by chronic mercury intoxication and the application of the diagnostic criteria of occupational mercury poisoning. Methods The clinical data of 8 patients with chronic occupational mercury intoxication were analysed and evaluated. Results All the observed clinical signs of chronic mercury intoxication correspond with the items of the diagnostic criteria of occupational mercury poisoning. The increasing β2-MG was one of the clinical manifestations of renal injury induced by chronical mercury intoxication. The renal injury obviously was dose-dependent and reversible. Conclusions The national diagnostic criteria of occupational mercury poisoning is practically valuable. The renal injury induced by chronic mercury intoxication should not be neglected.%目的 观察慢性汞中毒引起肾损伤的临床表现,研究新修订的GBZ 89-2007(职业性汞中毒诊断标准>的应用价值.方法 对8例慢性职业性轻度汞中毒患者的临床表现、诊断、治疗及预后进行综合分析.结果 8例慢性轻度汞中毒患者主要的临床表现如尿汞增高、神经衰弱综合征、手指震颤,可伴舌、眼睑震颤和近端肾小管功能障碍如尿低相对分子质量蛋白含量增高等与现行中轻度中毒的诊断指标相符,职业性慢性汞中毒引起的肾损伤以β2-微球蛋白含量的增加为主要表现,且与接触工龄间存在剂量-效应关系,驱汞治疗后可以逆转.结论 新修订的GBZ 89-2007在临床诊断应用中具有实用价值,慢性汞中毒引起的肾损伤应引起临床医生的高度重视.

  6. Skin cancer caused by chronic arsenical poisoning--a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, R; Omar, I; Jidon, A J; Wan-Khamizar, B W; Siti-Aishah, B M; Sharifah-Noor-Akmal, S H

    1993-03-01

    The association of arsenical poisoning with the development of skin cancer is well-known. In Malaysia, arsenic has been shown to coexist with tin in tin-mining land. Our preliminary investigation has shown that the level of arsenic in well water from a tin-mining area is high. We report 3 patients with cutaneous lesions typical of chronic arsenical poisoning such as hyperpigmentation, keratoses and skin cancer. These patients have positive histories of previous domicility in tin-mining areas. We conclude that these patients developed chronic arsenical poisoning from drinking well water polluted with arsenic from the tin-mining soil.

  7. Idiopathic portal hypertension and chronic arsenic poisoning. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainuvati, T; Viranuvatti, V

    1979-01-01

    We report a case of idiopathic portal hypertension which is related to chronic arsenic poisoning. Only 7 cases have been reported previously. The patient presented with bleeding esophageal varices. Splenomegaly and hyperkeratosis of palms and soles were later noted and led to the discovery of chronic arsenic poisoning. The hemodynamic studies revealed a gradient between the splenic pulp pressure and hepatic wedge pressure which is consistent with presinusoidal hypertension. The liver histology revealed only mild portal fibrosis. Arsenic poisoning is one cause of idiopathic protal hypertension.

  8. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  9. Ultrasensitive and rapid screening of mercury(II) ions by dual labeling colorimetric method in aqueous samples and applications in mercury-poisoned animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rapid and ultrasensitive screening of mercury ions are achieved by using gold nanoparticles based colorimetric method. • Dual labeling strategy is adopted for sensing signal amplification. • The proposed method is successfully used for analysis of mercury-poisoned animal tissues. - Abstract: Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of trace heavy metal mercury(II) ions (Hg2+) are of significant importance due to the induced serious risks for environment and human health. This presented article reports the gold nanoparticle-based dual labeling colorimetric method (Dual-COLO) for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Hg2+ using the specific thymine–Hg2+–thymine (T–Hg2+–T) as recognition system and the dual labeling strategy for signal amplification. Both qualitative and quantitative detections of Hg2+ are achieved successfully in aqueous samples. More importantly, the achieved detection limit of 0.005 ng mL−1 (0.025 nM) without any instruments is very competitive to other rapid detection methods even ICP-MS based methods. This Dual-COLO method is also applied directly for real water sample monitoring and, more importantly, applied in analysis of mercury poisoned animal tissues and body fluidic samples, indicating a potentially powerful and promising tool for environmental monitoring and food safety control

  10. Ultrasensitive and rapid screening of mercury(II) ions by dual labeling colorimetric method in aqueous samples and applications in mercury-poisoned animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi; Wang, Xin; Xue, Feng [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zheng, Lei [School of Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jian [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yan, Feng [Applied Physics Department, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Xia, Fan, E-mail: xiafan@hust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: chenweishnu@163.com [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-04-08

    Highlights: • Rapid and ultrasensitive screening of mercury ions are achieved by using gold nanoparticles based colorimetric method. • Dual labeling strategy is adopted for sensing signal amplification. • The proposed method is successfully used for analysis of mercury-poisoned animal tissues. - Abstract: Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of trace heavy metal mercury(II) ions (Hg{sup 2+}) are of significant importance due to the induced serious risks for environment and human health. This presented article reports the gold nanoparticle-based dual labeling colorimetric method (Dual-COLO) for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Hg{sup 2+} using the specific thymine–Hg{sup 2+}–thymine (T–Hg{sup 2+}–T) as recognition system and the dual labeling strategy for signal amplification. Both qualitative and quantitative detections of Hg{sup 2+} are achieved successfully in aqueous samples. More importantly, the achieved detection limit of 0.005 ng mL{sup −1} (0.025 nM) without any instruments is very competitive to other rapid detection methods even ICP-MS based methods. This Dual-COLO method is also applied directly for real water sample monitoring and, more importantly, applied in analysis of mercury poisoned animal tissues and body fluidic samples, indicating a potentially powerful and promising tool for environmental monitoring and food safety control.

  11. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  12. Modern methods of water and air purification from mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Dolina, L. F.; Chornaya, A. Yu.; Nagornaya, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    People can be exposed to mercury in any form in different circumstances. Depending on the amount of mercury and duration of exposure potential acute poisoning, chronic poisoning, micromercurialism. As of release into the environment (air, sediment, water), it undergoes a series of complex transformations. Methylmercury is the most highly toxic form of mercury, it is especially enhanced in the food chain. Extreme danger as contaminants in natural waters are heavy metals, have a toxic effect on...

  13. Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, L; Maylin, G A

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence river, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973; considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant has been designated as the "major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island." Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall island cattle was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. Cows died at or were slaughtered after the third pregnancy. The deterioration of cows did not allow further pregnancies. Fluoride concentrations in ash of biopsied coccygeal vertebrae increased significantly with age and were dependent on distance from and direction to the aluminum plant. Fluoride in bone ash of a 7-month old-fetus exceeded 500 ppm; fluoride thus was passed transplacentally. Analyses of fluoride in ash of bones obtained at necropsy of cattle from 4 months of age to 4 to 5 years of age showed increased amounts with age. Cancellous bone retained far higher amounts than cortical bone, a reflection of the normally higher metabolic rate of cancellous bone. Concentrations exceeding 10,000 ppm fluoride were recorded in cancellous bone of a 4-to 5-year-old cow. The target cells for fluoride in chronic fluorosis were shown to be the ameloblasts, the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts and, in bone, primarily the resorbing osteocytes and also the osteoblasts. Atrophy and necrosis of the ameloblasts were responsible for enamel defects. The existing enamel showed brown discoloration from fluoride deposits. The pulp cells underwent fibrous and osseous metaplasia and necrosis of the ectopic bone occurred. The odontoblasts were atrophic and the dentin showed brown discoloration. The resorbing osteocytes were inactive and osteosclerosis resulted. This was especially pronounced in areas of normally great apposition, i.e. in the metaphyses. The epiphyseal

  14. Chronic Lead Poisoning in Iran; a Silent Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahrpour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the oldest, permanent hazards in the world and Iran is not excluded and has the same risk of lead toxicity. Humans have known about the potential hazards of lead poisoning for centuries. Lead is widespread in natural substances, and almost all people are in touch with this insidiously toxic heavy metal in different ways either in workplace or at homes. The level of exposure is higher in most of countries because of extensive use of lead containing materials in normal life and the environment.

  15. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners

    OpenAIRE

    Dhatrak Sarang; Nandi Subroto

    2009-01-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposu...

  16. Chronic arsenic poisoning masquerading as Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, M J; Tanhehco, J L; Dau, P C

    1992-09-01

    Acute arsenic intoxication may present as Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome because of similarities in clinical symptoms involving the gastrointestinal tract, weakness, and sensory symptoms. Electrodiagnostic findings may be similar with demyelinating changes predominating early in both diseases. A case is presented of repeated arsenic poisoning over two years misdiagnosed as Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome. Proximal F-loop latency (M-wave latency at wrist + F-wave latency at wrist - 2 M-wave latency at axilla) helped to establish the correct diagnosis. Serial electrodiagnostic studies were done documenting the evolution of chronic repeated arsenic poisoning from a picture showing demyelination to one with severe axonal loss.

  17. Rehabilitation in an individual with chronic arsenic poisoning: medical, psychological, and social implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, T L; Richards, J S; Matthews, G

    1998-04-01

    Although arsenic poisoning was a common cause of homicide in the past, it is seldom suspected today; thus there may be serious delays in diagnosis and treatment of arsenic ingestion. Rehabilitation specialists have traditionally dealt with the debilitating consequences of the classic arsenic-induced sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy; however, a knowledge of the presentation of acute toxicity combined with the effects of chronic exposure is essential for proper treatment, particularly in the event of ongoing exposure. This case report demonstrates the wide spectrum of medical complications associated with arsenic poisoning and briefly reviews its pathophysiology and treatment from both the medical and psychosocial perspective.

  18. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  19. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive MPC

  20. Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Kiran; Flora, Swaran J S

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals remains a widespread occupational and environmental problem in world. There have been a number of reports in the recent past suggesting an incidence of childhood lead poisoning and chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated drinking water in many areas of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh has become a national calamity. Low level metal exposure in humans is caused by air, food and water intake. Lead and arsenic generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the central nervous system (CNS), the haematopoietic system, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there has been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at a lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Medical treatment of acute and chronic lead and arsenic toxicity is furnished by chelating agents. Chelating agents are organic compounds capable of linking together metal ions to form complex ring-like structures called chelates. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL) has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been tried successfully in animals as well as in a few cases of human lead and arsenic poisoning. DMSA could be a safe and effective method for treating lead or arsenic poisoning, but one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove lead from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy is to use combined treatment. This includes the use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant and a chelator to

  1. Chronic arsenic poisoning: a global health issue -- a report of multiple primary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvekar, R R; Kane, S V; Nadkarni, M S; Bagwan, I N; Chaukar, D A; D'Cruz, A K

    2007-02-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning is a worldwide public health problem. Effects of prolonged exposure to high levels of As in drinking water have been observed and documented in various epidemiological studies from all over the world. The non-malignant cutaneous effects of chronic exposure to inorganic As are well known. A case presenting with multiple cutaneous cancers as well as an internal lung primary in a patient exposed to toxic levels of As in the drinking water is discussed along with a review of literature.

  2. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equipment Inorganic mercury can be found in: Batteries Chemistry labs Some disinfectants Folk remedies Red cinnabar mineral ... the lungs Medicine to remove mercury and heavy metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury ...

  3. Early Biochemical Effects of an Organic Mercury Fungicide on Infants: ``Dose Makes the Poison''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotelli, Carlos A.; Astolfi, Emilio; Cox, Christopher; Cernichiari, Elsa; Clarkson, Thomas W.

    1985-02-01

    Phenylmercury absorbed through the skin from contaminated diapers affected urinary excretion in infants in Buenos Aires. The effects were reversible and quantitatively related to the concentration of urinary mercury. Excretion of γ -glutamyl transpeptidase, an enzyme in the brush borders of renal tubular cells, increased in a dose-dependent manner when mercury excretion exceeded a ``threshold'' value. Urine volume also increased but at a higher threshold with respect to mercury. The results support the threshold concept of the systemic toxicity of metals. γ -Glutamyl transpeptidase is a useful and sensitive marker for preclinical effects of toxic metals.

  4. Total mercury in fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate of Poison Pax Paxillus involutus (Batsch Ex. Fr.) Fr. from various sites in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostowski, A.; Falandysz, J.

    2003-05-01

    The total mercury concentrations were quantified in the caps, stalks and underlying soil substrate of Poison Pax Paxillus involutus collected from 19 spatially distant sites in Poland in 1994-2001 to examine the status of mercury pollution, bioconcentration features as well as bioindication potential of this mushroom species. The mushroom and soil samples were collected from the Mierzeja Wiślana Landscape Park, Wdzydzki Landscape Park, Zaborski Landscape Park, Augustów Forests, Borecka Forests, Wieluńska Upland, Darżlubska Forest, Tucholskie Forest and the counties of Gubin. Kościerzyna, Morag, Koszalin, Gdańsk, Bydgoszcz, Kętrzyn, Żuromin, Włocławek, and Starachowice. The mean concentrations of mercury varied, depending on the sampling site, between 15±9 and 410±200 ng/g dry matter for caps and between 14±26 and 200±130 ng/g dry matter for stalks, The mean soil mercury concentrations varied between 8.8±4.5 and 95±84 ng/g. The mean mercury concentration cap to stalk quotients varied between O.6±0.2 and 1.9±1.5, with exception of the site Morag with 4.4±7.2. The mean values of bioconcentration factor of mercury in caps and stalks of Poison Pax varied in relatively narrow range between 0.7 and 10, and 0.5 and 8.5, respectively.

  5. Extreme gastric dilation caused by chronic lead poisoning: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vesna Begovic; Darko Nozic; Srdjan Kupresanin; Dino Tarabar

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a toxic metal that affects many organ systems and functions in humans.In the majority of adults,chronic lead poisoning comes from exposures to work places and can occur in numerous work settings, such as manufacturing, lead smelting and refinement, or due to use of batteries, pigments, solder, ammunitions,paint, car radiators, cable and wires, certain cosmetics.In some countries, lead is added to petrol.We present a rare case of gastric dilation caused by long-term petrol ingestion.A 16-year-old young man was admitted to our hospital due to a 6-mo history of exhaustion, dizziness,nausea, abdominal cramps and constipation.X-ray examination revealed dilated stomach descending into the pelvis and small bowel distension.After a long clinical observation, we found that the reason for the chronic lead poisoning of the patient was due to a 3-year history of petrol ingestion.The patient spontaneously recovered and stomach returned to its normal position and size.Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration in all unexplained cases of gastric dilation.

  6. Occult Mercury Poisoning Manifesting as Lumbago-leg Pains:Analysis of Two Misdiagnosed Cases%表现为腰腿痛的隐匿性汞中毒二例误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳剑宁; 王琦; 倪家骧

    2013-01-01

    A series of systemic symptoms such as nerve - psychiatric symptom, damages of oral mucosa and skin, kidney lesions, peripheral nerve lesions may occur in mercury poisoning patients.Drug mercury displacement treatment, the preferred choice for patients with a definite history, has a good effect.In this paper, both of the patients were caused by mercury in cosmetics with skin damages.The symptom manifested as pains in lumbosacral region and extremities, but their histories were occult , thus leading to misdiagnosis at early stage as lumbago - leg pain or unexplained nerve damages, then to misuse of other treatments and to delays of mercury displacement treatment.Most patients with chronic mercury poisoning caused pains as main symptoms are caused by whitemng cosmetics containing mercury.So young females with unexplained lumbosacral pains, especially those with pains symmetrically distributing in limbs accompanied by skin damages, should be asked the causative factors such as cosmetics, latrogenic factors probably leading to mercury exposure, which is conducive to early diagnosis to avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment.%汞中毒患者可以出现神经-精神症状及口腔黏膜、皮肤、肾脏、周围神经损害等全身性症状.病史明确的患者早期进行药物驱汞治疗是首选治疗方法,且疗效较好.本文2例汞中毒患者均因化妆品含汞导致,均有皮肤损害,症状均表现为腰骶区及四肢肌肉痛,但是汞中毒病史隐匿,导致前期误诊为腰腿痛及不明原因神经损伤,误行其他治疗,延误了驱汞治疗,造成了患者经济损失及身体的损伤.慢性汞中毒导致疼痛为主要症状的患者中,很大一部分是美白化妆品含汞导致.故年轻女性出现不明原因的腰骶痛,尤其是四肢对称性分布的疼痛伴有皮肤损害,医生应详细追问化妆品、医源性等可能导致汞接触的致病因素,有利于早期明确诊断,避免误诊误治.

  7. Inorganic mercury poisoning due to the use of beauty cream in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, TT; Tsoi, MF; Cheung, BMY

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of inorganic mercury compounds in cosmetic products is prohibited as it can cause significant nephrotoxicity. However, the public continues to have access to these illegal products in Hong Kong ...

  8. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  9. 汞中毒92例临床分析%The clinical analysis of mercury poisoning in 92 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓玲; 王汉斌; 孙成文; 熊锡山; 陈芝; 李兆圣; 韩博; 杨钢

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features of mercury poisoning diagnosed by blood and urine tests for improving the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.Methods Poisoning causes,clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis were retrospectively reviewed in 92 in-patients with mercury poisoning in our hospital from January 2000 to April 2010.Results Of the 92 patients,37 were male and 55 were female with an average age of 33.1(2-65)years old.The mercury poisoning was caused by occupational exposure and non-occupational exposure,such as iatrogenic exposure,life exposure and wrong intake or suicidal intake of mercury-containing substances,mainly through respiratory tract,digestive tract and skin absorption.The most common clinical symptoms were as the followings:nervous system symptom,such as memory loss in 50 eases(54.3%),fatigue in 34(37.0%),numb limb in 25 (27.2%),dizziness and headache in 22(23.9%),cacesthesia in 20(21.7%),fine tremor(finger tip,tongue tip,eyelids)in 15(16.3%),insomnia and more dreams in 12(13.0%);gastrointestinal symptoms:nausea in 16 (17.4%),abdominal pain in 14(15.2%),stomatitis in 5(5.4%);joint and muscle symptoms:muscle pain in 16(17.4%),joint pain in 5(5.4%);cardiovaseular system:chest tightness,hean palpitations in 6(6.5%);urinary system:edema in 9(9.8%);other system:hidrosis in 20(21.7%).After the treatment with sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS),the symptoms were gradually alleviated.Their gastrointestinal,cardiovascular symptoms were alleviated within 2 weeks;neurological symptoms were alleviated within 3 months;kidney damage showed a slower recovery and could be completely'alleviated within 6 months.Conclusions Because of its diverse clinical symptoms,the mercury poisoning was easy to misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis:therefore the awareness of the disease should be further enhanced.Leaving from the poisoning environment timely and giving appropriate treatment with DMPS will lead to a satisfactory prognosis

  10. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  11. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  12. The Role of Chelation in the Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for mor...

  13. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  14. Detection of Mercury in Human Organs and Hair in a Case of a Homicidal Poisoning of a Woman Autopsied 6 Years After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In the described case of the death of a 53-year-old woman, no toxicological examination was performed directly after death (only an anatomopathological autopsy), although symptoms of serious gastrointestinal disturbances had been present (the woman had been hospitalized twice in the course of several months). It was assumed that the cause of death was myocardial infarction. Five years later, some new circumstances came to light which suggested that somebody could have administered some poison (metals, cyanides) to the woman. Toxicological analysis of postmortem samples from the corpse, exhumed 6 years after death by order of the public prosecutor's office, revealed high tissue mercury contents in biological material (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry): small intestine, 1516 ng/g; large intestine, 487 ng/g; liver, 1201 ng/g; heart muscle, 1023 ng/g; and scalp hair, 227 ng/g. In samples of soil from places near the coffin, negligible traces of mercury were found (0.5-1.5 ng/g); contamination by mercury from the environment was ruled out. The presented case is a rare example of recognition of mercury poisoning on the basis of the results of analysis of biological material from an exhumed cadaver.

  15. Overview of studies on detoxification effect of Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma on mercury poisoning%土茯苓解汞毒的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐笑飞; 陈红风; 叶媚娜

    2012-01-01

    Mercury-containing preparations are widely used in surgery department of traditional Chinese medicine and have made remarkable achievements. But they are toxic to human kidney, nerve, immune, etc. Smilacis Clabrae Rhizoma is sweet, tasteless and neutral in nature and able to enter liver and stomach channels and detoxify mercury poisoning. This article summarizes the mercury poisoning and the detoxification effect of Smilacis Clabrae Rhizoma in ancient records, pharmaceutical studies and clinical application , in order to provide ideas and methods for the safe use of mercury-containing preparations in surgery department of traditional Chinese medicine.%含汞制剂在中医外科中应用广泛,作用显著,然因含汞而在人体肾脏、神经、免疫等方面有明显的毒性.土茯苓性甘、淡、平,归肝、胃两经,有解汞毒之功效.该文通过汞的毒性、土茯苓解汞毒的古籍记载、土茯苓解毒的药理研究及其临床应用等方面,综述土茯苓解汞毒的相关研究概况,为中医外科临床安全使用含汞制剂提供可行的思路与方法.

  16. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  17. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

  18. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Q. Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each. The model group received 60% (v/v ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N and microglia (by Ib1 were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05 by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01, and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01 in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05, and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01 with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  19. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  20. Multiple primary cancers in a case of chronic arsenic poisoning--an autopsy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, A; Hamada, T; Kanesaki, H; Matsuno, K; Koide, O

    1990-03-01

    This is an autopsy report of multiple primary cancers observed in a patient who had clinically been diagnosed as chronic arsenic poisoning. An 88-year-old man, non-smoker, had worked in an arsenic mine for 6 years from the age of 47. He had undergone operations for Bowen's disease and gastric cancer at ages 80 and 86, respectively. At autopsy, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and a polypoid lesion in the piriform recess were found. Furthermore, microscopic examination revealed latent prostatic adenocarcinoma and oncocytoma in the kidney. The polypoid lesion of the piriform recess appeared to originate from the duct of the minor salivary gland in the pharynx, showing an adenoid cystic carcinoma-like pattern with squamous cell carcinoma in part. The cause of death was thought to be respiratory failure due to bronchopneumonia and pulmonary edema as well as hydrothorax, and chronic heart failure following ischemic heart disease. Bowen's disease was followed by four internal malignant tumors, even though the etiological relation between these cancers and arsenic is not clear.

  1. The efficacy of monoisoamyl ester of dimercaptosuccinic acid in chronic experimental arsenic poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Kannan, G M; Pant, B P; Jaiswal, D K

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new monoester of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver and kidneys, alterations in hematopoietic system and depletion of arsenic burden was assessed, in mice. Three different doses of MiADMSA (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) for five consecutive days were administered in chronically arsenic exposed mice (10 ppm in drinking water for six months). Oral administration of MiADMSA particularly at a dose of 50 mg/kg, produced relatively more pronounced beneficial effects on the inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), biochemical variables indicative of hepatic and renal oxidative stress and depletion of arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidneys, compared with intraperitoneal administration of the drug. The treatment with MiADMSA although, produced essential metals imbalance which could be a restrictive factor for the possible therapeutic use of this compound in chronic arsenic poisoning and thus require further exploration.

