von Peter, Sebastian
The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness. PMID:23528064
Incledon, Emily; Williams, Lauren; Hazell, Trevor; Heard, Todd R; Flowers, Alexandra; Hiscock, Harriet
This article reviews the literature on modifiable factors associated with mental health in siblings of children with chronic illness. Three clinical databases were searched. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several key themes emerged from the review. Better sibling mental health was associated with camp attendance, perceived parent/peer support, illness education and enhancing control through cognitive coping strategies and routine. Parental and sibling psychoeducation interventions and social support may enhance children's mental health when their sibling has a chronic illness. PMID:24270987
The presence of a chronically ill or mentally handicapped child in a family can be a stress for the child's siblings, who often are ill informed about the nature and prognosis of the illness, may be uncertain what is expected of them in the caregiving role, may feel their own identities threatened, and may experience ostracism by their friends and misunderstanding at school. Although individual reactions vary widely, feelings of anger, guilt, resentment and shame are commonly reported. Excess...
... children. Mental illness usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young ... Illness page. Get more Mental Illness: Facts and Numbers from NAMI's Fact Sheet . Back
Fagiolini, Andrea; Goracci, Arianna
Severe mental disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia often co-occur with chronic medical illnesses, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These comorbidities are associated with a more severe course of mental illness, reduced quality of life, and premature mortality. Although the association between mental disorders and physical health complications has long been recognized, medical conditions remain undertreated in clinical psychiatric practice, and the life expectancy for individuals with serious psychiatric disorders is approximately 30% shorter than that of the general US population. Factors that are related to the mental illness (eg, cognitive impairment, reduced ability to function, and a lack of communication skills) as well as factors such as the high cost of medical care may make accessing general health care a difficult task for patients. Even when medical care is received by patients, the quality is often poor, and dangerous illnesses may be undiagnosed and untreated. In addition, harmful side effects of medications used to treat psychiatric disorders, unhealthy habits and lifestyles, and a possible genetic susceptibility to medical conditions increase the likelihood of comorbid physical conditions in patients with severe mental illness. Implementing behavioral interventions into clinical practice may help patients improve their overall health and prevent chronic medical conditions. PMID:19570498
Gerson, S N
Corporate America's healthcare cost crisis and the country's budget deficit are forcing limits on the resources used to finance healthcare, including mental healthcare. At the same time, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act bars discrimination against patients with chronic illnesses, including chronic mental illness. Therefore, corporate benefits managers need guidance on how to ethically and rationally allocate scarce clinical resources to those high-morbidity insureds who utilize disproportionate amounts of these resources. In particular, how should we define the public/private interface: When do patients who repeatedly fail to respond to treatment fall out of the private sector's responsibility? The author, medical director for a leading behavioral healthcare utilization management company, offers the following guidelines recommending reasonable and practical limitations on trials of treatment for seven common categories of difficult psychiatric patients. PMID:10141406
Javier Sánchez Alfonso
Full Text Available Following the process of Psychiatric Reform it has become necessary to have alternative housing and residential care for the serious and chronic mentally ill people. The problems and needs of these people are numerous and complex and include both aspects such as psychiatric or healthy and psychosocial aspects. We will base this study in the Mini-Residences, which are a clear example of European development regarding to residential centres where they focus on resources integrated into the community, and reflects the principles of the General Health Law.Objective: To determine the characteristics of the social or health care provided to the mentally ill persons in the Mini-Residential (MR, and describe both beneficial aspects and potential weaknesses.Sites: 4 Mini Residences in the south area of the Community of MadridTarget population: This is the people who are included under the term "Chronic Mentally ill persons" hospitalised in the four Mini Residential described before. Taken together, these mini-Residences have 108 places of care, a total of 415 places along the whole Community of Madrid.Design: The qualitative study, using techniques such as review and documental analysis, participative observation, personal and semi-structured interviews, drafting proposals and a final poll.Data Analysis: This will be conducted through the creation of codes, categories and subcategories. For the analysis process the tool ATLAS-Ti will be used as a common way to support the text analysis.
Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.
Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typic...
Surber, R W; Shumway, M; Shadoan, R; Hargreaves, W A
In reviewing the public mental health services of 11 California counties during a period of fiscal retrenchment, we found several common trends: a greater focus on the severely mentally disabled; an increase in utilization of hospital-based care, residential treatment, day treatment, and case management services; and a decrease in the capacity of traditional outpatient services. Although the severely mentally disabled are receiving a higher priority for service, the findings imply that these service systems continue to inadequately address the need for long-term maintenance and supportive services to this population.
Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria
Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412
... Cost Global More Prevalence Disability Suicide Cost Global Statistics Understanding the scope of mental illnesses and their ... those affected receive treatment. The information on these statistics pages includes the best statistics currently available on ...
Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...
Berg, B. van den; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Grievink, L.
Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s
Berg, Bellis van den; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris; Stellato, Rebecca K; Grievink, Linda
Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s
Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.
The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi
Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.
Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…
Douthit, Nathan T; Astatk, Hailemariam Alemu
This is a case report of a 24-year-old Ethiopian woman with a medical history of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. She suffers from chronic liver failure and portal hypertension. She has been hospitalised for 'hysteria' in the past but did not receive follow-up, outpatient treatment or psychiatric evaluation. After discontinuing her medications and leaving her family to use holy water, a religious medicine used by many Ethiopians, she was found at a nearby monastery. She was non-communicative and difficult to arouse. The patient was rushed to nearby University of Gondar Hospital where she received treatment for hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Her illness is the result of neglected tropical disease, reliance on traditional medicine as opposed to biomedical services and the poor state of psychiatric care in the developing world. PMID:27485874
Kokkonen, E R; Kokkonen, J; Moilanen, I
To ascertain the influence of juvenile-onset chronic physical diseases and associating factors of social environment on delayed social maturation and mental health disorders in young adults, we analysed a group of 407 (184 female, 223 male) subjects with these conditions and compared the results with those of 123 (63 female, 60 male) healthy controls studied at the age of 19-25 years. The social maturation index was formed on the basis of a demographic interview, which also reviewed the state of social development and the family situation during childhood. Mental health disorders were assessed with a Present State Examination (PSE) interview analysed with the CATEGO program. With regard to social maturation at least half of the patients and controls were doing well, whereas for 29% (CI(95), 25%-33%) of the patients and 17% (CI(95), 10%-24%) of the controls the index showed delayed maturation. Subjects with poor social maturation were found most often among the disabled patients but also among the patients without severe diseases. The prevalence of PSE-CATEGO-identified psychiatric syndromes was equal in the patients and the controls (22% versus 20%). However, the patients with severe or disabling diseases had more severe psychiatric syndromes. The prevalences of depressive syndromes were also equal, but the depression of the patients was more often a profound affective disorder. Male sex, poor scholastic and vocational success, and social problems in the family during childhood were significantly associated with poor social maturation. On the other hand, the most significant predictors of mental health problems in young adults were female sex, family distress during childhood, and a severe disease. Juvenile-onset physical disease was considered to delay social maturation in some subjects and to deepen or modulate the clinical picture of mental health disorders. It is concluded that juvenile-onset physical diseases combined with family-related factors affect in
Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; L. Peters; Rijken, M.
The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristics (concerning course, control and possible stressful consequences), physical quality of life indicators and social and relationship problems. Panel data from the Dutch national Panel of Patients w...
Bedrick, Jeffrey D
It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals. PMID:26444362
Bedrick Jeffrey D.
Full Text Available It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.
Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.
Linsky, Miles A.
The subjects in this study were 33 patients aged 18 to 60 years who were first admitted to an outpatient mental health department in a 1-year period and were known to have had two or more hospitalizations in State or private psychiatric institutions in the 2 years before intake. The relationships between four patient variables and compliance with recommended treatment were studied. The four variables were (a) severity of psychopathology at intake, (b) evidence of negative communication in a p...
From the perspective of general practice, hospital data indicating that the prevalence of mental illness is much higher in inner London than elsewhere in Britain may be misleading. A study in five inner London practices found morbidity patterns for mental disorder similar to those recorded in a national survey.
Full Text Available Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the individual. The search for sources of this review was made through books on the topic and articles of the last twenty years, from online internet sources (pubmed, scopus, google scholar. Literature Review:Stigma brought about by illness from mental illness, is a complex process and concept, located in social interaction and the dynamics of social relations. The social stigma borne by mental illness in general, as well as the lack of information, ignorance, stereotypes, myths and prejudices, are the main reasons that characterize, even today, depression as a taboo subject. The stigma of mental illness is indeliblyimprinted in the identity of human suffering. In any case, the impact of stigma is critical for people who are sick. The psychological stress and difficult conditions that shape their daily lives aggravate their already compromised mental health, having a significant impact on the course and outcome of the disease itself. Key strategies to address stigma are protest, education and contact. Conclusions:A significant step in combating the stigma is to raise public awareness on the issues of mental health and their inclusion in society.
Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma
Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653
Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895
Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl;
Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...
Steinke, Elaine E
Sexual function is often affected in individuals living with chronic illness and their partners, and multiple comorbidities increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction. This review focuses on the areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer, all areas for which there are practical, evidence-based strategies to guide sexual counseling. Although nurses have been reluctant to address the topic of sexuality in practice, a growing number of studies suggest that patients want nurses to address their concerns and provide resources to them. Thus, nurses must be proactive in initiating conversations on sexual issues to fill this gap in practice. PMID:24066783
Patterson, Michelle; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian
Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and ...
Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence
Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...
Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund
The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward.
Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund
The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652
S K Padhy; S Khatana; Sarkar, S.
Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal o...
Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet
For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262
Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet
For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.
Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.
Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…
Clausen, Whitney; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Bill Baerentzen, M; Britigan, Denise H
People diagnosed with a mental illness are at higher risk of developing preventable chronic diseases; thus, health literacy improvements may have great potential to impact health outcomes for this typically underserved population. However, there is a dearth of research on health literacy of persons with severe mental illness. The purpose of this research was to investigate aspects of health literacy and identify factors associated with low literacy among adults with severe mental illness using three literacy assessment tools. Seventy-one adults with serious mental illness were assessed and a high proportion had limited literacy levels: 42% with the Single Item Literacy Screener, 50% with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Short Form, and 67% with the Newest Vital Sign. Findings suggest that individuals with certain mental illnesses and lower functioning may have more difficulty understanding health information and have limited numerical literacy.
McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C
Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719
Roberts, Laura Weiss
There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and
Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78
... everyday activities than they needed before this illness. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team ... pain. Some have difficulty sleeping. Some are depressed. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team ...
... disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person experiencing a mental health condition may turn to drugs and alcohol as ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .
Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara
The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…
Potentials, opportunities of performance--a spectrum of alternatives which can be activated when required as a single measure, varied or in total, low- or high-powered, specifically adjusted or compressed. There are dynamism and power to it! This sounds and feels different from what is demanded all over the world: "standards" or even "minimum standards", minimum quality standards and minimum performance levels, standard equipment, reducing things to the lowest possible common denominator, uniformity, not meeting clients' needs but serving all in the same way, not in the sense of optimum but of minimum. These short polemics are to elucidate the fundamental difference between client focus and client orientation. At certain times in the process of vocational rehabilitation, men and women with mental problems or illness need individually conceived, if necessary improvised, individually composed and well-coordinated services. What kind of men and women we cope with is stated in the chapter on "Target groups", neither completely nor exhaustively--there are no limits to the fantasy and the opportunities of development of clients. In a second major chapter, an attempt is made to show--regarding to some carefully, not arbitrarily selected but not all--the criteria for whom the Berufliche Trainingszentren (BTZ) have developed adequate, client-focused, individual potentials. PMID:14551833
Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat
We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness.
Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul
We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.
Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD
Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...
Groce, N E; Zola, I K
To gain at least an initial understanding of the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a cross-cultural situation, we believe that the three key points discussed in this paper should prove a significant point of departure: 1. Traditional beliefs about the cause of chronic illness or disability will play a significant role in determining family and community attitudes toward individuals with a disability and will influence when, how, and why medical input is sought. 2. The expectation of survival on the part of parents and community will have an effect on the amount of time, energy, and cooperation shown by family and community for the individual who has an impairment. 3. The expectations by family and community for the social role(s) and individual with a chronic illness or disability will hold will affect a broad range of issues, including education, social integration, and independence. Furthermore, although chronic illness and disability are often considered as issues distinct from the full range of problems encountered in society for immigrant and minority groups, in fact, these issues could not be more closely tied. The frequently discussed concerns within the ethnic and minority community about the role of the family, integration and acculturation, social articulation with the greater American society, stress, cross-cultural misunderstanding, and outright prejudice can all compound the problems encountered for the chronically ill or disabled individual in a multicultural society. PMID:8479830
S K Padhy
Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...
Full Text Available Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness.
In recent years sterilization that can cause problems of the psyche and marital life has been recommended much less frequently with respect to chronic diseases. As regards heart and hypertensive diseases pregnancy is always contraindicated in case of 3rd and 4th disease categories and sterilization is recommended according to the New York Heart Association. As far as 1st and 2nd category patients are concerned if the load carrying capacity is normal pregnancy could be undertaken. Combination pills are not recommended for contraception because they can cause fluid retention or increase the risk of thrombosis. If the patient has a higher-than-normal risk of developing thrombosis or infection, for instance, those who wear pacemakers only tablets containing progesterone or subdermal capsule implants can be used. In those with blood pressure problems the additional use of the IUD is also advised. Among diseases of neurological and psychic origin the effect of hormonal contraceptives is weakened by antiepileptics, but even in such cases older combination pills of larger doses of active ingredients can be employed. Migraine is exacerbated in 1/3 of patients; here IUDs can be used. Even the contraceptive tablets themselves can induce depression. In psychosis methods requiring regular attention can be easily forgotten, therefore the IUD is the most suitable device. In diabetes progesterone and other progestogens reduce insulin response, harm carbohydrate metabolism; therefore in young people the IUD is preferred an in older women with children even sterilization can be employed. Hormonal tablets must not be used in hyperlipidemia and liver diseases. Caution must be exercised in hyperthyroidism and in endocrine disorders (e.g., Cushing's syndrome); if it is accompanied by blood pressure disorders appropriate treatment is required. In kidney diseases pregnancy is contraindicated if it is accompanied by blood pressure increase or a higher level of creatine. On the other hand
Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…
Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can b
Thoits, Peggy A.
The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.
Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…
National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.
Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…
Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat
Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…
Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C
Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness.
Tara W. Strine, MPH
Full Text Available Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.
Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick
Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…
Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter;
thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...
Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P
Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness. PMID:21254820
Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P
Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness.
Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer
Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.
Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.
The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We pro...
Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y
The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked. PMID:24826933
Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y
The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported excess cancer mortality in patients with mental illness. However, scant studies evaluated the differences in cancer treatment and its impact on survival rates among mentally ill patients. Oral cancer is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. We investigated differences in treatment type and survival rates between oral cancer patients with mental illness and without mental illness. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance (NHI database, we compared the type of treatment and survival rates in 16687 oral cancer patients from 2002 to 2006. The utilization rate of surgery for oral cancer was compared between patients with mental illness and without mental illness using logistic regression. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: Oral cancer patients with mental disorder conferred a grave prognosis, compared with patients without mental illness (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. After adjusting for patients' characteristics and hospital characteristics, patients with mental illness were less likely to receive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.34-0.65; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, oral cancer patients with mental illness carried a 1.58-times risk of death (95% CI = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Oral cancer patients with mental illness were less likely to undergo surgery with or without adjuvant therapy than those without mental illness. Patients with mental illness have a poor prognosis compared to those without mental illness. To reduce disparities in physical health, public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.
Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela
As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group.
The growing old of patients levels and reduces the affective impact of the mental diseases in the way of leucotomia (Muller). The author considers this problem of these patient's destiny. The fact of sending them to retreat-home may recreate new-focus of segregation. The chimiotherapy becomes illusory when treating old people (iatrogene pseudo-dementia. Irreversible tertiary effect of the medical treatments). The old psychotic dies more peacefully than the old person who has become psychotical late in life with a kind of serenity which evokes a bonze's wisdom, identification pattern for the young people. Is schizophrenia a chronic disease or is it made chronic by our society? Is there an analogy between the residual mental automatism and the Far-Eastern extasis?
Corrigan, Patrick W.
Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…
Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.
Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…
Soderstrom, Irina R.
Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…
Blanner Kristiansen, C.; Juel, A.; Vinther Hansen, M.;
Objective: To explore physical health problems and their causes in patients with severe mental illness, as well as possibilities for prevention and treatment from the patients' and staff's perspectives. Method: We conducted six focus groups with patients and staff separately, from three out......-patient clinics treating patients with schizophrenia or substance-use disorder comorbid to another psychiatric disorder. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a template approach. Results: Paramount physical health problems are weight issues, cardiovascular diseases and poor...... physical shape. Main causes are lifestyle, the mental disorder and organisational issues. Patients and staff expressed similar opinions regarding physical health problems and their causes. Possibilities for prevention and treatment includes a case manager and binding communities with like-minded, as well...
Khokhar, Waqqas; Clifton, Andrew; Jones, H.; Tosh, G.
People with serious mental illness experience an erosion of functioning in day-to-day life over a protracted period of time. There is also evidence to suggest that people with serious mental illness have a greater risk of experiencing oral disease and have greater oral treatment needs than the general population. However, oral health has never been seen as a priority in people suffering with serious mental illness. Poor oral health has a serious impact on quality of life, everyday functioning...
Clifton, Andrew; Tosh, G.; Khokhar, W.; Jones, H.; N. Wells
People with serious mental illness experience an erosion of functioning in day-to-day life over a protracted period of time. There is also evidence to suggest that people with serious mental illness have a greater risk of experiencing oral disease and have greater oral treatment needs than the general population. However, oral health has never been seen as a priority in people suffering with serious mental illness.
Vijayalakshmi Poreddi; Rohini Thimmaiah; Suresh Bada Math
Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115...
Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert
This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles. PMID:26745309
Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert
This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.
Filipa Alexandra Lourenço Campos
Full Text Available Background Peer support is a mutual aid system based on the belief that someone who faced/overcome adversity can provide support, encouragement and guidance to those who experience similar situations. Objective To conduct a systematic review that describes this concept and characterizes peer supporters, its practice and efficacy. Method Research on ISI Web of Science, EBSCO Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and Medline databases (from 2001 to December 2013 was conducted using as keywords “mental illness”, “mental health”, “psychiatric disability”, “mental health services”, combined with “peer support”, “mutual support”, “self-help groups”, “consumers as providers”, “peer-run services”, “peer-run programs” and “social support”. Results We found 1,566 articles and the application of both the exclusion (studies with children, teenagers and elderly people; disease in comorbidity; peer support associated to physical illnesses or family members/caregivers and the inclusion criteria (full text scientific papers, peer support or similar groups directed for schizophrenia, depression, bipolar or psychotic disorders lead to 165 documents, where 22 were excluded due to repetition and 31 to incomplete text. We analyzed 112 documents, identifying as main peer support categories: characterization, peer supporter, practices and efficacy. Discussion Despite an increasing interest about this topic, there is no consensus, suggesting realizing more studies.
Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L
Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.
Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H
The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.
O'Hara, Michael W; Wisner, Katherine L
Perinatal mental illness is a significant complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. These disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, and postpartum psychosis, which usually manifests as bipolar disorder. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common, with prevalence rates for major and minor depression up to almost 20% during pregnancy and the first 3 months postpartum. Postpartum blues are a common but lesser manifestation of postpartum affective disturbance. Perinatal psychiatric disorders impair a woman's function and are associated with suboptimal development of her offspring. Risk factors include past history of depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder, as well psychosocial factors, such as ongoing conflict with the partner, poor social support, and ongoing stressful life events. Early symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mania can be detected through screening in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Early detection and effective management of perinatal psychiatric disorders are critical for the welfare of women and their offspring. PMID:24140480
This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…
盛嘉玲; 朱岚; 张建华; 顾燕; 吕珍术; 俞左英
目的:探讨住院慢性精神病患者开展院内物业服务队的康复模式,寻找恢复期慢性精神病患者职业康复的新途径.方法:101例恢复期慢性精神病患者分为物业组50例和对照组51例,均用精神病药物维持治疗.物业组开展理发、洗衣、商店、保洁及维修等类似物业的岗位训练,采用全开放和半开放管理方法.于入组前、治疗后3、6、12个月末时对2组患者进行阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)和住院精神病患者康复疗效评定量表(IPROS)评定.结果:物业组在治疗3个月末时,PANSS中阴性症状及精神病理单因子评分均明显低于对照组;6及12个月末时下降更显著,PANSS总分也出现明显下降(P92%,劳动态度和劳动质量均随时间的推移而提高.结论:院内物业服务队可成为恢复期慢性精神病患者新的职业康复途径,但让其回归社会还需要多渠道合作.%Objective: To investigate the rehabilitation model of hospital property services team in the convalescent inpatients with chronic mental illness, and find new ways to vocational rehabilitation of the inpatients with convalescent chronic mental illness.Methods.: 101 convalescent patients with chronic mental illness were divided into the property group (n= 50) and control group (nn= 51), and treated with psychiatric drugs for maintenance The patients in property group had the training of hairdressing, laundry, shopping, cleaning and repair, etc.The effects of one-year rehabilitation were observed by using all open and semi-open management methods.Results: The negative symptoms and psychopathology scores from the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) in property group were significantly lower than in control group at the end of 3rd month after treatment, more significantly at the end of 6th and 12th month.The total PANSS scores were also obviously declined.The life ability and regard and interest scores from Inpatient Psychiatric Rehabilitation
Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.
This study explores how mental illness shapes transitions to marriage among unwed mothers using augmented data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 2,351). We estimate proportional hazard models to assess the effects of mental illness on the likelihood of marriage over a 5-year period following a nonmarital birth. Diagnosed…
Derby, John K.
This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…
Workman Arts, a Toronto-based theatre and visual arts company with a 20-year history, provides a rich site for re-imagining stigmatised representations of mental illness. Writing and performing against a long tradition of representing people with mental illnesses as incoherent speakers and visually different, company members seek to re-imagine…
Jonker, Liezl; Greeff, Abraham P.