  2. 汞中毒性肾病综合征临床病理分析%Clinicopathological analysis on mercury poisoning-associated nephritic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤玲; 陈新; 郭伟; 李洁雅; 余善法

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨汞中毒性肾病综合征的临床病理特点及治疗方法。方法分析9例确诊为汞中毒性肾病综合征患者的临床及病理资料。结果9例患者中汞冶炼工2例,仪表生产工1例,中药配制人员1例,使用中药偏方治疗牛皮癣者4例,使用增白祛斑化妆品者1例。9例患者临床表现均符合肾病综合征,表现为大量蛋白尿、低蛋白血症、水肿及高脂血症。驱汞治疗前一次性尿汞水平为0.09~0.75 mg/L。肾组织活检病理检查结果显示:微小病变性肾病4例,Ⅰ期膜性肾病5例。经驱汞和糖皮质激素治疗,9例患者肾病综合征均治愈。结论汞中毒性肾病综合征肾组织病理学改变主要表现为微小病变肾病和膜性肾病。糖皮质激素联合驱汞治疗可获得临床完全缓解。%Objective To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and therapeutic approach for mercury poisoning -associated nephritic syndrome .Methods Clinical and pathological data of 9 patients diagnosed with mercury poisoning-associated nephritic syndrome were analyzed .Results Among the 9 cases, 2 cases were mercury smelters , 1 case was instrument production worker , 1 case was traditional Chinese medicine preparation worker , 4 cases were psoriasis treated by folk prescription of traditional Chinese medicine , and 1 case used cosmetics for whitening and freckle removal .All cases showed clinical manifestation of nephritic syndrome that included large amount of proteinuria , hypoalbuminemia , edema and hyperlipidemia.The concentrations of urine mercury in the patients were from 0.09 to 0.75 mg/L before treatment. Pathology examination on renal biopsy showed that there were 4 cases of minimal change nephropathy and 5 cases of membranous nephropathy at stage Ⅰ.The patients with nephritic syndrome were cured after mercury driving and treatment with corticosteroid . Conclusion The kidney histopathology changes in patients with

  3. 汞中毒相关肾小球疾病的临床病理分析%Clinicopathological analysis of mercury poisoning-associated glomerulonephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏涛; 刘晓玲; 张宜苗; 毛微波; 刘刚; 王素霞; 王汉斌; 周福德

    2011-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with mercury poisoning-associated glomerulonephropathy. Methods Seven patients with mercury poisoning-associated glomerulonephropathy were enrolled in this study. The pattern of mercury exposure, feature of mercury toxicity, and clinicopathological presentation of the kidneys were investigated. Results They were all female, averaged (28.9 ±8.1) years old. Skin-whitening cream was the only cause of mercury poisoning. Proteinuria occurred 5 to 8 months after exposure. Serum mercury were 27.0 to 98.0 μg/L, and spot urinary mercury were 34.4 to 204.0 μg/L. The presentation of all the patients was mild to moderate edema with proteinuria and decreased serum albumin level. Five patients (5/7) were diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome. Six patients underwent renal biopsy: 3 cases with minimal change disease, 2 cases with membranous nephropathy and 1 case with focal segmental glomerular sclerosis. All the patients were administrated chelation therapy with sodium dimercaptopropanal sulfonate or sodium dimercaptosuccinic acid for 3 to 7 courses. They got complete remission by 3 to 5 weeks treatment. Conclusions Patients in this study with glomerulonephropathy induced by mercury poisoning are all from skin-whitening cream exposure. Mild to moderate edema and proteinuria are the common clinical pattern. Minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerular sclerosis are found pathologically. Chelation therapy is effective.%目的 了解汞中毒相关肾小球疾病患者的临床病理特点.方法 回顾分析北京大学第一医院2005年1月至2010年5月经临床结合重金属检测诊断的汞中毒相关肾小球疾病患者7例的临床病理资料,包括接触含汞物质的特点、汞中毒及肾小球疾病的临床病理表现.结果 所有患者均为女性,平均年龄(28.9±8.1)岁.均为接触含汞化妆品后5~8个月发病.发病时血汞27.0~98.0

  4. Determination of as by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectional hair samples for forensic purposes. Chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of having committed suicide by ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated. As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy (measured with ICP-MS) indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, INAA with proven accuracy of sectional hair samples obtained from a hair-brush from the left estate of the deceased person was performed. Levels of As found in this work in the range of 0.06-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 hours after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. A brief review is also presented of As determination in hair for forensic purposes, including supposed, and until now frequently discussed, poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  5. New recognition on control concept of mercury hazards and diagnostic criteria of mercury poisoning%对汞危害防治理念与汞中毒诊断标准的新认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝克文; 郭友东; 黄蓉; 余素娥; 金环荣

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a heavy metal toxic substance of occupation hazard factor, which has irritation, immune pathogenicity, renal toxicity, neurotoxicity and oral toxicity, it may cause serious harm to health and safety of workers, and the serious should induce poisoning. The control and prevention of mercury hazards has always been the major task of occupational health and occupational medicine in China, and mercury hazards is one of occupational diseases that government make a law to ensure the health and safety of workers. Based on the national conditions, there are only prevention regulations and diagnostic criteria according to occupational mercury hazards in the foretime, and is lack of prevention and diagnosis of non-occupational mercury hazards. Therefore, the authors review the new recognition of non-occupational hazards of mercury and diagnosis of non-occupational mercury poisoning by literature review and working practice.%汞作为职业病危害因素的一种重金属高毒物质,因其具有刺激性、免疫致病性、肾脏毒性、神经毒性、口腔毒性等,对劳动者的健康与安全危害较强,严重者可致中毒.对于汞危害的防治,历来是国家职业卫生与职业医学的主要任务,也是党和政府为保护广大劳动者健康与安全,立法开展的职业病防治工作之一.立于国情,先前只从职业性汞危害的角度制定了防治法规和诊断标准,对非职业性汞危害防治、诊断的问题有所疏漏.为此,作者从非职业性汞危害与非职业性汞中毒诊断的层面,通过文献复习及工作实践获得的一些新认知做一综述.

  6. 2007-2011年内蒙古自治区慢性职业中毒患病情况%The prevalence rate of chronic occupational poisoning in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 2007-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建国; 刘丽丽

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the characteristics of chronic occupational poisoning in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,provide the basis for the control of occupational poisoning.[Methods] The chronic occupational poisoning patients who were diagnosed from 2007-2011 were collected to analyze the type of occupational poisoning,age,length of service and economic type.[Results]Among 213 cases of chronic occupational poisoning,there were 184 (86.38%) cases of lead and lead compounds poisoning,27 (12.68%) cases of mercury and its compounds poisoning and 2 (0.94%) cases of benzene poisoning.69.5% of chronic occupational poisoning patients were people under 40 years old,and the average age was (36.99 ± 8.27) years old.The average exposure age of patients was (2.76 ± 3.52) years,and 75.6% of patients got the disease within 3 years.The prevalence rate of non-public enterprises was higher than that of state-owned and collective enterprises (x2 =113.32,P < 0.01),and the exposure age decreased (t =3.79,P < 0.01).[Conclusion] Lead and its compounds poisoning is still the major hazard.The workers aged 20-40 years old and with the exposure age of 1.0-3.0 years are the key population of health monitoring.The occupational health work in non-public enterprises should be strengthened.%目的 探讨内蒙古自治区慢性职业中毒患病特点,为控制职业中毒发生提供依据.方法 以2007-2011年诊断的慢性职业中毒患者作为研究对象,分析职业中毒类别、患病年龄、患病工龄和经济类型分布.结果 213例慢性职业中毒病例中,主要为铅及化合物中毒,有184例,占86.38%;其次是汞及其化合物中毒,有27例,占12.68%;苯中毒有2例,占0.94%.慢性职业中毒患者年龄在40岁以内的占69.5%,平均(36.99±8.27)岁;患病时接毒工龄平均为(2.76±3.52)a,有75.6%的患者在3年内患病;非公有制企业与国有、集体企业比较,患病率较高(x2=113.32,P<0.01),

  7. Element concentrations in urine of patients suffering from chronic arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y.X.; Miyamato, H.; Kondo, M.; Koga, H.; Zhang, A.; Ohmichi, M.; Inaba, Y.; Chiba, M. [Juntendo University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine, Dept. of Epidemiology and Environmental Health

    2001-03-01

    In order to know the element levels in the urine of patients with chronic arsenic poisoning caused by arsenic assimilated from burning coal via air and food, the authors investigated various elements in the urine of 16 patients with this disease and 16 controls living in the same county in Guizhou Province of China. Concentrations of 25 elements (Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer or an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. The average concentrations of Cu, Ga and Sn as well as As in the patients were significantly higher, and those of Cr, Rb, Sr and Ti in the patients were significantly lower than the control values. Al, Ba, Mn, Ni and Se mere under detection limit in the patients, though they could be detected in the controls. There were no positive correlations between the concentration of As and the concentrations of other elements, including Cu, Ca and Sn in the patients. The results of this study suggest that As from burning coal might influence the urinary excretion of some elements.

  8. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S Q; Wang, Q; Zheng, Y; Xiao, B; Sun, H W; Gu, X L; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C H; Dong, P X; Wang, X M

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (Pmice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (Pmemory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  9. Chronic arsenic poisoning in drinking water in Inner Mongolia and its associated health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan X; Hu, Lin; Yand, Peng Z; Tanabe, Kimiko; Miyatalre, Munetoshi; Chen, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Since 1990, a large number of people have been experiencing various health problems from drinking arsenic contaminated water (50-1860 microg/L) in 13 counties of Inner Mongolia, China, most of which are located in the Hetao Plain area. It is calculated that 411,243 people are currently at risk from arsenic poisoning. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were carried out on 13,021 people to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. In all of the studied patients, 22% had typical hyperkeratosis on the palms or soles and some had raindrop-like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation on the trunk. Other data recorded included subjective and objective symptoms, such as chronic cough (35.0%) and insomnia (37.5%). During physical checkups of 680 villagers in arsenic affected areas, liver function tests showed elevated globulin levels in 6.8% (P value=0.006) of the subjects. Neurotoxicity manifesting as loss of hearing 5.88 (P value=0.005), loss of taste 5.44% (P value=0.001), blurred vision 17.35% (P value=0.000), tingling and numbness of the limbs 33.53% (P value=0.000) and hypertension 8.09% (P value=0.000) were significantly higher in the arsenic affected villages and arsenic pollution also seemed to affect patients' social life and mental health. To solve the problem of arsenic exposure, the quality of drinking water needs to be improved by reducing the arsenic content. We also plan to carry out a survey to detect the incidence and types of cancer among this population.

  10. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  11. Apocynin prevents vascular effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danize A Rizzetti

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mercury increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress and alters vascular reactivity. This metal elicits endothelial dysfunction causing decreased NO bioavailability via increased oxidative stress and contractile prostanoid production. NADPH oxidase is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the vasculature. Our aim was to investigate whether treatment with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevents the vascular effects caused by chronic intoxication with low concentrations of mercury. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with a intramuscular injections (i.m. of saline; b HgCl(2 (i.m. 1(st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses: 0.07 µg/kg/day; c Apocynin (1.5 mM in drinking water plus saline i.m.; and d Apocynin plus HgCl(2. The mercury treatment resulted in 1 an increased aortic vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine; 2 the increased involvement of ROS and vasoconstrictor prostanoids in response to phenylephrine, whereas the endothelial NO modulation of such responses was reduced; and 3 the reduced activity of aortic superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Treatment with apocynin partially prevented the increased phenylephrine responses and reduced the endothelial dysfunction elicited by mercury treatment. In addition, apocynin treatment increased the NO modulation of vasoconstrictor responses and aortic SOD activity and reduced plasma MDA levels without affecting the increased participation of vasoconstrictor prostanoids observed in aortic segments from mercury-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Mercury increases the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine by reducing NO bioavailability and increasing the involvement of ROS and constrictor prostanoids. Apocynin protects the vessel from the deleterious effects caused by NADPH oxidase, but not from those

  12. 外用含汞制剂引起中毒的病例分析%Case analysis of poisoning caused by topical preparations containing mercury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟稷征; 王丽霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the poisoning symptoms, poisoning cause (such as doses, course of treatment and medication methods) caused by external use of calomelas and relative treatment method in order to provide reference for rational drug use.Methods: The calomelas, mercury or Yuhong cream, adverse drug reactions (ADR), poisoning were chosen as searching terms, after searching in CNKI database, an analysis of the collected literature was conducted.Results and conclusion: Poisoning caused by external use of drugs was mainly due to improper drug use, applying a high concentration of calomelas or inhaling calomelas smoke can cause poisoning, which should be avoided; although Yuhong cream contains calomelas, due to low content, there has been no poisoning report. Rational use can play its effect and avoid the side effects.%目的:了解外用轻粉引起中毒的症状、中毒诱因(如剂量、疗程和用药方法)以及救治方法,为安全合理用药提供参考。方法:以轻粉、汞或玉红膏、不良反应、中毒为检索词,通过CNKI检索,对收集到的文献进行分析。结果与结论:外用含汞制剂中毒多因用药不当所致,用高浓度轻粉外涂或吸入轻粉点燃后的烟雾易引起中毒,应避免采用吸入或高浓度轻粉直接外涂;玉红膏虽然含有轻粉,但因含量较低,尚未收集到有关其引起中毒的报告,合理使用可以发挥疗效,避免副作用。

  13. Family aggregation in a population of chronic arsenic poisoning associated with high arsenic coal burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinGF; ChenJG

    2002-01-01

    About 2600 cases of chronic arsenic poisoning (CAP) in Southwest China-Guizhou Povince represent a unique case of CAP in the world associated with indoor high As coal burning.An epidemiological investigation in 4 clans (694 subjects,male 299,female 395) was launched in one Cun(village) in JL area(21000 residents,about 2000 CAP cases).(1)Clan G(possible Hanized Yi origin).The ancestors,a couple settled here in Qing dynasty.CAP prevalence was 43.3%(93/215).It was found that in 9 of 25 brotherhood groups all the members suffered with CAP.(2) An non-consanguinous branch of family G.The ancestor,a boy was adopted by family G in 1890s.The incidence rate was 20.8%(11/53) which was lower than that in clan G(consanguineous)(P=0.00261,r=0.344),though both clans have been living in the same family for 4 generations.(3)Clan B(Han origin).The ancestor moved the family from Nanjing in Ming dynasty.The CAP prevalence is 45.5%(75/165).(4)Clan P(ethnic Miao).The CAP prevalence is 3.9(9/232),far less than other ethnic clans,for example,less than clan G (consanguineous)(P=3.706E=23,r=0.052944).The observation suggests possible family aggregation of CAP in high As coal using area.further work is required.

  14. 职业性急性汞中毒患者的临床护理研究%Clinical nursing study of occupational acute mercury poisoning patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬鸿雁

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical nursing methods and effect of occupational acute mercury poisoning patients. Methods:66 occupational acute mercury poisoning patients were selected.They were divided into the control group and the observation group with 33 cases by using the method of drawing lots.The control group was given conventional nursing.The observation group was given comprehensive nursing.The clinical nursing effects of the two groups were compared.Results:After nursing intervention,the treatment total effective rate and nursing satisfaction of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The occupational acute mercury poisoning patients were given clinical comprehensive nursing intervention.It can effectively reduce the clinical symptoms of patients,control the disease development, and improve the curative effect and patient satisfaction.%目的:分析职业性急性汞中毒患者的临床护理方法及效果。方法:收治职业性急性汞中毒患者66例,通过抽签法分为对照组和观察组各33例。对照组给予常规护理,观察组给予综合护理。比较两组患者的临床护理疗效。结果:经过护理干预,观察组的治疗总有效率及护理满意度明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:给予职业性急性汞中毒患者临床综合护理干预,能够有效减轻患者的临床症状,控制病情发展,提高疗效以及患者满意度。

  15. Chronic mercury exposure in Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic populations in Portugal from the cultural use of cinnabar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Steven D.; Brasso, Rebecka; Patterson, William P.; Carlos Valera, António; McKenzie, Ashley; Maria Silva, Ana; Gleason, James D.; Blum, Joel D.

    2015-10-01

    Cinnabar is a natural mercury sulfide (HgS) mineral of volcanic or hydrothermal origin that is found worldwide. It has been mined prehistorically and historically in China, Japan, Europe, and the Americas to extract metallic mercury (Hg0) for use in metallurgy, as a medicinal, a preservative, and as a red pigment for body paint and ceramics. Processing cinnabar via combustion releases Hg0 vapor that can be toxic if inhaled. Mercury from cinnabar can also be absorbed through the gut and skin, where it can accumulate in organs and bone. Here, we report moderate to high levels of total mercury (THg) in human bone from three Late Neolithic/Chalcolithic (5400-4100 B.P.) sites in southern Portugal that were likely caused by cultural use of cinnabar. We use light stable isotope and Hg stable isotope tracking to test three hypotheses on the origin of mercury in this prehistoric human bone. We traced Hg in two individuals to cinnabar deposits near Almadén, Spain, and conclude that use of this mineral likely caused mild to severe mercury poisoning in the prehistoric population. Our methods have applications to bioarchaeological investigations worldwide, and for tracking trade routes and mobility of prehistoric populations where cinnabar use is documented.

  16. The poisoning effect of mercury complexes with an anionic exchange membrane used in an electrodialysis process: a Raman study; Etude par spectrometrie Raman de l`empoisonnement d`une membrane echangeuse d`anions, par des complexes mercuriques, au cours d`un procede d`electrodialyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouki, M.; Huguet, P.; Persin, F.; Bribes, J.L. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Laboratoire des Materiaux et des Pocedes Membrnaires, CNRS UMR 5635

    1998-03-01

    Electrodialysis is a powerful technique for the treatment of many waste acids. However, some important problems can be encountered if poisoning of the ionic exchange membrane occurs. This is the case in the purification and concentration process of hydrochloric acid solutions containing zinc, cadmium or mercury chlorides, because metallic complexes formation gives rise to an important poisoning effect of the membranes used. In this work, the poisoning of an anion exchange membrane, used in an electrodialysis process to purify and reconcentrate an hydrochloric acid solution containing mercury chloride, has been investigated. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the contaminated material, combined with electrodialysis results, are presented and discussed. The stoichiometry of the poisoning mercury complex and its action as a counter ion inside the membrane are determined. Moreover, a strong interaction between the membrane fixed sites and the mercury complex is pointed out. (authors) 11 refs.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC LEAD POISONING ON THE VALUES OF HYPERTENSION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic Jovan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the treatment of Roma children from Kosovska Mitrovica suffering from chronic lead poisoning (which began in the second half of the last decade, hypertension has also been observed. The examination and treatment were conducted under the patronage of World Health Organization, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia and local administration. Aim of this work is show correlation between lead levels in blood and hypertension in children. Materials and methods: Lead from capillary blood flow was measured by Lead care analyzer. Extracted blood from a vein measured lead level in the toxicological laboratory of the Institute „Karajovic“ Belgrade. The pressure was measured by standard devices with changeable cuffs and has been expressed in mmHg. Hypertension has been observed in 159 children. They were divided into four groups. First group: non-Roma children (n = 32 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Second group: Roma children (n = 31 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Third group: Roma children (n = 53 with blood lead levels of 10–45 mcg/dl. Fourth group: Roma children (n = 43 with blood lead levels more than 45 mcg/dl, with an average value of 61.6 mcg/dl. Results: There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of systolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 31,179; p < 0,001, the first (x = 107,2 mmHg and the fourth group (x =114,6 mmHg, the second (x = 104,5 mmHg and fourth group, third (x =106,4 mmHg and fourth group. There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of diastolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 32,028; p < 0,001, the first (x = 67,7 mmHg and the fourth group (x =73,4 mmHg, the second (x = 66 mmHg and third group (x = 69 mmHg, second and fourth group, third and fourth group of children. It is concluded that when the value of lead in the blood was higher its effect on blood pressure was more pronounced. Conclusion: Most children with

  18. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  19. A new still for the prevention of mercury poisoning in small-scale gold mining by amalgam extraction

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Pinzón; R. Contreras; C. Bernardy

    2003-01-01

    A system for the recovery of mercury in small-scale gold mining in Colombia has been designed and tested. Distillation of up to 300 g of gold amalgam takes ten to 20 minutes, and more than 90% of the mercury formerly lost in the atmosphere is recovered for recycling. The equipment pays for itself and may be locally built using available materials. It has been widely accepted by miners because of the improved safety to miners and their families. The furnace can be fueled either with gasoline o...

  20. Effect of small concentrations of sulfur dioxide during chronic poisoning on the immunologic reactivity of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navrotzky, V.K.

    1959-01-01

    A concentration of 0.018 to 0.022 mg SO/sub 2//liter decreased agglutination titer of rabbit blood serum to immunization with typhoid vaccine 4 to 8 times and reduced duration of high titer 3 to 4 times. Titer of blood complement was not altered. SO/sub 2/ poisoning increases both blood acetylcholine and cholinesterase activity.

  1. Progress in treatment and study of renal toxicity by mercury poisoning%汞的肾毒性及治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子安; 聂志勇; 李万华; 胡鹏遥; 隋昕; 邱泽武; 王永安

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is one of the common heavy-metal toxins,which can cause damage throughout the body in a variety of ways. Cases of renal toxicity of mercury poisoning are increasing clinically. However,little is known about nephrotoxicity mechanisms,and treatment remains unsatisfactory. The mechanism of mercury toxic nephropathy is reviewed in this paper,including the direct toxic effect on the kidney,the injury to the biomembrane system,generation of Hg-metallothionein,imbalance of intra⁃cellular calciumion,oxidative damage,induced apoptosis,and immune injury. Besides,the mechanism and limitation of common therapies,potential developments of the field are discussed. This review will facilitate further investigations therapies about both the mechanism and treatment of mercury toxic nephropathy.%汞是常见的重金属毒物,多种原因导致的急慢性汞中毒可对人体多个脏器产生严重损害。临床上因汞中毒导致的肾病逐年增多,其损伤机制尚不明确,治疗手段有限。本文就汞的肾毒性作用机制研究进展进行综述,包括汞对肾的直接毒性作用,生物膜系统受损,汞-金属硫蛋白复合物形成,胞内Ca2+平衡失调,氧化损伤,诱导细胞凋亡,免疫性损伤等。归纳总结了临床上常见治疗方法的机理及局限,并对几种当前研究的热点问题和发展方向进行了介绍,在此基础之上探究汞对肾造成损害的疾病模型,旨在为临床上慢性汞中毒导致的肾病的治疗方法提供相关支持。

  2. Performances of models for predicting mercury concentrations in fresh-water fish after chronic releases into rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of assessment models for estimating the transfer and bioaccumulation of mercury in fresh-water ecosystems were tested by being applied to a test scenario proposed in an international cooperative study BIOMOVS. Two kinds of models have been developed to estimate mercury concentrations in fish after chronic releases into rivers. One uses a bioaccumulation factor approach which is applied to ecosystems in equilibrium, whereas the other is a dynamic model which considers the change of the concentrations in water and the metabolism in fish. The success of the models tested by three different scenarios depended upon whether mercury was in equilibrium in the environment. For the scenario where mercury concentrations reached equilibrium, the first model performed satisfactorily. For the scenario where equilibrium was not attained, the first model was not adequate but the second model could predict more accurately. The limitations of applications were suggested for the two models employed here. (author)

  3. Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

    1987-10-01

    Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

  4. Acute renal failure secondary to ingestion of ayurvedic medicine containing mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Sathe, K.; Ali, U; Ohri, A

    2013-01-01

    Several traditional medicines contain potentially toxic heavy metals. Heavy metal poisoning is not an uncommon cause of renal damage, although the diagnosis can be easily missed. We report a case of chronic ingestion of an ayurvedic medicine containing mercury in a 2-year-old girl, resulting in anuric renal failure due to acute interstitial nephritis.

  5. 以疼痛为主要表现的化妆品引起汞中毒15例分析%Analysis of main manifestation as pain in 15 patients with mercury poisoning caused by cosmetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂芳; 袁志浩; 张博爱; 刘宇; 李燕飞; 付振强; 贾延劼; 王景涛

    2014-01-01

    目的 报道以疼痛为主要表现的化妆品应用所致汞中毒病例,分析使用美白、祛斑化妆品引起疼痛的汞中毒的特点. 方法 选取自2009年1月至2013年12月郑州大学第一附属医院神经内科收治的汞中毒患者15例为研究对象,分析其发病过程、临床表现特点、辅助检查结果. 结果 15例患者半年内均有美白、祛斑化妆品应用史,化妆品引起的汞中毒有接触时间长、起病慢、症状类似神经症、易误诊等特点.所有患者均以疼痛为主要临床表现,按WHO主诉疼痛分级法(VRS)分级大多为中度至重度疼痛.驱汞治疗3~5疗程后,患者尿汞含量逐渐降低,全身疼痛逐渐减轻至消失. 结论 汞中毒可导致神经损害出现疼痛,疼痛患者如病因不明时可询问有无应用美白、祛斑化妆品史,可查尿汞明确有无汞中毒.%Objective To report 15 patients whose main manifestation was pain after mercury poisoning caused by smearing cosmetics,and analyze the characteristics of mercury poisoning caused by smearing whitening or freckle cosmetics.Methods These 15 patients with pain as their main manifestation after mercury poisoning caused by smearing cosmetics,admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to December 2013,were used in our study; the pathogenesis,clinical features and laboratory examinations of these patients were analyzed.Results All of the 15 patients had smeared the whitening or freckle cosmetics within six months.The mercury poisoning caused by cosmetics had these characteristics:the exposure time was long; onset slowly appeared; the symptoms was similar to neurosis,which was often misdiagnosed.All patients appeared pain,according to WHO chief complaint ranking (VRS),most patients suffered severe pain; after treatment of expelling mercury for 2 to 5 cycles,the urinary mercury decreased,and the pain reduceded,and disappear gradually.Conclusion Mercury poisoning can lead to nerve damage and appeared pain

  6. Cutting the longline to extinction: new sea turtle campaign takes aim at industrial longline fishing and mercury-poisoned seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovetz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Chanting "Get on the right track . . . stop killing the leatherback!," a festive protest of people of many ages dressed in colorful turtle costumes wound its way along the busy streets of San Francisco's Fishermen's Wharf. The action last October marked the launching of the Bay Area-based Sea Turtle Restoration Project's Save the Leatherback (www.savetheleatherback.com) campaign for a moratorium on longline fishing in the Pacific Ocean. Longline fishing in the Pacific kills tens of thousands of sea turtles annually to serve up swordfish, shark, and tuna poisoned with high levels of methylmercury for lucrative seafood markets in Japan, the United States, and Europe. PMID:17208747

  7. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  8. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  9. Mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose and age-specific prevalence rate from endemic chronic arsenic poisoning: a human toxicology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zald' ivar, R.; Ghai, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose, and age-specific prevalence rate for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning. Data on mean age (years), mean arsenic dietary dose (mg/kg body weight/day), and age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, for the 1968 to 1971 period, were collected. Endemic chronic arsenic poisoning means here chronic arsenical dermatosis associated with marked or sever symptoms (or signs) of chronic arsenic poisoning (chronic diarrhea, hepatic cirrohsis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, recurrent broncho-pneumonia, cardiomegaly, systemic occlusive arterial disease, cerebral thrombosis, etc.). There was a strong positive correlation between age-specific pevalence rate per 100,000 population and mean arsenic dose (r = + 0.9593) and a negative correlation between prevalence rate and mean age (r = 0.8789). These findings show that the prevalence rate declines with the advancing age and increases with the increase of arsenic dose. A multiple linear regression model E(y) = alpha + beta X1 + gamma X2, where y represents the age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population, X1 the mean arsenic dose, and X2 the mean age, was fitted to the data. The estimates of the parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma) were obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares sigma(y - alpha - beta X1 - gamma X2)2. The following multiple linear regression equation was obtained: Y = 202.161 + 8452.455 X1 - 2.394 X2. Of the total variability in the prevalence rate, 96.22 percent was accounted for by the multiple regression.