In South Africa, a substantial burden is placed on families living with people with mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify resilience factors in families living in an underprivileged area, caring for people with mental illnesses. Data was obtained from family representatives (N=34) using semistructured interviews and a set of…
van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra
Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406
Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706
Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max
Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The
Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder. PMID:10816967
Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G
The debate about addressing mental illness and violence often ignores key facts. Many people experience mental illnesses, so having had a diagnosed illness is not a very specific predictor of violent behavior. This means that many proposed policy approaches, from expanded screening to more institutionalization, are unlikely to be effective. Expanded access to effective treatments, although desirable, will have only modest impacts on violence rates. Most people with mental health problems do not commit violent acts, and most violent acts are not committed by people with diagnosed mental disorders. PMID:24328636
Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn
This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009
Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free. Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 2/5/2013.
K. Brandes; B. Mullan
The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behav
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…
Westerhof, Gerben J.; Keyes, Cory L.M.
Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core co
Massé, J C; T-Brault, M M
In this article mental illness is presented in a sociological perspective, giving prominence to social-interaction factors which, in many cases, are responsable for the permanence of this type of illness. Its thereotical base comes !form the psychology of social-interaction developped by G.H. Mead and his disciples. This perspective defines the social human being as derived from successive interactions, beginning, at birth, with maternal contacts and extending progressively to the entirety of the members of the community of which the individual is a part. This interactional network is comprised of messages, of responses, and of expectations which make up the norms and values which in turn from the basis for the distribution of roles and statuses- From these roles and statuses derive the behaviours acceptable to a given collectivity. Among other theoretical developments, interactionist sociology gave birth to formulations on deviance which became known, in american terminology as "labelling theory". In the case of mental illness many sociologists interested in the phenomenon have studied it, using the framework elaborated by the proponents of this approach to deviance. Thus, rather than considering the deviant as abnormal in himself, deviance is viewed as a process; that is, as the result of a series of interactions confronting the individual who is not, or does not behave like the collectivity as a whole and the milieu in which he lives. When the reaction of the entourage is negative, the so-called deviant is subjected to sanctions such as avoidance, rejection, exclusion, confinement, etc... This process terminates generally in stigmatization which wraps the deviant in a label from which he will probably never free himself. The studies cited demonstrate this interactional process at different stages of mental illness, these being; d) at the point of medical diagnosis, b) during hospitalisation, c) on leaving We psychiatric institution, d) and after the return to
Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.
Vanja Duric; Sarah Clayton; Mai Lan Leong; Li-Lian Yuan
Neuropsychiatric symptoms and mental illness are commonly present in patients with chronic systemic diseases. Mood disorders, such as depression, are present in up to 50% of these patients, resulting in impaired physical recovery and more intricate treatment regimen. Stress associated with both physical and emotional aspects of systemic illness is thought to elicit detrimental effects to initiate comorbid mental disorders. However, clinical reports also indicate that the relationship between ...
Estes, Tracy S
The United States health care system is at a pivotal point in its ability to manage chronic illness. The demands and philosophical differences between the management of acute and chronic illnesses suggest the need for different strategies for effective and efficient management of chronic illness. The purpose of this article is to discuss the Chronic Care Model and the collaborative approach to managing chronic illnesses. Asthma, as an exemplar, will be used to illustrate the need for the development of new models of collaborative care for the treatment of chronic illnesses.
Sandra M Flynn
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. METHOD: All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006 were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. RESULTS: 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66% perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27% and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%, most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. CONCLUSION: In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.
Full Text Available Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115 and not exposed (n = 61 to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students′ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013 and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009 domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students′ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems.
Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to examine the attitude of nonpsychiatric health professionals about mental illness in urban multispeciality tertiary care setting. Aim: To assess attitude toward mental illness among urban nonpsychiatric health professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire was administered to 222 medical and paramedical staff at two tertiary care hospitals at Chandigarh. Results: There is an increased awareness of mental illness especially in military subjects. Literacy was associated with a positive attitude toward mental illness. Health care givers commonly fail to ask about the emotional well being of their patients. Many saw referral to psychiatrist as a form of punishment. There is uniform desire for more knowledge about psychiatric disorders in medical and paramedical staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for educational programs aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the nonpsychiatric medical professional would help to allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization toward such persons.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.
The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…
Cherrie Galletly; Ashlee Rigby
Cognitive remediation refers to nonpharmacological methods of improving cognitive function in people with severe mental disorders. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) can be delivered via computerised programs, of varying length and complexity, or can be undertaken one-on-one by a trained clinician. There has been a considerable interest in cognitive remediation, driven by recognition that cognitive deficits are a major determinant of outcome in people with severe, chronic mental illnesses. C...
Bartholomew, Nicole R; Morgan, Robert D
The relationship between mental illness, violence, and criminal behavior is complex, and involves a multifaceted interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes. In this article, we review the emerging research that examines the neurobiological and psychological factors that distinguish between persons with mental illness who do and who do not engage in crime and violence. Additionally, a novel model for understanding the interaction between mental illness and criminalness is proposed. (As defined by Morgan and colleagues, criminalness is defined as behavior that breaks laws and social conventions and/or violates the rights and wellbeing of others.) Stemming from this model and outlined research, we argue that management and treatment approaches should target the co-occurring domains of mental illness and criminalness to improve criminal and psychiatric outcomes. Specifically, we discuss and propose effective housing (management) and biopsychosocial intervention strategies for improving outcomes. PMID:25953043
... risk, added Swanson, a professor with Duke University School of Medicine's department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. Mental illness causes only a small fraction of gun violence in the United States, around 3 to 5 ...
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159859.html Can Trauma Trigger Violent Crime in Mentally Ill? Short-term ... a violent crime in the week following the trauma, a new study contends. Stressful experiences also affect ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Database for Clinical Trials Related to Mental Illness (NDCT) is an extensible informatics platform for relevant data at all levels of biological and...
Annelle B. Primm, MD, MPH
Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minority populations are underserved in the American mental health care system. Disparity in treatment between whites and African Americans has increased substantially since the 1990s. Racial/ethnic minorities may be disproportionately affected by limited English proficiency, remote geographic settings, stigma, fragmented services, cost, comorbidity of mental illness and chronic diseases, cultural understanding of health care services, and incarceration. We present a model that illustrates how social determinants of health, interventions, and outcomes interact to affect mental health and mental illness. Public health approaches to these concerns include preventive strategies and federal agency collaborations that optimize the resilience of racial/ethnic minorities. We recommend strategies such as enhanced surveillance, research, evidence-based practice, and public policies that set standards for tracking and reducing disparities.
Larsen, Jens Ivar; Andersen, Ulla A; Becker, Thomas;
Europe, Nigeria and Japan) within the same ranges (however, the Japanese results should be interpreted conservatively owing to the limited sample size). Overweight among the mentally ill were marked in Nigeria. A parallelism of the incidence of overweight, CVD and diabetes with the occurrence....... The results from this study indicate that cultural background might be seen as an important factor in dealing with lifestyle diseases among people with a severe mental illness, as it is in the general population....
Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny
Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress. PMID:26755983
Flynn, Sandra; Gask, Linda; Shaw, Jenny
Aims and method To explore the portrayal of homicide-suicide in newspaper articles, particularly how mental illness was reported. We carried out a qualitative study in England and Wales (2006-2008). Data from newspaper articles obtained via the LexisNexis database were used to examine a consecutive series of 60 cases. Results A fascination with extreme violence, vulnerable victims and having someone to blame made homicide-suicides newsworthy. Some offenders were portrayed in a stereotypical manner and pejorative language was used to describe mental illness. The findings showed evidence of inaccurate and speculative reference to mental disorder in newspaper reports. Clinical implications The media should avoid speculation on people's mental state. Accurate reporting is essential to reduce stigma of mental illness, which may in turn encourage people to seek help if they experience similar emotional distress.
Mikhail A. Nekrasov
Full Text Available Background: Mental illness (MI markedly affects a person’s daily living and leads to disability, reduced duration of active life and, finally, tremendous economic losses incurred by the state and society. Moreover, it has an adverse impact on the patient’s immediate social surroundings. The aim of the research was to study various aspects of mentally ill patients’ daily living and their social environment in order to optimize psychosocial rehabilitation programs and therapies. Methods: One thousand forty two mentally ill people and 580 persons from their social environment participated in an anonymous social survey. The survey was carried out using specially developed structured questionnaires. The results showed that MI changes the quality of life of mentally ill people (MIP: impaired well-being (84.4%, curbing of interests (36.0%, increased emotional sensitivity (39.0%, low self-esteem (75.4%, problems in family relations (78.0%, dramatic loss of sexual activity (72.3%, and in 75.8% patients – stigmatizing effect of their MI. The presence of a mentally-ill member in a family significantly affected the life and inner world of people close to that member, and modified their professional activity (38.8%, daily living (56.8% and emotional state (36.2%. Conclusion: To improve application of psychosocial rehabilitation methods, an attempt was made to conduct a comprehensive medical and social study of the mentally ill and their social environment.
Lefley, Harriet P.
The formation, structure, and goals of an open-ended psychoeducational support group for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses are described, differentiating psychoeducation from psychotherapy, and professional from peer-led support groups. Major goals are to provide education for illness management and help members combat social…
Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.
Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…
Brandes, Kim; Mullan, Barbara
The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behaviour in chronically ill patients. Correlations from the included articles were meta-analysed using a random-size effect model. A moderation analysis was conducted for the type of adherence behaviour. The effect sizes for the different mental representations and adherence constructs ranged from -0.02 to 0.12. Further analyses showed that the relationship between the mental representations and adherence did not differ by the type of adherence behaviour. The low-effect sizes indicate that the relationships between the different mental representations of the CSM and adherence are very weak. Therefore, the CSM may not be the most appropriate model to use in predictive studies of adherence.
Larina Chi-Lap Yim
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.
C.-H. Liu; L. Meeuwesen; F. van Wesel; D. Ingleby
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test the widely held assumption that underutilisation of mental health services by Chinese living in western countries is due to their different beliefs regarding mental illness. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were analysed from in-depth inte
Taggart, Holly; Bailey, Sue
Each year in England 33 000 people diagnosed with a serious mental illness (SMI) die from causes that could have been avoided. Our mental-health-specific Atlas of Variation is the first to demonstrate the extent to which these inequalities and inequities affect mortality nationally.
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160284.html Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol Brazilian study found half of those who smoked, drank, did pot had symptoms of psychological ... -- Teens who are struggling with mental health disorders are more likely to smoke cigarettes, ...
Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond
The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives.
Stackert, Richelle A; Bursik, Krisanne
What capacity do chronically mentally ill adults have for envisioning personal development as evidenced by the ability to set therapeutic goals? This study explored how individual differences in ego development (Loevinger, 1976) predict the therapeutic goal-setting capacities of adults with chronic mental illness receiving therapy in a community mental health setting. The sample included 51 men and 49 women, ages 25 to 65, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. Utilizing correlational and multiple regression analyses, results confirmed a relationship between higher stages of ego development and greater complexity of therapeutic goals, as well as greater commitment to therapeutic goals. Rehabilitation goals were more prevalent at lower stages of ego development, while goals such as enhancing one's personal relationships, and gaining increased insight emerged at higher stages. Implications for therapeutic change are discussed. PMID:17340946
Esters, Irvin G.; And Others
One factor thought to contribute to the underutilization of mental health services, especially among rural Americans, is the stigma attached to mental illness and the associated help seeking process. This study investigated the effects of an instructional unit on mental illness and related issues on rural adolescents' concept of mental illness and…
Aghukwa Nkereuwem Chikaodiri
Full Text Available A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital’s complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers’ level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was prospective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents’ level of education (P less than 0.05. Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P less than 0.05. Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P less than 0.05. Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them.
Antoni, M H; Brickman, A; Lutgendorf, S; Klimas, N; Imia-Fins, A; Ironson, G; Quillian, R; Miguez, M J; van Riel, F; Morgan, R
We related reported physical symptoms, cognitive appraisals (e.g., negative style of thinking), and coping strategies (e.g., denial/disengagement strategies) with illness burden across several functional domains separately in subsets of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients with (n = 26) and without (n = 39) concurrently diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD). In regard to cognitive appraisal measures, automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes were strongly associated with a higher illness burden, as indicated in sickness impact profile (SIP) scores. Active-involvement coping strategies measured on COPE scales (active coping, planning, and positive reinterpretation and growth) were not associated with SIP scores, while other coping strategies (mental disengagement, behavioral disengagement, and denial) were positively correlated with psychosocial and physical SIP scales, especially those pertaining to interpersonal life-style arenas. After we accounted for the number of different CFS-specific physical complaints reported and DSM-III-R depression diagnosis status, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies predicted a substantial proportion of the variance in the severity of illness burden. For the most part, the magnitude of these relationships between our predictor model variables and illness burden severity was similar in the MDD and non-MDD subgroups. PMID:8148457
Issues of the meaning of life and spirituality are particularly important subjects given the threat of a serious illness and the confrontation with the finiteness of one's own life. Thus, addressing questions of meaning and spiritual domains of supportive care has been identified as essential by patients as well as by health care professionals. In recent years more research has focussed on theoretical conceptualization, empirical examination as well as on the development of meaning-centred interventions in somatically ill patients. Theoretical models for the understanding, development and adaptation of concepts and interventions addressing meaning and spirituality in the chronically ill are offered by the philosophical tradition of existentialism, logotherapy as well as by cognitive and developmental psychology, in particular studies on autobiographical memory and life story. However, the current state of empirical research focussing on the association between meaning, spirituality and physical as well as mental health and underlying mechanisms is not sufficient to draw reliable conclusions. With regard to psychosocial care, meaning-centred interventions have been developed in recent years primarily within the context of palliative care. These interventions are intended to support patients to find meaning in life in the face of a serious illness and to experience their life as fulfilled.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized that there are significant disparities in access to timely surgical care between appendicitis patients with and without mental illness, and more specifically, between patients with schizophrenia and those with another major mental illness. Methods Using the National Health Insurance (NHI hospital-discharge data, we compared the likelihood of perforated appendix among 97,589 adults aged 15 and over who were hospitalized for acute appendicitis in Taiwan between the years 1997 to 2001. Among all the patients admitted for appendicitis, the outcome measure was the odds of appendiceal rupture vs. appendicitis that did not result in a ruptured appendix. Results After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES and hospital characteristics, the presence of schizophrenia was associated with a 2.83 times higher risk of having a ruptured appendix (odds ratio [OR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–3.64. However, the presence of affective psychoses (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.77–1.73 or other mental disorders (OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 0.89–2.81 was not a significant predictor for a ruptured appendix. Conclusion These findings suggest that given the fact that the NHI program reduces financial barriers to care for mentally ill patients, they are still at a disadvantage for obtaining timely treatment for their physical diseases. Of patients with a major mental illness, schizophrenic patients may be the most vulnerable ones for obtaining timely surgical care.
Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.
Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…
Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.
Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…
Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.
Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and extern
Baanders, A.N.; Rijken, P.M.; Peters, L.
To improve our understanding of the problematic labour market position of people with a chronic disease, this paper describes the participation rates of several subgroups of the chronically ill in the Netherlands, as well as the aspects by which the working chronically ill differ from those who are
Kidd, Elizabeth; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Jason, Leonard A.; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55) and illness duration (more or less than 10 years). The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients. PMID:27110826
Gold, S J
Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772
The United States prison system is the largest in the world. Mental illness is disproportionately represented within this system where half of all incarcerated individuals have a mental illness, compared to 11% of the population. Four of 10 inmates released from prison recidivate and are re-incarcerated within three years. A social hypothesis suggests recidivism is the result of compounding social factors. Mentally ill individuals often find themselves in less than ideal circumstances of compounding social factors such as illicit substances and unemployment. Prison life may provide improved social situations and a rehabilitating environment, yet corrections often fall short of meeting acceptable standards of healthcare. This article provides a brief overview of healthcare in the corrections environment and discusses factors that affect mental healthcare in prisons, such as characteristics of the prison population and social policy. The article also addresses factors impacting mentally ill persons who are incarcerated, including access and barriers to mental health treatment and efforts to reduce recidivism. PMID:26824261
James Lando, MD, MPH
Full Text Available Mental illnesses such as depression or anxiety affect an individual’s ability to undertake health-promoting behaviors. Chronic diseases can have a profound impact on an individual’s mental health; in turn, mental health status affects an individual’s ability to participate in treatment and recovery. A group of mental health and public health professionals convened to develop a logic model for addressing mental health as it relates to chronic disease prevention and health promotion. The model provides details on inputs, activities, and desired outcomes, and the designers of the model welcome input from other mental health and public health practitioners.
Tripodoro, Vilma A; Rynkiewicz, María C; Llanos, Victoria; Padova, Susana; De Lellis, Silvina; De Simone, Gustavo
About 75% of population will die from one or more chronic progressive diseases. From this projection WHO urged countries to devise strategies for strengthening palliative treatment as part of comprehensive care. In Catalonia, Spain, direct measurement of the prevalence of these patients with NECPAL CCOMS-ICO© tool was 1.5% of the population. This tool is an indicative, not dichotomous, quali-quantitative multifactorial evaluation to be completed by the treating physician. In Argentina there is no information on these patients. Our goal was to explore and characterize the proportion of chronically ill patients in palliative care needs, by NECPAL CCOMS-ICO© tool, in an accessible population of the City of Buenos Aires. General hospitals of the Health Region 2 (Piñero, álvarez and Santojanni) and its program areas were surveyed. In Health Region 1, we surveyed the Udaondo gastroenterology hospital. A total of 53 physicians (704 patients) were interviewed. It was identified that 29.5% of these patients were affected by advanced chronic diseases; 72.1% of them were NECPAL positive, younger (median 64) than in others studies, and more than 98% presented high levels of comorbidity. Palliative care demand (31.4%) and needs (52.7%) were recorded. Specific indicators of fragility, progression, severity and kind of chronic disease were described. The main finding was to identify, with an instrument not based on mortality that, in Buenos Aires City, 1 in 3 patients with chronic diseases could die in the next year and had palliative care needs. PMID:27295702
Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L
We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (pdefinition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664
Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani
We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. PMID:27138814
Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.
Claus Dieter Stobäus
Full Text Available The article reweaves the information included in Bins’ Master Dissertation discussions with his guide Stobäus and with Mosquera, centered in interfaces between Special Education and Full Inclusion, more in direction of the constitution of adult with mental deficiency and the relationship with learning, at the modality of teaching at Adolescent and Adult Education.
Alterman, Arthur I.; Cacciola, John S.; Ivey, Megan A.; Coviello, Donna M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Habing, Brian
This study examined the latent structure of a number of measures of mental health (MH) and mental illness (MI) in substance use disorder outpatients to determine whether they represent two independent dimensions, as Keyes (2005) found in a community sample. Seven aspects of MI assessed were assessed - optimism, personal meaning, spirituality/religiosity, social support, positive mood, hope, and vitality. MI was assessed with two measures of negative psychological moods/states, a measure of an...
Mental health has long been a neglected problem in global healthcare. The social and economic impacts of conditions affecting the mind are still underestimated. However, in recent years it is becoming more apparent that mental disorders are a growing global concern that is not to be trivialised. Considering the rising burden of psychiatric illnesses, there is a necessity of developing novel services and researching effective means of providing interventions to sufferers. Such novel services ...
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Lowery, B J; Jacobsen, B S
The Weiner et al. attribution model has generated a great deal of research on attributions for success and failure in academic achievement situations. Studies of success and failure attributions in real-life situations of high personal concern are limited. If the attribution model is to lead to a general theory of motivation, such tests in real-life situations are critical. In this study, causal attributions for success and failure outcomes of chronically ill patients were examined. Results indicated at least partial support for the model. Patients tended to attribute success internally and failure externally, but stability and expectations were not linked in this sample. Moreover, a tendency to respond with no cause to an open-ended measure and to hold little commitment to any causes on a closed-ended measure was characteristic of failure subjects. PMID:3844736
Thomas, S.; Jenkins, R; Burch, T.; Nasir, L.C.; Fisher, B; Giotaki, G.; Gnani, S; Hertel, L; Marks, M.; Mathers, N.; Millington-Sanders, C.; D. Morris; Ruprah-Shah, B.; Stange, K.; Thomas, P
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity. files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert ‘Think Tank’ convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHIC...
Wells, Alice; And Others
The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…
Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG
This study examined behavioural, cognitive and affective aspects of peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) describe peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness in comparison with norms of healthy adolescents; (2) examine the relations
Zani, B.; And Others
Evaluated the impact of chronic illness on the psychological functioning and social behavior of adolescent patients. A questionnaire was given to thalassaemics (n=90) and a control group (n=100) investigating coping strategies in stressful situations. Study supports hypothesis that chronic illness does not necessarily imply psychopathologies, but…
Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG
Behavioural, cognitive, and affective aspects of social functioning of 107 children with a chronic illness were studied. The aim of the study was twofold. (I) to describe peer interaction of children with a chronic illness in comparison with normative data of healthy children; (2) to examine whether
Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.
Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced abil
March, John S.
Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…
Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.
Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…
Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.
Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…
This paper meets at the crossroads of personal experience and public policy. The personal is the experience of learning as described by five TAFE students with a mental illness. The public policy context is the increased political pressure on Australia's major vocational training providers to increase workforce participation of people with mental…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…
Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking;
This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...
In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…
Alberta Learning, Edmonton.
This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…
Kaufman, James C.
Two studies involving a total of 2149 writers and other eminent individuals found that female poets were significantly more likely to suffer from mental illness than female fiction writers, than male writers of any type, or than eminent individuals in other fields. This finding has been dubbed the "Sylvia Plath" effect. (Contains references.)…
This paper examines how an understanding of systematic findings about creative processes involved in art, literature, and science can be applied to the effective treatment of mental illness. These findings and applications are illustrated by particular reference to the work of the poet Sylvia Plath and the treatment of a patient who aspired to become a writer.