  10. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  11. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  12. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  13. Symptoms of kidney damage in mercury poisoning patients%汞中毒患者肾脏损伤症状调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾军杰; 陈新

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者不适症状,分析汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者的有关症状及指标。方法选取河南省职业病防治研究院2010年至2015年汞中毒住院患者93例,依据肾脏损伤入选标准分为肾脏损伤组和无肾脏损伤组,询问两组患者症状、体格检查指标进行相关统计学分析,有统计学差异的指标为汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者阳性指标。结果肾脏损伤组与无肾脏损伤组进行比较,头痛(χ2=4.86,P ﹤0.05)、精神性格改变(χ2=4.31,P ﹤0.05)、尿量增多(χ2=5.56,P ﹤0.05)、水肿(χ2=5.17,P ﹤0.05)差异均有统计学意义;头晕(χ2=0.52,P ﹥0.05)、记忆力减退(χ2=0.01,P ﹥0.05)、肌肉疼痛(χ2=1.394,P ﹥0.05)、失眠(χ2=2.54,P ﹥0.05)、眼颤(χ2=0.65,P ﹥0.05)、手颤(χ2=1.10,P ﹥0.05)、舌颤(χ2=1.53,P ﹥0.05)差异均未见统计学意义,提示头痛、精神性格改变、尿量改变、水肿为汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者有意义的指标。结论头痛、精神性格改变、尿量改变、水肿为汞中毒伴肾脏损伤患者阳性症状。%Objective To investigate and analyze the signs and symptoms of renal injury patients with mercury poisoning. Methods From 2010 to 2015,93 patients with mercury intoxication in Henan institute of occupational disease prevention and control were selected. According to kidney injury,the participants were divided into renal injury group and non renal injury group. Statistical analysis was em-ployed to detect positive indicators with symptoms,physical examination indicators between different uri-nary mercury concentration groups. Results There was no significant difference in dizziness,the memo-ry loss,muscle pain,insomnia,nystagmus,hand-trembling,tongue-trembling between the two groups. There were significant differences in headache(χ2 = 4. 86,P ﹤ 0. 05),changes of spirit and

  14. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 μg/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R2 = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  15. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  16. Early Chronic Low-Level Methylmercury Poisoning in Monkeys Impairs Spatial Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Deborah C.; Gilbert, Steven G.

    1982-05-01

    Five monkeys were treated from birth with oral doses of mercury as methylmercury (50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day); concentrations in the blood peaked at 1.2 to 1.4 parts per million; and declined after weaning from infant formula to a steady level of 0.6 to 0.9 part per million. There were no overt signs of toxicity. When tested between 3 and 4 years of age under conditions of both high and low luminance, treated monkeys exhibited spatial vision that was impaired compared with that of control monkeys.

  17. Outbreak of chronic arsenic poisoning among retired workers from an arsenic mine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinishi, N; Kodama, Y; Nobutomo, K; Inamasu, T; Kunitake, E; Suenaga, Y

    1977-01-01

    Retired former workers of Matsuo Arsenic Mine of Miyazaki prefecture in Japan were subjected to extensive medical examination. The number of retired workers subjected to examination were 61 of 208 workers who were engaged in the works of the mine and were tracked down by the work rolls. These workers left the mine more than 15 years prior to the time of the examination. The main works in the mine were classified as mining, dressing of ores, refining, and clerical work. Several findings such as arsenodermatitis, depigmentation, performation of nasal septum, hyposmia, anosmia, and peripheral nervous disturbance attributed to exposure to arsenic were observed in 9 of 21 roasters who often worked in the arsenic kitchen. No characteristic findings of arsenic poisoning, that is, gastrointestinal disturbance, disorder of the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic disorders, or liver disturbance were observed in the retired workers. Another notable finding was that 8 cases diagnosed as pneumoconiosis were found in 18 miners. PMID:908287

  18. Role of phospholipids in destabilization of lysosomal membranes in chronic alcohol poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadevosyan, Y.V.; Batikyan, T.B.; Gevorkyan, G.A.; Karagezyan, K.G.

    1986-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study changes in the phospholipids (PL) spectrum and possible activity of membrane-bound phospholipase A/sub 2/ in lysosomal membranes from albino rat liver under conditions of the normally metabolizing tissue and during long-term alcohol poisoning. Changes in stability of the lysosomal membranes were determined by measuring nonsedimented acid phosphatase (AP) activity. The substance 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (/sup 14/C-PCh) was synthesized by an enzymic method. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity was determined in an incubation medium of Tris-Maleate buffer containing 20 nanomoles (/sup 14/C)-PCH, 8 mM CaC1/sub 2/, and about 100 micrograms protein.

  19. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-02-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  20. Effect of environmental exposure to mercury on the functioning of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Cyran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is classified as a heavy metal and thus is commonly referred to as a death metal due to its high toxicity. In the environment it occurs in metallic form or in combination with other compounds. Amidst the sources of exposure to mercury, the most important environmental sources are dental amalgam and mercury vapor from the production of chlorine which is the most important source of occupational exposure. Mercury is easily soluble in fats, so it penetrates through biological membranes. Both - acute and chronic mercury poisoning causes characteristic clinical symptoms. There are several connections between exposure to this metal and toxic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system and kidneys. Thus mercury damages the structure of many organs and impairs their function

  1. 汞中毒相关膜性肾病的临床治疗并文献复习%Clinical therapy of membranous nephropathy associated with mercury poisoning and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婷; 魏日胞; 贾楠; 王远大; 曹勇; 马冲; 许秋娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course and management of membranous nephropathy associated with mercury poisoning. Methods: The clinical manifestation and renal pathological characteristic of membranous nephropathy associated with mercury poisoning were reviewed, while the therapy of a similar patient in our hospital was analyzed. Results:There were total 52 cases with 14 males and 38 females of membranous nephropathy associated with mercury poisoning. The age of these patients was between iffteen and iffty-three. The patients used mercury content for 3 weeks-6 years. A total of 37 patients underwent renal biopsy. About 33 cases were diagnosed as membranous nephropathy, they were given mercury displacement treatment and symptomatic support without immunodepressant, among which 11 patients were simultaneously treated with hormone. Most patients improved after 3-4 courses of treatment and completely improved within 7 months. One 36-year-old male patient used mercury traditional Chinese medicine pills for 80 days. Renal pathology showed membranous nephropathyⅠstage. The patient didn't use the hormone and immunodepressant. The patient recovered well with the mercury displacement treatment. Conclusion:We should improve the realization of membranous nephropathy associated with mercury poisoning and give mercury displacement treatment in time.%目的:探讨汞中毒相关膜性肾病的治疗方法,为临床提供参考。方法:经查阅相关文献,对汞中毒相关膜性肾病患者的临床表现、肾脏病理特点、治疗预后等进行总结,并对我院2012年12月收治的1例因使用含汞药物导致汞中毒相关膜性肾病患者的实际情况进行分析。结果:文献报道的52例汞中毒引起的肾病病例中,男性14例,女性38例;年龄最小15岁,最大53岁;外用及内服含汞物质3周~6年;37例行肾活检,以膜性肾病为主(33例);33例膜性肾病患者均给予驱汞治疗及对症支持

  2. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanapriya, J.; Gopalakrishnan, N; Arun, V.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (...

  3. Antioxidative responses and bioaccumulation in Japanese flounder larvae and juveniles under chronic mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Yin, Xuebo; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of waterborne mercury on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish were exposed to 0-10 microg Hg(2)(+)L(-1) solutions from embryonic to the juvenile stages for 80 days. Antioxidative responses to mercury exposure were studied in metamorphosing larvae (18 days post hatching, dph), settling larvae (33 dph) and juveniles (78 dph). Results showed that increasing mercury concentration led to increased mercury bioaccumulation and reduced flounder growth. Of the antioxidants investigated, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities at the three developmental stages were sensitive to mercury exposure and increased with increasing mercury concentration. Glutathione (GSH) content was elevated in metamorphosing larvae, but decreased in juveniles as mercury concentration increased. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly vary with mercury concentration in either larvae or juveniles. Mercury exposure did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of larvae, but significantly increased MDA content of juveniles. Results suggest that flounder larvae and juveniles have the potential to manipulate the levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH, which protect flounder from oxidative stress induced by mercury exposure. These antioxidants could serve as biomarkers of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment.

  4. 职业性慢性汞中毒致神经系统损害的临床特点%Clinical Features of Neurological Damage Resulted from Occupational Chronic Mercury Intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃震晖; 刘丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of neurological injuries of occupational chronic mercury intoxication. Method: We retrospectively studied the clinical data of 6 cases from Jan. 2000 to Jan. 2006. Result: The central nerve system impaired was found in 6 patients. The notable symptoms were easily excited, loss of appetite, bad response, short-term memory loss, insomnia, anxiety, mood disorders and other outstanding performance. Symptom of peripheral nerve disease was complained by 5 cases. Conclusion: Occupational chronic mercury poisoning can cause serious neurological damage. It is helpful to tre-atit with mercury expellant as earlier as possible. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is the key to reduce damage of the nervous system.%目的:探讨职业性慢性汞中毒致神经系统损害的临床特点.方法:回顾性分析2000年1月至2006年1月我院收治的6例以神经系统损害为主要临床表现的职业性慢性汞中毒的临床资料.结果:6例患者出现中枢神经系统损害症状,以易兴奋、食欲下降、反应迟钝、短期记忆力下降、失眠、焦虑、情绪异常等突出表现;5例患者出现周围神经病表现,以肢体肌肉酸痛症状突出.结论:职业性慢性汞中毒可以引起严重神经系统损害,及时诊断和治疗是减少神经系统损害的关键.

  5. Nursing of one patient with erythrodermic psoriasis induced by mercury poisoning%1例亚急性汞中毒诱发的红皮病型银屑病患者的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫仟叶; 王莹; 郭丽英

    2015-01-01

    This paper summed up the nursing for one patient with erythrodermic psoriasis induced by mer-cury poisoning. Abolishing mercury treatment and care, psychological care, diet care were given to the pa-tient and the patient was cured after 17 days of the treatment and the careful nursing.%本文总结了1例亚急性汞中毒诱发的红皮病型银屑病患者的护理体会,包括驱汞治疗护理,心理护理,饮食护理等。经17天的综合治疗与细心护理,该患者康复出院。

  6. Inactivation of p15INK4b in chronic arsenic poisoning cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal has been associated with human skin lesion and cancer. However, the mechanisms of arsenic-related carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Inactivation of critical tumor suppression genes by epigenetic regulation or genetic modification might contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. This study aims to clarify the correlation between arsenic pollution and functional defect of p15INK4b gene in arsenic exposure residents from a region of Guizhou Province, China. To this end, 103 arsenic exposure residents and 105 control subjects were recruited in this study. The results showed that the exposure group exhibited higher levels of urinary and hair arsenic compared with the control group (55.28 vs 28.87 μg/L, 5.16 vs 1.36 μg/g. Subjects with higher arsenic concentrations are more likely to have p15INK4b methylation and gene deletion (χ2 = 4.28, P = 0.04 and χ2 = 4.31, P = 0.04. We also found that the degree of p15INK4b hypermethylation and gene deletion occurred at higher incidence in the poisoning cases with skin cancer (3.7% and 14.81% in non-skin cancer group, 41.18% and 47.06 in skin cancer group, and were significantly associated with the stage of skin lesions (χ2 = 12.82, P < 0.01 and χ2 = 7.835, P = 0.005. These observations indicate that inactivation of p15INK4b through genetic alteration or epigenetic modification is a common event that is associated with arsenic exposure and the development of arsenicosis.

  7. Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinspan, D.; Biagini, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  8. Chronic arsenicism: criminal poisoning or drug-intoxication? Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, U; Grosshans, E; Simonart, J M

    1993-01-01

    We report two cases with chronic arsenicism. The first one is a young 37-year-old woman who presents leucomelanoderma, plantar keratoderma, polyneuropathy of the legs and transversal striae of the nails. After investigations, criminal intoxication with arsenic caused by her own sister was discovered. The second case is a 42-year-old man who had developed plantar keratoderma, arsenical keratoses and two squamous cell epitheliomas 10 years after a 2-year treatment with Fowler's solution for androgenetic alopecia.

  9. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspan, D; Biagini, R

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  10. Changes in brain monoamine levels and monoamine oxidase activity in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, during chronic treatments with mercurials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mammals, the central nervous system is the primary target for CH3Hg poisoning which is clinically known as Minamata disease. Hg is a widely recognized neurotoxin and has been reported to impair brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. Reports on effects of Hg on brain monoamine activity in fishes are scarce. In the present study, therefore, changes in the brain monoamine levels and the degradation enzyme, monoamine oxidase (MAO), are described in the catfish, Clarias batrachus, exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl2-inorganic Hg), methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl-organic Hg), and a commercial mercurial fungicide formulation, emisan 6 (methoxyethyl Hg-organic Hg) for 45, 90 and 180 d during gonadal recrudescence. These intervals correspond to late preparatory, prespawning and spawning phases, respectively, of the annual reproductive cycle of the catfish

  11. Chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning%急性吸入性汞中毒胸部X线及CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning. Methods 23 cases with high concentration of mercury vapour inhaled acutely were included in this study. Among them, 81 cases underwent chest radio-graphics (61 times) and 11 cases underwent CT scanning(17 times). Radiographic and CT features were analysed. Results Chest radiographs showed pneumonia in 10 cases, the lesions appeared as multiple and scattered patchy high density in bilateral lung field with obscure border, and 3 cases combined with emphysema. There were 7 cases of interstitial pneumonia, radiographs showed lung markings increased and disorder, patchy, strip and gridding high dense shadows. 6 cases had toxic bubble pulmonary edema, which presented as large patchy dense shadows, and 4 cases of interstitial pulmonary edema, K's A,B lines were seen. On CT images, pneumonia appeared as multiple and scattered patchy shadows in bilateral lung field with bullous emphysemas which were low dense thin-wall bubbly shadows. Interstitial pneumonia appeared as lung weight lung markings in creased and blurred, resulted in massive, stripe net-like dense shadows with exudative changes around the lesions. Bullous pulmonary edema appeared as large patchy or butterfly wing-like dense shadow with undefinitive borders. Conclusion The chest X-ray and CT manifestations arc of certain characteristics in acute inhalation of mercury-induced pneumonia, combined with the clinical history and laboratory examination the diagnosis may be done.%目的 分析急性吸入性汞中毒性肺炎胸部X线及CT表现.方法 23例急性吸入性汞中毒患者,拍摄胸部平片61次,其中11例行胸部CT扫描17次,分析其X线及CT表现.结果 23例入院时X线片示汞毒性实质性肺炎10例,表现为双肺野多发片状密度增高影,边缘模糊,散在分布,3例伴有泡性肺气肿.汞毒性肺间质性炎症7例,表现为肺纹理增重模糊及紊乱,呈

  12. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  20. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  4. Subcutaneous mercury injection by a child: A histopathology case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sukheeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional subcutaneous injection of mercury by mentally healthy children is rare. Usually, it is seen as a part of suicidal attempt in severely depressed patients or by athletes to enhance their performance. We report a case of a 15-year-old child, inspired by a movie, who deliberately self-injected mercury subcutaneously into his forearm that led to the formation of a non-healing ulcer. Histopathology of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. A surgical procedure was thereby performed to treat the ulcer and reduce the blood and urinary levels of mercury. However, the patient did not develop clinical signs of chronic poisoning, proving that subcutaneous mercury injection has a low risk of systemic toxicity, and that histopathology plays an important role in diagnosis.

  5. Dangers from mercury in dental office

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yasini

    1996-01-01

    Mercury has been used in amalgam restorations for more than a century though it is poisonous and mercury vapor can endanger the health of patients and dental office staff. Therefore, they should be aware of its hazards and observe guidelines to prevent injury to nervous system, heart, kidneys, alimentary and respiratory systems. The source of mercury poisoning in dental offices can be of stored mercury, evaporation while mixing, inserting, condensing, carving, burnishing or ...

  6. Evaluation of biochemical changes in chronic arsenic poisoning among Bangladeshi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, A H M Nurun; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Islam, Laila N

    2005-12-01

    An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.1 microg/L and 234.6 microg/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 +/- 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.

  7. Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Chronic Arsenic Poisoning among Bangladeshi Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila N. Islam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.18g/L and 234.68g/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.

  8. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the rat: treatment with combined administration of succimers and an antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Gurusamy M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of the coadministration of vitamin C or vitamin E on the efficacy of two thiol chelators, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or monoisoamyl DMSA, in counteracting chronic arsenic toxicity was investigated in rats. Vitamin C and vitamin E were only mildly effective when given alone or in combination with the above chelators in mobilizing arsenic from the target tissues. However, combined administration of vitamin C plus DMSA and vitamin E plus MiADMSA led to a more pronounced depletion of brain arsenic. The supplementation of vitamins was significantly effective in restoring inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) oxidative stress in liver, kidneys, and brain as reflected by reduced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and oxidized and reduced glutathione levels. The results thus lead us to suggest that coadministration of vitamin E or vitamin C may be useful in the restoration of altered biochemical variables (particularly the effects on heme biosynthesis and oxidative injury) although it has only a limited role in depleting arsenic burden.

  9. Morvan's fibrillary chorea. A case with possible manganese poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, B A; Schoenle, P W; Karch, B J; Bardosi, A; Holzgraefe, M

    1989-01-01

    The clinical picture of Morvan's fibrillary chorea includes a. spontaneous muscular activity resulting from repetitive motor unit action potentials of peripheral origin (multiplets), b. autonomic dysregulation with profuse hyperhidrosis, and c. central nervous system involvement as shown by severe insomnia and hallucinosis. A case featuring all these symptoms is presented. Whereas known causative factors range from gold or mercury poisoning to autoimmune disorders, the presented case is the first one in which chronic manganese intoxication (occupational exposure) seems to be implicated. Manganese has been found to inhibit acetylcholine esterase, and, as a consequence, may produce peripheral and central cholinergic hyperactivity. PMID:2538282

  10. Chelating capacity and the adverse effects of two treatments (N-acetylcysteine and D-penicillamine in patients with mercury poisoning in Segovia, a municipality at the northeastern part of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Cuesta González

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the chelating capacity and the adverse effects of treatments with either Nacetylcysteine or D-penicillamine in patients with mercury poisoning in Segovia, a municipality at the northeastern part of Antioquia, Colombia.

    METHODS: 50 patients with toxic levels of mercury were enrolled in a 10 days open label, randomized comparison of either D-penicillamine (750 mg/day or Nacetilcysteine (1.8 g/day. Patients were followed on a daily basis to assess the elimination of mercury in urine and the frequency of adverse effects of each treatment.

    RESULTS: 32 patients completed 10 days of drug treatment. Averages of mercury elimination in 24 hours urine, before and after treatment with D-penicillamine and N-acetylcysteine, were not different (211.96 mcg ± 190 and 262.15 mcg ± 305 and 232.85 mcg ± 248 and 218.65 mcg ± 240, respectively, P > 0.05 for all comparisons. Evaluation of the frequency of adverse effects showed a significant difference between the two groups: D-penicillamine (50% and N-acetylcysteine (11% p = 0.0079.

    CONCLUSION: this study

  11. Psychological Intervention to Anxiety and Depression of Patients with Occupational Mercury Poisoning%心理干预对职业性汞中毒患者焦虑抑郁情绪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩静茵; 胡祖应

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of psychological intervention on patients with occupational mercury poisoning. Methods 62 patients with occupational mercury poisoning and combined with anxiety and depression were randomly divided into control group (31 cases) and psychological intervention group (31 cases). Routine treatments was used in the control group, while the psychological intervention was used in the psychological intervention group in addition. The mental status between the two groups by SAS and SDS were evaluated at the beginning of the research and five weeks later. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups about SAS and SDS scores at the beginning, while the later scores in the control group were significant higher than those of in the intervention group. And in the intervention group,the later scores of SAS and SDS were significantly lower than that at beginning. Conclusion Psychological intervention for patients with occupational mercury poisoning when combined with anxiety and depression is a kind of effective mode, which can improve the medical effects.%目的 研究心理干预对职业性汞中毒患者焦虑抑郁情绪的影响.方法 将62例职业性汞中毒伴焦虑抑郁的住院患者随机分为常规治疗组(对照组)、心理治疗结合药物治疗组(心理干预组).两组患者在治疗前和治疗5周后均采用ZUNG氏焦虑自评量表(SAS)、ZUNG氏抑郁自评量表(SDS)评分.结果 心理干预组与对照组SAS、SDS首次评定结果差异无统计学意义;治疗5周后再次评定,心理干预组患者SAS、SDS评分明显下降,与治疗前及对照组治疗后比较差异均有统计学意义.结论 心理干预对职业性汞中毒患者焦虑抑郁情绪有良好的治疗效果.

  12. Association of the genetic polymorphism of EPHX1 and EPHX2 with the susceptibility to chronic benzene poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Pin; ZHANG Zhongbin; WU Fen; WAN Junxiang; JIN Xibeng; XIA Zhaolin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of the genetic polymorphism of EPHX1 and EPHX2 with the susceptibility to chronic benzene poisoning(CBP).A case-control study of 268 patients with CBP and 268 healthy workers matehed by age and sex,all of whom were occupationally exposed to benzene,was conducted.The single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs,rs2854451,rs3738047,rs2234922 and rs1051741)of EPHX1 gene and the SNP (rs751141)of EPHX2 gene were tested by the TaqMan PCR method.In the subjects carrying the genotype of EPHX1 rs3738047 GG,the risk of CBP was decreased in the individuals simultaneously carrying EPHX1 rs2234922 G (P=0.02).Alternatively,in the subjects carrying the genotype of EPHX1 rs2234922 AA,the risk of CBP was increased in the individuals simultaneously carrying the allele of EPHX2 rs751141A (P=0.03).It was also found that there were potential interactions between alcohol consumption and the polyrnorphism of EPHX1 rs1051741(XH2=5.28,P=0.02)or rs2234922(XH2=6.71,P=0.01).Compared to individuals with EPHX1 rs1051741 CC or rs2234922AA genotype in the drinkers,the risk of CBP in those carrying genotypes of EPHX1 rs1051741 CT+TT or rs2234922 AG+GG was decreased,respectively(P=0.04,P<0.0 1).Haplotype analysis of polymorphisms in EPHX1 showed that the risk of CBP was increased in the subjects with haplotype 2 (rs2854451-A,rs3738047-G,rs2234922-A,rs1051741-C)or haplotype 4(rs2854451-G,rs3738047-A,rs2234922-G,rs1051741-T),but decreased in those with haplotype 6 (rs2854451-G,rs3738047-G,rs2234922-G,rs1051741-T)or haplotype 10(rs2854451-A,rs3738047-A,rs2234922-G,rs1051741-T),respectively.Logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking might play a role in modifying the risk of CBP (OR=0.313,95%CI:0.123-0.794,P=0.015).The genetic polymorphism in EPHX1 may be associated with the risk of CBP in the Chinese occupational population and further research is needed for the association between the genetic polymorphism in EPHX2 and the susceptibility to CBP.

  13. Auto-aggressive metallic mercury injection around the knee joint: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friesenbichler Joerg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental or intentional subcutaneous and/or intramuscular injection of metallic mercury is an uncommon form of poisoning. Although it does not carry the same risk as mercury vapour inhalation, it may cause destructive early and late reactions. Case Presentation Herein we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient who developed an obsessive-compulsive disorder causing auto-aggressive behaviour with injection of elemental mercury and several other foreign bodies into the soft tissues around the left knee about 15 years before initial presentation. For clinical examination X-rays and a CT-scan of the affected area were performed. Furthermore, blood was taken to determine the mercury concentration in the blood, which showed a concentration 17-fold higher than recommended. As a consequence, the mercury depots and several foreign bodies were resected marginally. Conclusion Blood levels of mercury will decrease rapidly following surgery, especially in combination with chelating therapy. In case of subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of metallic mercury we recommend marginal or wide excision of all contaminated tissue to prevent migration of mercury and chronic inflammation. Nevertheless, prolonged clinical and biochemical monitoring should be performed for several years to screen for chronic intoxication.

  14. Influence of chronic arsenic poisoning on the ultrastructure of skeletal muscles%慢性砷中毒对骨骼肌超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝飞; 王恒; 康朝胜; 余资江; 季亮; 肖朝伦; 罗时鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察慢性砷中毒对小鼠骨骼肌形态学的变化,研究慢性砷中毒对小鼠骨骼肌的损伤机制。方法:将60只昆明种小鼠分为对照组、高、低剂量染砷组,检测各组小鼠血、尿以及骨骼肌中含砷量,采用电镜(透射)观察小鼠骨骼肌细胞内超微结构的变化。结果:各染砷组小鼠血、尿及骨骼肌中含砷量明显高于对照组(P <0.01);透射电镜显示正常组小鼠骨骼肌细胞结构未见异常,低砷染毒组骨骼肌细胞出现轻度损伤,高砷染毒组细胞出现 Z 线漂移,局部 Z 线消失,线粒体出现肿胀、内部嵴断裂,部分发生空泡样改变。结论:慢性砷中毒明显损伤小鼠骨骼肌细胞超微结构,并随浓度增加损害加重。%Objective:To study the effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on the change of skeletal mus-cles ultrastructure in mouse.Methods:A total of 60 healthy adult Kunming mouse were divided into three groups:the normal control group,high -dose group and low -dose group.They were respectively fed for 3 months.After the model of chronic arsenic poisoning was established,the exact amounts of arsenic in the rec-tus femoris,the blood and urine were measured.The change of ultrastructure in rectus femoris was observed by electron microscope.Results:The content of blood and urine in groups of arsenic poisoning was signifi-cantly higher than the group of normal control (P <0.05);By electron microscope,myofibril appeared dis-orderly and mitochondria became swollen and vacuole in the high -dose group.Conclusion:Chronic arsenic poisoning might damage the ultrastructure on skeletal muscles in dose dependent manner.

  15. Clinicopathological features of cosmetics mercury poisoning-related nephrotic syndrome: A case report%1例化妆品汞中毒相关肾病综合征临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红艳; 魏日胞; 王远大; 杨勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨化妆品汞中毒相关肾病的临床病理特点及治疗方法.方法 解放军总医院肾科2010年1 1月收治的1例女性化妆品汞中毒病例,分析其临床病理特点及对驱汞治疗的反应.结果 该病例用含汞美白化妆品半年,临床表现为肾病综合征,血压及肾功能正常,血清自身抗体系列正常.病理特点表现为膜性肾病Ⅰ期,患者未用免疫抑制剂,驱汞治疗效果较好,尿蛋白逐渐减少,全身症状改善.结论 本例化妆品汞中毒相关肾病表现为肾病综合征,病理为膜性肾病Ⅰ期,对驱汞治疗反应较好.%Objective To study the clinicopathological features of cosmetics mercury poisoning-related nephropathy and its treatment methods. Methods Clinicopathological features of a female patient with cosmetics mercury poisoning-related nephropathy admitted to Department of Nephrology, Chinese PL A General Hospital, in November 2010 and her response to antimercurialism were analyzed. Results The patient developed nephritic syndrome after using whiten cosmetics that contains mercury for half a year. Her blood pressure, renal function, and serum autoantibody were normal. Pathologic examination showed stage 1 membranous nephropathy. The patient did receive any immunosuppressive agent. After antimercurialism, her urinary protein gradually decreased and systemic symptoms improved. Conclusion Cosmetics mercury-related nephropathy is manifested as nephrotic syndrome (which was diagnosed as stage I membranous nephropathy in this patient who had a rather good response to antimercurialism).

  16. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  17. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  18. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  19. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  20. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  1. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  2. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the

  3. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  4. 以帕金森综合征为主要表现的慢性汞中毒患者6例分析%Parkinson’ s syndrome in patients with mercury poisoning:6 cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海庆; 唐毅; 陆慧; 矫黎东; 王向波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of mercury poisoning patients with Parkinson 's syn-drome, in order to improve the clinical understanding of Parkinson 's syndrome caused by mercury poisoning.Methods From January 2005 to December 2014 , 6 patients who were diagnosed of Parkinson's syndrome due to mercury poisoning in Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences were enrolled , summarized and analyzed the clinical features and laboratory examination of these patients.Results 3casesinthese6patientswithonsetoftremor,3caseswithbradykinesiaandpostural instability onset .All of these 6 patients with increased muscle tension , myotonia are more obviously than limbs tremor at be-ginning.All patients underwent MR examination , and no specific findings were found .3 patients underwent needle electrode electromyography and nerve conduction velocity test , and no peripheral nerve involvement was found .All patients received the treatment for Parkinson's disease, effect of Parkinson's disease drugs were found in 5 patients, 1 case with no obvious treatment effect.After DMPS mercury displacement treatment , symptoms can relieve in different degrees .Conclusion Rigidity and bradykinesia were more prominent in Parkinsonism patients due to mercury exposure .Most patients responded to dopamine medication.Parkinsonism could be relieved after chelation therapy .%目的:分析以帕金森综合征为主要表现的汞中毒患者的临床特征,以提高对汞中毒导致帕金森综合征的临床认识。方法收集2005年1月—2014年12月于首都医科大学宣武医院住院确诊的以帕金森综合征为主要表现的汞中毒患者6例,总结分析其临床特征和辅助检查资料。结果6例患者中有3例以震颤起病,3例以运动迟缓、姿势障碍起病。就诊时6例患者的肌张力增高、肌强直表现均较肢体震颤的表现更为突出。患者均接受了头颅MR检查,均无特异性发现。3例患者接

  5. 不同原因所致非职业性汞中毒的临床特点分析%Analysis of Clinical Characteristics on Non-occupational Mercury Poisoning Caused by Different Reasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛长江; 郝凤桐; 吴娜; 李惠玲

    2011-01-01

    [目的]C 分析比较不同原因导致的非职业性汞中毒的临床特点.[方法]将北京朝阳医院2005-2009年收治的171例非职业性汞中毒住院患者按中毒原因分为环境污染组、使用化妆品组和使用偏方组,分别对各组患者进行临床症状和体征、实验室检查指标以及治疗效果的分析.[结果]在171例患者中,环境污染组34例,使用化妆品组90例,使用偏方组47例.各组患者主要出现神经衰弱症候群、消化道症状、周围神经损害和肾脏损害.与环境污染组相比,使用偏方组烦燥、恶心及水肿表现明显;与使用化妆品组相比,使用偏方组烦燥、口腔异味、食欲下降、恶心、腹痛、牙龈肿胀和水肿等症状体征明显,蛋白尿和尿β微球蛋白升高的发生率明显增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).使用偏方组患者驱汞治疗前空白尿汞值较其他两组高(P<0.05),以二巯基丙磺酸钠驱汞治疗疗程长干其他两组.[结论]不同原因所致非职业性汞中毒的临床特点不同;使用偏方中毒患者临床表现较重,尿汞含量高,所需驱汞疗程较长.%[Objective]To analyze and compare the clinical characteristics on non-occupational mercury poisoning caused by different reasons.[Methods]Total of 171 hospitalized patients of non-occupational mercury poisoning in Beijing Chaoyang hospital from 2005 to 2009 were divided into three groups according to their exposure reasons, namely environmental pollution group, cosmetic group and folk remedies group.Their clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory indices and therapeutic effects were analyzed.[Results]Among 171 patients, 34 cases were in environmental pollution group, 90 cases in cosmetic group and 47 cases in folk remedies group.Neurasthenia syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, peripheral nerve damage and kidney damage were main manifestations in all patients.Compared with environmental pollution group, the patients in folk remedies group showed

  6. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  7. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and older people are at ...

  8. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  9. Protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage and oxidative stress related gene expression in rat liver under chronic poisoning of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao; Wang, Zhou; Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ping-chuan; Dong, Lu; Chen, Jing-hong; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiao-tian; Wang, Zhi-lun

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and chronic exposure to it through contaminated drinking water has become a global problem of public health. The present study focused on the protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage of chronic arsenic poisoning in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups at random and given designed treatments for 20 weeks. The oxidative damage of liver tissue was evaluated by lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress related genes were detected to reflect the liver stress state at the molecular level. Compared to the control and Na2SeO3 groups, the MDA content in liver tissue was decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the Na2SeO3 intervention group. The mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx and Txnrd1 were increased significantly (Pcauses oxidative damage in the rat liver, and Na2SeO3 protects liver cells by adjusting the expression of oxidative stress related genes to improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23603382

  10. Protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage and oxidative stress related gene expression in rat liver under chronic poisoning of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao; Wang, Zhou; Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ping-chuan; Dong, Lu; Chen, Jing-hong; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiao-tian; Wang, Zhi-lun

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and chronic exposure to it through contaminated drinking water has become a global problem of public health. The present study focused on the protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage of chronic arsenic poisoning in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups at random and given designed treatments for 20 weeks. The oxidative damage of liver tissue was evaluated by lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress related genes were detected to reflect the liver stress state at the molecular level. Compared to the control and Na2SeO3 groups, the MDA content in liver tissue was decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the Na2SeO3 intervention group. The mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx and Txnrd1 were increased significantly (Ptreatment group. The expressions of HSP70 and HO-1 were significantly (Ptreatment group. The results indicate that long-term intake of NaAsO2 causes oxidative damage in the rat liver, and Na2SeO3 protects liver cells by adjusting the expression of oxidative stress related genes to improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  12. Aplastic anemia and membranous nephropathy induced by intravenous mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, N.; Nagaprabhu, V. N.; Kurian, G.; Seethalakshmi, N.; Rao, G. G.; Unni, V. N.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injection of mercury can be life-threatening. We report a case of attempted suicide by self-intravenous injection of elemental mercury. The patient suffered from two side effects : membranous nephropathy and aplastic anemia. She was treated and the systemic effects of mercury were reversed after 4 years. The toxicology of mercury, mechanisms of renal and systemic toxicities, and the various therapeutic measures for mercury poisoning are discussed.

  13. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  14. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  15. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  16. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  17. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  18. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VESSELS Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly SKIN Burns Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath ... the effect of the poison Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Tube through the mouth into the ...

  19. Solder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurs when someone swallows solder in large amounts. Skin burns can occur if solder touches the skin. This ... the effect of the poison Surgery to remove burned skin Tube through the mouth into the stomach to ...

  20. DISASTROUS/HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE EXPLOITATION: MASS LEAD-POISONING AND MORTALITY OF CHRONICALLY-POOR ARTISANAL GOLD MINERS’ CHILDREN IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Disastrous/hazardous environmental resource exploitation: mass lead-poisoning and mortality of chronically-poor artisanal gold miners’ children in northern Nigeria.The claim that poverty is one of three motivations of the nearly half a decade-long terrorist war waged by Northern Nigeria’s Islamic-sectarians, Boko Haram, call to question the extent to which sociological aspects of the critical social theory -emphasizing participation of various strata of the population in the rational society have been fulfilled in the sub-national region. The presentation of over 90 percent of Nigeria’s population (total: about 170 million classified as poor (earning/spending less than US$2 a day, vulnerable to socio-economic hazards, -with poverty in northern Nigeria reportedly surpassing levels in the rest of Nigeria’s federation makes questioning of geographers’ political-economic perspectives of critical social theoretical equally urgent. One of many dimensions of this challenge is its indication of Northern Nigeria’s leadership’s failure to seriously apply public resources towards resolving social welfare problems at both central and sub-national regional scales since the attainment of independence in 1960. The recent resort to insurgency represents mistakes of political gladiators during the post-independence era (over 50 years to properly manage natural resources –including solid minerals in northern Nigeria and the rest of the country. Here, we undertake a discourse of hazards (risks and vulnerabilities and disasters associated with recent resort of northern Nigeria’s poor to artisanal/unregulated mining of gold in northern Nigerian communities: cases of deleterious consequences (deaths, illnesses, etc., of this alternative “livelihood” of coping with socio-economic challenges posed by chronic poverty, unemployment, under-employment, among other adversities in the sub-national region were also highlighted. Government’s failure to

  1. [Mechanism of the membrane stabilizing action of vitamins K and E under conditions of chronic phenol poisoning in albino rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, P V; Lider, V A

    1996-01-01

    In experiment with white male-rats the influence of membranotropic phenol-poison on the qualitative composition of phospholipids of liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles as well as biomembranes of erythrocytes and mitochondria of liver was investigates. Along with these investigations the possibility of preventing from supposed changes of qualitative composition of phospholipids has also been studied by additional injection K and K vitamins as minor lipid components. As the result of this research it was stated that when phenol (per, os) was repeatedly injected the content of lysophospholipids, phosphatidic acids in phospholipid composition increased and the content of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin simultaneous decreased. Additional injection E and K vitamins (50 mg/kg by weight and 20 mg/kg accordingly) prevented to a greater extent the changes of fractional composition of the lipid phase of biomembranes. The mechanism of protective action of K and E vitamins is probably connected with spatial screening of pi-bonds in the radicals of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid composition from reoxidation and on the hand the competitive interrelations may exist between minor lipid components and on the other hand between the ethers of cholesterol. These conclusions agree with hypothesis that K and E vitamins are the natural modifiers of the membranes of different types of structure. PMID:8967049

  2. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  3. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Ksibi Hichem; Rejeb Imen; Boujelben Mariem; Chaari Adel; Chtara Kamilia; Bouaziz Mounir; Rekik Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  4. Anti-endothelial cell IgG from patients with chronic arsenic poisoning induces endothelial proliferation and VEGF-dependent angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chien-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chang, Louis W; Chiou, Min-Hsi; Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2008-11-01

    An endemic peripheral vascular disorder due to chronic arsenic poisoning, named Blackfoot disease (BFD), occurs in Taiwan. BFD causes destruction of vascular endothelial cells, and an anti-endothelial cell IgG antibody was found in the sera of BFD patients. We studied the role of this IgG antibody (BFD-IgG) in modulating proliferation and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and found that a low concentration of BFD-IgG (200 microg/mL) stimulated endothelial cell growth and increased expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The apoptosis events appeared not altered by addition of BFD-IgG. An in vitro neoangiogenesis assay demonstrated that BFD-IgG promoted the formation of tube-like structures, which was completely abrogated by anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody and partially by NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. We conclude that BFD-IgG at 200 microg/mL results in cell proliferation and enhanced VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in vitro. Those results suggested that a low concentration of BFD-IgG plays a protective role in the pathogenesis or the progression of BFD.

  5. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  6. An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm with a causal link to anoxia, acidification and mercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Wignall, Paul; Joachimski, Michael; Sun, Yadong; Savov, Ivan; Grasby, Stephen; Beauchamp, Benoit; Blomeier, Dierk

    2016-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) extinction event is mostly known from equatorial latitudes and consequently its global extent is poorly resolved. We demonstrate that there were two, severe extinctions amongst brachiopods in northern Boreal latitudes (Spitsbergen), in the Middle to Late Permian, separated by a recovery phase. New age dating of the Kapp Starostin Formation of Spitsbergen using strontium and carbon isotopic trends suggests that the first crisis occurred in the Capitanian. This age assignment indicates that this Middle Permian extinction is manifest at higher latitudes. Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the Boreal crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen depletion, implicating anoxia in the extinction scenario. The highly toxic metal mercury becomes enriched in strata at the Middle Permian extinction level implicating death-by-toxicity (and a possible link to volcanism). Finally, the near-total loss of carbonates across the Boreal Realm in the Middle to Late Permian also suggests a role for acidification. New in prep. data from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (samples collected July 2015) tentatively suggests that this potent "three strikes and you're out" extinction mechanism was a Boreal-wide phenomenon. The Late Permian recovery interval saw the appearance of new brachiopod and bivalve taxa alongside survivors, and an increased mollusk dominance, resulting in an assemblage reminiscent of younger Mesozoic assemblages. The subsequent end-Permian mass extinction terminated this Late Permian radiation.

  7. Response of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and metal imbalance to combined administration of DMSA and monoisoamyl-DMSA during chronic arsenic poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, S; Flora, S J S

    2007-03-01

    Arsenic and its compounds cause adverse health effects in humans. Current treatment employs administration of thiol chelators, such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), which facilitate its excretion from the body. However, these chelating agents are compromised by number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature, particularly in case of chronic poisoning. Combination therapy is a new approach to ensure enhanced removal of metal from the body, reduced doses of potentially toxic chelators, and no redistribution of metal from one organ to another, following chronic metal exposure. The present study attempts to investigate dose-related effects of two thiol chelators, DMSA and one of its new analogues, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), when administered in combination with the aim of achieving normalization of altered biochemical parameters suggestive of oxidative stress and depletion of inorganic arsenic following chronic arsenic exposure. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were given 25 ppm arsenic for 10 weeks followed by chelation therapy with the above chelating agents at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg (orally) when administered individually or 0.15 mmol/kg and 0.3 mmol/kg (once daily for 5 consecutive days), respectively, when administered in combination. Arsenic exposure led to the inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and depletion of glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by significant depletion of hemoglobin, RBC and Hct as well as blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) acitivity. There was an increase in hepatic and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, while GSH:GSSG ratio decreased significantly, accompanied by a significant increase in metallothionein (MT) in hepatocytes. DNA damage based on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significant loss in the integrity of DNA extracted from the liver of arsenic

  8. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  9. Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, C; Inaoka, T; Kadono, T; Nagano, M; Nakamura, S; Ushijima, K; Murayama, N; Miyazaki, K; Ohtsuka, R

    2001-12-01

    Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range < 1-535 microg/L; n = 86) on an individual basis. The small variation of [As](u) within subjects and highly positive correlation with [As](tw) indicate that [As](u) is a useful indicator of exposure. Analyses of [As](u) showed that creatinine correction was necessary, that [As](u) only reflected recent exposure, and that there were substantial interindividual differences for a given [As](tw) level. To evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity.

  10. Mercury Exposure and Children’s Health

    OpenAIRE

    Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; McCarty, Kathleen M; Steckling, Nadine; Lettmeier, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and other health care providers should understand the scope of mercury exposures and health proble...

  11. Mercury Methylation and Environmental Effects of Inactive Mercury Mines in the Circum-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. E.

    2001-05-01

    Mercury mines worldwide contain of some the highest concentrations of mercury on earth, and as a result of local mercury contamination, these mines represent areas of environmental concern when mine-drainage enters downstream aquatic systems. The most problematic aspect of mine site mercury contamination is the conversion of inorganic mercury to highly toxic organic mercury compounds, such as methylmercury, and their subsequent uptake by aquatic organisms in surrounding ecosystems. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in sediment and water samples collected from several inactive mercury mines in Nevada, Alaska, and the Philippines, which are part of the circum-Pacific mineral belt. The mines studied represent different mercury deposit types and sizes, and climatic settings. Geochemical data collected from these mines indicate that areas surrounding hot-springs type mercury deposits generally have lower methylmercury concentrations than silica-carbonate mercury deposits. In hot-springs mercury deposits in Nevada and Alaska, ore is dominantly cinnabar with few acid-water generating minerals such as pyrite, and as a result, mine-water drainage has near neutral pH in which there is low solubility of mercury. Conversely, silica-carbonate deposits, such as Palawan, Philippines, contain abundant cinnabar and pyrite, and the resultant acidic-mine drainage generally has higher concentrations of mercury and methylmercury. Additional factors such as the proximity of mercury mines to wetlands, climatic effects, or mine wastes containing highly soluble mercury compounds potentially enhance mercury methylation. The Palawan mercury mine may be a unique example where several adverse environmental factors produced local mercury contamination, high mercury methylation, fish contamination, and mercury poisoning of humans that consumed these contaminated fish.

  12. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  15. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  16. Adverse Effects of Chronic Mercury Vapor Exposure on Renal Function of Human%慢性汞暴露对人群肾脏功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎春; 郑徽; 康家琦; 程义斌; 金银龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To clarify the adverse effects of chronic exposure to mercury vapor on renal function of human.Methods According to the air mercury monitoring concentration from 1996 to 2006 in the thermometer plant, one hundred and eighty-six workers were divided into 2 groups: 85 workers in control group and 101workers in exposure group. In each group,biological samples were collected. Mercury in urine and hair, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), urinary αl-microglobulin (αl-MG) and retinol -binding protein (RBP) in two groups were determined.Results Mercury levels in urine and hair and cumulative exposure index in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group significantly (P<0.01). The levels of Scr and endogenous creatinie clearance rate (Ccr) were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01). The levels of NAG in the exposed group were significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), However, there was no statistically significant difference in the levers of BUN, α1-MG and RBP between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that Scr would increase and Ccr would decrease significantly when mercury in hair increased and NAG would increase significantly when mercury in urine increased. Conclusion Chronic mercury exposure can cause renal damages in human. The levels of Scr and Ccr can be used as the sensitive indicators for renal glomerular dysfunction,and the level of NAG can be used as a sensitive indicator for renal tubular dysfunction.%目的 研究慢性汞暴露对人群肾脏功能的影响.方法 于2007年选择某温度计厂职工为研究对象,以该厂1996-2006年生产车间空气汞监测历史数据划分对照组(85人)和暴露组(101人),检测发汞、尿汞、累积暴露量(CEI)、肾小球滤过功能及肾小管吸收功能.结果 暴露组空气汞浓度、尿汞、发汞和累计暴露量均显著高于对照组(P0

  17. Monitoring of mercury pollution in Tanzania: relation between head hair mercury and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, M; Nakachi, S; Cheu, T; Hamada, H; Ono, Y; Tsuda, T; Yanagida, K; Kizaki, T; Ohno, H

    1999-03-01

    Through 1996 into 1997, a spot investigation on mercury contamination was conducted three times in Tanzania, especially around the Lake Victoria. A total of 150 goldminers, 103 fishermen and their families, and 19 residents of Mwanza City volunteered for the current study. A high total mercury level of 48.3 ppm (near to 50 ppm, a critical level of Minamata disease) and over in the head hair was observed in six goldminers (highest value, 953 ppm), four fishermen and their families (highest value, 416 ppm), and four Mwanza people (highest value, 474 ppm). With the exception of these 14 subjects, however, each mean total mercury level was well within the normal range (below 10 ppm). Out of the goldminers examined, 14 cases were diagnosed as a mild form of inorganic-mercury poisoning according to their clinical symptoms (such as polyneuropathy mercurialis, neuroasthemia, or tremor mercurialis) and the low ratio of methylmercury to total mercury, whereas neither inorganic-mercury poisoning nor methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease) was noted in the fishermen and their families or in the Mwanza people. In addition, some subjects who showed a high total mercury level made habitual use of toilet soap containing much mercury. The findings obtained suggest that the mercury pollution in Tanzania is not very serious, however, it should be observed continuously. PMID:10231987

  18. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  19. Report: Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity caused by metal poisoning: Brain as a target organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syeda Rubina; Zaidi, Syed Raza Ali; Batool, Madeeha; Bhatti, Amanat Ali; Durrani, Arjumand Iqbal; Mahmood, Zaid

    2015-07-01

    People relate the neural disorders with either inheritance or psychological violence but there might be some other reasons responsible for the ailment of people that do not have such a background. The present study explains the chronic effect of heavy toxic metals on nervous system. During experimentation, rabbits used as laboratory animals, were given test metals in their diet. Concentration of metals given to them in the diet was less than their tolerable dietary intake. Behavioral changes were observed during experimentation. Periodic increase in the metal concentration was seen in the blood sample of rabbits. They were slaughtered after a period of eight months of slow poisoning. Histological examination of brain tissues was performed. The brain samples were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to find the retention of heavy metals in mammalian brain. Concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in the blood samples of occupationally exposed people and patients with neurological disorders at the time of neurosurgery was determined by using the same techniques. During circulation, toxic metals passes through the nerve capillaries to settle down in the brain. Heavy metals cross the blood brain barrier and 'may retain themselves in it. Brain tumors and biopsy samples of patients with neurological disorder were also analyzed to relate neurotoxicity and heavy metal poisoning. Results obtained shows that lead, mercury and cadmium retain themselves in the brain for longer period of time and are one of the causes of neurotoxicity.