Ramaprasad, Dharitri; Rao, N Suryanarayana; Kalyanasundaram, S
The present study was undertaken to understand the level of disability and quality of life of elderly persons with chronic and persistent mental illnesses and to compare it with those who were elderly but well with no illness. For the purpose 200 elderly persons with mental illness (PMI), attending psychiatric services were included in the study. A comparison group of 103 well elderly persons was drawn from the same study area as control group (CG). They were assessed using WHO-DAS and WHOQOL-BREF. Results revealed that PMI experienced higher disability compared to the CG. Deficits in the domain of moving around, getting along with people, engaging in life activities and participation in society contributed most to the high level of disability in the PMI group. PMI from rural area had higher disability compared to the urban group. As for QOL, elderly PMI had a poor quality of life compared to the CG. Quality of life was found to be negatively associated with level of disability. Higher the level of disability, lower was the quality of life. The authors opine that persons with chronic mental illness continue to experience psychiatric disability in old age and this cannot be attributed to normal aging. Level of disability has a negative impact on their quality of life. PMID:26573889
Ramaprasad, Dharitri; Rao, N Suryanarayana; Kalyanasundaram, S
The present study was undertaken to understand the level of disability and quality of life of elderly persons with chronic and persistent mental illnesses and to compare it with those who were elderly but well with no illness. For the purpose 200 elderly persons with mental illness (PMI), attending psychiatric services were included in the study. A comparison group of 103 well elderly persons was drawn from the same study area as control group (CG). They were assessed using WHO-DAS and WHOQOL-BREF. Results revealed that PMI experienced higher disability compared to the CG. Deficits in the domain of moving around, getting along with people, engaging in life activities and participation in society contributed most to the high level of disability in the PMI group. PMI from rural area had higher disability compared to the urban group. As for QOL, elderly PMI had a poor quality of life compared to the CG. Quality of life was found to be negatively associated with level of disability. Higher the level of disability, lower was the quality of life. The authors opine that persons with chronic mental illness continue to experience psychiatric disability in old age and this cannot be attributed to normal aging. Level of disability has a negative impact on their quality of life.
Full Text Available Aim: of this research was to investigate, in Greek population, the degree of burden of caregivers of psychiatric patients, the ratio of burden and demographic and other factors. Finally, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect which, the burden, has on quality of life and mental health of caregivers. Materials and methods: For this purpose, specially constructed questionnaires were administered to 122 carers in structures belonging to the University Psychiatric Department of Eginition Hospital. Except of demographic data and variables related to their relative-patient, the participants filled out four psychometric tools: a the McMaster Family Assessment Device, b the quality of life questionnaire SF-12, c Zung’s self-rated depression scale and d the trait part of Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The study’s participants had variable age, family status, education, profession, gender and relationship with the psychiatric patient who was their relative. Results : The statistical analysis of the data showed that the carers reported low levels of health-related quality of life, both in the physical and in the mental component. The 20-40 years age group, the working and more educated class reported bigger distress in the physical dimension; in the mental dimension apart from the previous age group, worse quality of life was reported by relatives other than spouses. On the other hand, the burden levels show for the carers in our sample, were high in comparison with findings from other studies. Pensioners and/or homemakers, married, parents of psychiatric patients who cared for their relatives for a long period of time were proven more adjusted and resistant to burden. Older ages reported, though, higher levels of depression and anxiety. 20.8% of the participants gave answers indicative of clinical depression. In general, anxiety and depression as well as the mental component of the quality of life were found to be
Sarteschi, Christine M
A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. PMID:26224045
Hartwell, Karen J.; Tolliver, Bryan K.; Brady, Kathleen T.
Epidemiologic studies indicate that co-occurring substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders are frequently found in clinical practice. From a neurobiologic perspective, what do these two seemingly different groups of disorders have in common? Currently, several hypotheses are postulated to explain the high rates of comorbidity. Chronic alcohol and drug use may lead to neuroadaptation in the biologic systems mediating psychiatric disorders. Conversely, co-occurring psychiatric and subst...
Full Text Available In Byzantium mentally ill persons were stigmatized, despite the fact that they could live normally. This stigma consisted a very serious problem not only for the patients themselves, but also for their families.Through the legislation of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and also the Leo's VI the Wise (9th – 10th A.C. legislation, mental illness was a main health cause of divorce and it concerned both males and females.During these years men were treated different than women, which had to wait five years in order to get a divorce. On the opposite men had to wait only three years to get a divorce for the cause of mentally retarded wife.
Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung
In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…
Siqueira, Vinicius R; Oades, Lindsay G
Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26576412
Vinicius R. Siqueira
Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19 was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness.
Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; THORNICROFT, GRAHAM
Background In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff’s knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. Methods The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, Chin...
Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.
Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…
Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E
Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI.
Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (χ2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration. PMID:20679263
Genuis, Stephen J
While proper brain function requires the complex interaction of chemicals perpetually occupied in purposeful biochemistry, it is well established that certain toxic substances have the potential to disrupt normal brain physiology and to impair neurological homeostasis. As well as headache, cognitive dysfunction, memory disturbance, and other neurological signs and symptoms, disruption of brain function may also manifest as subtle or overt alteration in thoughts, moods, or behaviors. Over the last four decades, there has been the unprecedented development and release of a swelling repertoire of potentially toxic chemicals which have the capability to inflict brain compromise. Although the ability of xenobiotics to induce clinical illness is well established, the expanding public health problem of widespread toxicant exposure in the general population is a relatively new phenomenon that has spawned escalating concern. The emerging area of clinical care involving the assessment and management of accrued toxic substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, plasticizers and other endocrine disrupting or neurotoxic compounds has not been fully appreciated by the medical community and has yet to be incorporated into the clinical practice of many consultants or primary care practitioners.
Richardson, Rosemary A; Davidson, H Isobel M
Common to both acute and chronic disease are disturbances in energy homeostasis, which are evidenced by quantitative and qualitative changes in dietary intake and increased energy expenditure. Negative energy balance results in loss of fat and lean tissue. The management of patients with metabolically-active disease appears to be simple; it would involve the provision of sufficient energy to promote tissue accretion. However, two fundamental issues serve to prevent nutritional demands in disease being met. The determination of appropriate energy requirements relies on predictive formulae. While equations have been developed for critically-ill populations, accurate energy prescribing in the acute setting is uncommon. Only 25-32% of the patients have energy intakes within 10% of their requirements. Clearly, the variation in energy expenditure has led to difficulties in accurately defining the energy needs of the individual. Second, the acute inflammatory response initiated by the host can have profound effects on ingestive behaviour, but this area is poorly understood by practising clinicians. For example, nutritional targets have been set for specific disease states, i.e. pancreatitis 105-147 kJ (25-35 kcal)/kg; chronic liver disease 147-168 kJ (35-40 kcal)/kg, but given the alterations in gut physiology that accompany the acute-phase response, targets are unlikely to be met. In cancer cachexia attenuation of the inflammatory response using eicosapentaenoic acid results in improved nutritional intake and status. This strategy poses an attractive proposition in the quest to define nutritional support as a clinically-effective treatment modality in other disorders. PMID:15018475
Full Text Available Introduction. Improvements in medicine have significantly prolonged life of chronically ill children and adolescents in the past several decades. There is a great variability in adaptation to illness among chronically ill persons - some of them seem to be very well adapted, with almost no problems. However, research results suggest that chronically ill children are more likely to have psychological problems than their healthy peers. Material and methods. Eighty-four subjects, all elementary school pupils, participated in the study. The first group included adolescents with chronical illness (malignant illness, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, or asthma, and the second their healthy peers. Depression and social support were evaluated. The Birleson's Depression Scale and Perceived Social Support Scales (forms for friends and for family members were used. Results and discussion. The results show significant differences for two of the three variables: depression, and perceived social support from family, while there was no significant difference for perceived social support from friends. The results suggest that chronically ill adolescents are more depressed and that they perceive that the social support they receive from their families is lower when compared to their healthy peers. Conclusion. The results of this study showed that chronically ill adolescents are more depressed than their healthy peers. This group of adolescents also perceives that they have less social support from their families than their healthy peers. When it comes to perceived social support from friends, these two groups do not differ. .
Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M
This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.
... Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis within 2 years after service... psychosis or mental illness other than psychosis. We are establishing a new Sec. 17.109 that codifies...
This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.
This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The program…
Granello, Darcy Haag; Pauley, Pamela S.; Carmichael, Ann
Reports on results of Community Attitudes Toward Mentally Ill questionnaire given to undergraduates. Significant differences emerged on subscales based ranking of primary source of information about mental illness. Results do not imply causality but rather that electronic media is powerful mechanism for spreading the stigma of mental illness.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the relationship with the spouse/partner appears crucial among patients with multiple chronic conditions where illness management is complex and multifaceted. This study draws on data from the Quebec Health Survey (QHS to examine, among patients with one or more chronic conditions, the relation between marital status, the perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and what the patients do to manage their illness as well as how they perceive their health. Methods Data from the QHS 1998 were used. The sample included 7547 coupled adults who had one or more chronic health problems lasting more than 6 months. Independent variables included marital status, perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and the number of chronic conditions. Illness management was defined broadly as a measure of the patient's efforts at self-care and an illness status indicator, including visits to the generalist and the specialist, the use of telephone health line in the last 12 months, self-rated general health, mental health, and a measure of psychological distress. Linkages between the independent variables and illness management were assessed for males and females separately with logistic regressions, while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results Female patients who did not live with their partner and had never been married were more likely to report a negative perception of their general health and a higher psychological distress than those who were married. Perceived conflict with the partner was linked to a negative perception of mental health and a higher psychological distress among both men and women. Compared to patients with only one chronic condition, males who reported more than one chronic condition were more likely to have consulted a generalist prior to the survey and used the telephone health line, whereas females were more likely to have consulted a specialist. Both males and
Full Text Available Chronic care consists of a sequence of actions to treat a specific clinical disorder over time as a function of the ways in which illness progresses and patients respond to management actions. Outcomes depend on physicians' skills to select the actions best suited for their patients and competent self-management. This paper presents the architecture of an intelligent partner system (IPS, which helps to provide doctors with relevant data and skills and empowers chronically ill patients with the information and confidence to manage their health wisely. The services of this intelligent system are presented as 'therapies' for the information-processing 'pathologies' associated with traditional chronic illness care.
Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;
Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...... Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show...
The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law.
Gagliardi, Gregg J; Lovell, David; Peterson, Paul D; Jemelka, Ron
Little research has focused on assessing the risk of mentally ill offenders (MIOs) released from state prisons. Here we report findings for 333 mentally ill offenders released from Washington State prisons. Logistic regression identified sets of variables that forecasted felony and violent reconviction as accurately as state-of-the-art risk assessment instruments. Sums of simple recoded versions of these variables predicted reoffense as well as complex logistic regression equations. Five of these 9 variables were found to be relative protective factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the value of stock correctional variables in forecasting risk, the need to base actuarial risk assessments on local data, the importance of protective factors in assessing MIO risk, and the need for dynamic, situational, and clinical variables that can further sharpen predictive accuracy of emergent risk in the community. PMID:15141775
King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma
There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority.
Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005
"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…
Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.
Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided per...
Individuals with severe mental illness have much higher mortality rates from somatic diseases than the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death, and, contrary to the general population, cardiovascular mortality in psychiatric patients has not declined over the last decades. The main aim of the clinical studies performed in this thesis in psychiatry was to gain more knowledge about the prevalence and causes of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with severe ...
Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas
Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…
Dévieux, Jessy G.; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G.; Dyer, Janyce G.; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth
Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexu...
DANESH, Nasrin; GHORBANPOOR, Elahe
Abstract. Summary: Psychiatric disorders are among the most common morbid and stress making problems all around the world.(1) Periodic assessment of rate and effect of diseases ; epidemiologically or economically ; would be helpful for health organizations to plan better for the next generation of drugs or other types of treatment. This is an epidemiologic essay about 4000 out-patients referred to a central mental illness clinic in Shiraz –Iran during a 3 years period (2011-2014) that will sh...
Full Text Available Severe mental illness is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of severe mental illness. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of severe mental illness and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with severe mental illness are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in BDNF and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitise the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.
Nandy, S.; Chalmers-Watson, C; Gantley, M; Underwood, M.
BACKGROUND: Mild depression and anxiety are common problems in general practice. They can be managed by the general practitioner (GP) alone or referred. Previous quantitative studies have shown a large variation between GPs in terms of referral behaviour. The reasons for this variation are not fully understood. AIM: To describe and analyse GP's decision-making processes when considering who should be treating patients with minor mental illness, using a qualitative method. DESIGN OF STUDY: A q...
Hert, Marc De; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Wood, David; Kahl, Kai G; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
Position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). People with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder, have worse physical health and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. The excess cardiovascular mortality associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is attributed to an increased risk of the modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors, obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. Antipsychotic medication and possibly other psychotropic medication like antidepressants can induce weight gain and further increase the risk of adverse metabolic effects which may result in further increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Patients have limited access to general healthcare with less opportunity for cardiovascular risk screening and prevention than would be expected in a non-psychiatric population. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published this statement aiming to improve the care of patients suffering from severe mental illness. The intention is to initiate co-operation and shared care between the different health care professionals and to increase the awareness of psychiatrists caring for patients suffering from severe mental illness to screen and treat increased cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes. PMID:23034198
Walker, Lynn S.
Parents of chronically ill children are faced with the difficult task of being vigilant and yet not overprotective of their children. The literature suggests that parents hold a positive bias toward their ill children. Attribution theory gives a framework in which to study parents' ideas about their children's behavior. A study was conducted to…
D.S. Sieh; A.L.C. Dikkers; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; A.M. Meijer
This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in th
Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L
In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. METHODS: Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS], and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. RESULTS: The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (α = 0.66; ICC = 0.52, and r = 0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS. Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. CONCLUSION: The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness.
Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E
This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness. PMID:26658917
Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E
This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness.
Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz
The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.
Marriage is a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law. In India, there is a tremendous social and cultural pressure to marry. It is of paramount importance to discuss the relationship between marriage and mental illness in Indian scenario as marriage is perceived to be a panacea to mental illness by many. This review aims to explore whether marriage contributes to mental-health problems; whether it has a protective role; what effect it has on pre-existing mental illnesses an...
Suffering from mental ill-health does not merely involve mental distress; it also often comprises deteriorated physical health. The physical consequences can be of a severe nature and may lead to premature death. Since physical inactivity has been identified as a critical health risk factor, there is an imperative need to support physical activity in persons with mental ill-health. The benefits of being physically active for persons with mental ill-health are many, but there are also consider...
Jimenez, Daniel E; Burrows, Kimberly; Aschbrenner, Kelly; Barre, Laura K; Pratt, Sarah I; Alegría, Margarita; Bartels, Stephen J
The objective of this study was to explore the perceived benefits of engaging in health behavior change from the viewpoint of overweight and obese Latinos with severe mental illness (SMI) enrolled in the U.S. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 obese Latinos with SMI who were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a motivational health promotion intervention adapted for persons with SMI. Overweight and obese Latino participants believed that engaging in health behavior change would have both physical and mental health benefits, including chronic disease management, changes in weight and body composition, and increased self-esteem. Interventions that explicitly link physical activity and healthy eating to improvements in mental health and well-being may motivate Latinos with SMI to adopt health behavior change. PMID:26873582
Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity. PMID:20738388
Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.
Bennett, J; Stennett, R
There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. PMID:26036468
O' Brien, Irene
BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\
Riccio, Cynthia A.; Pliego, Jessica; Rae, William A.
An increasing number of children experience chronic health issues that affect their academic and behavioral functioning, as well as psychological well-being. At the same time, psychological stress can exacerbate the chronic illness. The first line of treatment most often is medical (e.g., pharmacology, surgery, radiation). Even when the medical…
Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli
A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…
The result-for the mentally ill-could well be diminished access to social determinants of healthcare, employment, and housing. In addition, people with mental illnesses are exposed to numerous health risks such as malnutrition, drug abuse, violence and homelessness. Maybe this explains nondisclosure of illness in an increasingly degenerate civil society.
The causes of psychological illness in Irish people have been identified with colonial rule and the catastrophic conditions deriving from famine in the nineteenth century. In particular, the scourge of unremitting emigration, resulting from famine, has formed a background against which speculative theories of inferiority, alienation and mental illness have been constructed. In particular, the long standing idea that Irish people exhibit higher rates of schizophrenia, both in Ireland and abroad, is discussed. Contemporary studies which suggest that these elevated rates do not correspond to international diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are introduced. Rather, these enhanced rates may reflect a malaise which resembles schizophrenia but which is really a product of historical dispossession. The importance of these factors is underscored by the previous neglect of Irish people, considered as an ethnic minority, as well as the particular distaste which many Irish people display towards such a notion.
Seligman, Martin E P
Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's life work concerned rumination, gender differences in depression, and the "transdiagnostic" processes in mental illness. The articles in this special section expand on these themes. Her work on transdiagnostic processes leads us to consider that the real mental illnesses are not the congeries of symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but these processes themselves. PMID:24661153
This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…
Seligman, Martin E P
Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's life work concerned rumination, gender differences in depression, and the "transdiagnostic" processes in mental illness. The articles in this special section expand on these themes. Her work on transdiagnostic processes leads us to consider that the real mental illnesses are not the congeries of symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but these processes themselves.
Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.
Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Hughes, Lynette; Leavey, Gerard
Whereas physical sport activity is generally considered a health benefit, extreme exercise may be harmful. Of particular concern in this regard is the considerable variation between doctors in the primary care setting and those working within the sports setting around the diagnosis and treatment of athletes presenting with similar symptoms. Known risk factors for athletes are herein presented to raise awareness of the negative side of sport and to bring attention to the psychological outcomes and needs of athletes. The need for research into the incidence and aetiology of mental illness within elite level sport is also raised.
Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.
Van Hulten, Rolf; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Bakker, Albert; Leufkens, Hubert G.
The association between patterns of use of benzodiazepines and chronic somatic morbidity was examined by applying the Chronic Disease Score (CDS). In the only pharmacy in a Dutch community, 6921 patients with data available covering a 10-year period (1983-1992) were included. In 1992, two-thirds of
Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A
Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719
Dixon, Lisa B; Holoshitz, Yael; Nossel, Ilana
Individuals living with serious mental illness are often difficult to engage in ongoing treatment, with high dropout rates. Poor engagement may lead to worse clinical outcomes, with symptom relapse and rehospitalization. Numerous variables may affect level of treatment engagement, including therapeutic alliance, accessibility of care, and a client's trust that the treatment will address his/her own unique goals. As such, we have found that the concept of recovery-oriented care, which prioritizes autonomy, empowerment and respect for the person receiving services, is a helpful framework in which to view tools and techniques to enhance treatment engagement. Specifically, person-centered care, including shared decision making, is a treatment approach that focuses on an individual's unique goals and life circumstances. Use of person-centered care in mental health treatment models has promising outcomes for engagement. Particular populations of people have historically been difficult to engage, such as young adults experiencing a first episode of psychosis, individuals with coexisting psychotic and substance use disorders, and those who are homeless. We review these populations and outline how various evidence-based, recovery-oriented treatment techniques have been shown to enhance engagement. Our review then turns to emerging treatment strategies that may improve engagement. We focus on use of electronics and Internet, involvement of peer providers in mental health treatment, and incorporation of the Cultural Formulation Interview to provide culturally competent, person-centered care. Treatment engagement is complex and multifaceted, but optimizing recovery-oriented skills and attitudes is essential in delivery of services to those with serious mental illness.
Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal
We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…
Full Text Available Mental illness is a major public health concern in Canada and also globally. According to the World Health Organization, five of the top ten disabilities worldwide are mental health disorders. Within Canada, one in five individuals is living with mental illness each year. Currently, there are 6.7 million Canadians living with mental illness and over 1 million Canadian youth living with mental illness. Police are frequently the first responders to situations in the community involving people with mental illness, and police services are increasingly aware of the need to provide officers with additional training and strategies for effectively interacting with these citizens. This study examined the effectiveness of four online, interactive video-based simulations designed to educate police officers about mental illness and strategies for interacting with people with mental illness. The simulations were created through the efforts of a unique partnership involving a police service, a mental health facility and two postsecondary institutions. Frontline police officers from Ontario were divided into one of three groups (simulation, face to face, control. Using a pre- and post-test questionnaire, the groups were compared on their level of knowledge and understanding of mental illness. In addition, focus groups explored the impact of the simulations on officers’ level of confidence in engaging with individuals with mental illness and officers’ perceptions of the simulations’ ease of use and level of realism. The study’s findings determined that the simulations were just as effective as face-to-face learning, and the officers reported the simulations were easy to use and reflected real-life scenarios they had encountered on the job. As mental health continues to be a major public concern, not only in Canada but also globally, interactive simulations may provide an effective and affordable education resource not only for police officers but for
Wilson, Amy Blank; Farkas, Kathleen; Ishler, Karen J; Gearhart, Michael; Morgan, Robert; Ashe, Melinda
The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of criminal thinking of persons with mental illness beyond prison and community settings to a jail setting. Participants consisted of 122 individuals incarcerated in a county jail who were diagnosed with a severe mental illness, including schizophrenia spectrum and major mood disorders. Results indicated that people with mental illness in this sample of jail inmates presented with thinking styles that support a criminal lifestyle, and have criminal thinking styles that follow a pattern that is very similar to a sample of prison inmates with serious mental illness. These findings support the need for therapeutic programs for justice-involved persons with serious mental illness to develop a multipronged treatment approach that integrates interventions for individuals' criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes with treatment for their mental illness and substance abuse issues. PMID:24707911
MacDermott , Siobhan J.
Chronic illness is emerging as major health problem in the developing and developed world. The increased prevalence of childhood chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes coupled with the successful management of childhood onset disease has altered the landscape of chronic illness among young people. The purpose of this study is to explore the lived experiences of emerging adults who have grown up and live with chronic illness since childhood. The health of emerging adults (18 to 25 year...
One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction.
Judith J Prochaska
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10 cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14 years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Phelan, Sean M
This study examines the relationship between objective and subjective measures of social support with recovery from serious mental illness; recovery has been described as both an outcome state and an ongoing process. One hundred and seventy six people with serious mental illness completed the Recovery Assessment Scale, a process measure of recovery that assessed, among other factors, personal confidence, goal orientation, and non-domination by symptoms. They also were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, a semi-structured interview that assesses psychiatric symptom and represents recovery as an outcome. Finally, research participants completed the Social Network Scale, which assessed size of the overall network plus such important subnetworks as family, friends, and health professionals. The SNS also provided measures of the perceived satisfaction with, mutuality in, and obligation towards individuals in their support network. Results showed people with larger overall network size and more network satisfaction were likely to report higher factors on the Recovery Assessment Scale. For the most part, network size and satisfaction was not significantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. Implications of these findings for better understanding the association between social support and recovery are discussed.
Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley
The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:24060237
van Hasselt, F.; Loonen, Antonius
Objective: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) suffer from more somatic illness than the general population. Possible causes are side effects of neuropsychiatric medication, genetic vulnerability, insufficient health care and lifestyle. This co-morbidity is potentially reversible and augments
Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences. Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05. Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders
Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh
Offering a Ray of Hope for the Mentally-ill and Differently-abled Individuals Mentally-ill/challenged and differently-abled persons constitute a significant proportion of global population the health care and social welfare needs of which can neither be ignored nor be neglected. In the global effort to ensure accessibility, availability and affordability of the primary health care services to all segments of people including the mentally-ill and disabled individuals, Shri Sathya Sai Medical C...