  20. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  1. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  2. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  4. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  5. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  6. 降糖保健品致汞砷中毒性周围神经病3例报道%Three cases of report on the peripheral neuropathy with mercury and arsenic poisoning from an oral hypoglycemic health product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓秋琼; 王蓓; 刘华; 李颖; 王玮璐; 吴慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical feature of three cases of peripheral neuropathy occurred with mercury and arsenic poisoning and summarize the clinic experience of the diagnosis and therapy for peripheral neuropathy with heavy metal poisoning.Methods:Three cases of patients with toxic peripheral neuropathy caused by orally taking a hypoglycemic health product with excessive levels of mercury and arsenic were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Subacute onset occurred in three cases of patients after they have taken the oral hypoglycemic health product for several months and the disease was progressively aggravated, in which limb peripheral-type sensory and motor deficits were as the main performance. Neurophysiological examinations suggested the impairment of multiple motor or sensory peripheral nerve mainly with axonal damage. Among them, one case of patient with respiratory dififculty could not be recovered after immunoglobulin and glucocorticoid therapy and the others were relieved after glucocorticoid therapy.Conclusion: The efifcacy of immunoglobulin and glucocorticoid therapy on the peripheral neuropathy with heavy metals (mercury and arsenic) poisoning are varied and great attention should be paid to the history of the use of medicines and health products in patients.%目的:分析3例汞砷中毒性周围神经病的临床特点,总结重金属中毒周围神经病的诊疗经验。方法:回顾3例口服同一种降糖保健品(汞砷超标)引起中毒性周围神经病患者的临床诊疗情况。结果:3例患者发病前口服摩柯复合片数月,亚急性起病,病情进行性加重,以四肢末梢型感觉和运动障碍为主要表现,神经电生理检查均提示多发性运动和(或)感觉周围神经损害,轴索损害为主。1例呼吸困难者应用激素和丙种球蛋白后疗效差,其他2例应用激素后均有缓解。结论:激素和丙种球蛋白对重金属中毒所致周围神经病的疗效有差

  7. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  8. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  9. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J T

    1987-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales was reviewed, based on the records of the New South Wales Department of Agriculture's Regional Veterinary Laboratories. The plant species causing significant mortalities were Echium plantagineum and Heliotropium europaeum. The syndrome of hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning was more frequently diagnosed than primary pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, particularly when grazing E. plantagineum. The data indicated that adult crossbred ewes were the most commonly affected class of sheep. PMID:3632498

  11. 职业性慢性汞中毒1例报告%A case report on occupational chronic mercury poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永红; 高明杰; 靳波; 温秀云

    2007-01-01

    我院1987年收治本市某化工厂慢性汞中毒患者1例,经对症治疗95d出院。患者又于1993年再次入院,出院后患者对我院诊断提出疑义,引起诊断争议,现报告如下。

  12. 222例职业性慢性苯中毒患者医院感染情况调查%Investigation of nosocomial infection among 222 cases of occupational chronic benzene poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建元; 刘健; 盛秋洁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨职业性慢性苯中毒患者医院感染的特征,为制定医院感染防护措施提供依据。方法选取2006年7月-2014年6月222例职业性慢性苯中毒患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果222例职业性慢性苯中毒患者发生医院感染63例,感染率为28.38%;感染例次数为87例次,例次感染率为39.19%。呼吸道感染36例(41.38%)位居首位。病原菌主要为肺炎支原体与肺炎克雷伯菌,分别占40.90%和18.18%。中、重度中毒患者感染率分别为43.75%和48.00%。随着住院时间的延长医院感染率逐渐上升,住院时间3个月以内患者医院感染率为6.90%,住院时间12个月以上患者医院感染率为81.82%。对医院感染与住院时间进行 Pearson 相关性分析,r =0.439,P <0.01,说明两者呈正相关。结论慢性苯中毒为职业病患者中发生医院感染的高危人群,以呼吸道感染为主;住院时间愈长,感染风险愈大。护理过程中进行有效地护理干预可降低医院感染率。%Objective To investigate the characteristics of nosocomial infection among patients with occupational chronic benzene poisoning,in order to provide references for formulating related preventive measures.Method An retrospective investigation was carried out on the clinical data of 222 patients with occupational chronic benzene poisoning in our hospital from July 2006 to June 2014.Results Among the 222 patients, 63 of them had nosocomial infection, with an infection rate of 28.38%.The case number of infection was 87,with a case-time infection rate of 39.1 9%. The respiratory tract infection ranked first at 41.38% (36/87 ), with mycoplasma pneumoniae (40.90%)and klebsiella pneumoniae (18.18%)as pathogenic bacteria respectively. Among all the patients,43.75% suffered from medium-degree poisoning,while 48% were of severe poisoning.The rate of nosocomial infection increased gradually with the increase of stay in hospital. Among patients hospitalized for

  13. Egg white hydrolysate promotes neuroprotection for neuropathic disorders induced by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Fernandez, Francisca; Moreno, Silvia; Uranga Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vera, Gema; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the egg white hydrolysate (EWH) acts on the neuropathic disorders associated with long-term Mercury (Hg) exposure in rats. 8- week-old male Wistar rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Control - saline solution (i.m.); b) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day, i.m.); c) Hydrolysate - EWH (1g/kg/day, gavage); d) Mercury and Hydrolysate. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey Hairs test; heat hyperalgesia by the plantar test; catalepsy by a modification of the "ring test" and spontaneous locomotor activity by a photocell activity chambers. Analyses were performed at 0, 30 and 60 days of treatment. Brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α determination and skin immunohistochemistry were performed at 60 days. Hg induced a reduction in mechanical sensitivity threshold at 30 and 60 days and in thermal sensitivity threshold at 60 days. At the end of treatment catalepsy was developed, but there was not significant alteration in spontaneous locomotor activity. Hg also increased brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α levels and the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. EWH prevented the development of mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and catalepsy induced by Hg and the increase in MDA concentration in brain and plasma and in the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. In conclusion, EWH promotes neuroprotection against the toxic effects caused by Hg, demonstrating a beneficial therapeutic potential. PMID:27350078

  14. The NGAL Concentration and its Significance in the Urine of Pa-tients with Mercury Poisoning%汞中毒患者尿中性粒细胞明胶酶脂质相关运载蛋白的含量及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明香; 王汉斌; 刘晓玲; 熊锡山; 韩博; 孙世惠; 周育森

    2013-01-01

      目的:检测汞中毒患者尿中性粒细胞明胶酶脂质相关运载蛋白(U-NGAL)的含量,探讨其在汞中毒早期肾损伤中的意义。方法:以24例我科收住院患者为汞中毒组、无汞接触史的15例健康成人为对照组,分别进行临床体检并测定尿-N-乙酰-D-葡萄糖苷酶(U-NAG)、24 h尿蛋白定量(UPQ)、尿β2微球蛋白(U-β2-MG)、尿α1微球蛋白(U-α1-MG)、尿汞(U-Hg)、血汞(B-Hg)、血肌酐(Scr)、血尿素氮(BUN),排除既往肾脏病史,ELISA法测定U-NGAL含量,并分析上述结果。结果:汞中毒组B-Hg、U-Hg、U-NAG、UPQ、U-β2-MG、U-α1-MG、U-NGAL与对照组相比均有统计学差异(P<0.05),传统指标Scr、BUN与对照组相比无统计学差异;U-α1-MG、U-β2-MG、U-NAG、UPQ、U-NGAL与B-Hg均有相关性,且相关系数逐渐递增。结论:长期汞接触可造成肾功能损害,U-α1-MG、U-β2-MG、U-NAG、UPQ、U-NGAL可作为汞中毒肾早期损害的敏感指标,且灵敏性依次递增;U-NGAL可能比U-NAG早出现。%  Objective: Detecting the concentration of the urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (U-NGAL), to explore its significance in the early renal damage of the patients with mercury poisoning. Meth⁃ods: 24 cases inpatient were assigned as the mercury poisoning group, 15 health adults with no mercury exposure history were assigned as the control group, any subjects with history of renal diseases were excluded. The results from physical examinations and measurements of urine-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase(U-NAG), 24 h urine protein quantities(UPQ), urinary β2-microglobulin(U-β2-MG), urinary α1-microglobulin(U-α1-MG), urinary mercury (U-Hg), blood mercury(B-Hg), serum creatinine(Scr), blood urea nitrogen(BUN) in all the groups were ana⁃lyzed. Results: The levels of B-Hg, U-Hg, U-NAG, UPQ, U-β2-MG, U-α1-MG and U-NGAL were significantly higher in the mercury poisoning

  15. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  16. Selenium poisoning of fish and wildlife in nature: lessons from twelve real-world examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorupa, J.P. [United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The chapter presents an inventory of real-world case studies of clearly confirmed or highly probable selenium poisoning in nature. These are of: Belews Lake, North Carolina, Hyco Reservoir in North Carolina, and Martin Reservoir, Texas, all constructed to provide cooling water for large coal-fired power plants; constructed wetland at the Chevron Richmond oil refinery California; Salton Sea, Kesterson Reservoir and Tulane Basin in California, constructed for agricultural drainage; seepage wetlands constructed for the Kenrick Reclamation Project near Casper, Wyoming and at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuse in Utah; an agroforestry demonstration site at Red Rock Ranch, California; Swietzer Lake, Colorado, constructed for recreational purposes and Lake Oltertjarn in Sweden, treated with selenite to mitigate mercury levels in fish. Lessons learned from these studies and the applicability of the US GPA`s freshwater chronic criterion for selenium of 5 {mu}g/L are discussed. 116 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  18. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  19. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  20. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. This ... Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different ... AND THROAT Severe pain in the throat Severe pain in the mouth ...

  1. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  2. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  3. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  4. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  5. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  6. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  7. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  8. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  9. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  10. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  11. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  12. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  13. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  14. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, L.A.; Case, A.A.; Osweiler, G.D.; Hayes, H.M. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  15. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  16. Mercury(6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    31. Since Mariner Ten's flight, astronomers have been trying to find out more about Mercury. Telescopes, including the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope,cannot help much. They would be damaged by the bright light of the sun if they turned to look at Mercury. So, astronomers are studying Mercury from observatories on Earth. They are recording information about the planet's radiation.

  17. Evidence of the direct adsorption of mercury in human hair during occupational exposure to mercury vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo Abad, Silvia; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    We have found clear evidence of direct adsorption of mercury in human hair after the occupational exposure to mercury vapour. We have performed both longitudinal analysis of human hair by laser ablation ICP-MS and speciation analysis by gas chromatography ICP-MS in single hair strands of 5 individuals which were occupationally exposed to high levels of mercury vapour and showed acute mercury poisoning symptoms. Hair samples, between 3.5 and 11cm long depending on the individual, were taken ca. three months after exposure. Single point laser ablation samples of 50μm diameter were taken at 1mm intervals starting from the root of the hairs. Sulfur-34 was used as internal standard. The ratio (202)Hg/(34)S showed a distinct pattern of mercury concentration with much lower levels of mercury near the root of the hair and high levels of mercury near the end of the hair. In all cases a big jump in the concentration of mercury in hair occurred at a given distance from the root, between 32 and 42mm depending on the individual, with a high and almost constant concentration of mercury for longer distances to the root. When we took into account the rate of hair growth in humans, 9-15mm/month, the jump in mercury concentration agreed approximately with the dates when the contamination occurred with the new growing hair showing much lower mercury concentration. In some cases the concentration of mercury at the tip of the hair was ca. 1000 times higher than that near the root. Additionally, speciation studies confirmed that mercury in all hair samples was present as inorganic mercury. The only explanation for these results was the direct adsorption of mercury vapour in hair at the time of exposure. PMID:27259347

  18. Recent advances in evaluation of health effects on mercury with special reference to methylmercury—A minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Shun’ichi; Hylander, Lars; Sakamoto, Mineshi

    2006-01-01

    Mercury is a metal that has long been used because of its many advantages from the physical and chemical points of view. However, mercury is very toxic to many life forms, including humans, and mercury poisoning has repeatedly been reported. The main chemical forms of mercury are elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury (CH3−Hg+), the toxicities and metabolisms of which differ from each other. Methylmercury is converted from divalent mercury and is a well-known neuro...

  19. Mercury in municipal solid wastes and New Jersey mercury prevention and reduction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, H.; Stevenson, E. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ (United States). Division of Science and Research

    1994-12-31

    Mercury is a very toxic heavy metal which accumulates in the brain causing neurological damages involving psychasthenic and vegetative syndrome. At high exposure levels it causes behavioral and personality changes, loss of memory and insomnia. Long-term exposure or exposure during pregnancy to mercury or mercury compounds can permanently damage the kidney and fetus. In addition to potential effects on human health, mercury poisoning can also affect other living organisms. Mercury is different than other heavy metals. It consistently biomagnifies and bioaccumulates within the aquatic food chain. Global sources of mercury release are both natural and anthropogenic. Natural sources include volatilization of gaseous-mercury iron soils ana rocks, volcanic releases, evaporation from the ocean and other water bodies. Anthropogenic sources are fuel and coal combustion, mining, smelting, manufacturing activities, disposal of sludge, pesticides, animal and food waste, and incineration of municipal solid waste. Worldwide combustion of municipal solid waste is the second largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. In New Jersey, incineration of solid waste is the largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) has developed a comprehensive program to control and prevent emission of mercury resulting from combustion municipal solid waste.

  20. Activation analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte confirm arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weider, B; Fournier, J H

    1999-12-01

    In 1960, activation analyses at the Harwell Nuclear Research Laboratory of the University of Glascow, London of authenticated hairs of Napoleon Bonaparte taken immediately after his death confirmed Napoleon's chronic arsenic poisoning on the island of St. Helena. Timeline correlation of his clinical symptomatology of the preceding 4 months, as reported in the written diaries of his exiled companions, further supports the effect of fluctuating, elevated toxic levels of arsenic on his health. Independent analyses of authenticated hairs of Napoleon by the Toxicology Crime Laboratory of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1995 reveals toxic levels of arsenic. The successful assassination of Napoleon included both a cosmetic and lethal phase. The cosmetic phase consisted of arsenic poisoning over time to weaken Napoleon, making the associated debility appear to be a natural illness and thus allay any suspicions prior to instituting the lethal phase. On May 3, 1821, at 5:30 P.M., the lethal phase was carried out. Napoleon was given Calomel (HgCl), a cathartic, and a popular orange-flavored drink called orgeat, which was flavored with the oil of bitter almonds. Together they formed mercury cyanide, which is lethal. Napoleon lost consciousness and died two days later.

  1. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  2. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  3. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed al...

  4. Mercury(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Mercury is the planet closest to the sun.It is thefastest moving planet.And it is the second smallestplanet in our solar system. 2.Mercury is very difficult to see.Its orbit isbetween us and the sun.So,we have to look toward thebright light of the sun to see it.The sunlight usuallyhides Mercury.When we can see it,it appears as a fuzzyball.

  5. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  6. Effect of chronic fluorine poisoning on fluorine content of hard tissue in rats%慢性氟中毒对大鼠硬组织氟含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱军; 刘盘龙; 梅予锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the change of fluorine content in different tissues and sex of Wistar rats with chronic fluorine poisoning, and to explore the relationship of fluorine content between the enamel and the dentin. Methods A total of 20 Wistar rats were divided into male and female groups according to the gender, each group had two subgroups. The one subgroup was Fluoride drinking group in each male and female groups, rats in this group were given water containing 100 mg/L F- sodium fluoride; and the rest rats were in control group drank only double distilled water. All the rats were killed after 7 weeks. Changes in the fluorine content of each group were analyzed with Fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The bone fluoride and dental fluoride content of fluoride drinking group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P 0.05); there were significant differences between dentin fluoride content and enamel fluoride content in dental fluorosis (P 0.05);氟牙症牙本质氟含量与釉质氟含量差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 氟对硬组织具有特殊亲和力,氟对牙本质亲和力高于釉质;相同氟暴露情况下,性别对大鼠氟牙症的氟含量无明显影响.

  7. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  8. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  9. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury upta...

  10. Mercury(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    26. Mercury appears to have a center of iron thattakes up seventy-five percent 0f the planet. There isonly a thin outer covering of rock around the core. Someastronomers think most of Mercury's rock was explodedoff when the planet was hit by a huge object early in itshistory.

  11. 职业性慢性正己烷中毒患者神经肌电图特征分析%Analysis on electromyography features in patients with occupational chronic n-hexane poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆凤; 杨爱初; 佘惜金; 黄明; 吴奇峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察职业性慢性正己烷中毒患者神经肌电图( EMG)特征。方法选取职业性慢性正己烷中毒患者30例,分为轻、中、重度中毒3组,均在患者发病6个月时进行神经传导功能和肌电图检查并分析各指标的变化。结果30例患者中,有7例患者腓总神经运动传导未引出动作电位,有2例患者腓肠神经未引出动作电位,其余患者所检神经均可引出。运动神经传导功能检查表现为运动神经传导速度( MCV)减慢、远端运动潜伏期( DML)延长和波幅降低,感觉神经传导功能检查表现为感觉神经传导速度(SCV)减慢和感觉神经动作电位波幅(SNAPA)降低。30例患者同一条神经左右侧上述各指标比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。3组患者左侧尺神经以及左、右侧腓总神经MCV分别比较,右侧尺神经DML比较,左、右侧的正中神经、尺神经和腓总神经波幅分别比较,左侧正中神经以及左、右侧尺神经SCV分别比较,左侧正中神经SNAPA比较,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。肌电图检查示,在安静状态下有67.7%出现自发电位,其中37.3%以复合重复放电为主,而纤颤电位和正锐波较少;肌肉小力收缩时有29.9%出现运动单位动作电位( MUAP)平均时限延长,14.9%未引出MUAP;肌肉大力收缩时募集电位多呈单纯相。结论职业性慢性正己烷中毒患者的EMG表现为感觉、运动混合型损害,神经轴索损害与脱髓鞘共存,左右对称发病,且有下肢神经运动传导受累程度较上肢严重等特点。%Objective To observe electromyography ( EMG) features in patients with occupational chronic n-hexane poi-soning.Methods According to the diagnostic conclusion , 30 patients with occupational chronic n-hexane poisoning were divided into mild, moderate and severe poisoning group .Nerve conduction test and EMG examination were

  12. Organic environmental poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this article, the level of organic poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish is, on the whole, is too small to threaten human health. It has been found, however, that liver from some species such as burbot, from some lakes, should not be eaten. These lakes are found to contain higher levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Previously, pregnant or breast-feeding women anywhere in Norway have been advised not to eat pike, large perch or large trout because of too much mercury. Other people should not eat these species more often than once per month. In general, the level of organic environmental poisons is higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. The sediments of the lakes in large parts of South Norway are contaminated with lead, mercury and cadmium as compared with the conditions before the industrial revolution. However, the level of metals in the lake sediments are relatively low, and these substances are unlikely to appear in the food chain, by and large. The anthropogenic emission of lead was insignificant before the industrial revolution. The exception of lead from German mining industry in the 1700s

  13. 慢性镉中毒对小鼠海马齿状回结构的影响%Effect on hippocampal dentate gyrus structure of mice with chronic cadmium poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊德; 余资江; 戈果; 刘鲜林; 常傲霜

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察慢性镉中毒对小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层细胞结构的影响.方法 将清洁级4~5月龄昆明种小鼠40只随机分为对照组与镉中毒组,每组20只,雌雄各半.适应性饲养1周后,镉中毒组采用皮下注射氯化镉(2mg/kg),每周2次,连续染毒3个月,对照组同时注射等体积生理盐水.连续喂养3个月后取大脑海马组织分别进行尼氏染色、胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)、神经元特异性烯醇酶(NSE)免疫组化染色和透射电镜观察.结果 光镜下,尼氏染色与免疫组化染色结果显示,对照组小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层神经元排列整齐、规则,结构完整,胞体较大,细胞轮廓清楚,胞核居中、核仁明显、胞浆尼氏体丰富,均匀分布于核周;胶质细胞分散在海马神经元之间,呈星形或梭形,体积小、核圆形或卵圆形;镉中毒组小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层神经元胞体变小、胞核固缩、胞浆减少,尼氏体明显减少或消失、着色浅,胶质细胞分散在海马神经元之间,体积增大;与对照组相比,镉中毒组海马齿状回颗粒层胶质细胞与NSE阳性神经元的数量增多(P<0.05).电镜下,对照组海马齿状回颗粒层神经元形态规则,胞膜清晰,细胞器丰富,结构完整;镉中毒组神经元胞体轻度水肿,核膜皱褶,核染色质皱缩,胞浆密度降低,细胞器减少,线粒体肿胀,部分透明成空泡.结论 慢性镉中毒可导致小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层神经元减少、星型胶质细胞增多,这些变化可能是镉的神经毒性作用之一.%Objective To observe the morphological changes in granule cell layer on astrocytes and neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of mice with chronic cadmium poisoning. Methods Forty Kunming mice (4--5 months old) of clean grade were randomly divided into two groups, 20 in each and half of females and males.The rats in cadmium-exposed group were injected subcutaneously with cadmium (CdCI2, 2.0 mg/kg, twice a week

  14. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  15. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  16. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  18. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  19. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  20. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  1. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  2. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  3. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  4. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  5. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, including: Antifreeze De-icing products Detergents Paints Cosmetics Note: This list may not be all-inclusive ... vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous by-products in ...

  6. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  7. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  8. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  9. Furniture polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... touched your skin or eyes you may have: Skin burns and irritation Vision loss If the poison is ... out the stomach ( gastric lavage ) Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps ...

  10. Stoddard solvent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems Nervousness Numbness in arms and legs Unconsciousness SKIN Burns Irritation Holes in the skin or underlying tissues ... if poison touches the skin) Surgery to remove burned skin Tube through the mouth into the stomach to ...

  11. Effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on serum inhibin-B and testosterone in male rats%慢性砷中毒对雄性大鼠血清抑制素-B和睾酮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喆; 高晓勤; 谷江; 杨燕平; 马晓萍; 刘智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on serum inhibin-B (INH-B) and testosterone of male rats.Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats in cleanliness grad were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight:high-dose,middle-dose,low-dose arsenic exposure groups and control group,10 animals in each group.Rats in high-dose,middle-dose,and low-dose groups were administered with arsenic in concentrations of 10.0,5.0,2.5,0.0 mg/kg in distilled water,respectively.Rats in control group were fed with distilled water freely.After 9 months,serum INH-B and testosterone were tested using an ELISA Kit.Results Serum INH-B and testosterone levels in the above mentioned four groups,respectively,were (66.31 ± 37.21),(75.13 ± 29.88),(119.02 ± 36.10),(133.04 ± 38.67)ng/L and (1.292 ± 0.715),(1.757 ± 0.649),(2.359 ± 0.675),(2.817 ± 0.890)μg/L,and the differences between different groups were statistically significant (F=84.88,8.214,all P < 0.05).Serum INH-B and testosterone levels in high-dose and middle-dose groups were significantly lower than that of control group(all P< 0.05),whereas no significant difference was found between low-dose group and control group (all P > 0.05).Conclusion Chronic arsenic poisoning has led to decreased concentration of serum INH-B and testosterone in male rats.%目的 探讨慢性砷中毒对雄性大鼠血清抑制素-B(INH-B)和睾酮的影响.方法 将40只SD雄性大鼠按体质量随机分为高、中、低剂量组和对照组,每组10只,分别用含砷(三氧化二砷,As2O3)量为10.0、5.0、2.5、0.0 mg/kg的水溶液喂养9个月.实验结束时通过股动脉采血,酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)法测定血清INH-B和睾酮水平.结果 上述4组大鼠血清INH-B和睾酮水平分别为(66.31±37.21)、(75.13±29.88)、(119.02±36.10)、(133.04±38.67)ng/L和(1.292土0.715)、(1.757±0.649)、(2.359±0.675)、(2.817±0.890)μg/L,组间比较差异有统计学意义(F值分别为84.88、8

  12. Expression of Caspase-3 in Dentate Gyrus of Adult Mice with Chronic Arsenic Poisoning%慢性砷中毒对小鼠齿状回caspase-3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝飞; 康朝胜; 余资江; 李玉飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察慢性砷中毒对成年小鼠齿状回神经元的形态学影响,探讨慢性砷中毒对成年小鼠脑部的神经毒性机制.方法 选取健康成年昆明小鼠80只,雌雄各半,分为对照组、高、中、低剂量砷染毒组,每组20只,高、中、低剂量砷染毒组分别以As03的1/5、1/10、1/40 LD50(9、4.5、1.1 mg/kg)灌胃染毒,对照组以蒸馏水灌胃,连续3个月.利用免疫组织化学和蛋白印迹技术观察小鼠齿状回部位神经元半胱氨酸蛋白水解酶-3(caspase-3)蛋白的表达.结果 免疫组化染色显示,与正常对照组比较,砷染毒组小鼠齿状回caspase-3阳性细胞明显增多(P<0.01),阳性反应产物平均光密度增高(P<0.01),同时蛋白印迹结果显示随砷中毒剂量的增加,小鼠齿状回caspase-3蛋白含量随之增加(P<0.01),各剂量组雌雄间各数据差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 慢性砷中毒导致脑齿状回神经元细胞凋亡可能与齿状回细胞caspase-3增加有关,同时脑细胞caspase-3随砷浓度增加而增高.%Objective To investigate the effects of chronic arsenic exposure at different doses on dentate gyrus neurons in adult mice. Methods Eighty healthy adult Kunming mice, 20-22 g, were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, low-dose group, moderate dose group and high dose group, 20 in each (10 males and 10 females in each group), each group was fed respectively with distilled water, 1/5 LD50, 1/10 LD50 and 1/40 LD50 As203 for 3 consecutive months, and adjusting the dose according to their weight changes. The content of arsenic in brain was determined. The expression of caspase-3 in dentate gyrus neurons was detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and analyzed by morphology methods. Results Compared with normal control group, groups of arsenic poisoning had been the main changes: caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining positive cells increased significantly (P0.05). Conclusion The obvious up

  13. 慢性砷中毒对小鼠齿状回GFAP表达的影响%Effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on GFAP expression in the dentate gyms of adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康朝胜; 孙宝飞; 余资江; 李玉飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the dentate gyrus of adult mice after chronic arsenic poisoning. Methods 80 healthy adult Kunming mice, weighing 20-22g, were divided into four groups: the normal control group, the low-dose group, the medium-dose group and the high-dose group ( 10 males and 10 females in each group). Mice in the four groups were respectively fed with distilled water, 1/5 LD50, 1/10 LD50 and 1/40 LD50 AS2O3 for 3 months, and the dosage was adjusted according to changes of weight. Then ability of learning and memory was tested by a Y-maze, and expression of the GFAP protein in the dentate gyrus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Ability of learning and memory in the high-dose group was significantly lower than that in the normal control group ( P < 0.05 ). Immunohistochemical results showed that the number of GFAP-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly more increased in the dose groups compared with the normal control group(P<0.01 ), and the average optical density was also increased (P <0.01 ). Western blot results showed the GFAP protein content increased with the dosage increasing (P <0.01 ). Conclusion Chronic arsenic poisoning might damage ability of learning and memory in mice, which may be related to proliferation of astroeytes and expression of GFAP in the dentate gyrus.%目的 研究砷中毒后小鼠齿状回胶质原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的变化.方法 选取健康成年昆明小鼠80只,雌雄各半,分为对照组及慢性砷中毒高、中、低剂量组,每组20只,分别以蒸馏水、1/5 LD50、1/10 LD50、1/40LD50 As2O3连续灌胃3个月,根据其体质量变化随时调整用药剂量,采用Y-电迷宫检测各组小鼠学习记忆行为,采用免疫组织化学和蛋白印迹技术检测不同浓度砷中毒对小鼠齿状回部位GFAP表达的影响.结果 与正常对照组比较,高剂量砷中毒组学习、记忆Y-迷

  14. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  15. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Mercury and pregnancy Mercury and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... vision problems. How can you be exposed to mercury? Mercury has several forms: It can be a ...

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  17. Final report assessment of mercury impacts to trust resources at Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mercury Contamination of Biota in freshwater ecosystems is a chronic and widespread problem. Mercury (Hg), both natural and anthropogenic, is released to the...