Swanson, JW; McGinty, EE; Fazel, S; Mays, VM
PURPOSE: This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. METHODS: Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and ju...
Walter, Charles Thomas
This dissertation demonstrates how patients' mental illness treatment careers depend on the change and/or stability among differing levels of social structure. Theorists of the mental illness career tend to ignore the role that higher levels of social structural change have on individuals' mental illness career. Researchers using an organizational perspective tend to focus on the organizational environment but ignore the treatment process from the individual's point of view. Both perspectives...
Line Neerup Handlos
Full Text Available Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show that physical health, in the sense of the absence of illness and easy access to necessary health-care services and medicines, was not highly prioritized when the decision was made whether or not to return. However, if health is regarded more broadly as involving more than mere physical health and the absence of illness, health did matter. Viewed as physical, social and mental well-being in line with WHO’s definition of health, health was indeed one of the most important factors when the decision to return was made.
Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie Louise
Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from Denmark and the role of health issues in their decision to return. It is based on semi-structured interviews with 33 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have moved back to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 10 elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees who have remained in Denmark. The interviews show that physical health, in the sense of the absence of illness and easy access to necessary health-care services and medicines, was not highly prioritized when the decision was made whether or not to return. However, if health is regarded more broadly as involving more than mere physical health and the absence of illness, health did matter. Viewed as physical, social and mental well-being in line with WHO's definition of health, health was indeed one of the most important factors when the decision to return was made.
Dorvil, H; Benoit, M
The aging of the population in Québec as in the rest of the western world, brings to the fore people who until now were greatly marginalized. This is the case of mentally ill and mentally retarded elderly who until recently, lived their aging in the shadow of psychiatric institutions. Have these people now found with deinstitutionalization, the possibility of growing old within society ? This article analyses the conditions of integration and support networks, in sum a collective responsability of these aging people in nursing homes.
Adams, Rick A; Huys, Quentin J M; Roiser, Jonathan P
Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia. Reinforcement learning describes how the brain can choose and value courses of actions according to their long-term future value. Some depressive symptoms may result from aberrant valuations, which could arise from prior beliefs about the loss of agency ('helplessness'), or from an inability to inhibit the mental exploration of aversive events. Predictive coding explains how the brain might perform Bayesian inference about the state of its environment by combining sensory data with prior beliefs, each weighted according to their certainty (or precision). Several cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia might reduce precision at higher levels of the inferential hierarchy, biasing inference towards sensory data and away from prior beliefs. We discuss whether striatal hyperdopaminergia might have an adaptive function in this context, and also how reinforcement learning and incentive salience models may shed light on the disorder. Finally, we review some of Computational Psychiatry's applications to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and some pitfalls to avoid when applying its methods.
Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura
While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL. PMID:27525825
Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura
While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL.
Groenier Klaas H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness (SMI experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with severe mental illness in the acute and the chronic or residual phase were explored. Methods A questionnaire survey of a sample of Dutch general practitioners spread over the Netherlands was carried out. This comprised 20 questions on the GP's 'Opinion and Task Perspective', 19 questions on 'Treatment and Experiences', and 27 questions on 'Characteristics of the General Practitioner and the Practice Organisation'. Results 186 general practitioners distributed over urban areas (49%, urbanised rural areas (38% and rural areas (15% of the Netherlands participated. The findings were as follows: GPs currently considered themselves as the first contact in the acute psychotic phase. In the chronic or residual phase GPs saw their core task as to diagnose and treat somatic co-morbidity. A majority would be willing to monitor the general health of these patients as well. It appeared that GP trainers and GPs with a smaller practice setting made follow-up appointments and were willing to monitor the self-care of patients with SMI more often than GPs with larger practices. GPs also saw their role as giving support and information to the patient's family. However, they felt a need for recognition of their competencies when working with mental health care specialists. Conclusion GPs were willing to participate in providing care for patients with SMI. They considered themselves responsible for psychotic emergency cases, for monitoring physical health in the chronic phase, and for supporting the relatives of psychotic patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic illness and disability can have damaging, even catastrophic, socioeconomic effects on individuals and their households. We examined the experiences of people affected by chronic heart failure, complicated diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inform patient centred policy development. This paper provides a first level, qualitative understanding of the economic impact of chronic illness. Methods Interviews were conducted with patients aged between 45 and 85 years who had one or more of the index conditions and family carers from the Australian Capital Territory and Western Sydney, Australia (n = 66. Content analysis guided the interpretation of data. Results The affordability of medical treatments and care required to manage illness were identified as the key aspects of economic hardship, which compromised patients' capacity to proactively engage in self-management and risk reduction behaviours. Factors exacerbating hardship included ineligibility for government support, co-morbidity, health service flexibility, and health literacy. Participants who were on multiple medications, from culturally and linguistically diverse or Indigenous backgrounds, and/or not in paid employment, experienced economic hardship more harshly and their management of chronic illness was jeopardised as a consequence. Economic hardship was felt among not only those ineligible for government financial supports but also those receiving subsidies that were insufficient to meet the costs of managing long-term illness over and above necessary daily living expenses. Conclusion This research provides insights into the economic stressors associated with managing chronic illness, demonstrating that economic hardship requires households to make difficult decisions between care and basic living expenses. These decisions may cause less than optimal health outcomes and increased costs to the health system. The findings support the necessity
Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret
Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…
Harshal Ramesh Salve
Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.
Waqas, Ahmed; Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad
Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734
Full Text Available The prevalence of food insecurity and food insufficiency is high among homeless people. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among a cohort of homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Data collected from baseline questionnaires in the Vancouver At Home study were analysed to calculate the prevalence of food insecurity within the sample (n = 421. A modified version of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Adult Food Security Survey Module was used to ascertain food insecurity. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential correlates of food insecurity.The prevalence of food insecurity was 64%. In the multivariable model, food insecurity was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, less than high school completion (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35-0.93, needing health care but not receiving it (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.00-2.72, subjective mental health (aOR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.16-4.36, HIV/AIDS (aOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 1.36-12.96, heart disease (aOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16-0.97 and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01-2.68.The prevalence of food insecurity was extremely high in a cohort with longstanding homelessness and serious mental illness. Younger age, needing health care but not receiving it, poorer subjective mental health, having spent over $500 for drugs and alcohol in the past month, HIV/AIDS and having gone to a drop-in centre, community meal centre or program/food bank each increased odds of food insecurity, while less than high school completion and heart disease each decreased odds of food insecurity. Interventions to reduce food insecurity in this population are urgently needed.
Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders are widely recognized as a major contributor to the global burden of disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude about mental illness among general public. Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from October 2008 to March 2009. A questionnaire was designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding mental illness. Results: 100 subjects were selected conveniently, of which 33 % males and 67 % females, most of them in the age group above 30 years. Mean knowledge score of the subjects was 5.90 ± 1.22. Item wise awareness regarding mental illness were common mental disorders (60%, causes (35%, signs and symptoms of mental illness (60%, treatment (42% and prognosis 30 % and most of them had negative attitude towards mental illness. High knowledge score has been associated with male and aged between 18-30 years. Conclusion: Knowledge of mental illness among the general public was quite poor and suggests the need for strong emphasis on public education to increase mental health literacy among general public to increase awareness and positive attitude of people towards mental illness.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J
The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209
Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian;
Elderly migrants constitute a considerable share of global return migration; nevertheless, literature on the health aspects of the return migration among these migrants is still scarce. This study explores the significance of return migration among elderly, chronically ill Bosnian refugees from...
Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G; Dyer, Janyce G; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth
Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexual self-efficacy; and condom attitudes toward explaining the variance in a composite of HIV high-risk behavior among 188 SMI women and 158 SMI men. History of sexual abuse, engaging in sexual activities while high on substances, and lower cannabis use were the most significant predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Given the triple jeopardy for HIV risk in this population, a triple barreled approach that simultaneously addresses multiple health risks within an integrated treatment setting is warranted. PMID:17298927
Lidz, Charles W; Banks, Steven; Simon, Lorna; Schubert, Carol; Mulvey, Edward P
Empirical studies of violence and mental illness have used many different methods. Current state-of-the-art methods gather information from both subject and collateral interviews as well as official records. Typically these sources are treated as additive. Any report of a violent incident from any source is treated as true and all reported incidents are added to generate estimates of frequency. This paper presents a new statistical technique that uses the level of agreement between the sources of data to adjust those estimates. The evidence suggests that, although the additive technique for using multiple sources correctly estimates how many people are involved, it substantially underestimates the number of incidents. The new technique substantially reduces both false negatives and false positives.
Full Text Available In this article I oppose the current account of autonomy and informed consent in bioethics through criticising the four underlying prejudices of an objectivistic, dualistic, rationalistic and individualistic misunderstanding of the will. With special regard to the case of patients with dementia I argue for the thesis that the principle of autonomy, as moral principles in general, has unconditional and universal validity, but has to be applied differently in the face of specific situations and circumstances by means of the power of judgment (Urteilskraft. As the philosophical resp. anthropological basis of my argument I develop a broad understanding of the will in an Aristotelian and phenomenological sense. The practical consequences of my thesis consist in the ethical requirement of equal respect for the will of mentally ill patients.
Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R
Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748
Boot, C.R.L.; Heijmans, M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Rijken, M.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between work disability and illness perceptions, over and above medical assessment and self-reported health. METHODS: A representative sample of people aged 15-64 years with various chronic physical diseases was derived from the Panel of Patients with
李梦阳; 宋颖; 赵岳; 戴必兵
目的：调查老年慢性病住院患者对抑郁和焦虑障碍的认知情况、对慢性躯体性疾病和心理疾病的识别情况，并分析两者的相关性，为老年慢性病住院患者常规进行抑郁和焦虑心理评估提供理论依据。方法采用横断面研究的方法，以简易精神状态检查量表（MMSE）、汉密尔顿抑郁量表（HAMD）、焦虑自评量表（SAS）以及老年慢性病患者调查问卷作为测量工具对某三甲医院的206例老年慢性病住院患者进行调查。结果老年慢性病住院患者对抑郁认知总水平得分为（5．95±3．05）分，焦虑认知总水平得分（4．92±3．20）分，对慢性病判断正确率为（97±8）％，对心理疾病判断正确率仅为（47±29）％。抑郁认知总分和心境、思维、精神3个维度与对心理疾病的识别呈正相关（P ＜0．01）；对焦虑认知总分和情绪、其他症状两个维度与对心理疾病的识别呈正相关（P ＜0．01），而抑郁、焦虑认知中躯体维度与对心理疾病判断正确情况无显著相关性（P ＞0．05）。结论老年慢性病住院患者抑郁、焦虑认知水平低，且对以躯体症状为主要表现的抑郁、焦虑障碍识别能力低，将心理疾病误认为是慢性躯体性疾病，严重影响疾病的治疗和预后。因此，护士应为老年慢性病患者常规进行抑郁、焦虑心理健康评估，早期识别心理健康问题，避免延误心理干预和治疗的最佳时间。%Objective To investigate the cognition of depression and anxiety and recognition of physical and mental illness,and analyze their correlation in hospitalized elderly patients with chronic diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed.A total of 206 hospitalized elderly patients with chronic diseases from a hospital were investigated using mini mental state examination (MMSE),Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD),self rating anxiety scale (SAS
Abasiubong, F; Ekott, J U; Bassey, E A
The pernicious attitudes to mental illness often result from ignorance and enduring sociocultural prejudices. The endless negative depiction of mentally ill persons by the society is responsible for poor mental health services and care, thus the increasing number of persons with mental illness roaming the streets in our environment. The objectives of the study were: First to assess the attitude of the Journalists to mental illness. Secondly to compare the journalists' attitudes with that of the Nurses. Two hundred and fifty Journalists in Uyo were randomly assessed for attitudes to mental illness, using Taylor and Dear Inventory of Community Attitude to mental illness. This was compared with Nurses from Health Centers in Uyo. Data from 210 (84.0%) Journalists and 154 (85.6%) Nurses were analyzed, 40 (16.0%) of Journalists and 26 (14.4%) of Nurses were excluded due to incomplete information. The mean age of the two groups was 39.4 +/- 8.3 and 34.4 +/- 7.6 years respectively. The difference in the mean was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Responses were similar in the two groups. Negative opinions were prevalent among the respondents in the region of over 70% among Journalist and 60% in Nurses in most cases. Except marrying people with mental illness, other responses were statistically significant. There is a widespread negative attitude to mental illness among Journalists and this is a reflection of the general population. The media is the primary source of public information. Therefore, accurate and positive portrayal of mental illness on both electronic and printing media may be necessary to sensitize the public so as to improve the negative cultural environment surrounding persons with mental illness. PMID:18564651
Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C B; Pathak, Abhishek
The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness. PMID:26330650
Coverdale, John H.; Nairn, Raymond
Objective: To review research on depictions of mental illness in mass media directed to children and to identify requirements for further research in this important field. Methods: The authors identified published research on depictions of mental illness in children's media and the important strengths and weaknesses of such research. Results: Only…
Vilà, Montserrat; Pallisera, Maria; Fullana, Judit
The participation of people with mental illness in research is key to their empowerment and provides them with a highly meaningful experience. The aim of this article was to explore the perspectives, views and experiences of people with severe mental illness (SMI) regarding their present life and projection of the future (desires, expectations…
Recent numbers show that a great deal of people experience mental illness during a period of time over the life course. Mental illness, however is not randomly distributed throughout society, but rather depends on one's social position in society. This book examines the link between the social conte
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett
Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…
Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel
This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…
Brandt, Anna L. S.
The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)
The author discusses the quote from Mill's On Liberty that is often cited by libertarians in opposition to involuntary commitment of the mentally ill. This quote has been taken out of context; other statements in the document indicate that Mill excluded from his libertarian credo those "without the ordinary amount of understanding," i.e., those people who would now be considered mentally ill.
Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K.
We introduce "stigma sentiments" as a way to operationalize the cultural conceptions of the mentally ill. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category "a mentally ill person." We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation and potency components as measures of these…
Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van
One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken
Daumit, Gail L.; Anthony, Christopher B.; Ford, Daniel E.; Fahey, Maureen; Skinner, Elizabeth Ann; Lehman, Anthony F.; Hwang, Wenke; Steinwachs, Donald M.
In a cohort of Maryland Medicaid recipients with severe mental illness followed from 1993-2001, we compared mortality to the Maryland general population including race and gender subgroups. Persons with severe mental illness died at a mean age of 51.8 years, with a standardized mortality ratio of 3.7 (95%CI, 3.6-3.7).
Motoki, Emi; Mori, Kikuko; Kaji, Hidesuke; Nonami, Yoko; Fukano, Chika; Kayano, Tomonori; Kawada, Terue; Kimura, Yukari; Yasui, Kumiko; Ueki, Hiroko; Ugai, Kazuhiro
The aim of this research was to develop a pamphlet that would enable patients with diabetes, rheumatic diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and dialysis treatment to be aware of changes in their physical conditions at an early stage of a disaster, cope with these changes, maintain self-care measures, and recover their health. Illness-specific pamphlets were produced based on disaster-related literature, news articles, surveys of victims of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster and Typhoon Tokage, and other sources. Each pamphlet consisted of seven sections-each section includes items common to all illnesses as well as items specific to each illness. The first section, "Physical Self-Care", contains a checklist of 18 common physical symptoms as well as symptoms specific to each illness, and goes on to explain what the symptoms may indicate and what should be done about them. The main aim of the "Changes in Mental Health Conditions" section is to detect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at an early stage. The section "Preventing the Deterioration of Chronic Illnesses" is designed to prevent the worsening of each illness through the provision of information on cold prevention, adjustment to the living environment, and ways of coping with stress. In the sections, "Medication Control" and "Importance of Having Medical Examinations", spaces are provided to list medications currently being used and details of the hospital address, in order to ensure the continued use of medications. The section, "Preparing for Evacuations" gives a list of everyday items and medical items needed to be prepared for a disaster. Finally, the "Methods of Contact in an Emergency" section provides details of how to use the voicemail service. The following content-specific to each illness also was explained in detail: (1) for diabetes, complications arising from the deterioration of the illness, attention to nutrition, and insulin management; (2) for rheumatic diseases, a checklist of
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict
Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay
The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Regionalised models of health care delivery have important implications for people with disabilities and chronic illnesses yet the ethical issues surrounding disability and regionalisation have not yet been explored. Although there is ethics-related research into disability and chronic illness, studies of regionalisation experiences, and research directed at improving health systems for these patient populations, to our knowledge these streams of research have not been brought together. Using the Canadian province of Ontario as a case study, we address this gap by examining the ethics of regionalisation and the implications for people with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The critical success factors we provide have broad applicability for guiding and/or evaluating new and existing regionalised health care strategies. Discussion Ontario is in the process of implementing fourteen Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs. The implementation of the LHINs provides a rare opportunity to address systematically the unmet diverse care needs of people with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The core of this paper provides a series of composite case vignettes illustrating integration opportunities relevant to these populations, namely: (i rehabilitation and services for people with disabilities; (ii chronic illness and cancer care; (iii senior's health; (iv community support services; (v children's health; (vi health promotion; and (vii mental health and addiction services. For each vignette, we interpret the governing principles developed by the LHINs – equitable access based on patient need, preserving patient choice, responsiveness to local population health needs, shared accountability and patient-centred care – and describe how they apply. We then offer critical success factors to guide the LHINs in upholding these principles in response to the needs of people with disabilities and chronic illnesses. Summary This paper
Maragakis, Alexandros; Siddharthan, Ragavan; RachBeisel, Jill; Snipes, Cassandra
Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are more likely to experience preventable medical health issues, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, than the general population. To further compound this issue, these individuals are less likely to seek preventative medical care. These factors result in higher usage of expensive emergency care, lower quality of care, and lower life expectancy. This manuscript presents literature that examines the health disparities this population experiences, and barriers to accessing primary care. Through the identification of these barriers, we recommend that the field of family medicine work in collaboration with the field of mental health to implement 'reverse' integrated care (RIC) systems, and provide primary care services in the mental health settings. By embedding primary care practitioners in mental health settings, where individuals with SMI are more likely to present for treatment, this population may receive treatment for somatic care by experts. This not only would improve the quality of care received by patients, but would also remove the burden of managing complex somatic care from providers trained in mental health. The rationale for this RIC system, as well as training and policy reforms, are discussed. PMID:26586369
Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...
Full Text Available The presence of chronic illness in one’s life often entails endless appointments, tests, medications, treatments, and procedures. In the instances of children with chronic illness, they do not know what life consists of without their illness, and consequently, have lived with many restrictions. Children with chronic illness and their families are not only in need of traditional methods and strategies from the medical model but are often in need of additional strategies to support and cope with the nature and effects of the chronic illness. This paper focuses on how mediation, mindfulness, and visualization strategies aid individuals with chronic illness.
Skakić Olivera; Trajanović Ljiljana
Introduction. Mental disorders reduce social functioning of ill persons in general and often cause permanent work disability. Psychiatric services try to solve individual professional or financial status in economic crisis conditions. The possible causes of disability in psychiatric patients, besides illness, are psychosocial factors. The aim of this research was to determine the number of mentally ill persons as well as morbidity structure changes in work disability evaluation in the l...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans....'' SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: Titles: a. Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans, VA... Persian Gulf War returned with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, typical of...
This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free. Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 2/5/2013.
Lung, For-Wey; Huang, Yi-Lin; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Fei-Yin
The aim of the current study was to establish the causal model among parental bonding, personality characteristics, mental health, quality of life, and chronic regional pain (CRP). Thirty CRP patients and 56 mental illness patients were compared using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief-Tawain Version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW), and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). There were significant differences in mental health, personality characteristics, and quality of life between the CRP and mental illness groups. Structural equation modeling showed that parental bonding could directly affect personality characteristics, and, hence, directly impact disease and quality of life. CRP is different from mental illness in many dimensions. In this study, CRP appeared to be caused by actual physical dysfunction rather than mental dysfunction.
The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…
Morrissey, J P; Goldman, H H
Three major cycles of reform in public mental health care in the United States--the moral treatment, mental hygiene, and community mental health movements--are described as a basis for assessing the shifting boundaries between the mental health, social welfare, and criminal justice systems. Historical forces that led to the transinstitutionalization of the mentally ill from almshouses to the state mental hospitals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have now been reversed in the aftermath of recent deinstitutionalization policies. Evidence is suggestive that the mentally ill are also being caught up in the criminal justice system, a circumstance reminiscent of pre-asylum conditions in the early nineteenth century. These trends shape the current mental health service delivery system and the agenda for policy-relevant research on issues involving the legal and mental health fields.
Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis
Mental health in children and adults has always been a controversial topic, however, recent mass shootings in schools have heightened the concern of many and raise questions for how to interact with the mentally ill. Schools, have the capacity to be one of the key stakeholders in delivering services to students with mental health concerns,…
Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Venetis, Maria K
This study is framed in theories of illness uncertainty (Babrow, A. S., 2007, Problematic integration theory. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 181-200). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Babrow & Matthias, 2009; Brashers, D. E., 2007, A theory of communication and uncertainty management. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 201-218). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Hogan, T. P., & Brashers, D. E. (2009). The theory of communication and uncertainty management: Implications for the wider realm of information behavior. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications, (pp. 45-66). New York, NY: Routledge; Mishel, M. H. (1999). Uncertainty in chronic illness. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 17, 269-294; Mishel, M. H., & Clayton, M. F., 2003, Theories of uncertainty. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (pp. 25-48). New York, NY: Springer) and health information management (Afifi, W. A., & Weiner, J. L., 2004, Toward a theory of motivated information management. Communication Theory, 14, 167-190. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00310.x; Greene, K., 2009, An integrated model of health disclosure decision-making. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications (pp. 226-253). New York, NY: Routledge) and examines how couples experience uncertainty and interference related to one partner's chronic health condition. Specifically, a model is hypothesized in which illness uncertainty (i.e., stigma, prognosis, and symptom) and illness interference predict communication efficacy and health condition management. Participants include 308 dyads in which one partner has a chronic health condition. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that there
Younas, Mediha; Bradley, Eleanor; Holmes, Nikki; Sud, Dolly; Maidment, Ian D
Background People diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are frequently treated with antipsychotics. National guidance advises the use of shared decision-making (SDM) in antipsychotic prescribing. There is currently little data on the opinions of health professionals on the role of SDM. Objective To explore the views and experiences of UK mental health pharmacists regarding the use of SDM in antipsychotic prescribing in people diagnosed with SMI. Setting The study was conducted by interviewing secondary care mental health pharmacists in the UK to obtain qualitative data. Methods Semi-structured interviews were recorded. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted using the method of constant comparison. Main outcome measure Themes evolving from mental health pharmacists on SDM in relation to antipsychotic prescribing in people with SMI. Results Thirteen mental health pharmacists were interviewed. SDM was perceived to be linked to positive clinical outcomes including adherence, service user satisfaction and improved therapeutic relations. Despite more prescribers and service users supporting SDM, it was not seen as being practised as widely as it could be; this was attributed to a number of barriers, most predominantly issues surrounding service user's lacking capacity to engage in SDM and time pressures on clinical staff. The need for greater effort to work around the issues, engage service users and adopt a more inter-professional approach was conveyed. Conclusion The mental health pharmacists support SDM for antipsychotic prescribing, believing that it improves outcomes. However, barriers are seen to limit implementation. More research is needed into overcoming the barriers and measuring the benefits of SDM, along with exploring a more inter-professional approach to SDM. PMID:27450504
Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Cusack, Karen J.; Elhai, Jon D.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental…
Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Korsbek, Lisa; Mikkelsen, John Hagel;
Background: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental illnesses that can have a significant disabling impact on the lives of people. Psychosocial interventions that stress hope and recovery as a part of a multidimensional approach are possibly indicated to support people with severe...... mental illness in facilitating recovery. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based psychosocial intervention designed as structured program with a recovery-oriented approach. The aim of IMR is to rehabilitate people with severe mental illnesses by helping them acquire knowledge....... Discussion: If the results of this trial show IMR to be effective these positive results will strengthen the evidence of IMR as an effective comprehensive psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach for people with severe mental illness. This will have significant implications...
Hamaideh, Shaher H.; Mudallal, Rola
Purposes: Attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness influence the treatment they receive and decisions of policy makers. The purposes of this study were to assess Jordanian nursing students' attitudes towards mental illness, and to assess the effectiveness of teaching and contact on changing nursing students' attitudes about…
McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.
The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031
McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L
The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031
Full Text Available In the past, the study of old age often focused on the losses and problems associated with ageing. In recent times, the focus has been on the positive aspects, such as quality of life, inner strength, and enjoying life. The aims of this study were to highlight the ways in which chronically ill older persons experience the meaning of daily life and to understand what it means to live at home with chronic disease. In-depth interviews were used to illustrate individual experiences. The sample consisted of 13 chronically ill persons, aged 80 to 94 years, living at home and receiving assistance in the form of home nursing care. Data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutical method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified three themes: being insufficient, becoming dependent, and enjoying life. The comprehensive understanding suggested that daily life involved bad days, described as illness with dysfunctions, limited energy, and dependency on others. Daily life also had its positive aspects, described as enjoying life. Dignity was threatened by feelings of being a burden to others and was affirmed by experiencing a will to live. It was concluded that bad days with experiences of suffering and good days that provided the older with experiences of enjoying life could help them meet adversity through qualities of resilience that gave meaning to daily life and helped them to think positively in times of greater difficulty.
Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.
Thoits, Peggy A
Mental illness identity deflection refers to rebuffing the idea that one is mentally ill. Predictors of identity deflection and its consequences for well-being were examined for individuals with mental disorders in the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (N = 1,368). Respondents more often deflected a mental illness identity if they had a nonsevere disorder, had low impairment in functioning, had no treatment experience, viewed possible treatment as undesirable, and held multiple social roles, consistent with theory about stigma resistance. Persons who deflected a mental illness identity had lower distress and more positive affect than those who accepted it, even net of disorder severity, impairment level, and treatment experience. Among those who had ever been in treatment, deflection buffered the negative effects of serious impairment but exacerbated the effects of having a severe disorder on well-being, suggesting more complex consequences of formal labeling (greater stigma but helpful services), consistent with previous research. PMID:27284073
Full Text Available Within social representations theory, the concept of cognitive polyphasia describes the co-existence of differing, even contradictory, forms of knowledge in the same individual or community. To go beyond this notion is to ask how these rationalities co-exist and what forms the co-existences take. This paper aims to contribute to such an understanding using a study of representations of mental illness among Tamil Singaporeans. While Tamil culture has its own rich history, Tamil Singaporeans find themselves part of a multicultural melting pot, in a country fully engaged in the processes of modernisation and globalisation. The paper reports on findings from semistructured interviews and group discussions held with members of the lay Tamil community. Thematic analysis of the data identified several semantic ‘barriers’ and ‘promoters’ (Gillespie, 2008 that regulated dialogue between competing representations. The paper will discuss how these semantic mechanisms ultimately result in different types of cognitive polyphasia and their relationship to identity.
Cassidy, J J; Easton, M; Capelli, C; Singer, A; Bilodeau, A
There is a vast psychiatric literature describing the nature and degree of cognitive deficits present in persons suffering from severe and persistent mental illness, particularly schizophrenic spectrum disorders. A smaller, more recent literature has emerged addressing non-pharmaceutical interventions developed to remediate those deficits. The Cognitive Remediation Program was developed to remediate cognitive deficits in such areas as the ability to sustain attention and concentration, memory processes, concept formation, organizing visual and auditory stimuli into recognizable patterns, and shifting cognitive sets. The program consists of three fifteen minute intervals or "loops" that each contain a different type of task designed to promote remediation of cognitive deficits. The Program also employs behavioral techniques, using a token economy to aid in shaping behavior and motivating patients. The loops consist of: 1) a group that focuses on training in attention, concentration and cognitive flexibility; 2) a computer group utilizing a combination of game software and programs designed for use with a head injured population; 3) a group promoting the generalization of skills learned in the Program to other social arenas. On a ten week pre- and post-measure, participants improved significantly on both a digits forward and digits backward task, both measures of concentration and attention.
Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A
Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.
Busch, Alisa B; Huskamp, Haiden A; McWilliams, J Michael
People with mental illness use more health care and have worse outcomes than those without such illnesses. In response to incentives to reduce spending, accountable care organizations (ACOs) may therefore attempt to improve their management of mental illness. We examined changes in mental health spending, utilization, and quality measures associated with ACO contracts in the Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer model for beneficiaries with mental illness, using Medicare claims for the period 2008-13 and difference-in-differences comparisons with local non-ACO providers. Pioneer contracts were associated with lower spending on mental health admissions in the first year of the contract, an effect that was attenuated in the second year. Otherwise, ACO contracts were associated with no changes in mental health spending or readmissions, outpatient follow-up after mental health admissions, rates of depression diagnosis, or mental health status. These results suggest that ACOs have not yet focused on mental illness or have been largely unsuccessful in early efforts to improve their management of it. PMID:27385241
McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L
The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overa...
Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz;
A significant share of the excess mortality among people suffering from mental illness is due to unhealthy lifestyles. Obesity, smoking, unhealthy diets and sedentary behaviour is twice as frequent among people with mental illness, but the willingness to improve lifestyle is as high as in healthy...... people. Based on a review of the literature we conclude that it is possible for people with mental illness to change their lifestyle, but they encounter a number of barriers to lifestyle changes, including their symptoms, adverse drug effects and their life situations....
J O Omoaregba; O Morakinyo; James, O B; A O Lawani
Background: Female infertility is highly co-morbid with mental illness. In Nigeria, very few studies have been conducted to determine the pattern of mental illness among women with infertility. We aimed to determine the pattern of mental illness in a sample of women with female infertility as well as its associated correlates.Patients and Methods: A cross sectional two-stage survey of women (n=100) attending an infertility clinic was conducted in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. A 30-item GHQ ...
Peterson, Ashley L
Through professional acculturation, nurses establish their identities as nurses. They also develop of an understanding what mental illness and associated phenomena mean. When nurses themselves develop mental illness, they must learn to establish a new identity as a patient and more specifically as a nurse-patient, and come to a new understanding of what mental illness means to them. This autoethnographic paper focuses on the author's own experience of finding an identity as nurse-patient and discovering what that really meant, at the same time incorporating analysis to connect the personal and the cultural.
Media representation of mental illness has received growing research attention within a variety of academic disciplines. Cultural and media studies have often dominated in this research and discussion. More recently healthcare professionals have become interested in this debate, yet despite the importance of this subject only a selection of papers have been published in professional journals relating to nursing and healthcare. This paper examines the way in which mental illness in the United Kingdom is portrayed in public life. Literature from the field of media studies is explored alongside the available material from the field of mental healthcare. Three main areas are used to put forward an alternative approach: film representation and newspaper reporting of mental illness; the nature of the audience; and finally the concept of myth. The paper concludes by considering this approach in the context of current mental health policy on mental health promotion.
McAlpine, D D; Mechanic, D.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic, need, risk, and insurance characteristics of persons with severe mental illness and the importance of these characteristics for predicting specialty mental health utilization among this group. DATA SOURCE: The Healthcare for Communities survey, a national study that tracks alcohol, drug, and mental health services utilization. Data come from a telephone survey of adults from 60 communities across the United States, and from a supplemental geographic...
Nubia Hernández de Cadena; Cely Cristina Escobar Modera
It is of common knowledge, that mentally ill patients are frequently subjected to physical and mental abuse. However, there is little information about this topic. Patients with mental disorders may be subjected to physical, sexual, psychological, and economical, as well as, negligence abuse by folks and people from community, due to fact, of prejudice towards people with mental disorders. Therefore abuse in all forms, constitutes an additional stressor event and changes prognosis of preexist...
Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan
The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958
Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex
Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa. PMID:26681627
Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex
Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa.
Janet R. Cummings; Lucas, Stephen M.; Druss, Benjamin G.
Stigma against mental illness is a complex construct with affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Beyond its symbolic value, federal law can only directly address one component of stigma: discrimination.
... For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction Attention treatment providers in behavioral health programs! This ... hepatitis C. If you have a history of addiction, you are at higher risk for hepatitis C. ...
Brown, V B; Melchior, L A; Huba, G J
Women diagnosed with severe mental illness and substance abuse may face a variety of associated difficulties that require intervention, including other health-related problems, housing instability or homelessness, and a history of or current physical or sexual abuse. This article expands upon the concept of "level of burden" by specifically examining issues for women with multiple vulnerabilities in a sample of 577 women participating in a residential substance abuse treatment program. Two types of outcomes were examined for the women. In Study 1, the effects of severe mental illness as well as overall level of burden on retention in treatment were examined. Cox regression analyses revealed that severe mental illness was significantly related negatively to retention in treatment; those women diagnosed with severe mental illness tended to stay in treatment less time than those without such a diagnosis. In Study 2, staff ratings of the women's status at departure from residential treatment for a subsample of 311 women were examined with respect to overall retention in treatment and severe mental illness. Ratings of client status at program exit were significantly related to time in program but were not related to having a severe mental illness diagnosis. For a few indicators (e.g., leaving treatment against advice, having scattered or disorganized thoughts, and having no specific plans for life outside of treatment), there was an interaction between time in program and severe mental illness such that women with severe mental illness who were retained for less than 180 days were more likely to demonstrate negative outcomes. Implications for the treatment of multiply-diagnosed women are discussed.
Mirella Sarah De Lorenzo
On a global scale, mental illness affects on average one in five employees in any twelve month period, and is well represented in the medical research literature as a dominant discourse. However, its presence in management and human resource management (HRM) research literature, while certainly on the rise, is less prevalent than it is in medical and related areas of research. At the same time, discussion of employee mental illness and its effects on employee performance and/or attendance, ba...
Pandor, A.; Kaltenthaler, E.; Higgins, A; Lorimer, K.; Smith, S.; Wylie, K.; Wong, R
Background Despite variability in sexual activity among people with severe mental illness, high-risk sexual behavior (e.g. unprotected intercourse, multiple partners, sex trade and illicit drug use) is common. Sexual health risk reduction interventions (such as educational and behavioral interventions, motivational exercises, counselling and service delivery), developed and implemented for people with severe mental illness, may improve participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs behaviors or ...
Johnson, Kiersten L.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Kevin J Grimm
The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the overlap between community violence perpetration and victimization in a large, heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses (N = 4,474). We also explored participant characteristics differentiating four categories of perpetration and victimization: non-victim/non-perpetrators, victims only, perpetrators only, and victim–perpetrators. Results indicated that adults with mental illnesses were unlikely to report violent outcomes but...
Tim Bradshaw; Hilary Mairs
Individuals who experience serious mental ill health such as schizophrenia are more likely to be overweight or obese than others in the general population. This high prevalence of obesity and other associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, contribute to a reduced life expectancy of up to 25 years. Several reasons have been proposed for high levels of obesity including a shared biological vulnerability between serious mental ill health and abnormal ...
Lack of employment and short job tenure are still a major issue for people that suffer of a severe mental illness. One of the main issues in the rationale for this thesis was the opportunity to deeply investigate and better understand why getting and sustaining a job for this population is so difficult and challenging. In particular, we focused on individual and environmental factors associated with the work integration of people with mental illness employed in Italian social enterprises and...
This thesis investigated the experiences of children who have a parent with a mental illness, using qualitative methods. It is divided into three separate sections, the first two written as standalone journal papers. Paper 1 is a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies exploring children‟s experiences of having a parent with a mental illness. The review used specific databases, a search of qualitative journals and a general internet search to identify relevant studies, and the ...
This thesis explores the experience of parenting with severe mental illness, usingqualitative methodologies. It is presented in three parts: a literature review, a report ofthe empirical research, and a critical reflection of the process undertaken.The literature review provides both a systematic review of qualitative studies exploringthe experience of parenting with a severe mental illness (SMI), and a meta-synthesis ofthe findings from the included studies. The findings demonstrated six ove...
This predominantly empirical dissertation deals with how socio-economic living conditions and immigrant-specific factors can be linked to immigrants’ mental ill health. It is also explored how cultural representations can affect stress and whether mental ill health is expressed differently among immigrants from Iraq and Iran than among individuals of Nordic origin. Moreover, a conceptual analysis is conducted, where a phenomenological conceptualisation of stress is outlined with a special foc...
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle
Educational Objectives: Our results provide knowledge about a wide range of deleterious factors associated with mental and physical illnesses and have to be monitored in early adolescence.Purpose: To assess the associations between mental and physical illnesses, and with socioeconomic factors, alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/hard drugs uses, low school-performance, lack of sports/physical activity, obesity, sustained physical/verbal violence, sexual abuse, involvement in violence, and suicide ideati...
Bianchi, Eleonora F; Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Meakin, Richard
Objective To explore the views of senior doctors on mental illness within the medical profession. Background There has been increasing interest on the issue of doctors’ mental health. However, there have been few qualitative studies on senior doctors’ general attitude towards mental illness within the medical profession. Setting Large North London teaching hospital. Participants 13 hospital consultants and senior academic general practitioners. Methods A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the thematic framework approach to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Doctors’ attitudes to mental illness’—doctors felt that there remained a significant stigma attached to suffering from a mental illness within the profession. (2) ‘Barriers to seeking help’—doctors felt that there were numerous barriers to seeking help such as negative career implications, being perceived as weak, denial and fear of prejudice. (3) ‘Support’—doctors felt that the use of support depended on certainty concerning confidentiality, which for occupational health was not thought to be guaranteed. Confiding in colleagues was rare except among close friends. Supervision for all doctors was raised. (4) ‘General Medical Council (GMC) involvement’—doctors felt that uneasy referring colleagues to the GMC and the appraisal and revalidation process was thought not to be thorough enough in picking up doctors with a mental illness. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest that greater efforts are needed to destigmatise mental illness in the profession and improve support for doctors. Additional research should be carried out into doctors’ views on occupational health services in managing doctors with mental illness, the provision of supervision for all doctors
Joyce Ohiole Omoaregba; Esther Osemudiamen Okogbenin; Bawo Onesirosan James
Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness are commonly reported among health professionals. Familiarity with mental illness has been reported to improve these attitudes. Very few studies have compared future medical doctors’ attitudes toward types of mental illness, substance use disorders and physical illness. A cross-sectional survey of 5th and 6th year medical students as well as recently graduated medical doctors was conducted in April 2011. The 12-item level of contact r...
Lapham, E. Virginia, Ed.; Shevlin, Kathleen M., Ed.
This book addresses critical issues regarding the impact of chronic illness and disability on human development. It was written for health care professionals who help chronically ill and disabled persons deal with the psychological and social as well as the biological aspects of their illness or disability. An expanded version of Erik Erikson's…
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose.
Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B
Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.
Jors, Karin; Büssing, Arndt; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Baumann, Klaus
Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1) why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2) what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3) how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2) the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3) the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1) disease-centered prayer, (2) assurance-centered prayer, (3) God-centered prayer, (4) others-centered prayer, and (5) lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness. PMID:25815041
Full Text Available Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1 why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2 what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3 how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1 participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2 the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3 the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1 disease-centered prayer, (2 assurance-centered prayer, (3 God-centered prayer, (4 others-centered prayer, and (5 lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness.
Zhang, Li-yi; Hong-hui WEI; Han-qing ZHAO; Jian-an SHI; Sun, Jian; Zong-rong SU; Li, Ning; Gao, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Wei-Hua
Objective To explore the significance of the screening value of the Mental Disorder Prediction Scale for Military Personnel in re-examining new recruits for mental illness and to provide a basis for screening recruits for mental disorder.Methods The recruits who joined the army from 2007 to 2009 were re-examined using the Mental Disorder Prediction Scale for Military Personnel.They were subjected to three levels of diagnosis,which included a trace survey,a psychological interview,and the Chin...
Pirutinsky, Steven; Rosmarin, David H.; Pargament, Kenneth I.
Culture may particularly influence community attitudes towards mental illness, when the illness itself is shaped by a cultural context. To explore the influence of culture-specific, religious symptoms on Orthodox Jewish community attitudes, the authors compared the attitudes of 169 Orthodox Jews, who randomly viewed one of two vignettes describing…
Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Zhang, Yunjue; Chong, Siow Ann
OBJECTIVE Information is limited concerning the role of religious and spiritual advisors in providing help to people with mental illnesses in Singapore. This study examined that role, as well as the satisfaction with and the perceived effectiveness of the services provided, among people with mental health problems. METHODS Data were collected as part of a nationally representative household survey of residents 18 years and older in Singapore. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, was used to diagnose mental illness as well as to collect information about the mental health services respondents had sought. RESULTS A total of 6,616 respondents completed the survey; in the overall sample, 1.5% reported seeking help from religious or spiritual advisors. This rate increased to 6.6% among those with at least one mental illness, with the prevalence being higher among respondents with lifetime dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, or bipolar disorder. Sociodemographic correlates associated with a lower likelihood of consultation with a religious or spiritual advisor included reporting "other" race-ethnicity as well as faith in Buddhism, Hinduism, or Islam. Most respondents who sought help from a religious or spiritual advisor in the last 12 months were satisfied with the help they received, and about half reported it to be very useful. CONCLUSIONS Religious and spiritual advisors are an important source of help for people with mental illness, and a majority of respondents with a mental illness were satisfied with the support they received from these sources. PMID:23903293
Blitz, Cynthia L.; Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing
This study compares prison physical victimization rates (inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate) for people with mental disorder to those without mental disorder in a state prison system. Inmate subjects were drawn from 14 adult prisons operated by a single mid-Atlantic State. A sample of 7528 subjects aged 18 or older (7221 men and 564 women) completed an audio-computer administered survey instrument. Mental disorder was based on self-reported mental health treatment ever for particular mental...
Economou, M; Louki, E; Charitsi, M; Alexiou, T; Patelakis, A; Christakaki, A; Papadimitriou, G N
The media seem to have played a prominent role in shaping the contemporary social image of people with mental illness, by perpetuating the stigma attached to it. Worldwide, a vast amount of research findings converge to the stigmatizing representation of people with mental illness by the media, with reference to the dominant stereotype of violence. The present study aims to explore the representations of mental illness in the Greek Press using a quantitative and qualitative approach. Potential changes in the media portrayal of mental illness during the last decade are also being examined: findings are compared to those of a previous research that took place in 2001, following the same methodology. The sample consisted of press articles referring to mental illness, that were indexed daily from the Greek newspapers during the period July-November 2011. The items were categorized into thematic categories and further analyzed taking in account the use of stigmatizing vocabulary, the reproduction of common myths concerning mental illness, the overall valence of each article (stigmatizing, neutral or anti-stigmatizing) towards people with mental illness, as well as the contextual implications conveyed in the use of psychiatric terms as a metaphor. The largest thematic category that emerged from the sample was that referring to the repercussions of the economic crisis to mental health, followed by the category of articles where psychiatric terms are used as a metaphor. The comparisons made between 2001 and 2011 revealed an improved representation of mental illness in terms of stigma, especially regarding schizophrenia. The public expression of stigma has decreased, with fewer stigmatizing articles and notably more neutral in valence articles. The findings of this study suggest a decline of the media propensity for emotionally charged descriptions and a shift towards objective journalism regarding mental illness. This is most likely to be attributed to the anti
Margolis, Peter A; Peterson, Laura E.; Seid, Michael
Despite significant gains by pediatric collaborative improvement networks, the overall US system of chronic illness care does not work well. A new paradigm is needed: a Collaborative Chronic Care Network (C3N). A C3N is a network-based production system that harnesses the collective intelligence of patients, clinicians, and researchers and distributes the production of knowledge, information, and know-how over large groups of people, dramatically accelerating the discovery process. A C3N is a...
Pearsall, R; Smith, DJ; Pelosi, A; Geddes, J.
BACKGROUND: Individuals with serious mental illness are at a higher risk of physical ill health. Mortality rates are at least twice those of the general population with higher levels of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, diabetes, and respiratory illness. Although genetics may have a role in the physical health problems of these patients, lifestyle and environmental factors such as levels of smoking, obesity, poor diet, and low levels of physical activity also play a prominent part. M...
Pearsall, Robert; Smith, Daniel; Pelosi, Anthony; Geddes, John
Background: Individuals with serious mental illness are at a higher risk of physical ill health. Mortality rates are at least twice those of the general population with higher levels of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, diabetes, and respiratory illness. Although genetics may have a role in the physical health problems of these patients, lifestyle and environmental factors such as levels of smoking, obesity, poor diet, and low levels of physical activity also play a prominent part. ...
Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah;
BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms...
Pedro Andre Kowacs
Full Text Available The Brazilian Lyme-disease-like illness (BLDLI or Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome is a unique zoonosis found in Brazil. It reproduces all the clinical symptoms of Lyme disease except for the high frequencies of relapse and the presence of autoimmune manifestations. Two cases of borreliosis manifesting with unremitting headache, which is a symptom associated with late-stage BLDLI, were presented. Clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the BLDLI and its associated headaches were showed and discussed in this article. BLDLI diagnosis requires additional attention by physicians, since the disease has a tendency to progress to the late, recurrent stage or the chronic form, and the associated headache can be confused with chronic primary headache or with analgesic-overuse one. Special attention should be paid to patients with headaches who have traveled to endemic areas.
Although power differentials which enable the components of stigma to unfold have been identified, literature that demonstrates the gendered disparities in stigmatization is scarce. Using a gender-based framework, this paper aims first at understanding the gendered social cues which produce the stigma in mental illness enacted by the general population. Second, it highlights the influence of gender on the everyday experiences of a severe and persistent mental illness and the related stigmatization. Results are drawn from a combination of ethnographic and qualitative methods including a field ethnography of two health centres, one psychiatric hospital, and participants' households and neighbourhoods, two group discussions with members of the general population participating in gender-specific social support groups (N = 12 women/5 men), and illness narratives of men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness (N = 22), which was conducted from May to August 2006 in a poor, urban district of Peru. It is argued that in a society like that of Peru where gender roles are segregated into specific social and economic fields, gendered expectations shape both the experience of a severe and persistent mental illness and the stigmatization of people with such a mental illness in a gender-specific way. Not only do gender inequalities create the conditions leading to a power differential which enables stigmatization to unfold, but stigma is constructed as much around gendered-defined social roles as it is enacted in distinct social spheres for men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness. The gendered experience of stigmatization must, therefore, be fully understood in order to design more effective interventions that would challenge stereotypical perceptions and discriminatory practices, and reduce their effect on the everyday life of the mentally ill in Peru. PMID:21050630
Currently in the United States, there are far more mentally ill individuals in jails and prisons than in mental hospitals or other treatment facilities. Stigma toward this population presents as a major barrier to eradicating this indictment, yet research has shown that education can help to reduce stigma and, in turn, possibly decreasing the…
Kaier, Emily; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Johnson, Mitchell D.; Strunk, Kathleen; Davis, Joanne L.
Stigma related to mental health and its treatment can thwart help-seeking. The current study assessed college athletes' personal and perceived public mental illness stigma and compared this to nonathlete students. Athletes (N = 304) were National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes representing 16 teams. Results indicated…
Barnard, Jordan D.
Given that there is evidence that college student-athletes may be at risk for psychological disturbances (Pinkerton, Hintz, & Barrow, 1989), and possibly underutilizing college mental health services (Watson & Kissinger, 2007), the purpose of this study was to examine attitudes toward mental illness and help seeking among college…
Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert
Staff at campus-based counselling and disability centres in 15 of Ontario's 24 community colleges completed 3,536 surveys on 1,964 individual students querying the presence of mental illness and academic challenges as reported by students accessing these services. Survey data were analyzed to determine prevalence rates of mental disorders and…
Van der Ende, P. C.; Van Busschbach, J. T.; Nicholson, J.; Korevaar, E. L.; Van Weeghel, J. .
Introduction Understanding of the problems of parents with mental illness is growing. Gaining insight into strategies for parenting, while taking the opportunities formulated by these parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. Question What are the strategies of parents with a mental illn
F.R. Parrott; D.I. Macinnes; J. Parrott
Background: Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. Aims: This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during adm
Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann
Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…
Drost, Louisa M.; Schippers, Gerard M.
From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to e
Johansen Ingrid H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-threshold and out-of-hours services play an important role in the emergency care for people with mental illness. In Norway casualty clinic doctors are responsible for a substantial share of acute referrals to psychiatric wards. This study’s aim was to identify patients contacting the casualty clinic for mental illness related problems and study interventions and diagnoses. Methods At four Norwegian casualty clinics information on treatment, diagnoses and referral were retrieved from the medical records of patients judged by doctors to present problems related to mental illness including substance misuse. Also, routine information and relation to mental illness were gathered for all consecutive contacts to the casualty clinics. Results In the initial contacts to the casualty clinics (n = 28527 a relation to mental illness was reported in 2.5% of contacts, whereas the corresponding proportion in the doctor registered consultations, home-visits and emergency call-outs (n = 9487 was 9.3%. Compared to other contacts, mental illness contacts were relatively more urgent and more frequent during night time. Common interventions were advice from a nurse, laboratory testing, prescriptions and minor surgical treatment. A third of patients in contact with doctors were referred to in-patient treatment, mostly non-psychiatric wards. Many patients were not given diagnoses signalling mental problems. When police was involved, they often presented the patient for examination. Conclusions Most mental illness related contacts are managed in Norwegian casualty clinics without referral to in-patient care. The patients benefit from a wide range of interventions, of which psychiatric admission is only one.
Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt
Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'. PMID:26756851
Jacques Th. M. van Eijk
Full Text Available In this study we assessed differences in new and repeat prescriptions of psycho-tropics between patients receiving prescriptions for drugs to treat a common chronic disease and people without such prescriptions. The study used the databases of two Dutch health insurance companies (3 million people. We selected all Dutch men and women aged 45 and older who were registered for six consecutive years (1999–2004. Our analyses both found a consistent relation between psycho-tropics on the one hand and physical illness on the other. People with multi-morbidity were prescribed these drugs most often, especially men and those younger than 65. Epidemiological studies showed a prevalence of depression among people with multi-morbidity to be twice as high as among people without such conditions. According to recent guidelines non-drug treatment may be the first therapy option for patients with non severe depression. If prescribed for a long time, benzodiazepine prescriptions are especially known to be addictive. Our data raise the question to what extent patients with a chronic physical disease suffering from co-occurring mental problems are prescribed psycho-tropics in accord with the guidelines that also advise mental support in case of non severe mental problems. Further research can answer this important question.
Scott, David; Happell, Brenda
Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients. PMID:21859410
Bapu V Ravindranath
Full Text Available Background: To review evidence of chronic antipsychotic medication and the association with metabolic syndrome in mentally ill patients. This evidence was used to analyse a cohort of patients with severe mental illness and to deduce a correlation between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and their dose regimens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male patients undergoing Psychiatric rehabilitation underwent a review of current medication and assessment of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Assessment criteria was based upon National Cholesterol Education Programme expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria, incorporating waist circumference, raised triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein, raised blood pressure and fasting blood glucose. PubMed, Nature and Science Direct databases have been used to compile the medical and scientific background on metabolic syndrome and antipsychotic medication and the effect on patients particularly on high dose. Results: Out of 24 patients, 10 patients (41.7% were receiving high dose antipsychotics (HDA and four were on maximum dosage limits of 100%. 8.3% (2/24 patients were receiving only one first generation antipsychotics (FGA, 37.5% (9/24 patients were receiving only one second generation antipsychotic (SGA, 45.8% patients (11/24 were receiving two or more SGA only, and only one patient was receiving two or more FGA. One patient was receiving a combination of FGA and SGA. PRN ("as needed" therapy was not included in this study as their usage was limited. Clozapine was mostly prescribed in these patients (10/24, 41.6%. Four out of the 24 patients refused blood tests therefore were excluded from the following results. In the patients evaluated, 55% (11/20 had confirmed metabolic syndrome. In these patients with metabolic syndrome, 45.4% (5/11 were on HDA and 27.3% (3/11 were on maximum British National
Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather
Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice
Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather
Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice
Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Korsbek, Lisa; Mikkelsen, John Hagel;
mental illness in facilitating recovery. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based psychosocial intervention designed as structured program with a recovery-oriented approach. The aim of IMR is to rehabilitate people with severe mental illnesses by helping them acquire knowledge...... of functioning at the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes are disease symptoms; use of alcohol/drugs; individual meaning of recovery; hope; hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric treatment at the end of treatment and the abovementioned and level of functioning at follow-up 21 months after baseline...
Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.
This study examined how maternal chronic illnesses may affect children's academic achievement through parental involvement. A total of 189 mothers diagnosed with chronic illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain, asthma, myelodysplasic syndrome, and fibromyalgia, and with a child in middle school or high…
Lechin, F; van der Dijs, B; Lechin, A; Orozco, B; Lechin, M; Báez, S; Rada, I; León, G; Acosta, E
We routinely measured plasma neurotransmitters and hormone levels in order to investigate the role of stress on many types of diseases. In this study, we present results obtained from patients with severe chronic diseases. The study sample consisted of 88 patients (asthmatics, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, chronic active hepatitis, chronic relapsing hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia, systemic lupus erithematous, and rheumatoid arthritis), and their respective controls. Noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (Ad), dopamine (DA), platelet-serotonin (pS), free-serotonin (fS), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol (CRT) were determined during both exacerbation and improvement periods. A profile compatible with uncoping stress disorder (raised NA-Ad-DA + fS + CRT as well as low pS and NA/Ad ratio) was found during exacerbation periods when compared with improvement, as seen in controls. However, during improvement periods the neurochemical profile remained significantly different from that of normal controls. The neurochemical plus hormonal plasma profiles registered in chronic illness, both during exacerbation and improvement periods, strongly suggest that an uncoping stress mechanism underlies diseases of these patients. PMID:7996062
Marković Jasminka; Romić Teodora
Introduction. Mental health problems develop more and more frequently in children and adolescents. Children with physical illnesses are at a particular risk of developing associated mental health problems and it is important to study this association in order to detect and treat these problems on time. This study was aimed at determining whether there were differences in the presence of mental health problems and delayed speech development in children with ...
Leavey, Gerard; Loewenthal, Kate; King, Michael
Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds. This paper presents findings related to clergy explanatory models of mental illness and, in particular, how the social factors involved in causation are tinged with spiritual influences and implications, and how the meanings of mental distress assume a social and moral significance in distinctive localised matters. PMID:26874526
Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Dan J Stein; Williams, David R.; Flisher, Alan J
Purpose Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. Methods A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental ...
Gühne, Uta; Weinmann, Stefan; Arnold, Katrin; Becker, Thomas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The burden of severe and persistent mental illness is high. Beside somatic treatment and psychotherapeutic interventions, treatment options for patients with severe mental illness also include psychosocial interventions. This paper summarizes the results of a number of systematic literature searches on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness. Based on this evidence appraisal, recommendations for the treatment of people with severe mental illness were formulated and published in the evidence-based guideline series of the German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) as an evidence-based consensus guideline ("S3 guideline"). Recommendations were strongly based on study results, but used consensus processes to consider external validity and transferability of the recommended practices to the German mental healthcare system. A distinction is made between system-level interventions (multidisciplinary team-based psychiatric community care, case management, vocational rehabilitation and participation in work life and residential care interventions) and single psychosocial interventions (psychoeducation, social skills training, arts therapies, occupational therapy and exercise therapy). There is good evidence for the efficacy of the majority of psychosocial interventions in the target group. The best available evidence exists for multidisciplinary team-based psychiatric community care, family psychoeducation, social skills training and supported employment. The present guideline offers an important opportunity to further improve health services for people with severe mental illness in Germany. Moreover, the guideline highlights areas for further research. PMID:25384674
Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie
This study explores the cultured understanding of mental health and mental illnesses among members of Generation Y in China through a narrative approach. Five prominent narratives are identified through the analysis of stories about mental illnesses collected through semistructured interviews with college students. These five narratives feature the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, the fragile victim, the antisocial recluse, and the homosexual. These narratives are gendered, in that women are the primary protagonists in the narrative about the fragile victim, while men are featured prominently in the narratives about the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, and the antisocial recluse. Our study demonstrates that these narratives are based on, and will further reinforce, highly cultural-specific stereotypes and biases about mental illnesses in China. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26086419
Islam, F; Campbell, R A
Mental health stigma in Muslim communities may be partly due to a commonly held belief among some Muslims about the supernatural causes of mental illness (i.e. jinn-possession brought on by one's sinful life). A thematic analysis was carried out on four English translations and the Arabic text of the Qur'an to explore whether the connection between jinn-possession and insanity exists within the Muslim holy book. No connection between spirit-possession and madness or mental illness was found. Pagans taunted and labelled people as jinn-possessed only to ostracize and scapegoat. Linking the labelling of people as jinn-possession to a pagan practice may be used to educate Muslims, so they can reassess their community's stigma towards the mentally ill.
The article "Creative Works of the Mentally Ill as a Problem for Art" attempts to analyse this complex field from a more art-theoretical viewpoint. In addition to the difficulties involved in identifying the causing factors of schizophrenia there is the problem of not having a uniform definition of art. Wölfli's example substantiates the evidence that the artistic works of the mentally ill display the same characteristics as far as creativity is concerned as those of mentally healthy artists and hence there is no reason for disqualifying their works. Some artists who had already achieved general recognition did not lose it after becoming afflicted with mental illness later in their lives. Does this mean that recognition depends on social status and not on the work itself?
Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Santvoort, F. van
Children of parents with a mental illness are at significant risk of developing mental disorders and other adverse outcomes at some point in their lives compared to children of healthy parents. During the last 20 years, a comprehensive preventive program for children of parents with a mental illness
Gostin, Lawrence O
Despite countless promises for a better life by national commissions, governments and the international community, there has evolved a vicious cycle of neglect, abandonment, indignity, cruel and inhuman treatment, and punishment of persons with mental illness. This shameful history of benign, and sometimes malignant, neglect of persons with mental illness is well understood, with the deep stigma and unredressed discrimination, the deplorable living conditions, and the physical and social barriers preventing their integration and full participation in society. The maltreatment of this vulnerable population has been reinforced by the hurtful stereotypes of incompetency and dangerousness. The belief that persons with mental illness are uniformly dangerous is an equally harmful myth. It provides policy makers with an ostensible justification to exercise control over persons with mental illness, even if they have not committed a violent offence. However, research demonstrates that the class of persons with most mental illnesses is no more dangerous than other populations, and that the vast majority of violence is committed by persons without mental illness. This article will show how this vulnerable population has been unconscionably treated. First, the gross violations of human rights that have occurred, and continue to occur, in 'old' psychiatric institutions will be examined. The deinstitutionalization movement, however, resulted in new places of confinement for this population, such as jails, prisons and homeless shelters. The second part of this paper will explore the new realities of criminal confinement of persons with mental illness. As we will see, incarceration of this vulnerable population in the criminal justice system has caused enormous suffering. If Dostoyevsky was correct that the 'degree of civilization... can be judged by entering its prisons', then by that measure, we are a deeply uncivilized society.
Full Text Available The recognition of mental illness without anticipating stigma might encourage adolescents' help-seeking behavior. We aimed to identify the relationship between mental illness identification and adolescents' intention to seek help if faced with mental illness.We examined the relationships between help-seeking intentions and recognition of mental illness (RMI without correctly identifying the disease name, as well as correct labelling of schizophrenia (LSC using a vignette about a person with schizophrenia in a cross-sectional survey of 9,484 Japanese high-school students aged 15-18 years.When compared with adolescents who were unable to recognize the mental illness (UMI in the vignette, those in the RMI group reported they were significantly more likely to seek help from friends (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17-1.41; P < 0.001 and expressed an increased likelihood to seek help from professionals (all P < .05. Those in the LSC group reported they were significantly less likely to exhibit help-seeking behavior (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.92, P = 0.003 and expressed an increased likelihood of help-seeking from health professionals than the UMI group (all P < .05.The ability to recognize mental illness without identifying the disease may increase help-seeking from friends, while the ability to identify the disease as schizophrenia might decrease late adolescents' help-seeking. To promote help-seeking behavior among adolescents, improving their ability to recognize mental illness generally is recommended.
Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena
Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature. PMID:25717489
Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Magnanini, Mônica Maria Ferreira; Legay, Leticia Fortes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos
The risk of congenital malformations appears to be higher in infants of mothers with mental disorders as compared to those of mothers with no history of psychiatric illness. This article presents a meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal mental illness and congenital malformations. The review consisted of an article search in the MEDLINE, ISIWEB, Scopus, and SciELO databases, using the following key words: "mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "psychotic disorders" OR "schizophrenia" AND "congenital abnormalities" OR "birth defects". A total of 108 studies were identified, and five articles were selected according to the established criteria. These articles were included in a meta-analysis, involving a total of 4,194 children of mothers with mental illness and 249,548 children of mothers with no such disorders. Pooled relative risk showed a significant association between exposure to mental illness in mothers and risk of malformations in newborns (RR = 2.06, 95%CI: 1.46-2.67). The study highlights the relationship between maternal mental health during pregnancy and its effects on the infant's health.
Full Text Available Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite – can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient’s family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning, but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature.
Shute, Rosalyn H.; Christine Walsh
Frequent school absence is often cited as a risk factor for peer relationship problems in youngsters with chronic illnesses, but this assumption has not been subjected to quantitative empirical examination. This issue was examined in the present study by exploring the relationship between school absenteeism, peer aggression, and loneliness in adolescents with chronic illnesses. Forty-one adolescents with chronic illnesses completed a modified version of the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scal...
Yang, Lawrence H; Chen, Fang-pei; Sia, Kathleen Janel; Lam, Jonathan; Lam, Katherine; Ngo, Hong; Lee, Sing; Kleinman, Arthur; Good, Byron
To understand Chinese immigrants' experiences with mental illness stigma and mental health disparities, we integrate frameworks of 'structural vulnerability' and 'moral experience' to identify how interaction between structural discrimination and cultural engagements might shape stigma. Fifty Chinese immigrants, including 64% Fuzhounese immigrants who experienced particularly harsh socio-economical deprivation, from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units in New York City were interviewed from 2006 to 2010 about their experiences of mental illness stigma. Interview questions were derived from 4 stigma measures, covering various life domains. Participants were asked to elaborate their rating of measure items, and thus provided open-ended, narrative data. Analysis of the narrative data followed a deductive approach, guided by frameworks of structural discrimination and "what matters most" - a cultural mechanism signifying meaningful participation in the community. After identifying initial coding classifications, analysis focused on the interface between the two main concepts. Results indicated that experiences with mental illness stigma were contingent on the degree to which immigrants were able to participate in work to achieve "what mattered most" in their cultural context, i.e., accumulation of financial resources. Structural vulnerability - being situated in an inferior position when facing structural discrimination - made access to affordable mental health services challenging. As such, structural discrimination increased healthcare spending and interfered with financial accumulation, often resulting in future treatment nonadherence and enforcing mental health disparities. Study participants' internalizing their structurally-vulnerable position further led to a depreciated sense of self, resulting in a reduced capacity to advocate for healthcare system changes. Paradoxically, the multi-layered structural marginalization experienced by Chinese
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the “World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia”. Results 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%. This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%, spirit possession (82.8% and psychological trauma (76.1%. There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Conclusions Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.
White, J; Gray, R; Jones, M
WHITE J., GRAY R. & JONES M. (2009) Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing16, 493-498 The development of the serious mental illness physical Health Improvement ProfilePeople with serious mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are more likely to suffer from a range of long-term physical conditions including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently they will die 10-15 years earlier than the general population. Health services have failed to address this major health inequality because of a lack of consensus about the type and frequency of monitoring people with SMI require and a lack of knowledge and skills in the mental health workforce. We developed the SMI physical Health Improvement Profile to help mental health nurses profile the physical health of the SMI patients they work with and direct them towards the evidence base interventions available to address identified health problems. PMID:19538607
Full Text Available Objective This study aims to explore medical students’ social representations of mental ill health in older adults. Method It comprises an exploratory and qualitative investigation based on the theory of social representations. Two focus groups with pre-clinical medics (group 1, N=4; group 2, N=4 and 10 individual interviews with clinical medical students were conducted. Thematic analysis at a latent level explored meanings and differences between groups. Results Three overarching themes reflect participants’ representations of mental health problems in later life – mental ill health in old age, polarisation of care, and challenges to care. Primary health care appears as an important strategy to overcome barriers to mental health care in the community. Nevertheless, disqualifying representations, stigma and organization of services constitute the main challenges to quality mental health care in later life. Conclusion This paper highlights the need to address cultural and organizational barriers to promote quality care.
Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Vestergaard, Mogens; Katon, Wayne;
consisted of all persons hospitalized for infection during the period 1995-2011 in Denmark (N=806,835), of whom 11,343 persons had severe mental illness. Within 30 days after an infection, 1,052 (9.3%) persons with a history of severe mental illness and 58,683 (7.4%) persons without a history of severe.......15-1.39) for persons hospitalized for sepsis to 2.61 (95% CI=1.69-4.02) for persons hospitalized for CNS infections. Depending on age, 1.7 (95% CI=1.2-2.2) to 2.9 (95% CI=2.0-3.7) more deaths were observed within 30 days after an infection per 100 persons with a history of severe mental illness compared with 100...... mental illness died. Thirty-day mortality after any infection was 52% higher in persons with severe mental illness than in persons without (mortality rate ratio=1.52, 95% CI=1.43-1.61). Mortality was increased for all infections, and the mortality rate ratios ranged from 1.27 (95% CI=1...
Bailey, Cassandra A; Smock, William S; Melendez, Ashlee M; El-Mallakh, Rif S
Use of a conducted-energy device (CED), or Taser, by law enforcement officers (LEOs) is recommended over more lethal forms of force. LEOs interact with a wide variety of people including individuals with mental illness and those with substance use disorders. The literature is devoid of data regarding the effect of CEDs on this special population. We used data collected by LEOs from 2008 to 2009. There were 233 cases over the two-year period. Of the 233 individuals on whom the Taser was used, 38 had a mental illness and 91 were under the influence of substances (not mutually exclusive). The average number of shocks necessary to achieve compliance was 1.92 for persons with a mental illness (t(231) = 2.565; p = .011, versus nonintoxicated control subjects without mental illness and 2.55 for persons under the influence of stimulants (t(143) = 3.027; p = .003, versus nonintoxicated control subjects without mental illness). The results of this study serve to inform LEOs and administrators of the patterns of use of CEDs in communities. PMID:27236177
Li, Sarah; Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni; Psoinos, Maria
In this article, the authors explored Cantonese-speaking older Chinese migrants knowledge, attitudes and expectations regarding mental illness. They obtained verbatim data from semi-structured interviews with eight participants recruited from London-based Chinese and church communities in Britain. They analyzed the data using the principles of Grounded Theory and in-depth content analysis. They examined cultural idioms in participants' accounts. Findings suggested that Western diagnostic categories of mental illness were alien to participants. They had a culturally constructed way of defining and characterizing mental illness. Participants used idioms of 'nerve', 'mood', 'behavior', 'personality', 'normal life', 'compassion' and the idiom of 'others' to construct an alternative world for stigma management. They erected an invisible but permeable barrier to limit access to their normal world. The role of traditional Chinese culture of Confucianism was significant in shaping perceptions and conceptions of mental illness. This article offered another perspective on the alternative world of Chinese migrants' cultural understandings of mental illness, an area with limited understanding at present. The authors discussed important implications for future research and social policy. PMID:24984910
Taiwo L Sheikh
Full Text Available Background: Prejudices against people with mental illness are widespread in many societies leading to a number of detrimental consequences. In order to adequately develop programmes and services that will help protect the rights and privileges of people with mental illness, it is imperative to study the nature of stigma and factors associated with it. Our objective in this study was to observe the level of stigmatisation of the mentally ill among employees of a Nigerian University and the factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and the Ahmadu Bello University main campus. Employing a two-staged random sampling technique, 15 departments were chosen from both institutions, after which 10 participants were further sampled from each department to obtain a total of 150 participants. All the participants were administered the socio-demographic questionnaire and Mental Illness Clinicians′ Attitude 4 th version (MICA 4. Results: The findings indicate that 53.4% of respondents′ classified as high stigmatisation while 46.6% was classified as low stigmatisation. Low scores on stigmatisation were observed among departments of psychiatry, nursing and ophthalmology, while high scores were observed among respondents from administration and engineering. Relationship between variables and predictors of stigmatisation were also established. Conclusion: There is a high tendency to stigmatise persons with mental illness except where there has been some contact with mental health practice or among the clinical departments in the hospital. We recommend community psychiatry care for the mentally ill and psycho-education for staff periodically to reduce this level of stigmatisation.
Flynn, Sandra; Rodway, Cathryn; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder in offenders convicted of serious violence, examine their social and clinical characteristics, and compare them with patients convicted of homicide. We examined a national clinical survey of all people convicted of serious violence in England and Wales in 2004. Mental disorder was measured by contact with mental health services within 12 months of the offense. Of the 5,966 serious violent offenders, 293 (5%) had been in recent contact with mental health services. Personality disorder (63, 22%) and schizophrenia (55, 19%) were the most common diagnoses. Most had previous convictions for violence (168, 61%). Seventy-two (25%) patients were at high risk of violence and 34 (49%) were not subject to the Care Programme Approach. Compared with serious violence offenders, homicide offenders were more likely to have been patients (293, 5% vs. 65, 10%; p violence, and weapon carriage.
A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); H.A. van der Stege (Heleen)
textabstractBackground: As important users of health care, adolescents with chronic conditions deserve to be consulted about their experiences and expectations. This study aimed to explore chronically ill adolescents' preferences regarding providers' qualities, and outpatient and inpatient care. Fur
Sotto Mayor, Margarida; Pestana, Helena; Reis, Gorete
Abstract Changes in nutritional status and high blood pressure are very common in elderly with mental disorders. Currently, the interest in knowing associated factors to those variables is to prevent morbidity and mortality risk. The study aim was to evaluate the relationship between mental disorders, nutritional status and blood pressure. It´s a cross-sectional study in a sample of 99 elderly living in community that had a psychiatric emergency episode. Data were collected from the initia...
Gehart, Diane R.
In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and…
Melle, M.A. van; Lamkaddem, M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Essink-Bot, M.L.
Background: A high prevalence of mental and physical ill health among refugees resettled in the Netherlands has been reported. With this study we aim to assess the quality of primary healthcare for resettled refugees in the Netherlands with chronic mental and non-communicable health problems, we exa
M.A. van Melle; M. Lamkaddem; M.M. Stuiver; A.A.M. Gerritsen; W.L.J.M. Devillé; M.-L. Essink-Bot
Background: A high prevalence of mental and physical ill health among refugees resettled in the Netherlands has been reported. With this study we aim to assess the quality of primary healthcare for resettled refugees in the Netherlands with chronic mental and non-communicable health problems, we exa
Chronic critical illness (CCI) is an inevitable result of overpopulation and aging, as well as the development of medicine. The number of CCI patients will constantly increase and become an unaffordable economic burden for families, societies and countries. CCI could be prevented by multiple measures. Firstly, doctors must know about the pathophysiology and etiology of the disease. When providing organ function support for CCI patient, we have to know and treat the cause of the disease as early as possible. Secondly, we need to precisely monitor the insults caused by the disease and/or improper host response to the disease, evaluate the organ reserve function, and predict the outcomes and life quality after discharging from hospital. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the humanity training of health care workers, publicize the correct thanatopsis in the whole society that every life is "born to die", and define the core role of medicine as "to comfort always". PMID:27452750
Elen Ferraz Teston
Full Text Available Objective : learn, from the perspective of chronically ill patients, the reasons for rehospitalization. Methods : qualitative study with 19 patients in a general hospital. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, submitted to content analysis and grouped into two categories. Results : the first category revealed that patients attributed the occurrence of rehospitalization to the living conditions and social determinants. The second category showed that patients believed that, by following medical advice and taking the prescribed medicines they could prevent rehospitalizations, but they did not associate these actions with other actions of self-care. Conclusion : the discharge planning is an opportunity to add new self-care actions that must be based on the real needs of individual, in order to avoid further rehospitalizations.
Linder, Birgit Bunzel
Recently, proponents of the critical medical humanities have recommended a more discerning view of the ways in which genres and forms "speak" to and for illness, looking specifically at cultural and historical dimensions and cultural specificities of idioms of distress rather than at transhistorical and transcultural approaches. These two claims for a genre-specific critique and, in this case, a cross-cultural approach, ground my reading of the work of Chinese poets Guo Lusheng (Indexfinger; b. 1948) and Wen Jie (b. 1963), diagnosed with schizophrenia and clinical depression, respectively. The study uncovers a lyrical voice that takes shape in the poets' illness-related content, but also in the formal aspects of the Chinese poetic tradition. I argue that the delight of writing poetry lies less in the attempt to express a subjective experience than in finding the devices and forms that integrate an individual experience into a collective form of "illness poetics." PMID:26949211
Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat
Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity.
Nene Ernest Khalema
Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the interplay between employment integration and retention of individuals diagnosed with mental health and related disability (MHRD. Specifically, the paper addresses the importance of an integrative approach, utilizing a social epidemiological approach to assess various factors that are related to the employment integration of individuals diagnosed with severe mental illness. Our approach to the review incorporates a research methodology that is multilayered, mixed, and contextual. The review examines the literature that aims to unpack employers’ understanding of mental illness and their attitudes, beliefs, and practices about employing workers with mental illness. Additionally we offer a conceptual framework entrenched within the social determinants of the mental health (SDOMH literature as a way to contextualize the review conclusions. This approach contributes to a holistic understanding of workplace mental health conceptually and methodologically particularly as practitioners and policy makers alike are grappling with better ways to integrate employees who are diagnosed with mental health and disabilities into to the workplace.
In his 1954 book Mental Illness and Personality Foucault combines the subjective experience of the mentally ill person with a sociocultural historical approach to mental illness and suggests that there exists a reciprocal connection between individual perception and sociocultural development. This article examines the ramifications of these connections in Foucault's 1954 works and the connection with his later historical works. The article also examines the similarities between Foucault's 1954 thoughts and contemporary intellectual thought, such as those outlined in Maurice Merleau-Ponty's existential phenomenology and in Gaston Bachelard and Georges Canguilhem's historical epistemology. In sum, my study shows that Foucault's historical analysis began long before his 1961 dissertation History of Madness. It also shows that, more than announcing the "death" of the subject, Foucault's historical analysis may have contributed to saving it. PMID:26844650
Imai, Tatsuya; Dailey, René
This article examines mental illness stigma effects on a request for a favor from a mentally ill individual. Four hundred and fourteen participants interacted with a hypothetical target on Facebook who was believed to have schizophrenia, depression, or a tooth cavity (i.e., the control group). Participants were asked to rate the favor request in terms of face threat, in addition to writing a response, which was then coded using message design logics. Results indicated that a request by a schizophrenic target threatened participants' positive face more significantly than that of a target with depression or without any mental illness. Participants' responses to the schizophrenic target were more likely to be conventional messages, whereas responses to the depressed target were more likely to be rhetorical messages. Theoretical and practical contributions are considered. PMID:26642875
Reisner, Andrew D; Piel, Jennifer; Makey, Miller
Forensic evaluators often assess patients who lack insight into their mental illnesses. This lack of insight can have a significant impact on the defendant's ability to make legal strategy decisions that rely on their acceptance of their mental illness. In this article, the relationship between refusing an insanity plea and competency to stand trial will be explored in the context of defendants who lack insight into their mental illness. The authors argue that an adequate competency assessment should take into account the defendant's ability to consider his available pleas rationally. Such evaluations may have the effect of negating the necessity of a Frendak inquiry in those jurisdictions that can impose the insanity defense on defendants.
In his 1954 book Mental Illness and Personality Foucault combines the subjective experience of the mentally ill person with a sociocultural historical approach to mental illness and suggests that there exists a reciprocal connection between individual perception and sociocultural development. This article examines the ramifications of these connections in Foucault's 1954 works and the connection with his later historical works. The article also examines the similarities between Foucault's 1954 thoughts and contemporary intellectual thought, such as those outlined in Maurice Merleau-Ponty's existential phenomenology and in Gaston Bachelard and Georges Canguilhem's historical epistemology. In sum, my study shows that Foucault's historical analysis began long before his 1961 dissertation History of Madness. It also shows that, more than announcing the "death" of the subject, Foucault's historical analysis may have contributed to saving it.
Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Henwood, Benjamin F; Tiderington, Emmy
This qualitative study assessed the frequency and subjective meaning of adverse experiences using case study analyses of interviews with 38 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and substance abuse histories. Adverse life events were inventoried using an adaptation of Lloyd and Turner's (2008) 41-item checklist. Participants averaged 8.8 adverse events, with approximately one-third having experienced incarceration (37%), suicidality (32%), abandonment by one or both parents (30%), and death of their mother (34%). Cross-case analyses yielded 3 themes: social losses because of death and estrangement; the significance of chronic stressors as well as acute events; and the cumulative lifetime nature of adversity. Findings suggest that life course experiences of trauma and loss have a cumulative influence in the lives of this population in addition and in relation to SMI, substance abuse, and homelessness. In this context, the mental health recovery movement should address prior adverse experiences beyond comorbid diagnoses in this population.
Full Text Available Background: A number of studies from the western world have explored the negative beliefs held by individuals towards people with mental illness. The knowledge of attitude and awareness of undergraduate medical students towards psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders is of utmost importance. Objective: The current study aims at assessment of attitudes of medical students towards mental illness and mentally ill. Materials and Methods: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The instruments used included Beliefs toward Mental Illness (BMI scale, Attitudes to Mental Illness Questionnaire (AMIQ. ANOVA was carried out to compare the in between group differences for the four study groups. Additionally Bonferroni correction was used to conduct the post hoc analysis. Results: The interns were significantly more likely to agree with the statement that the mental disorders are recurrent; less likely to be of thought that the behavior of people with mental disorders is unpredictable; more likely to disagree with the fact that diagnosis of depression as described in the case vignette was going to damage the career of the individual; more likely to agree with the option of inviting a depressed person to a party; more likely to believe in fact that mentally ill individuals are more likely to be criminals as compared to medical students in different professional years. Conclusions: Adequate modifications to existing medical curriculum would help improve attitude of medical students towards mentally ill.
Curran, Stephen; Turner, Debbie; Musa, Shabir; Byrne, Andrew; Wattis, John
Aims The objective of the study was to provide observational clinical data on psychotropic drugs and especially hypnotics used in older people with mental illness. Method This was an observational, single-centre, one-week prevalence study of psychiatric symptoms, disorders and psychotropic/hypnotic drug use in older people with mental illness cared for by the South West Yorkshire Mental Health NHS Trust (Wakefield Locality), UK. Results A total of 593/660 older patients with mental i...
Full Text Available Background: Caring is a fundamental issue in the rehabilitation of a person with mental illness and more so for people with severe mental illness. The lack of adequate manpower resources in the country is adding and enlisting the responsibility of providing care on the families to provide physical, medical, social and psychological care for their severely unwell mentally ill people. Aim of the Study: To examine the load of caregiving with reference to the types of care during the symptomatic and remission phases of severe mental illness and the various ways in which caregivers adapt their lives to meet the needs of people with severe mental illness. Materials and Methods: The present research draws its data from the 200 families with mental illness in Andra Pradesh and Karnataka in India. The data presented in the study was collected from interviews using an interview schedule with open-ended questions. Results: The study diffuses the notion of ′care′ as ′physical′, ′medical, ′psychological′ and ′social′ care. The present article focuses on the caregiving roles of the caregivers of people with schizophrenia, affective disorders and psychosis not otherwise specified (NOS and found that the caregiving does not differ much between the different diagnosis, but caregiving roles changes from active involvement in physical and medical care to more of social and psychological care during the remission. Conclusion: The study records the incredulous gratitude of caregivers at being acknowledged for the work they do. In that regard, the study itself provides a boost to the morale of tired, unacknowledged caregivers.
Carey, K B
Dr. Miller's Introduction: We are becoming more and more aware that many alcoholics and chemically dependent individuals also suffer from a psychiatric disorder. This reality emerges now after a period in which the possibility of coexisting mental and addictive disorders was often denied by the alcoholism and drug fields. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals need to be alert to patients with these dual disorders so that relapses of both the dependency and the psychiatric disorder can be averted. This month's column presents useful guidelines to help professionals deal effectively with this difficult problem. PMID:2714747
Nilsson, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lisa; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
There are several concerns in relation to children living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. In such circumstances, the health-care professionals need to involve the whole family, offering help to the parents on parenting as well as support for their children. These children are often helped by participating in meetings that provide them with contact with others with similar experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate young adults' childhood experiences of support groups when living with a mentally ill parent. Seven young women were chosen to participate in this study. A qualitative descriptive method was chosen. The main category emerged as 'the influence of life outside the home because of a parent's mental illness' from the two generic categories: 'a different world' and 'an emotion-filled life'. The participants' friends did not know that their parent was ill and they 'always had to…take responsibility for what happened at home'. These young adults appreciated the support group activities they participated in during their childhood, stating that the meetings had influenced their everyday life as young adults. Despite this, they associated their everyday life with feelings of being different. This study highlights the need for support groups for children whose parents suffer from mental illness. PMID:24486816
Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, Joy A; Whaley, Cathy; Bowman, Sharon
Nearly half of the U.S. adult population will have a major mental illness during their lifetimes. At any point in time, almost a fifth of all American adults have a serious mental illness (SMI). Too many in our society do not understand mental illnesses, placing the blame for the illness on those with the illness, resulting in isolation, marginalization, or incarceration of individuals with SMIs. They may experience stigma, inadequate and delayed health and mental health care, and major socioeconomic disadvantages. They may struggle with activities of daily living, lose many of their resources, and spiral down into poverty. The disadvantages and decreased ability to function experienced by individuals with SMIs lead to increased unhealthy behaviors, reduced participation in wellness-related activities, and premature morbidity and mortality. The general and physical health of individuals with SMIs poses greater challenges from both practice and research standpoints. However, health educators are poised uniquely to provide health promotion programs, conduct research, and advocate for the health and well-being of individuals with SMIs. In this review, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for health promotion in individuals with SMIs. PMID:27307394
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf... disorders in Persian Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... Form (Control), VA Form 10-2109b. c. Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian...
Nyboe, Lene; Lund, H
Background: Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, both being highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. Though physical activity has become an important issue in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation in the past decade......, systematic evaluations of physical activity level in psychiatric populations could be more disseminated. Aim: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the physical activity level of psychiatric patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: Patients with severe mental illness (n =47...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'. However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to
Linz, Sheila; Hanrahan, Nancy P; DeCesaris, Marissa; Petros, Ryan; Solomon, Phyllis
The current authors introduced an innovative autovideography intervention asking mental health consumers to use video cameras for 1 month to tell about their recovery. The research approach was based on a participatory research model with workers and consumers of a recovery education center fully involved with the study design and implementation. Twelve individuals who had graduated from a recovery program participated. The participant-produced videos were qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis. The use of autovideography was found to be feasible and can be used clinically to support the process of recovery by providing opportunities for reciprocity, self-reflection, and advocacy. Consumer-produced videos provide a voice to inform others with and without mental illness about the concerns of individuals with mental illness and the process of recovery. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 33-40.]. PMID:27135892
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a mental illness related stigma training package that targeted their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results We detected a significant positive effect of factual content and personal testimonies training upon an improvement in knowledge, F(1, 61 = 16.3, p = 0.0002. No such difference was determined with attitudes or for behaviour. Conclusions Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour may need to be separately targeted in stigma reduction interventions, and separately assessed. The inter-relationships between these components in mental health promotion and medical education warrant further research. The study next needs to be replicated with larger, representative samples using appropriate evaluation instruments. More intensive training for medical students may also be required.
This article explores some of the current issues in providing primary care for people with serious mental illness. In contrast to many patients in the United States, up to half of patients with serious mental illness in the United Kingdom are seen only by the primary care team. However many General Practitioners feel that the care of this patient group is beyond their remit. In the United Kingdom during the last decade, there have been a variety of policy initiatives, influenced by the generic principle of "partnership working" and the increasing recognition of the importance of patient choice, that have aimed to increase the role of primary care in the delivery of health care to people with serious mental illness. On the ground, these policy imperatives have been realised through different models of shared care and schemes to encourage better communication across the primary/secondary interface. Most recently, and perhaps most effectively, the introduction of a type of performance related pay into primary care may lead to changes to the way in which General Practitioners think and act in terms of their roles and responsibilities with this patient group. Theoretically, therefore the United Kingdom may be entering a new "golden age" of primary care based mental health services for people with serious mental illness, where holistic care, preventive care and health promotion are increasingly seen not as the gold standard, but the norm. PMID:16927575
Mental illness: diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness.
With one in three people likely to experience mental health problems during their lifetime, it is paradoxical that stigma and negative attitudes towards mental illness are so prevalent in the UK today. This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them. The findings were used to inform teaching resources used in an National Health Service Direct call centre. Guidelines for undertaking a systematic review, produced by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, were used. Terms were set and a search of electronic databases and peer-reviewed academic journals was completed, from which 16 primary research papers (from the UK) were obtained and used. These were assessed, using evidence-based critical appraisal tools, to obtain data pertinent to the original question. This paper describes the process, including a detailed account of the methodologies employed to gather and analyse relevant data. Put into context, alongside key drivers (e.g. government papers), the findings are presented and discussed, along with underlying theories, where appropriate. Recommendations for professional practice are then presented.
Drake, Robert E; Mueser, Kim T.; Brunette, Mary F.
Adults with severe mental illness have extraordinarily high rates of co-occurring substance use disorders, typically around 50% or more, which adversely affect their current adjustment, course, and outcome. Separate and parallel mental health and substance abuse treatment systems do not offer interventions that are accessible, integrated, and tailored for the presence of co-occurrence. Recent integrated interventions for this population have the specific goal of ameliorating...
Coinciding with the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, two recently published molecular genetics analyses suggest large overlaps in genetic liability to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. This indicates that a broader category of severe mental illness may be an important target for future large-scale etiological and therapeutic investigations. Studies of patient groups not restricted to current diagnostic cate...
Essex, B; Doig, R; Renshaw, J
OBJECTIVE--To develop and evaluate a record of shared care to be held by the patient designed to increase the effectiveness of long term care of patients with severe mental illness. DESIGN--Questionnaires completed by medical staff, community psychiatric nurse, and patients to evaluate the shared care record. SETTING--General practices, a psychiatric outpatient clinic, and a mental health resource centre in south east London. PATIENTS--84 Patients held shared care records over an 18 month per...
O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Ibarra, Jorge M.; Balcazar, Hector; Perez, Eduardo; Flores, Luis; Anders, Robert L.
The aims of this article are: 1) to examine the associations between health provider-diagnosed depression and multimorbidity, the condition of suffering from more than two chronic illnesses; 2) to assess the unique contribution of chronic illness in the prediction of depression; and 3) to suggest practice changes that would address risk of depression among individuals with chronic illnesses. Data collected in a cross-sectional community health study among adult Mexicans (n= 274) living in a low income neighborhood (colonia) in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, were examined. We tested the hypotheses that individuals who reported suffering chronic illnesses would also report higher rates of depression than healthy individuals; and having that two or more chronic illnesses further increased the risk of depression. PMID:26640817
Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.
IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less cl
Full Text Available Background: Mental illness have been largely ignored or neglected because of a community′s perception and attached social stigma. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban community in South Delhi to study perception and attitude of the community about towards mental illness. An adult member in household selected by systematic random sampling was interviewed using semi-structured interview schedule for perception about mental illness and 34 item Opinion about Mental Illness for Chinese Community (OMICC scale Results: A total of 100 adults were interviewed. Mean age of the participants was 35.8 (SD: 12.6 years. Living without tension and satisfaction in routine life were identified as indicators of healthy mental status. Change in the behavior was perceived as the most common symptom of mental illness. Although mental stress was identified as the most common cause of mental illness, 25% attributed it to evil spirits. Keeping surroundings friendly and sharing problems with others were identified as - important preventive measures against mental illness. Mental illness was perceived as treatable; 12% preferred treatment from Tantric/Ojha. Community showed negative attitude for stereotyping, restrictiveness, and pessimistic prediction domains of OMICC scale with mean score of 4.5 (SD: 0.2, 3.9 (SD: 0.9, and 3.8 (SD: 0.4, respectively, with no statistically significant difference across age, sex, and literacy. Conclusion: Study observed lack of awareness regarding bio-medical concept of mental illness with socially restrictive, stereotyping, pessimistic, and non-stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness in the capital city.
Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John
Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations.