  18. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  19. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  20. Inorganic mercury exposure, mercury-copper interaction, and DMPS treatment in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanusa, M; Prester, L; Radić, S; Kargacin, B

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of oral treatment with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) on reducing mercury deposits in rat kidney after chronic exposure to inorganic mercury. The effect on kidney copper levels was also evaluated. The results showed that after two months of exposure to 50 ppm of mercury (as mercuric chloride) the concentration of mercury in the kidney was 124 micrograms/g wet tissue. At the same time copper concentration rose from 11 to 77 ...

  1. 某体温计厂汞作业工人健康状况分析%Mercury-Exposed Workers' Health Status in a Thermometer Manufacturing Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦宏; 何恩奇; 张金龙; 朱玮; 周进红

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the health status of workers exposed to mercury in a thermometer manufacturing plant.[Methods]Detect the air concentrations of mercury in the thermometer factory and perform health examinations on 147 mercury-exposed workers.[Results]Part of the air mercury concentrations in workplace exceeded the national occupational health standards.The mercury vapor concentrations of 16 selected monitoring points are higher than the national occupational health standard; 48 mercury-exposed workers showed neural symptoms, and the prevalence was 32.65%( 48/147 ).Total of 28 mercuryexposed workers had the mouth-gum disease, and the prevalence was 19.05%( 28/147 ).The urine mercury of 122 mercury-exposed workers exceeded the national occupational health standards, the average urinary mercury was ( 129.83 ± 82.14 )μg/g creatinine.[Conclusion]The company should take further effective preventive measures to prevent and control chronic mercury poisoning.%[目的]调查某体温计厂汞作业职工的健康状况.[方法]检测某体温计厂工作场所空气中汞浓度,并对147名汞作业工人进行职业健康检查.[结果]部分工作场所空气中汞浓度超过国家职业卫生标准,重汞作业岗位的封头、制坯下、涨真空岗位的采样点汞蒸气浓度超过国家职业卫生标准;48名汞作业工人具有类神经征,检出率32.65%(48/147),28人具有口腔-牙龈炎,检出率19.05%(28/147),122名汞作业工人尿汞超标,尿汞平均值为(129.83±82.14)μg/g肌酐.[结论]该体温计厂汞作业环境汞蒸气超标,作业工人慢性汞中毒症状和体征检出率较高,企业必须采取有效的职业病防治措施,保护工人的健康.

  2. N-acetylcysteine reverses immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury and augments murine lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omara, F.; Fournier, M.; Bernier, J. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Blakley, B.

    1995-12-31

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol antioxidant used clinically to treat chronic inflammatory lung disorders and acetaminophen poisoning in humans. The authors evaluated in vitro the effect of NAC on mitogen-induced blastogenesis in C57BI/6 mouse splenocytes by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, and its ability to protect against the immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury on lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by optimal and suboptimal concentrations of concanavalin A (Con A), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or a combination of calcium ionophore A23187 and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) were markedly enhanced by NAC. NAC itself was a weak mitogen. The kinetics of the NAC effect on splenocyte proliferation were mitogen dependent. NAC enhanced Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent and linear manner but enhanced the LPS-induced response at 50--400 {micro}g/ml of NAC followed by a decline in response to control value at higher concentrations. In splenocytes stimulated with PMA plus A23187, NAC increased proliferation at 50--200 pg/ml followed by a constant response at 200--1,000 {micro}g/ml NAC. When splenocytes were stimulated with higher concentrations of Con A (10 {micro}g/ml) or LPS (150 {micro}g/ml) which markedly suppress splenocyte proliferation, NAC significantly enhanced the Con A-induced response and reversed the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of LPS. NAC also protected lymphocytes against mitogen activation-induced cell death. Methyl mercury at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}--1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} suppressed Con A- and LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by over 80%. However, NAC completely reversed the immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury on the mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation even when the cells were pre-incubated with methyl mercury for 6 or 24 hr before stimulation with the mitogens.

  3. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  4. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  5. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  6. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A;

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles, extr...

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...

  8. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  9. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S;

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  11. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  12. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A Text Size The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, CD3EAP, PPP1R13L, XPB, XPC, and XPF and the Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xue

    Full Text Available Individual variations in the capacity of DNA repair machinery to relieve benzene-induced DNA damage may be the key to developing chronic benzene poisoning (CBP, an increasingly prevalent occupational disease in China. ERCC1 (Excision repair cross complementation group 1 is located on chromosome 19q13.2-3 and participates in the crucial steps of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER; moreover, we determined that one of its polymorphisms, ERCC1 rs11615, is a biomarker for CBP susceptibility in our previous report. Our aim is to further explore the deeper association between some genetic variations related to ERCC1 polymorphisms and CBP risk.Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1, CD3EAP (CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein, PPP1R13L (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like, XPB (Xeroderma pigmentosum group B, XPC (Xeroderma pigmentosum group C and XPF (Xeroderma pigmentosum group F were genotyped by the Snapshot and TaqMan-MGB® probe techniques, in a study involving 102 CBP patients and 204 controls. The potential interactions between these SNPs and lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking, were assessed using a stratified analysis.An XRCC1 allele, rs25487, was related to a higher risk of CBP (P<0.001 even after stratifying for potential confounders. Carriers of the TT genotype of XRCC1 rs1799782 who were alcohol drinkers (OR = 8.000; 95% CI: 1.316-48.645; P = 0.022, male (OR = 9.333; 95% CI: 1.593-54.672; P = 0.019, and had an exposure of ≤12 years (OR = 2.612; 95% CI: 1.048-6.510; P = 0.035 had an increased risk of CBP. However, the T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 (P<0.05 and the GA allele in CD3EAP rs967591 (OR = 0.162; 95% CI: 0039~0.666; P = 0.037 decreased the risk of CBP in men. The haplotype analysis of XRCC1 indicated that XRCC1 rs25487A, rs25489G and rs1799782T (OR = 15.469; 95% CI: 5.536-43.225; P<0.001 were associated with a high risk of CBP.The findings showed that

  14. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  15. Hemlock water dropwort poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, M J; Flather, M. L.; Forfar, J C

    1987-01-01

    Severe plant poisoning is relatively uncommon in adults. We report two adults who ingested hemlock water dropwort roots, having mistaken them for wild parsnip. One developed prolonged convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. The toxin--oenanthotoxin--was detected in the gastric aspirate and measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  16. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  17. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al2O3-B4C and Al2O3-Gd2O3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B4C or Gd2O3 in Al2O3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author)

  18. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  19. Nursing Analysis of Sodium Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate in Treatment of Mercury Poisoning Patients%二巯基丙磺钠用于汞中毒患者治疗过程的护理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To summarize and analyze nursing measures and experience on sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate in treatment of mercury poisoning patients. Methods  56 cases of mercury poisoning patients received sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate treatment from January 2013 to January 2015 were divided into control group and observation group according to different nursing. Control group accepted routine nursing; observation group received mental health nursing on basis of control group. To compare urine mercury and family members of nursing satisfaction before and after treatment between two groups. Results After treatment, urine mercury were all decreased, but observation group were more signiifcantly than control group, family members of nursing satisfaction of observation group were obviously higher than control group, differences all had statistical signiifcance (P<0.05). Conclusion Sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate in treatment of mercury poisoning patients can obtain a good curative effect, it is conducive to the rehabilitation of patients with mental health nursing, it can improve family members of nursing satisfaction.%目的:对应用二巯基丙磺钠治疗汞中毒患者过程中所采取的护理措施和护理经验进行总结分析。方法选择2013年1月至2015年1月接受二巯基丙磺钠治疗的汞中毒患者56例为研究对象,根据护理方法的不同分为对照组和观察组两组,对照组患者采用常规护理法,观察组患者在对照组的基础上加以心理健康护理,对比分析两组患者治疗前后尿汞值变化和家属对护理的满意程度。结果两组患者经二巯基丙磺钠治疗后尿汞值均降低,且观察组降低程度较对照组显著,观察组患者家属对护理的满意度也明显高于

  20. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-03-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

  1. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Mundle; Neelima; Sushrut; Yogesh; Shukan; Shalik; Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  2. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  3. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  4. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  5. 亚慢性砷中毒对大鼠精子透明质酸酶的影响%Effect of sub-chronic arsenic poisoning on rat sperm hyaluronidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕平; 高晓勤; 丁贤胜; 马晓萍; 杨喆; 刘智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sub-chronic arsenic poisoning on hyaluronidase activity of rat sperm.Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in cleanliness grade,weighing 100-200 g,were randomly divided into four groups:control group,low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose arsenic exposure groups,10 in each group,and allotted to cages.Rats of arsenic groups were exposed to arsenic through drinking water (As2O3 was dissolved in distilled water).The concentrations of As2O3 in low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose groups were 25,50,and 100 mg/L,respectively.Body weight of each rat was weighed once a week.The rats in control group drank distilled water freely.All rats were fed for three months.After the experiment,all rats were killed and their sperms were collected.The positive rates and hyaluronidase activity intensities of the sperms in different groups were examined by the mature improved fixed-substrate film method.Results The positive rate of sperm hyaluronidase in control,low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose groups were (90.8 ± 13.2)%,(79.1 ± 15.6)%,(59.7 ± 20.3)% and (33.8 ± 14.5)%,respectively.Compared with the control group,the positive rates of the middledose and the high-dose groups were significantly reduced(all P < 0.05).The activity intensities of hyaluronidase in the sperms in control,low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose groups were (45.1 ± 24.0),(31.1 ± 21.3),(19.4 ± 15.3) and (9.8 ± 3.1)μm,respectively.Compared with the control group,the activity intensities of hyaluronidase of the middle-dose and the high-dose groups were significantly reduced(all P < 0.05).Conclusion Sub-chronic arsenic poisoning reduces the activity intensities and positive rates of sperm hyaluronidase of rat,resulting in reduced sperm fertilizing capacity.%目的 探讨亚慢性砷中毒对大鼠精子透明质酸酶活性及活性强度的影响.方法 清洁级SD雄性大鼠40只,体质量100~120 g,按体质量随机分为对照组、低剂量组

  6. Health and environmental impact of mercury: Past and present experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A. T. F.; Cortes-Maramba, N. P.; Akagi, H.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury exists in various forms including metallic mercury, inorganie and organic mercury compounds. Research studies show that contamination brought about by natural and man-made activities is clearly a growing problem today. In 1956, the first recognized poisoning outbreaks occurred. Minamata Disease is a disorder of the central nervous system caused by the consumption of fish and shellfish contaminated with methylmercury. Clinical manifestation differs from inorganic mercury poisoning in which the kidneys and the renal system are damaged. The toxidrome consists of sensory disorders in the distal portion of the four extremities, cerebral ataxia, bilateral concentric constriction of the visual field. central disorder of ocular movement, central hearing impairment and disequilibrium. Fetal type Minamata Disease bom of mothers being exposed to methylmercury during pregnancy resulted in conditions similar to those associated with “infantile cerebral palsy" were also documented. Measures to control environmental pollution were implemented such as the environmental restoration project, compensation and relief of victims as part of the health and environmental management undertaken by the government. At present, global research studies are focusing on long-term and low-dose inorganic and methyl mercury exposure; and developmental neurobehavioral toxicity including relevant environmental factors influencing mercury transformations, mass balances and partitioning in ecosystems.

  7. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  8. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in over...

  9. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  10. Protein kinase C-α expression in kidney of rat with chronic arsenic poisoning%慢性砷中毒大鼠肾脏蛋白激酶C-α表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远慧; 钱立全; 李金华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and relevant function of protein kinase C (PKC)-α in kidney of rat with chronic arsenic poisoning.Methods Totally 60 healthy SD rats of clean grade were randomly divided by body weight into 3 groups:high-dose arsenic exposure group (10.0 mg/kg),low-dose arsenic exposure group (0.4 mg/kg),and control group.The rats were exposed by drinking arsenic solution which was mixed with distilled water.Rats were weighed every 10 days and dose volume of arsenic solution was adjusted.After continuous exposure for 4 months,blood and urinary arsenic were determined.Rat kidneys were taken and stained by Immunohistochemistry SABC.PKC-o positive cells in the kidney were observed and counted,and its average gray value was analyzed with image analysis software (Biomias).Results Proximal tubules PKC-α-positive cell count [(3.62 ± 1.90),(10.07 ± 3.22)/field],glomerular PKC-α-positive cell count [(3.62 ± 1.90),(10.07 ± 3.22)/field]in high and low arsenic group of SD rat kidney were lower than those of the control group [(60.00 ± 9.63),(18.57 ± 2.71/field,all P < 0.05]; both urinary arsenic level[(7366.62 ± 1086.50),(1744.31 ± 300.12)μg,/L]and blood arsenic level [(31.59 ± 9.24),(16.58 ± 2.08)μg/L] in high-dose and low-dose groups were higher than those of the control group [(18.97 ± 3.58),(18.97 ± 3.58)μg/L,all P < 0.05] ; the average gray values of SD rat kidney proximal tubule,glomerular PKC-o positive cells in high-dose and low-dose groups( 142.79 ± 11.16,122.15 ±5.91 ) were higher than that of the control group (114.33 ± 6.70,all P < 0.05).Conclusions Arsenic can decrease SD rat kidney PKC-α -positive cells.The regulatory function of PKC-o in inhibiting cell apoptosis of kidney of rats with arsenic poisoning is weakened.%目的 探讨蛋白激酶C(PKC)-α在慢性砷中毒大鼠肾脏的表达及作用.方法 将60只清洁级SD大鼠按体质量随机分为高砷(10.0 mg/kg)、低砷(0.4mg/kg)组和对照(蒸馏

  11. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ok

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral ...

  12. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  13. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this manual a review is provided of the chemical and toxicological aspects of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The document contains information on chemical structure, chemical data, where to obtain standards and reference materials, the origin and occurrence, chemical analysis, mouse bioassay, epidemiology, mechanisms of action, symptoms and therapeutics. The practical use of this document has been highlighted in agreement with the Members of the Task Team on Aquatic Biotoxins. This ...

  14. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  15. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  16. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  17. Impact of the chronic arsenic poisoning on the ultraturcture of adult mouse brain temporal lobe cortex%慢性砷中毒对成年小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花伟; 臧贵勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of the ultrastructure of the temporal lobe cortex for the brains of these mouse with chronic arsenicpoisoning ,to explore the mechanism of arsenic toxicity on the brain .Method 60 healthy adult Kunming mouse ( 30 male and 30 female) were selected and divided into control group ,low and high dose groups . There were 20 mouse in each group . The dye arsenic group respectively with distilled water , 1/5LD50 ,1/50LD50 ,As2 O3 solution to fill the stomach ,for three consecutive months .After building ,canister , based on the determination of arsenic in groups of mice brain ,Nepal’s dyeing were used to observe the cerebral cor‐tex of temporal morphology change ,transmission electronmicroscope to observe the changes of the ultrastructure of the cerebral cortex temporal lobe in mice .Result It might be the type the type of arsenic content in the cerebral cor‐tex was significantly higher than the control group (P<0 .05) .It was observed the decrease in the number of infec‐ted each cortical neurons ,shape was irregular ,intracytoplasmic austenite reduced .It was observed under electron microscope the prion edema groups of nerve cells ,organelles decreased ,mitochondrial cristae fracture and cavity . Conclusion Arsenic poisoning can cause nerve cell pathology and ultrastructure change of cerebral cortex .%目的:观察慢性砷中毒对小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的改变,探讨砷对大脑的毒性机制。方法选取健康成年昆明小鼠60只,雌雄各半,分为对照组、慢性砷中毒低、高剂量组,每组20只,各染砷组分别以蒸馏水、1/5LD50、1/50 LD50的As2 O3溶液灌胃,连续3个月。经造模、染毒、取材后,测定各组小鼠大脑中砷含量,采用尼氏染色观察大脑皮质颞叶形态学改变,透射电镜观察小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的变化。结果(1)染毒各组小鼠大脑皮质中砷含量明显高于对照组(P<0.05);(2)

  18. [Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

    2014-06-01

    Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5 % was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39 % of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99 %); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26 % (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46 %); products of daily use in about 14 % (of these, cosmetics in 40 %); and plants in about 10 %. More than 90 % of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5 %, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44 % of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30 %, moderate ones in 6 %, and severe manifestations in 2 % of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (poisoning accidents

  19. Le poison chez les Trastamare

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Flora

    2012-01-01

    During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, poison seems to have played an important role in Castilian political life, and many authors of chronicles and medical treatises pay attention to the reality of this phenomenon. The article focuses on the use of poison by the Trastamaras, and on its political consequences. We attempt to show the impact of poison on the imagination of contemporaries and on the reality of this practice by members of the Trastamara dynasty, and to demonstrate that ref...

  20. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  1. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  2. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  3. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  4. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  5. Mercury: Major issues in environmental health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, T.W. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (United States))

    1993-04-01

    In the past, methylmercury compounds were manufactured as fungicides or appeared as unwanted byproducts of the chemical industry, but today the methylation of inorganic mercury in aquatic sediments and soils is the predominant if not the sole source of methylmercury. This form of mercury is bioaccumulated to a higher degree in aquatic food chains to attain its highest concentrations in edible tissues in long-lived predatory fish living in both fresh and ocean waters. It is well absorbed from the diet and distributes within a few days to all tissues in the body. It crosses without hindrance the blood-brain and placental barriers to reach its principal target tissue, the brain. It is eliminated chiefly in the feces after conversion to inorganic mercury. The biological half-time of methylmercury in human tissues is about 50 days, but there is wide individual variation. Adult poisoning is characterized by focal damage to discrete anatomical areas of the brain such as the visual cortex and granule layer of the cerebellum. A latent period of weeks or months may ensue before the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning. The latter manifest themselves as paresthesia, staxia, constriction of the visual fields, and hearing loss. The presented period is the most sensitive stage of the life cycle to methylmercury. Prenatally poisoned infants exhibit a range of effects from severe cerebral palsy to subtle development delays. Methylmercury is believed to inhibit those processes in the brain specially involved in development and growth such as neuronal cell division and migration. 78 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Biological effects of mercury pollution. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biological and biochemical effects of mercury pollutants on humans, animals, and plants. References cover long-term and short-term experiments, biochemical reaction kinetics, pollution sources, and ecosystems. Mercury poisoning, metabolism, and related diseases are described. Carcinogenicity testing, health risk and assessment, and the effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Potential of mercury-resistant marine bacteria for detoxification of chemicals of environmental concern

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Bhosle, N.B.; Garg, A.; Vardanyan, L.; Nagle, V.L.; Fukami, K.

    in industry 28) . Worldwide many areas are mercury polluted and present a threat to people and environment 17) . The syndromes due to mercury poisoning at different trophic levels are too many, but the worst case affecting mankind has been the Minamata... disease 21) . Cadmium (Cd) is another toxic heavy metal causing several environmental problems including the most painful itai itai disease 25) . Lead (Pb) is well known for inhibiting the biosynthesis of heme, and consequently of hemoglobin...

  8. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  9. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral O2 saturation should be measured. At the patients who do not respond cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the first 5 minutes, it is recommended to consider obstetric consultation with bedside cesarean section.

  10. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  11. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  12. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  13. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  14. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  15. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  16. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  17. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  18. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total

  19. Mercury Toxicity on Sodium Pump and Organoseleniums Intervention: A Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ige Joseph Kade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental poison, and the damage to living system is generally severe. The severity of mercury poisoning is consequent from the fact that it targets the thiol-containing enzymes, irreversibly oxidizing their critical thiol groups, consequently leading to an inactivation of the enzyme. The Na+/K+-ATPase is a sulfhydryl protein that is sensitive to Hg2+ assault. On the other hand, organoseleniums are a class of pharmacologically promising compounds with potent antioxidant effects. While Hg2+ oxidizes sulfhydryl groups of Na+/K+-ATPase under in vitro and in vivo conditions, the organoselenium compounds inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase in vitro but enhance its activities under in vivo conditions with concomitant increase in the level of endogenous thiols. Paradoxically, it appears that these two thiol oxidants can be used to counteract one another under in vivo conditions, and this hypothesis serves as the basis for this paper.

  20. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  1. Global trends in mercury management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  2. [Intermittent hemodialysis, irreplaceable in specific cases of severe poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, M; Teta, D; Burnier, M; Kissling, S

    2015-02-25

    The medical practitioner is in general well aware of the indications for hemodialysis in severe, acute or chronic renal insufficiency. Apart from the traditional indications for renal replacement therapy, there are some cases such as metfomin and ethylene glycol poisoning, lithium intoxication severe hypercalcemia and tumor lysis syndrome, in which intermittent hemodialysis is the most effective treatment, or sometimes the only effective one. Although these situations remain infrequent, it is crucial to recognize them as quickly as possible. PMID:25898458

  3. Effect of chronic arsenic poisoning on behavior, neuronal morphology and dopomine content in rats%慢性砷中毒对大鼠行为能力及中脑黑质多巴胺含量与结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊德; 王玉林; 余资江; 余彦; 孙宝飞; 龚明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study behavior capability and determine dopamine (DA) content and observe the morphological structure of neurons and astrocytes in substantia nigra (SN) of rats with chronic arsenic poisoning. Methods: The Arsenic poisoning group received arsenic (AS203) by distilled water diluted for 3 months continuously and the normal control group received equate saline. The DA content of the SN was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography after behavior capability determined. Then, the structures of neurons and astrocytes were observed under a light microscope and quantitative analysis was performed by morphometric technique. Eventually, the ultrastructures of neurons were observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Western blot was performed for detecting the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and nitric oxide synthase (Inos) of SN in rats. Results: The behavior capability and DA content of the SN were significantly decreased in the chronic arsenic exposed group. Under the light microscope, the TH, GFAP and NSE immunopositive neurons were mainly observed in the compact part of SN. The neurons of the arsenic poisoning group ap-pearanced smaller in cell body, and karyopycnosis and Nissl bodies decreased significantly or even disappeared. Compared with the normal control group, the quantity of TH and NSE positive cells was significantly decreased in the chronic arsenic exposed groups however, astrocytes were obviously increased. Under TEM, neurons of the normal control group had regular morphology, a clear membrane, rich organelles and structural integrity; but those of the arsenic poisoning group appeared swelling, the nuclear membrane reductus, nuclear chromatin shrinkage, cytoplasmic density, mitochondria swelling, and some of organelles were transparent even into vacuolus. Compared with the normal control group, the expression of Inos in SN of the arsenic poisoning group rats was increased, while the expression of TH was

  4. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  5. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  6. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  7. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  8. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing ...

  9. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  10. Anti-rust product poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision Weakness Brain damage from low oxygen level SKIN Burns Irritation Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues ... the effect of the poison Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Tube through the mouth into the ...

  11. Mechanisms of mercury bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, A M M; Macaskie, L E; Brown, N L

    2002-08-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals, and has significant industrial and agricultural uses. These uses have led to severe localized mercury pollution. Mercury volatilization after its reduction to the metallic form by mercury-resistant bacteria has been reported as a mechanism for mercury bioremediation [Brunke, Deckwer, Frischmuth, Horn, Lunsdorf, Rhode, Rohricht, Timmis and Weppen (1993) FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 11, 145-152; von Canstein, Timmis, Deckwer and Wagner-Dobler (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 5279-5284]. The reduction/volatilization system requires to be studied further, in order to eliminate the escape of the metallic mercury into the environment. Recently we have demonstrated three different mechanisms for mercury detoxification in one organism, Klebsiella pneumoniae M426, which may increase the capture efficiency of mercury.

  12. Clinical observations and acid-base imbalances in sheep during chronic copper poisoningAvaliação clínica e hemogasométrica de ovinos com intoxicação cúprica acumulativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Satsuk Mori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve male sheep were intoxicated with copper and four served as controls. When hemoglobinuria was first diagnosed, the poisoned sheep were randomly distributed into two groups: 4 untreated and 8 tetratiomolybdate-treated. Blood samples and clinical evaluation were performed daily, from the onset of poisoning until the 30th day. Analysis of packed cell volume, plasma free hemoglobin, and blood gas were made. Elevated heart rates and rectal temperature, and reduced respiratory and ruminal movement rates were recorded in the intoxicated group. The poisoned sheep developed mild alkalosis caused by bicarbonate retention, while a short-periodic increase of pCO2 occurred to compensate the ongoing alkalosis. Elevated degree of anemia was directly proportional to heart rate, while high degree of alkalosis was inversely proportional to respiratory rate. Further, there was an elevated positive relationship between plasma free hemoglobin and rectal temperature, and an increase in rectal temperature accompanied a reduced ruminal movement.Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros, sendo 12 submetidos à intoxicação cúprica e quatro animais controle. Quando foi verificada a presença de hemoglobinúria, os animais intoxicados foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois grupos, quatro animais não tratados e oito animais tratados com tetratiomolybidato de amônia. Foi realizado exame clínico e coleta de sangue diariamente desde o início da intoxicação até 30 dias após. Foram analisados o volume globular, concentração de hemoglobina plasmática e avaliação hemogasométrica. Nos animais intoxicados, foi observado elevação da freqüência cardíaca e da temperatura retal e redução da freqüência respiratória e dos movimentos ruminais. Os ovinos intoxicados desenvolveram alcalose moderada causada por retenção de bicarbonato seguido de um aumento pontual da pCO2 para compensar a alcalose em curso. Quanto maior o grau de anemia foi maior a freqüência card

  13. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  14. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  15. Mercury's heart of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one spacecraft to visit Mercury, Mariner 10, made three passes in 1974-75 after flying by Venus en route. Now, more than a decade after its first-and-only spacecraft visit, planetary scientists have absorbed the data from that flight - and are posing new questions with answers that call for a return to Mercury. Mercury is a metallic planet

  16. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  17. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. T...

  18. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  19. Meeting the challenges of continental pollutant pathways : mercury case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, W. [Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network, Burlington, ON (Canada); Lucotte, M.; Montgomery, S. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). GEOTOP; Santos-Burgoa, C.; Ibarrola Uriarte, M.I. [Instituto de Salud, Ambiente y Tabajo, Mexico City (Mexico); Abascal-Garrido, F. [Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Round, M. [Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, MA (United States); Porcella, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    This final report to the Secretariat of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) is intended to encourage the continuation of the North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on mercury for Mexico, Canada and the United States. The impacts of gold and silver mining, as well as mercury mining in Mexico on atmospheric emissions of mercury were discussed. Mercury is also found in fluorescent lighting, thermostats, thermometers, and batteries. Previous studies have shown that mercury accumulation in industrialized regions of the world has increased 2 to 5 times in the last 100 years. Current estimates of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of mercury account for at least 50 per cent of global emissions. When released into the atmosphere, elemental mercury can be transported thousands of kilometers from its source and be deposited back on earth in the form of wet and dry deposition. If mercury enters the water, it can be transformed into methylmercury which bioaccumulates in fish and animal tissues. The first section of this report discussed human health and exposure pathways of methylmercury. A section on ecosystem science described the global atmospheric mercury cycle and explained the difference between anthropogenic and natural emissions. Ecosystem pathways and the ecological fate of mercury were also described. The final section of this report was devoted to policy and science interface. This section discussed issues regarding data reliability, mercury methylation, and the effect from low level chronic exposure. Finally, it was recommended that cooperation from the international community is needed to resolve continental atmospheric pollution. It was also recommended that mercury atmospheric speciation and radio-isotope tracing studies are needed to develop future controls on the appropriate sources.122 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  20. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  1. Mercury Toxicity and Contamination of Households from the Use of Skin Creams Adulterated with Mercurous Chloride (Calomel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Copan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic mercury, in the form of mercurous chloride, or calomel, is intentionally added to some cosmetic products sold through informal channels in Mexico and the US for skin lightening and acne treatment. These products have led to multiple cases of mercury poisoning but few investigations have addressed the contamination of cream users’ homes. We report on several cases of mercury poisoning among three Mexican-American families in California from use of mercury-containing skin creams. Each case resulted in widespread household contamination and secondary contamination of family members. Urine mercury levels in cream users ranged from 37 to 482 µg/g creatinine and in non-users from non-detectable to 107 µg/g creatinine. Air concentrations of up to 8 µg/m3 of mercury within homes exceeded the USEPA/ATSDR health-based guidance and action level of <1.0 μg/m3. Mercury contamination of cream users’ homes presented a multi-pathway exposure environment to residents. Homes required extensive decontamination, including disposal of most household items, to achieve acceptable air levels. The acceptable air levels used were not designed to consider multi-pathway exposure scenarios. These findings support that the calomel is able to change valence form to elemental mercury and volatilize once exposed to the skin or surfaces in the indoor environment.

  2. Arsenic poisoning from anti-asthmatic herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C H; Seah, C S

    1975-09-13

    Arsenic poisoning, a disease of the past, was recently found in 74 patients in Singapore over a 15-month period. Most victims (70%) had a chronic form of poisoning and 64% of the cases were caused by a local anti-asthmatic herbal preparation containing 12,000 ppm of inorganic arsenic sulphide. The other patients were poisoned by six other brands of herbal preparations used for the treatment of asthma and a variety of other illnesses. Subsequent investigations revealed another 22 other brands of Chinese herbal preparations containing high concentrations of inorganic arsenic ranging from 25 to 107,000 ppm, of which most were imported. Nearly 40% of the patients had taken the medicine for less than six months, but the others had a longer history of exposure ranging from one to 15 years. Systemic involvement was confined mainly to the skin (91%), nervous system (51%), gastrointestinal system (23%) and blood (23%). Malignancy of the skin was present in six patients, and of the visceral samples, toxicological confirmation was found in half of the cases investigated. There was no correlation between the clinical status of the patients and their tissue arsenic content. The importance of arsenic poisoning by herbal preparations is discussed, as there are no known reports of their association.

  3. Hazards of Mercury. Special Report to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, November 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N.; Stickel, W.H.; ,

    1971-01-01

    Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations: The levels of mercury contamination found in freshwater fish in Sweden and Finland are similar to those found in such fish in the United States. On the other hand, fish consumption in this country is regarded as generally somewhat less than in the region of Scandinavia. Medical examinations of heavy eaters of contaminated fish have not revealed conclusive evidence of mercury-related disease in either Sweden or Finland. Nevertheless, the body burdens of mercury of some of those having the heaviest intake of fish in both of those countries were as high as the lower levels reported in persons with methylmercury poisoning in Japan. The major conclusion derived from these and other findings was that it seems unlikely that we will find overt mercury poisoning from the consumption of fish or other food products, as normally marketed, in this country. This is not to say that there may not be a few individuals, who because of high consumption of contaminated fish may have signs of mercury poisoning or suffer possible subclinical effects, including delayed neurologic or intellectual damage. Also, possibly infants or children may have impaired development. As yet, no systematic studies have been undertaken, even in the known areas of human exposure in Sweden and Japan, to identify such subclinical effects. Although we appear to be on safe ground, it is urgent (1) to determine whether subtle health effects are present and (2) to use all possible means to reduce exposure to mercury immediately.

  4. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral functioning in Chinese farm workers. PMID:26475098

  5. Assessment of Digoxin-Specific Fab Fragment Dosages in Digoxin Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Machado, Carol; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    Digoxin poisoning still remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, digoxin-specific Fab fragments are commercially available as an antidote. However, these Fab fragments are several thousand dollars per vial. There is a standardized formula to calculate appropriate Fab fragment dosage based on the serum digoxin concentration. This can greatly reduce the amount of Fab fragment administered. There is also an empiric dosing guideline recommending 6-10 vials be given; however, this may result in higher amounts of Fab fragments being administered than required. We performed this study to assess the amounts of digoxin-specific Fab fragments administered in the treatment of digoxin poisonings recorded in a poison control system database from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009, in which digoxin serum concentrations were available. This was a retrospective study of 278 patients, 107 with acute poisonings (group A) and 171 following chronic poisoning (group B). In group A, the calculated Fab dose was higher than the calculated dose based on available concentrations in 39 (36%) of group A and 15 (9%) of group B patients. The average wholesale price cost of the excessive dosages ranged from $4818 to as high as $50,589 per patient. Our data suggests that clinician education on digoxin poisoning and the use of the standardized formula to calculate the Fab dose may decrease over utilization and decrease costs associated with the administration of digoxin-specific Fab fragments in the treatment of digoxin poisonings.

  6. Research progress in feedstock dry gas for mercury removal%原料干气脱汞技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华勇; 李选志

    2011-01-01

    汞是重要的毒物和大气染污物.干气中的汞对设备和下游催化剂造成严重危害,必须予以脱除.介绍了干气中汞的脱除情况和脱汞技术的研究进展.%Mercury is an important poison and atmospheric pollutant. Mercury in the gas does serious harm to the equipment and the catalyst, and must be removed. The removal condition of mercury in dry air and the progress in mercury removal technology were introduced.

  7. Aggravated neuromuscular symptoms of mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbal, Ayla; Yılmaz, Hınç; Tutkun, Engin; Köş, Durdu Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Dental amalgam fillings are widely used all over the world. However, their mercury content can lead to various side effects and clinical problems. Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause several side effects on the central nerve system, renal and hepatic functions, immune system, fetal development and it can play a role on exacerbation of neuromuscular diseases. In this case, we will present a patient with vacuolar myopathy whose symptoms were started and aggravated with her dental amalgam fillings.

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...

  9. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined ...

  10. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were....... A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. RESULTS: Out of 435 articles screened, 77 met inclusion criteria. Only in-vitro, animal studies, case reports and case series were identified yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Based on data from 84...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  12. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  13. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  14. Clinical characteristics of the patients with occupational chronic carbon disulfide poisoning in a chemical fiber factory of Nanjing%某化纤厂职业性慢性轻度二硫化碳中毒病例临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季春萍; 朱宝立; 倪春辉; 宋海燕; 徐进; 王美林; 侯志国; 魏春龙; 董秋; 王守宇; 乔善磊

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过分析267例职业性慢性二硫化碳(CS2)中毒病例的临床特征,为修订我国CS2接触者职业性健康体检项目提供依据.方法 选择2006年4月至2010年5月某市职业病院诊断专家组依据GBZ 4-2002《职业性慢性二硫化碳中毒诊断标准》,诊断的职业性慢性轻度CS2中毒267例病例为研究对象.所有病例均来自同一化纤厂,初次诊断为CS2中毒时,由职业卫生专业人员以问卷调查采集详细病史及职业史,并进行神经系统、心血管系统检查,生化指标、神经-肌电图检测.结果 87.3%( 233/267)的病例出现腓总神经、正中神经、尺神经、胫后神经运动传导速度减慢,英中腓总神经和正中神经运动传导速度降低检出率分别为48.6%( 138/248),37.0%(155/419).中毒病例自觉症状以神经衰弱、肢体麻木、感觉异常为主,神经系统体征中跟腱反射(79.4%,212/267)、膝反射(49.8%,133/267)阳性检出率较高.心电图ST段改变(T波低平、T波倒置、ST段压低)检出率为19.1%(51/267);高血压、收缩压升高及舒张压升高检出率依次为27.3%( 73/267)、22.5%( 60/267)和21.1%( 59/267).乳酸脱氢酶、三酸甘油酯、低密度脂蛋白异常阳性检出率较高.男性病例的间接胆红素、直接胆红素、尿酸阳性检出率明显高于女性,并且尿素氮、间接胆红素阳性检出率随接毒工龄的延长而逐渐增加.结论 职业性慢性CS2中毒主要影响神经系统,对肝肾功能也有一定的影响.CS2作业人员职业性健康体检中,用神经肌-电图筛检运动神经损伤时,建议首先检查正中运动神经和腓总运动神经传导速度.%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of 267 cases with occupational chronic carbon disulfide (CS2) poisoning and to provide the basis for revising the items of periodical medical examination of workers occupationally exposed to CS2.Methods The subjects of present study were 267

  15. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  16. New technique unveils environmental poisons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the extent of environmental poisons, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has for some time been measuring the concentration of environmental poisons in mussels, fountain moss and seaweed. These organisms are 'bio monitors' that accumulate environmental poisons occurring in low concentrations in the water. Similar analyses are performed on fish gills to study poisonous metals in acid water (aluminium, copper, iron etc.)

  17. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...... an overall very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Clinical data on 135 patients and toxicokinetic data on 54 patients were analyzed. Twenty-three fatalities were reviewed. The workgroup agreed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the mainstay of treatment, and that ECTR is not warranted in most...

  18. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  19. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  20. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  1. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  2. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  3. CONTAMINATION OF MERCURY IN FISH AND ITS TOXICITY TO BOTH FISH AND HUMANS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pandey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are considered the most important form of pollution of the aquatic environment because of their toxicity and accumulation by marine organisms. The fish may be more greatly affected by anthropogenic pollution sources. Fish are highly exposed from the heavy metals, like mercury (Hg, leading to severe toxicity, both in the fish and human beings. The fish accumulate substantial concentrations of Hg in their tissues, and thus the fish are the single largest sources of Hg for humans through fish eating. The organic forms of Hg (e.g., methyl Hg are more toxic than the inorganic forms due to ease of absorption into the human system. Communities that relied on fish intake for daily nutrient sustenance may be at risk from chronic, high exposure to methyl Hg, as well as other persistent organic environmental pollutants. The organic Hg compounds are most toxic to central nervous system (CNS, and may also affect the kidneys and immune system. The main symptoms of Hg poisoning in humans include kidney damage, disruption of nervous system, damage to brain functions, DNA and chromosomal damage, allergic reactions, sperm damage, birth defects, and miscarriages. The greater concern for Hg exposure is not to adult human, but to developing foetus. The methyl Hg content of fish varies by species and size of the fish as well as harvest location. The FDA level of concern for Hg in fish is 1 ppm. The fish with levels higher than this should probably be avoided by everyone.

  4. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10-4 at the Equator and 70 x 10-4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  5. Prenatal methylmercury poisoning: clinical observations over five years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin-Zaki, L. (Univ. of Baghdad, Iraq); Majeed, M.A.; Elhassani, S.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Greenwood, M.R.; Doherty, R.A.

    1979-02-01

    Thirty-two infants prenatally exposed to methylmercury and their mothers were examined over a five-year period after the Iraqi methylmercury epidemic. Severity of poisoning in mothers was related to the peak mercury concentration in their hair and in the infants to the maximum concentration in maternal hair during pregnancy. In nine cases of cerebral palsy, methylmercury exposure occurred only during the last trimester. All infants except three (two were orphaned soon after birth and one was bottle-fed) were exposed postnatally via suckling. Whereas the mother's symptoms usually improved, the damage to the fetal nervous system appears to be permanent. Milder cases previously not identified in other studies are reported. The syndrome consists of varying degrees of developmental retardation in addition to exaggerated tendon reflexes and the pathologic extensor plantar reflex (minimal brain damage syndrome).

  6. Environmental contamination by mercury in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernelöv, A

    1976-01-01

    Following the outbreak of organomercury poisoning in Iraq, an investigation was carried out during the spring and summer of 1972 to evaluate environmental contamination by organomercury.Analyses were performed on fish of several species (not typical predators) and on a few specimens of aquatic birds (not fish-eating). Most fish samples contained concentrations in muscle ranging from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/kg. These concentrations are within the range found in tropical rivers. Higher figures, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg, were found downstream from a caustic soda plant south of Baghdad. A few cases of very high mercury concentrations (25-30 mg/kg) were reported from an area where fish kills had occurred. Aquatic birds (ducks and waders) contained low concentrations of mercury (900-2750 ng/g). Tail feathers of seed-eating birds were found to contain 13 500-21 000 ng/g of mercury, which is about 10 times higher than values reported from Ethiopia and within the range found in Sweden and Canada. Insect-eating birds contained 1850-5200 ng/g, which is thought to be slightly elevated. Extremely high concentrations of mercury were found in muscle tissue of dead seed-eating birds (15 000-40 000 ng/g), while feathers contained similar concentrations (9000-52 000 ng/g). These extremely high concentrations were found only in the vicinity of storehouses where treated seed was kept. No birds of prey could be caught and analysed. PMID:1086159

  7. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  8. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  9. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  11. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  12. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  13. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus-ba...

  14. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  15. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

  16. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  17. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  18. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  19. Methyl Mercury Exposure at Niigata, Japan: Results of Neurological Examinations of 103 Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale poisonings caused by methyl mercury (MeHg have occurred in Japan (Minamata in the 1950s and Niigata in the 1960s and Iraq (in the 1970s. The current WHO neurological risk standard for adult exposure (hair level: 50 μg/g was based partly on evidence from Niigata which did not consider any cases who were diagnosed later and/or exposed to low level of MeHg (hair mercury level less than 50 μg/g. Methods. Early in the Niigata epidemic in June 1965 there were two extensive surveys. From these two surveys, we examined 103 adults with hair mercury measurement who consulted two medical institutions. We compared the prevalence and the distribution of neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning between exposure categories. Result. We found 48 subjects with neurological signs related to MeHg poisoning who had hair mercury concentration less than 50 μg/g. Among the neurological signs, sensory disturbance of the bilateral distal extremities was observed more frequently, followed by disequilibrium, hearing impairment, and ataxia, in groups with hair MeHg concentration both below 50 μg/g and over 50 μg/g. Conclusion. The present study suggests the possibility that exposure to MeHg at levels below the current WHO limits could cause neurologic signs, in particular, sensory disturbance.

  20. Optical coherence tomography findings of quinine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Christoforidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available John Christoforidis, Robert Ricketts, Theodore Loizos, Susie ChangThe Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To report a case of acute quinine poisoning, document acute and chronic macular changes with optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescein angiography (FA, and to review the literature on ocular toxicity of quinine.Methods: A 32-year-old white female presented to our Emergency Department after ingesting over 7.5 g of quinine. She underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein angiography, Stratus time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, and electroretinography at 72 hours and 15 months postingestion. Stratus time-domain and Cirrus spectral-domain OCT, fundus autofluorescence, and FA were obtained at 28 months postingestion.Results: Fluorescein angiography at 72 hours postingestion revealed normal filling times and vasculature. OCT showed marked thickening of the inner retina bilaterally. At 15 and 28 months follow-up, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography demonstrated optic nerve pallor, severely attenuated retinal vessels while OCT showed inner retinal atrophy. Fundus autofluorescence did not reveal any retinal pigmentary abnormalities.Conclusions: Quinine toxicity as seen by OCT reveals increased thickness with inner retinal hyperreflectivity acutely with development of significant retinal atrophy in the long-term. Fundus autofluorescence reveals an intact retinal pigment epithelial layer at 28 months. These findings suggest that quinine poisoning may produce a direct toxic effect on the inner retina in the acute phase resulting in long-term retinal atrophy.Keywords: retinal, optical coherence tomography, quinine toxicity 

  1. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  2. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned that acutely poisoned children who received home remedies prior arrival are more likely to endure an extended LOS. This non-conventional practice

  3. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  4. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  5. Modeling Mercury in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, J M; Smith, J C

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively nontoxic, other forms such as Hg(2+) and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg(2+) can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg(2+) to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed molecular picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here, we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intraprotein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand-binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confer mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multiscale model of environmental mercury cycling. PMID:27497164

  6. Outbreak of methylmercury poisoning due to consumption of contaminated grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, T.W.; Amin-Zaki, L.; Al-Tikriti, S.K.

    1976-10-01

    An outbreak of methylmercury poisoning took place in the fall and winter of 1971 to 1972 in Iraq. Six thousand five hundred and thirty cases were admitted to hospitals throughout the country and 459 died in hospital. The outbreak was the result of eating homemade bread prepared from wheat treated with a methylmercury fungicide. The wheat was intended for planting purposes only. Signs and symptoms of poisonings in adults indicate that the major site of action of this form of mercury is the central nervous system. Severe brain damage also resulted from prenatal exposure when the mother ingested large amounts of the contaminated bread. The frequency of signs and symptoms in an exposed population was found to be related to the estimated maximum blood levels, i.e., the concentration in blood at the end of exposure. A small percentage of the population exhibited a significant increase in complaints of paresthesia at maximum blood levels in the range of 240 to 480 ng Hg/ml. At higher blood levels a greater proportion of the population complained of paresthesia and other signs and symptoms became apparent.

  7. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  8. Cytogenetic Abnormalities of Hematopoietic Tissue in Retired Workers of the Ohkunojima Poison Gas Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil, Fouzia A.; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Yamakido, Michio; Nishimoto, Yukio; Kamada, Nanao

    1993-01-01

    A high incidence of cancer of the respiratory tract has been reported among former workers in a poison gas manufacturing plant which operated on Ohkunojima from 1927 to 1945. This report provides evidence of a high incidence of chromosome abnormality and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) rate among the former workers, as well as cytogenetic changes in two patients among the former workers with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). A chromosome study of seven former workers with chronic bronchitis ...

  9. Substorms on Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mariner 10 encounter of Mercury provided data showing a strong interaction between the solar wind and the planet similar to a scaled down version of that producing the earth's magnetosphere. Some of the features observed in Mercury's night side magnetosphere suggest time-dependent processes occurring there. Interpreted as temporal events, these features bear striking resemblances to substorm phenomena in the earth's magnetosphere

  10. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  11. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  12. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  13. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from unintentional poisonings have... 24 hours every day. These centers provide emergency assistance, offer guidance on poison...

  14. Role of adrenocortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of poisoning syndromes due to some industrial toxins (aromatic nitro compounds, lead)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makotcenko, V.M.

    1974-10-01

    Comparative study is presented of adrenocortical dysfunction in workers chronically exposed to aromatic nitro compounds and to lead. The chronic intoxications produced by aromatic nitro compounds and by lead are characterized by a slight reduction in adrenocortical activity, which plays an important part in the pathogenesis of certain syndromes such as asthenia, gastric secretion disorders, lead anemia and lead polyneuritis. It is desirable to take measures to normalize corticosteroid formation when chronic occupational poisoning is being treated. (CIS Abstr. Vol. 2)

  15. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  16. Efficient Factors for Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen DURLU ÖZKAYA; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2008-01-01

    In today’s world, extreme precautions must be taken for securing food processing and food hygiene issues in order to decrease food poisoning cases. Secure food processing is the process of purification of food from physical, chemical and biological artifacts, with certain controlling steps involved during the production. Food hygiene is defined as the state of afood being clean, or in other words in a condition that is not unhealthy, purified from artifacts that may have caused illness. Provi...

  17. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  18. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  19. Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than

  20. Mercury in the Umbilical Cord: Implications for Risk Assessment for Minamata Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen;

    1994-01-01

    in umbilical cord blood and in maternal hair. The results were compared with published values for mercury in umbilical cord tissue from 12 infants diagnosed with congenital methylmercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan. From the regression coefficients obtained in the Faroese samples, the median umbilical cord...... mercury concentration of 4.95 nmol/g dry weight in Minamata would correspond to 668 nmol/l cord blood and 114 nmol/g maternal hair. These levels agree well with other evidence of susceptibility of the fetus to increased exposure to methylmercury....

  1. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  2. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  3. Chronic methylmercurialism in a horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, A.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Costigan, P.

    1978-02-01

    Chronic methylmercurialism was produced in a horse given 10 g methylmercury chloride over 10 weeks. Neurological signs, particularly proprioceptive disturbances, were apparent by the final week of dosing and became more severe thereafter. An exudative dermatitis, a reluctance to move, weight loss, reduced appetite and dullness were among the earlier clinical signs, and renal changes characterized by a steadily increasing BUN and glucosuria were detected later. Pathological lesions were confined to the kidneys and the nervous system. There was mild neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellar cortex, axonal demyelination in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and extensive degeneration of ganglion cells in the dorsal root ganglia. The blood organic mercury level, which had plateaued in the second month, increased rapidly in the last weeks of dosing with a sharp rise terminally. This pattern was repeated for the much lower inorganic mercury levels except for a terminal decrease. The proportion of inorganic mercury was five times greater in the dorsal root ganglia than elsewhere in the CNS, although total mercury levels were similar. Highest tissue mercury levels were found in the liver and kidneys, over 50% being in the form of inorganic mercury. As dealkylation of the methylmercury appeared to be more efficient in the dorsal root ganglia and the kidneys, inorganic mercury derived therefrom may have been responsible for some of the clinical and pathological features of this intoxication in the horse. 21 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the "autism epidemic"? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public's trust in the nation's vaccine system.

  5. 重组人甲状旁腺素对慢性苯中毒小鼠造血损伤的改善作用%Improving Effect of rhPTH on Hematopoietic Depression in Mice Caused by Chronic Benzene Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓飞; 冯晓青; 胡志勇; 刘华清; 靳宗达; 杜厚兵; 李冰燕; 张增利

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究重组人甲状旁腺素(rhPTH)对慢性苯中毒小鼠造血损伤的改善作用.[方法]皮下注射苯诱导小鼠造血系统损伤模型.将造模成功的30只慢性苯中毒小鼠随机分为3组:生理盐水治疗组、40μg/kg rhPTH治疗组、80μg/kg rhPTH治疗组.每周5次腹腔注射生理盐水或不同剂量rhPTH,治疗3周,间隔1周后取样,测定3组小鼠骨髓中的造血干细胞(外源性脾结节法)、造血祖细胞(集落培养)以及外周血细胞计数和脾脏系数.[结果]经rhPTH治疗的小鼠一般状况明显好于生理盐水治疗组;40 μg/kg rhPTH治疗组与80μg/kg rhPTH治疗组的造血干细胞数明显高于生理盐水治疗组(P<0.05),但两个剂量rhPTH治疗组间造血干细胞数差异无统计学意义;3组小鼠的造血祖细胞及外周血细胞计数均差异无统计学意义;两个rhPTH治疗组的脾脏系数均低于生理盐水治疗组(P<0.05).[结论]rhPTH可明显增加慢性苯中毒小鼠骨髓中造血干细胞数量.%[ Objective ] To explore the improving effect of recombinant human parathyroid hormone( rhPTH )on bone marrow hematopoietic depression in mice caused by chronic benzene poisoning. [ Methods ] The model mice of hematopoietic depression was established in a number of KM mice by subcutaneous administration of benzene. Established model mice were treated 5 times a week for 3 weeks intraperitoneally with normal saline( NS group ), 40 μg/kg rhPTH( 40PTH group ),and 80 μg/kg rhPTH ( 80PTH group ) separately. One week later, all mice in the three groups were sacrificed. The hematopoietic stem cell, hematopoietic progenitor cell, peripheral blood cell count, and spleen index were determined by routine methods.[ Results ] Mice in PTH-treated groups showed better general condition than mice in NS group. The hematopoietic stem cells in 40PTH group and 80PTH group were significantly increased than those in NS group ( P < 0.05 ). However, the hematopoietic progenitor cells

  6. Influence of chronic aluminum poisoning on the glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in rat endbrain and hippocampi%慢性铝中毒对大鼠端脑和海马中糖原合成酶激酶3β的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付云; 石如玲; 赵长安

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta( GSK-3β) in rat endbrain and hippocampi with chronic aluminum poisoning. Methods Sixty female SD rats,6 months old, were randomly divided into normal group,aluminum taking orally group and intraperitoneal injection aluminum group,20 rats in each group. Normal group was fed with general forage. Aluminum taking orally group was given forage containing AlCl3 · 6H2O 25 mg · g-1. Intraperitoneal injection aluminum group was injected sterilized 9 g · L-1 AlCl3 · 6H2O solution,3 times a week. Three months later,rats were sacrificed by femoral artery bleeding. The expression of GSK-3 p protein in hippocampus was detected by enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay and the expression of GSK-3β gene in endbrain and hippocampi was detected by reverse transcription polymer-ase chain reaction. Results Compared with the normal group, GSK-3β mRNA showed higher expression in the rat endbrain and hippocampi in both aluminum taking orally group and intraperitoneal injection aluminum group( P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion GSK-3β gene expression level in rat's endbrain and hippocampi obviously increase after chronic aluminum poisoning.%目的 探讨慢性铝中毒大鼠端脑和海马中糖原合成酶激酶3β (GSK-3β)的表达.方法 6月龄雌性SD大鼠60只随机分为正常组、口服铝组和腹腔注射铝组,每组20只.正常组饲喂正常饲料,口服铝组饲喂25 mg·g-1的含A1C13·6H2O饲料,腹腔注射铝组腹腔注射9g·L-1的灭菌A1C13·6H2O溶液,每周3次.3个月后,股动脉放血处死大鼠.酶联免疫吸附测定法检测海马细胞中GSK-3β蛋白的表达;反转录聚合酶链反应检测海马和端脑中GSK-3β基因的表达.结果 与正常组比较,GSK-3β mRNA在口服铝和腹腔注射铝组大鼠端脑和海马中均高表达(P<0.05);腹腔注射铝组海马中GSK-3β mRNA表达高于口服铝组(P<0.05).口服铝组和腹腔注射铝组大鼠海马中GSK-3β蛋白

  7. Mercury's Protoplanetary Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2004-01-01

    Major element fractionation among chondrites has been discussed for decades as ratios relative to Si or Mg. Recently, by expressing ratios relative to Fe, I discovered a new relationship admitting the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components, a relatively oxidized and undifferentiated, primitive component and a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites, which I suggested was identical to Mercury's complement of lost elements. Here, on the basis of that relationship, I derive expressions, as a function of the mass of planet Mercury and the mass of its core, to estimate the mass of Mercury's lost elements, the mass of Mercury's alloy and rock protoplanetary core, and the mass of Mercury's gaseous protoplanet. Although Mercury's mass is well known, its core mass is not, being widely believed to be in the range of 70-80 percent of the planet mass. For a core mass of 75 percent, the mass of Mercury's lost el...

  8. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  9. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    OpenAIRE

    Travis Austin; Brooks, Daniel E.; Sharyn Welch; Frank LoVecchio

    2012-01-01

    Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone res...

  10. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  11. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  12. New science challenges old notion that mercury dental amalgam is safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homme, Kristin G; Kern, Janet K; Haley, Boyd E; Geier, David A; King, Paul G; Sykes, Lisa K; Geier, Mark R

    2014-02-01

    Mercury dental amalgam has a long history of ostensibly safe use despite its continuous release of mercury vapor. Two key studies known as the Children's Amalgam Trials are widely cited as evidence of safety. However, four recent reanalyses of one of these trials now suggest harm, particularly to boys with common genetic variants. These and other studies suggest that susceptibility to mercury toxicity differs among individuals based on multiple genes, not all of which have been identified. These studies further suggest that the levels of exposure to mercury vapor from dental amalgams may be unsafe for certain subpopulations. Moreover, a simple comparison of typical exposures versus regulatory safety standards suggests that many people receive unsafe exposures. Chronic mercury toxicity is especially insidious because symptoms are variable and nonspecific, diagnostic tests are often misunderstood, and treatments are speculative at best. Throughout the world, efforts are underway to phase down or eliminate the use of mercury dental amalgam.

  13. The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for

  14. Accumulation factors of mercury in mushrooms from Zaborski Landscape Park, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Lipka, Krzysztof; Gucia, Magdalena; Kawano, Masahide; Strumnik, Katarzyna; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2002-11-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 117 samples of caps, 117 of stalks and 47 of whole fruiting bodies of 13 species of wild mushrooms and in 164 underlying soil substrate collected from Zaborski Landscape Park during 1997 and 1998. The study area is a background, forested site with rural landscape and no known local sources of mercury emission. Mean mercury concentrations in mushrooms varied widely (range: 50 +/- 20 to 3700 +/- 1700 ng/g, dry matter) depending on the site and mushroom species investigated. However, mercury concentrations in soil samples varied less (range: 3.0 +/- 3.0 to 43 +/- 17 ng/g dry matter). Fruiting bodies of Common Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum) and King Bolete (Boletus edulis) contained the greatest concentrations of mercury of 3700 +/- 1700 and 2600 +/- 1200 ng/g dry matter, respectively. A positive correlation existed between mercury concentrations in the caps of Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) (p < 0.01) and mercury concentrations in corresponding soils. However, concentrations of mercury in The Sickener (Russula emetica) was negatively correlated with its soil substrate (p < 0.01). Bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations ratios of mercury in mushroom to soil) of total mercury in whole fruiting bodies or caps were greatest for Common Puffball (L. perlatum), Larch Bolete (Suillus grevillei) and King Bolete (B. edulis) and varied between 130 +/- 78 and 160 +/- 120, while for the other species BCFs were between 4.0 +/- 6.0 and 61 +/- 20 in caps, and 4.4 +/- 3.1 and 70 +/- 68 in stalks. The concentration ratios of Hg in cap to stalk were from 1.1 +/- 0.5 for Poison Pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.7 +/- 1.7 in Larch Bolete (S. grevillei). PMID:12437292

  15. The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, James P.K., E-mail: jrooney@rcsi.ie

    2014-02-01

    Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for

  16. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury, especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury, may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution have been shown for Canada, the U.S., Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals, including endangered species of mammals and reptiles, collected near ongoing mercury amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the U.S., environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 microg/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2,200 to 31,000 microg/kg BW (acute oral) and from 4,000 to 40,000 microg/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 microg/kg BW (daily dose) and from 1,000 to 5,000 microg/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03-0.1 microg Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects, mainly on reproduction, have been associated with

  17. Paint chip poisoning of Laysan albatross at Midway Atoll (Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Fefer, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    Epizootic mortality occurred in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) fledgings at Midway Atoll in 1983. Heavy metal toxicity from ingestion of weathered paint chips was one of the causes. Sick albatrosses were unable to retract their wings, causing a 'droop-wing' appearance. Five normal and 12 droop-winged fledglings were captured, killed, and examined. Paint chips found in the proventriculus of the affected fledglings contained up to 144,000 ppm lead. Blood, liver, and kidney concentrations of lead in affected birds were higher than in normal fledglings, and acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys. Degenerative lesions were present in the myelin of some brachial nerves. Weathered paint samples collected from 12 buildings contained up to 247,250 ppm lead and 101 ppm mercury. Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 10 of the droop-winged albatrosses and was one of the causes of morbidity. Mercury toxicosis and plastic impaction were other possible causes.

  18. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  19. Mercury Toxicity: A Family Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahşan Yıldırım

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased levels of environmental pollution have exposed mankind to foreign matters. In this article, five individuals within the age range of 20 and 54 from the same family, who were poisoned from liquid form mercury, are presented. Case Report: The first case presented to our clinic with cough, fever, night sweat.The patient with clinical findings of neutropenia, anemia and pneumonia who rapidly developed ARDS and died on the fourth day of hospitalization. Her WBC count: 0.4 (4,3 - 10,3 x 10³ / mm³, Hb: 10.8 (11.5-16.0 g/dL. The second case, presented with bicytopenia 1.3 (4,3 - 10,3 x 10³ / mm³, PLT: 88 x 10³(150– 400 x10³ /mm³. Toxic peripheral neuropathy was identified in both second and third cases. PLT count of third case was 123 x 10³ (150– 400 x10³ /ml. The fourth and fifth cases, presented with fatigue and headache. There were no positive findings in these two patients apart from high levels of mercury in the blood. Conclusion: With this case presentation involving a family, we describe clinical presentations of varying degrees among individual members of the same family, who were exposed to liquid form mercury through contact and inhalation. We believe that heavy metal exposure should be considered in patients presenting with various symptoms involving several systems including the cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological systems, although heavy metal exposure is rare. Our case differs from others since it involves a family.

  20. Consumption of Mercury-contaminated Rice Induces Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Aggravation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU-LING JI; GUI-WEN JIN; JIN-PING CHENG; WEN-HUA WANG; JING LU; LI-YA QU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the oxidative stress induced by consumption of mercury-contaminated rice in rats, and to assess the possible public health risk of mercury contamination in Wanshan mining area. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were fed the mercury-contaminated rice produced from Wanshan area for 90 days. The antioxidant status and the free radicals in rat serum were evaluated. Results High mercury accumulation in organs of rats fed the mercury-contaminated rice confirmed the server pollution of mercury in Wanshan mining area. The intensity of electron spin resonance (ESR) signal increased by 87.38% in rats fed the rice from Wanshan compared with that in the control rats fed the rice from Shanghai, suggesting that chronic dietary consumption of rice from mercury mining area could induce an aggravation of free radicals. Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice was associated with significant decreases in the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and concentration of serum nitric oxide (NO), but it had no effect on serum nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Feeding the mercury-contaminated rice raised the level of serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA), indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. Conclusion The long-term dietary consumption of mercury-contaminated rice induces the aggravation of free radicals and exerts oxidative stress.

  1. Underreporting of fatal cases to a regional poison control center.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, P D; Kearney, T E; Olson, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed fatal drug overdose and poisoning case surveillance by a regional poison control center, comparing it with medical examiner determinations of death by poisoning over the same 2-year period and from the same catchment area. We studied 358 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a medical examiner and 10 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a poison control center, analyzing demographics and other case-associated factors with with possible successful p...

  2. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  3. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration...... of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  4. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  5. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A;

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  6. Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some

  7. Ecosystem conceptual model- Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Foe, Chris; Klasing, Susan; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Slotton, Darell G.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2008-01-01

    Mercury has been identified as an important contaminant in the Delta, based on elevated concentrations of methylmercury (a toxic, organic form that readily bioaccumulates) in fish and wildlife. There are health risks associated with human exposure to methylmercury by consumption of sport fish, particularly top predators such as bass species. Original mercury sources were upstream tributaries where historical mining of mercury in the Coast Ranges and gold in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath-Trinity Mountains caused contamination of water and sediment on a regional scale. Remediation of abandoned mine sites may reduce local sources in these watersheds, but much of the mercury contamination occurs in sediments stored in the riverbeds, floodplains, and the Bay- Delta, where scouring of Gold-Rush-era sediment represents an ongoing source.Conversion of inorganic mercury to toxic methylmercury occurs in anaerobic environments including some wetlands. Wetland restoration managers must be cognizant of potential effects on mercury cycling so that the problem is not exacerbated. Recent research suggests that wettingdrying cycles can contribute to mercury methylation. For example, high marshes (inundated only during the highest tides for several days per month) tend to have higher methylmercury concentrations in water, sediment, and biota compared with low marshes, which do not dry out completely during the tidal cycle. Seasonally inundated flood plains are another environment experiencing wetting and drying where methylmercury concentrations are typically elevated. Stream restoration efforts using gravel injection or other reworking of coarse sediment in most watersheds of the Central Valley involve tailings from historical gold mining that are likely to contain elevated mercury in associated fines. Habitat restoration projects, particularly those involving wetlands, may cause increases in methylmercury exposure in the watershed. This possibility should be evaluated.The DRERIP

  8. The association between amalgam dental surfaces and urinary mercury levels in a sample of Albertans, a prevalence study

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Daniel J; Fyie, Ken; Faris, Peter; Brunel, Ludovic; Emery, JC Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between number of dental amalgam surfaces and urinary mercury levels. Methods This study uses participant data from a large philanthropic chronic disease prevention program in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Urine samples were analysed for mercury levels (measured in μg/g-creatinine). T-tests were used to determine if differences in urine mercury were statistically significant between persons with no dental amalgam surfaces and ...

  9. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  10. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  11. Prohepcidin Levels in Refractory Anaemia Caused by Lead Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayantha Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research evidence suggests a central role for hepcidin in iron homeostasis. Hepcidin is a hormone synthesized in the liver. Hepcidin is also thought to play a vital role in the pathogenic mechanism of anaemia in patients with inflammation or chronic disease. A 38-year-old female who presented with recurrent abdominal pain was found to have raised urinary porphyrins and a blood lead level of 779 µg/l. Her haemoglobin level was 8.3 g/dl. Her MCV was normal. Serum ferritin, B12 and folate were normal. Her serum prohepcidin level was 2,489 ng/ml (normal <450 ng/ml . To our knowledge, this is the first report of raised prohepcidin levels in a patient with anaemia of chronic disease resulting from lead poisoning.

  12. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23

  13. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  14. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I;

    2015-01-01

    extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......(+)] is >4.0 mEq/L, or in the presence of a decreased level of consciousness, seizures, or life-threatening dysrhythmias irrespective of the [Li(+)] (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is suggested if the [Li(+)] is >5.0 mEq/L, significant confusion is present, or the expected time to reduce the [Li(+)] to

  15. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  16. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  17. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  18. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  19. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  20. A survey of poison control centers worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Maryann Mazer; Justin Wang; Ali Pourmand

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide.

  1. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  2. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  3. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended inge

  4. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia;

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  5. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...

  6. Avaliação clínico-neuro-psicológica de trabalhadores expostos a mercúrio metálico em indústria de lâmpadas elétricas Neuro-psychological clinical assessment of workers in an electric lamp factory exposed to metallic mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Zavariz

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a intoxicação por mercúrio metálico em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram investigados 71 trabalhadores, dos quais 61 (85,92% apresentaram quadro de intoxicação crônica por mercúrio. O tempo de exposição dos trabalhadores estudados variou de 4 meses a 30 anos. Dentre os intoxicados foram detectadas alterações de coordenação motora em 57 (80,30%, neurológicas, em 56 (78,88%, de memória, em 51 (71,83%, no exame clínico, em 47 (66,20%, psiquiátricas, em 45 (63,38% e da atenção concentrada, em 37 (52,10%.This research project was undertaken for the purpose of studying poisoning by metallic mercury among workers of an electric lamp factory located in S.Paulo (Brazil. 71 workers were investigated, of whom 61 (85,92% were chronically poisoned. Exposure period ranged from 4 months to 30 years. The 57 (80.30% of chronically poisoned workers showed poor psychomotor co-ordination, 56 (78.88% showed neurological impairments, 51 (71.83% decreases in memory capacity, 47 (66.20% pathological findings in the clinical exam, 45 (63.38% psychiatric disturbances and 37 (52.10% poor performance in the concentration test.

  7. Efeitos da exposição ocupacional ao mercúrio em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas localizada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brasil Effects of occupational exposure to mercury in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Zavariz

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a intoxicação por mercúrio metálico em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas situada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo. Foram realizadas visitas à empresa para verificação do ambiente e das condições de trabalho, além de reuniões com os trabalhadores para uma melhor compreensão acerca do processo produtivo e de suas repercussões na saúde. Foram investigados 91 trabalhadores, dos quais 77 (84,62% apresentaram quadro de intoxicação crônica. Entre os intoxicados, foram detectadas alterações nos testes neuropsicológicos em 76 (98,70%, alterações neurológicas em 69 (75,82%, alterações no exame clínico em 62 (68,13% e alterações psiquiátricas em 59 (63,96%.The aim of this research was to study metallic mercury poisoning in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo (Brazil. Visits were made to the factory to check both the work environment and the working conditions. Meetings with the workers took place in order to better understand the production process and how working conditions affect their health. Of the 91 workers investigated, 77 (84.62% were chronically poisoned. Among chronically poisoned workers, 76 (98.70% displayed neuropsychological alterations, 69 (75.82% suffered from neurological impairments, 62 (68.13% showed pathological findings under clinical examination, and 59 (63.96% displayed psychiatric disorders.

  8. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  9. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  10. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  11. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  12. Mercury in Indiana watersheds: retrospective for 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Baker, Nancy T.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Egler, Amanda L.; Lampe, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Information about total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in water samples and mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples was summarized for 26 watersheds in Indiana that drain most of the land area of the State. Mercury levels were interpreted with information on streamflow, atmospheric mercury deposition, mercury emissions to the atmosphere, mercury in wastewater, and landscape characteristics. Unfiltered total mercury concentrations in 411 water samples from streams in the 26 watersheds had a median of 2.32 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and a maximum of 28.2 ng/L. When these concentrations were compared to Indiana water-quality criteria for mercury, 5.4 percent exceeded the 12-ng/L chronic-aquatic criterion, 59 percent exceeded the 1.8-ng/L Great Lakes human-health criterion, and 72.5 percent exceeded the 1.3-ng/L Great Lakes wildlife criterion. Mercury concentrations in water were related to streamflow, and the highest mercury concentrations were associated with the highest streamflows. On average, 67 percent of total mercury in streams was in a particulate form, and particulate mercury concentrations were significantly lower downstream from dams than at monitoring stations not affected by dams. Methylmercury is the organic fraction of total mercury and is the form of mercury that accumulates and magnifies in food chains. It is made from inorganic mercury by natural processes under specific conditions. Unfiltered methylmercury concentrations in 411 water samples had a median of 0.10 ng/L and a maximum of 0.66 ng/L. Methylmercury was a median 3.7 percent and maximum 64.8 percent of the total mercury in 252 samples for which methylmercury was reported. The percentages of methylmercury in water samples were significantly higher downstream from dams than at other monitoring stations. Nearly all of the total mercury detected in fish tissue was assumed to be methylmercury. Fish-tissue samples from the 26 watersheds had wet-weight mercury concentrations that

  13. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  14. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  15. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  16. Boron Poisoning of Plutonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a theoretical investigation into the possible relaxation of criticality concentration limits in wet chemical reprocessing plants, due to the introduction of boron poisoning, are reported. The following systems were considered: 1. 1 in. stainless steel tubes filled with boron carbide at various pitches in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 2. 1 in. and 2 in borosilicate glass Raschig rings in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 3. The concentration of natural boron required for k∞ = 1 in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu-B-H2O. The method of calculation was Monte Carlo using the GEM code with Nuclear Data File cross-sections. The Raschig rings used are those commercially available. The core model consisted of a cubic arrangement of unit cubes of solution within each of which a Raschig ring was centrally placed. The arrangement was such that the rings were regularly stacked with axes parallel, but the side of the unit cube was fixed to preserve the random packing density. Comparison is made with other reported results on boron poisoning. (author)

  17. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  18. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  19. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  20. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  1. Elemental mercury exposure: peripheral neurotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, S P; Cavender, G D; Langolf, G D; Albers, J W

    1982-01-01

    Nerve conduction tests were performed on the right ulnar nerve of factory workers exposed to elemental mercury vapour. Time integrated urine mercury indices were used to measure the degree of exposure. Workers with prolonged distal latencies had significantly higher urine mercury concentrations when compared with those with normal latencies. Significant correlations between increasing urine mercury concentrations and prolonged motor and sensory distal latencies were established. Elemental mer...

  2. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  3. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Mercury The Basics Mercury — sometimes called quicksilver — is a natural metal. It’s ... to breathe it in without knowing it. When mercury combines with other chemical elements, it creates compounds, ...

  4. Mercury content of edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woidich, H.; Pfannhauser, W.

    1975-05-01

    The mercury content of edible fungi is different. Relatively high burdened are Boletus and Agaricus campestris. A minimum of mercury is found in Russula, Agaricus bisporus and Cantharellus cibarius. The possibilities of mercury uptake and the potential cumulation mechanism is discussed. 8 references, 3 tables.

  5. [Current dietary exposure to mercury during pregnancy and childhood, and public health recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ibarlucea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of mercury during vulnerable periods (such as pregnancy and childhood) may have serious consequences for cognitive development, as observed after acute poisoning episodes in Japan and Irak. The main source of mercury exposure in the general population is consumption of certain types of fish. There is growing concern about the possible neurotoxic effects of mercury, especially in younger children in populations where fish intake is moderate to high. The scientific evidence to date is inconclusive. In Spain, the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) project has provided information on levels of prenatal exposure to mercury among 1800 newborns from Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa. In general, levels were high, being above the World Health Organization's recommended dose in 24% of children and above the recommended levels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 64%. However, the results did not indicate a significant association between prenatal mercury exposure and delayed cognitive development during the second year of life. Various agencies have developed recommendations on fish consumption for pregnant women and children, due to the presence of mercury. These recommendations should be strengthened, since there is general consensus among all regional and national public administrations that fish is an essential source of nutrients for development in the early stages of life.

  6. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  7. Mercury contamination in humans and fishes in the municipality of Ayapel, Córdoba, Colombia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisy Gracia H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the concentration of total mercury (HgT in hair samples from inhabitants of the municipality of Ayapel (Córdoba and in fishes captured in the Ayapel swamp. Methodology: a total amount of 112 hair samples were taken from the inferior occipital area of settlers of the Ayapel swamp who were over 14 years old, and samples of muscle tissue of seven species of fishes were also chosen. These samples were analyzed by means of spectrometry of atomic absorption through cold steam after acid digestion. Surveys on clinical symptoms related to poisoning by mercury were applied after the acceptance of the informed consent. Results: the total amount of mercury present in hair displayed an average of 2.18 ± 1.77 μg/g with values between 0.11 and 12.76 μg/g. The highest value of Hg-T in fishes was identified in the carnivorous species Sorubin cuspicaudus, with an average concentration of 0.74 ± 0,19 µg/g, and the smaller concentration was found on the iliophagous species Prochilodus magdalenaewith 0.15±0.02 µg/g of fresh weight. Conclusions: the population studied in Ayapel showed mercury levels above those internationally allowed by the usepa. There were also signs and symptoms related to such mercury levels, which can probably be a consequence of the high consumption of fishes contaminated with mercury

  8. Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Xiaojun Zhao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a very toxic element that is widely spread in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and surface water. Concentrated mercury poses serious problems to human health, as bioaccumulation of mercury within the brain and kidneys ultimately leads to neurological diseases. To control mercury pollution and reduce mercury damage to human health, sensitive determination of mercury is important. This article summarizes some current sensors for the determination of both abiotic and biotic mercury. A wide array of sensors for monitoring mercury is described, including biosensors and chemical sensors, while piezoelectric and microcantilever sensors are also described. Additionally, newly developed nanomaterials offer great potential for fabricating novel mercury sensors. Some of the functional fluorescent nanosensors for the determination of mercury are covered. Afterwards, the in vivo determination of mercury and the characterization of different forms of mercury are discussed. Finally, the future direction for mercury detection is outlined, suggesting that nanomaterials may provide revolutionary tools in biomedical and environmental monitoring of mercury.

  9. Environmental costs of mercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Goodsite, Michael E. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Research Group, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg{sup -1} Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. (author)

  10. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. PMID:16442592

  11. 磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病疗效观察%Curative effect observation of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 台立稳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the curative effect of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning(DEACMP).Methods:43 patients with DEACMP were selected. They were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group.Patients in the control group were given conventional treatment.Patients in the treatment group were given injection creatine phosphate sodium treatment on the basis of the control group.The curative effects of two groups were observed.Results:The cure rate and effective rate of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The creatine phosphate sodium can improve the cell energy supply of DEACMP patients,protect the brain function,improve the hypoxia tolerance of brain cells,improve the life quality of DEACMP patients.%目的:探讨磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的疗效。方法:收治DEACMP患者43例,随机分为治疗组和对照组。对照组给予常规治疗,治疗组则在对照组的基础上加注射用磷酸肌酸钠治疗。观察两组患者的疗效。结果:治疗组治愈率及有效率均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:磷酸肌酸钠可以改善DEACMP患者的细胞能量供应,保护脑功能,提高脑细胞对缺氧的耐受性,提高DEACMP患者的生活质量。

  12. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  13. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  14. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... poisoned should call the National Poison Help Line immediately at 1-800-222-1222. Today, the majority of... communities. For more resources on preventing drug overdose and other forms of poisoning, visit...

  15. Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Xiaojun Zhao; E. Michael Collins; Hanying Xu; Selid, Paul D.; Marla Striped Face-Collins

    2009-01-01

    Mercury is a very toxic element that is widely spread in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and surface water. Concentrated mercury poses serious problems to human health, as bioaccumulation of mercury within the brain and kidneys ultimately leads to neurological diseases. To control mercury pollution and reduce mercury damage to human health, sensitive determination of mercury is important. This article summarizes some current sensors for the determination of both abiotic and biotic mercury. A wid...

  16. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  17. Mercury radar speckle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holin, Igor V.

    2010-06-01

    Current data reveal that Mercury is a dynamic system with a core which has not yet solidified completely and is at least partially decoupled from the mantle. Radar speckle displacement experiments have demonstrated that the accuracy in spin-dynamics determination for Earth-like planets can approach 10 -5. The extended analysis of space-time correlation properties of radar echoes shows that the behavior of speckles does not prevent estimation of Mercury's instantaneous spin-vector components to accuracy of a few parts in 10 7. This limit can be reached with more powerful radar facilities and leads to constraining the interior in more detail from effects of spin dynamics, e.g., from observation of the core-mantle interplay through high precision monitoring of the 88-day spin-variation of Mercury's crust.

  18. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F;

    2014-01-01

    -vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...... mg/L (42 the μ in μmol/L looks weird.) (2D). Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred ECTR (1D), but both intermittent hemoperfusion (1D) or continuous renal replacement therapies (3D) are alternatives if hemodialysis is not available. MDAC therapy should be continued during ECTR (1D). CONCLUSION...

  20. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.