Petros, Ryan; Solomon, Phyllis; Linz, Sheila; DeCesaris, Marissa; Hanrahan, Nancy P
Mental health services have been transforming toward a recovery orientation for more than a decade, yet a robust understanding of recovery eludes many providers, and consensus on a conceptual definition has yet to be reached. This article examines mental health consumers' lived experience of recovery and evaluates the usefulness and comprehensiveness of CHIME, a major framework conceptually defining recovery for adults with serious mental illness. Researchers partnered with a mental health association in a major US city to engage in research with graduates of a recovery and education class for adults diagnosed with serious mental illness. Twelve participants were loaned video cameras and invited to "Tell us about your recovery" through autovideography. Of the 12 participants, six produced videos directly responding to the overall research question and were subsequently included in the present analysis. Data were analyzed thematically, and CHIME adequately represented the major domains presented in consumer videos with two notable modifications: subdomains of "reciprocity" within relationships and "contributing to others" were added to comprehensively represent consumer perspectives about recovery. Adding two subdomains to CHIME more effectively represents consumer narratives about recovery, contributes to the social construction of the personhood of people with serious mental illness, and offers a more robust description of the process of recovery. PMID:26506921
Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John
Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:27269024
Sieh, D. S.; Dikkers, A. L. C.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.; Meijer, A.M.
This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in this Dutch study. The Dutch Stress Questionnaire for Children was used to measure child report of stress. Ill parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Children filled in a scale of the Invent...
Elisa Ansoleaga M; Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia
There is growing evidence on the association between exposure to psychosocial risk at work and adverse health outcomes. Objective: to describe and analyze the presence of psychosocial risks at work and mental health symptoms in non-clinical workers from a public hospital. Methods: a crosssectional study was conducted at a public hospital in Santiago (Chile). A self-administered questionnaire was applied to assess exposure to psychosocial risks (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance mode...
This dissertation examines the stigmatization of two health conditions: mental disability and physical disability in the context of China. In particular, it addresses two main themes: the processes and impacts of stigma, and the variables that moderate the association of stigma with social attributes. The first paper applied a qualitative approach to identify the sources of burdens of raising a child with cerebral palsy in China and how stigma and “face” as a cultural factor affect childr...
José Ricardo Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.
Wong Daniel FK; Jorm Anthony F; Lam Angus YK
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participa...
Travis J A Craddock
Full Text Available A key component in the body's stress response, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis orchestrates changes across a broad range of major biological systems. Its dysfunction has been associated with numerous chronic diseases including Gulf War Illness (GWI and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Though tightly coupled with other components of endocrine and immune function, few models of HPA function account for these interactions. Here we extend conventional models of HPA function by including feed-forward and feedback interaction with sex hormone regulation and immune response. We use this multi-axis model to explore the role of homeostatic regulation in perpetuating chronic conditions, specifically GWI and CFS. An important obstacle in building these models across regulatory systems remains the scarcity of detailed human in vivo kinetic data as its collection can present significant health risks to subjects. We circumvented this using a discrete logic representation based solely on literature of physiological and biochemical connectivity to provide a qualitative description of system behavior. This connectivity model linked molecular variables across the HPA axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in men and women, as well as a simple immune network. Inclusion of these interactions produced multiple alternate homeostatic states and sexually dimorphic responses. Experimental data for endocrine-immune markers measured in male GWI subjects showed the greatest alignment with predictions of a naturally occurring alternate steady state presenting with hypercortisolism, low testosterone and a shift towards a Th1 immune response. In female CFS subjects, expression of these markers aligned with an alternate homeostatic state displaying hypocortisolism, high estradiol, and a shift towards an anti-inflammatory Th2 activation. These results support a role for homeostatic drive in perpetuating dysfunctional cortisol levels through persistent
Shedlack, Karen J; Hennen, John; Magee, Christine; Cheron, Daniel M
Psychiatric assessment among individuals with a diagnosis of both mental retardation and mental illness presents a clinical challenge. This retrospective study compared two rating scales--the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)--to determine the scales' utility in a partial hospital setting. Although ABC and GAF ratings were weakly correlated, the ABC revealed symptom patterns consistent with recognizable features of psychiatric syndromes and differential improvement in symptoms within and between diagnostic subgroups. The ABC provided a more useful measure of treatment response than the GAF in this patient population.
Full Text Available Eshetu Girma,1,2 Anne Maria Möller-Leimkühler,2,3 Sandra Dehning,2,3 Norbert Mueller,2,3 Markos Tesfaye,4 Guenter Froeschl2,5 1Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 2CIHLMU Center for International Health, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany; 4Department of Psychiatry, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 5Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany Background: In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers’ self-stigma can negatively influence the patients' treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Methods: An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Results: The majority (70.38% of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11. A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, P<0.05. Self-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, P<0.001, perceived supernatural explanations of mental illness (r=0.26, P<0.001, and
Barnes, Amy L.; Meghan E. Murphy; Christopher A. Fowler; Rempfer, Melisa V.
Quality of life (QoL) in people with schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses (SMI) is an important outcome goal, yet there is no consistent definition of the construct. We examined three aspects of QoL in persons with SMI: overall life satisfaction, physical health-related QoL (HRQoL), and mental HRQoL. This study had two primary aims: first, to examine whether there are differences in physical and mental HRQoL in persons with SMI, and, second, to investigate the cognitive, clinical,...
Lyons, Zaza; Hood, Sean
The stigmatisation of mental illness in Australian and other Western societies is now well documented. This article presents a description of the "stigmatisation" problem associated with mental illness, and discusses the impact that this problem has had on the demand for Psychiatry as a career. The approach taken at UWA to address the "recruitment…
Martin Carmel M; Peterson Chris; Robinson Rowena; Sturmberg Joachim P
Abstract Background Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. Aim The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare incentives for longer consultations and structured health assessments in gener...
Pelletier, Jean-François; Lesage, Alain; Boisvert, Christine; Denis, Frédéric; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Kisely, Steve
Introduction Even in countries with universal healthcare systems, excess mortality rates due to physical chronic diseases in patients also suffering from serious mental illness like schizophrenia is such that their life expectancy could be lessened by up to 20 years. The possible explanations for this disparity include: unhealthy habits (i.e. smoking; lack of exercise); side-effects of psychotropic medication; delays in the detection or initial presentation leading to a more advanced disease ...
Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi
The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental…
Richardson, Meg; Cobham, Vanessa; Murray, Judith; McDermott, Brett
Research indicates that parents and other family members often grieve their child or relative's mental illness. This grief appears resultant from a profound sense of loss, which has been described as complicated and nonfinite (e.g., Atkinson in "Am J Psychiatry" 151(8):1137-1139, 1994; Davis and Schultz in "Soc Sci Med" 46(3):369-379, 1998; Jones…
Full Text Available The purpose of the current metasynthesis review was to explore the psychosocial benefits of sport and psychosocial factors which impact on sports participation for individuals with severe mental illness. AMED, CINAHL Plus, Medline, EMBASE, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, and Science Citation Index were searched from inception until January 2014. Articles included use qualitative methods to examine the psychosocial effects of sports participation in people with severe mental illness. Methodological quality was assessed using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies and a case study tool. Included studies were analysed within a metasynthesis approach. Eight articles involving 56 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results identified the broader and direct psychosocial benefits of sport. Sport provided a “normal” environment and interactions that were not associated with an individual’s mental illness. Sport provided individuals with a sense of meaning, purpose, belonging, identity, and achievement. Other findings are discussed. Direct psychosocial benefits are a consequence of sports participation for the vast majority of individuals with severe mental illness. Further to this, sports participation was associated with a reduction in social isolation and an increase in social confidence, autonomy, and independence.
Wansink, H.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Hoencamp, E.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Hosman, C.M.H.
Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as de
Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin
Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…
Theriot, Matthew T.; Lodato, Gayle A.
This article describes the results of a study comparing attitudes toward mental illness and perceptions of professional danger among new social work students (n=64) and other university students (n=111). Such topics have implications for social work education and curriculum development but have not been studied adequately. Results from…
Pearson, Carol; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Locke, Gretchen
This article presents findings from an exploratory study of three programs using the Housing First approach to provide permanent supportive housing for single, homeless adults with serious mental illness and often co-occurring substance-related disorders. This approach provides direct, or nearly direct, access to housing that is intended to be…
Mauritz, M.W.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Draijer, N.; Achterberg, T. van
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are often not recognized in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in people with SMI. METHODS: We con
Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.
Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…
Burns, Tom; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Drake, Robert E.; Fioritti, Angelo; Knapp, Martin; Lauber, Christoph; Rossler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; van Busschbach, Jooske; White, Sarah; Wiersma, Durk
Background The value of the individual placement and support (IPS) programme in helping people with severe mental illness gain open employment is unknown in Europe. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of IPS, and to examine whether its effect is modified by local labour markets and welfare syste
Brockelman, Karin F.
The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among self-determination, mental illness, and GPAs of university students. Participants were 375 undergraduate students at a large state university. Two instruments based on Self-determination theory were used in this study: the Basic Needs Scale (see Baard, Deci, & Ryan, 2004) and the…
As recent cases of mass murder at Utoya Island in Norway, and in the United States (US) at Virginia Tech, Virginia; Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut all illustrate, acts of extreme violence involving high powered weapons and committed by persons with a presumed or confirmed mental illness tend to arouse intense public and political debates about the efficacy of firearm regulation and control. Following these tragedies, in the US at least, various law reform measures have been proposed and in some cases implemented designed principally to make it more difficult for mentally ill persons to gain access to firearms. In this article it is contended that measures like these are at best tinkering with the margins of gun control and also have the tendency to reinforce the stigma and discrimination experienced by persons with a mental illness, while perpetuating stereotypes of them as dangerous to themselves and others. Despite these limitations, and while firearm regulation policies and practices vary widely across the globe, most nations still seek in some way to limit access to guns by persons with a mental illness. This article explores in more detail how such policies and practices have been applied in the Australian State of New South Wales and the lessons to be learned elsewhere from this experience.
Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.
Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…
Venville, Annie; Street, Annette
Researchers from La Trobe University are investigating the factors affecting successful course completion for Vocational Education and Training (VET) students with a mental illness. The research aims to: (1) Increase individuals' understanding of the factors contributing to successful course completions by students with disclosed or non-disclosed…
Merriman, S.; Haw, C.; Kirk, J.; Stubbs, J.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. The aim of this study was to screen inpatients with mild or borderline intellectual disability, many of whom also have mental illness, for risk factors for CHD. Participants were interviewed, measured and had blood samples taken. Of the 53 participants, 20 (37.7%)…
Bartels, S.J.; Aschbrenner, K.A.; Rolin, S.A.; Hendrick, D.C.; Naslund, J.A.; Faber, M.J.
Objective: Persons with serious mental illness frequently receive inadequate medical care and are more likely to experience difficulty navigating the health care system compared with the general population. To address this gap in quality, we developed a program of peer co-led collaborative activatio
Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laursen, T M; Sandbaek, A;
BACKGROUND: Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) have excess mortality, which may partly be explained by their high prevalence of diabetes. METHOD: We compared the overall and cause-specific mortality in persons with SMI and diabetes with that of the general Danish population between 1997...
Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laurberg, Tinne; Laursen, Thomas Munk;
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether higher mortality after breast cancer contributes to the life-expectancy gap of 15 years in women with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality rate...
Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.
This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…
Staley, Georgiana M.
Probation and parole officers supervise a disproportionate amount of offenders with mental illness. Many causes contribute to this over-representation ranging from deinstitutionalization, to co-occurring disorders, to homelessness. It appears there may be a lack of training specifically for probation and parole officers on the topic of mental…
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.; Watson, Amy C.
Social work students (N=60) in a master's-level course on severe mental illness participated in a quasi-experimental study examining the degree to which increased knowledge about and contact with individuals with schizophrenia during the course would impact their attitudes toward people with the disorder. Results revealed significant improvement…
Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka
Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…
Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett
Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…
McKinney, Kathleen G.
This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…
attachment classification (George & Solomon, 2008). Aims of the Study: As little is known on how the caregiving system develops when the mother suffers from severe mental illness (SMI), this presentation will explore the role of maternal psychopathology for the pre- and postnatal development of caregiving...
Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.
Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…
Cruce, Gunilla; Ojehagen, Agneta; Nordstrom, Monica
This paper explores recovery-promoting care as experienced by persons with concomitant severe mental illness and substance misuse. Sixteen in-depth interviews, based on an interview guide concerning their experiences of health, life situation and care, were held with eight participants in an outpatient treatment programme. The analysis aimed to…
Smith, Judith R.
This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…
This paper explores the concepts of "mind", "thinking" and "mental illness" from a Tongan perspective. Their old Tongan equivalents are 'atamai, fakakaukau and vale. Of specific interest is mental illness. A specific state of mind, mental illness is investigated, firstly, in the conflicting relationships of mind and thinking and, secondly, in the context of the dialectical relationships between traditional forms of disease and illness and medicinal and healing concepts and practices. Their inherently clear spatio-temporal basis gives them a sense of realism. This realistic sense is much more revealing when they are positioned in the context of ta and va, Tongan for "time" and "space". Ontologically, time and space are the common medium of existence of all things, in a single level of reality. On the epistemological level, time and space are social constructs, deriving from their relative arrangement across cultures. Conflicts inevitably arising from the time-space, form-content transformation of types of human activity, create symmetries and asymmetries in the natural, mental and social realms. By integrating time and space, a general tă-vă theory could be developed, so that we can better understand the complexity surrounding nature, mind and society.
Reupert, A.E.; Cuff, R.; Drost, L.; Foster, K.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Santvoort, F. van
Objective: To identify and describe intervention programs to improve outcomes for children whose parents have a mental illness. Data sources: Grey and black literature was sourced from (i) three previous reviews/scoping studies, (ii) PsycINFO and MEDLINE searches of English, German and Dutch papers,
McLaughlin, Thomas Chalmers
This article examines the cost-effectiveness of providing permanent supported housing to homeless people with mental illness. Through the use of billing records and frequency of use charts, researchers were able to map the service usage of a cohort of 268 homeless individuals from both urban and rural communities. The results suggest that…
Looijmans, Anne; Jorg, Frederike; Schoevers, Robert A.; Bruggeman, Richard; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva
Background: Severe mentally ill (SMI) patients have a reduced life expectancy of 13-30 years compared to the general population, largely due to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in SMI patients contribute to this increased risk. The obesogenic living envir
Couture, Shannon M.; Penn, David L.
The primary aim of this study was to determine whether naturalistic, interpersonal contact with persons with a severe mental illness (SMI) could reduce stigma. Participants from the agency Compeer (which pairs volunteers with people with SMI) were compared to volunteers from a control agency and to nonvolunteer participants from the community on…
Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.
This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…
McLearen, Alix M.
Compares detection rates of the Referral Decision Scale (RDS) with a short, officer-administered booking questionnaire at a low capacity jail. Although RDS produced a higher number of false positives, it correctly identified more mentally ill inmates than did the booking procedure. Results suggest that combining both instruments may provide the…
Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld
The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...
Ende, Peter van der; Busschbach, J.T. van; Nicholson, Joanne; Korevaar, E.L.; Weeghel, J. van
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recoverybased, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses. Methods:
Ende, Peter C. van der; Busschbach, Jooske T. van; Nicholson, Joanne; Korevaar, Eliza L.; Weeghel, Jaap van
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery-based, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses. Methods
van der Ende, Peter C.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Nicholson, Joanne; Korevaar, Eliza L.; van Weeghel, Jaap
Objective: The aim of this pilot implementation study was to explore the initial experiences with and impact of Parenting with Success and Satisfaction (PARSS), a psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery-based, guided self-help intervention, for parents with severe mental illnesses. Methods: Changes
Mueser, Kim T.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Swain, Karin; Forester, Brent; Cather, Corinne; Feldman, James
Objective: The Helping Older People Experience Success (HOPES) program was developed to improve psychosocial functioning and reduce long-term medical burden in older people with severe mental illness (SMI) living in the community. HOPES includes 1 year of intensive skills training and health management, followed by a 1-year maintenance phase.…
Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; Allen -Meares, Paula; MacFarlane, Peter; Hart-Johnson, Tamera
Children of parents with mental illness are an at-risk population according to research on psychiatric outcomes using White, middle-class samples of depressed parents and infants and preschool children. The current study expands this evidence by exploring within-group heterogeneity across psychosocial outcomes, in a racially diverse, low-income…
This article outlines the rationale, evidence base, method and qualitative evaluation of a project that uses the performing arts to challenge the stigma surrounding mental illness and promote social inclusion of people with mental health problems. The partnership project has run for three years with students of Reigate Sixth Form College and staff and users of voluntary and statutory mental health services in East Surrey. Collation of three years of evaluation data showed it as a successful approach to: positively influence students' attitudes, knowledge and empathy around mental health issues; and positively affect mental health service clients' mood and their feelings of achievement, confidence and inclusion. Key elements of the project's success and sustainability are summarised.
Full Text Available While the prevalence of mental illness or cognitive disability is higher among homeless people than the general population in Western countries, few studies have investigated its prevalence in Japan or other Asian countries. The present study conducted a survey to comprehensively assess prevalence of mental illness, cognitive disability, and their overlap among homeless individuals living in Nagoya, Japan.Participants were 114 homeless individuals. Mental illness was diagnosed based on semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III, simplified version was used to diagnose intellectual/ cognitive disability.Among all participants, 42.1% (95% CI 33.4-51.3% were diagnosed with a mental illness: 4.4% (95% CI 1.9-9.9% with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder, 17.5% (95% CI 11.6-25.6% with a mood disorder, 2.6% (95% CI 0.9-7.5% with an anxiety disorder, 14.0% (95% CI 8.8-21.6% with a substance-related disorder, and 3.5% (95% CI 1.4-8.8% with a personality disorder. Additionally, 34.2% (95% CI 26.1-43.3% demonstrated cognitive disability: 20.2% (95% CI 13.8-28.5% had mild and 14.0% (95% CI 8.8-21.6% had moderate or severe disability. The percent overlap between mental illness and cognitive disability was 15.8% (95% CI 10.2-23.6%. Only 39.5% (95% CI 26.1-43.3% of the participants were considered to have no psychological or cognitive dysfunction. Participants were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability. Only individuals with a cognitive disability reported a significant tendency toward not wanting to leave their homeless life.This is the first report showing that the prevalence of mental illness and/or cognitive disability among homeless individuals is much higher than in the general Japanese population. Appropriate support strategies should be devised and executed based on the specificities of an individual's psychological
Henwood, Benjamin F.; Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K.
This mixed-methods study uses Maslow’s hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one’s basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs...
Yang, L H
The rapidly-evolving literature concerning stigma towards psychiatric illnesses among Chinese groups has demonstrated pervasive negative attitudes and discriminatory treatment towards people with mental illness. However, a systematic integration of current stigma theories and empirical findings to examine how stigma processes may occur among Chinese ethnic groups has yet to be undertaken. This paper first introduces several major stigma models, and specifies how these models provide a theoretical basis as to how stigma broadly acts on individuals with schizophrenia through three main mechanisms: direct individual discrimination, internalisation of negative stereotypes, and structural discrimination. In Chinese societies, the particular manifestations of stigma associated with schizophrenia are shaped by cultural meanings embedded within Confucianism, the centrality of "face", and pejorative aetiological beliefs of mental illnesses. These cultural meanings are reflected in severe and culturally-specific expressions of stigma in Chinese societies. Implications and directions to advance stigma research within Chinese cultural settings are provided. PMID:17975685
Crawford, Michel A
The rise in brain disorders and mental ill-health is the most serious crisis facing the survival of humanity. Starting from an understanding of the origins of the nervous system and the brain, together with its nutritional requirements, the present direction of the food system since World War II (WWII) can be seen as departing from the biological essence of brain chemistry and its nutritional needs. Such advances in the food system would lead to epigenetic changes. Improper maternal/foetal nutrition is considered in this manner to lead to heart disease, stroke and diabetes in later life. Is there any reason why the brain would not be similarly susceptible to a nutritional background departing from its specific needs? The changing food system likely bears responsibility for the rise in mental ill health that has now overtaken all other burdens of ill health. Its globalisation is threatening civil society. PMID:26715646
Crawford, Michel A
The rise in brain disorders and mental ill-health is the most serious crisis facing the survival of humanity. Starting from an understanding of the origins of the nervous system and the brain, together with its nutritional requirements, the present direction of the food system since World War II (WWII) can be seen as departing from the biological essence of brain chemistry and its nutritional needs. Such advances in the food system would lead to epigenetic changes. Improper maternal/foetal nutrition is considered in this manner to lead to heart disease, stroke and diabetes in later life. Is there any reason why the brain would not be similarly susceptible to a nutritional background departing from its specific needs? The changing food system likely bears responsibility for the rise in mental ill health that has now overtaken all other burdens of ill health. Its globalisation is threatening civil society.
Full Text Available University educators increasingly manage situations where students disclose serious mental health issues. This is a significant issue, particularly for health and human service professions, as the importance of valuing the lived experience of mental illness lies alongside concerns for professional practice standards. Thus the responsibilities of students to disclose their mental health status and the responsibilities of Universities to provide appropriate support within established disability frameworks must be clear. However, students often do not know who they should disclose to, what will happen to disclosed information, and who has access to this information. Student's often fear embarrassment, stigma, and shame about disclosing mental illness, which is compounded by the diverse attitudes, experiences, and beliefs of educators. Consequently, this paper will review existing literature on university responses to, and students’ experiences of, mental illness in order to set a research agenda for this topic. The authors argue that such research must be undertaken urgently, in a context of inclusivity in higher education that gives voice to the experiences of students, their families and carers, university staff, and practitioners in the field.
Kaushik, Anya; Kostaki, Evgenia; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos
One in ten children and adolescents suffer with mental health difficulties at any given time, yet less than one third seek treatment. Untreated mental illness predisposes to longstanding individual difficulties and presents a great public health burden. Large scale initiatives to reduce stigmatization of mental illness, identified as a key deterrent to treatment, have been disappointing. This indicates the need for a clearer understanding of the stigmatizing processes faced by young people, so that more effective interventions are employed. A systematic review of the literature, assessing public stigma and self-stigma (i.e. internalized public stigma) specifically in children and adolescents with mental health difficulties (YP-MHD), was conducted. Forty-two studies were identified, confirming that stigmatization of YP-MHD is a universal and disabling problem, present amongst both children and adults. There was some variation by diagnosis and gender, and stigmatization was for the most part unaffected by labelling. Self-stigmatization led to more secrecy and an avoidance of interventions. The findings confirm that stigmatization of mental illness is poorly understood due to a lack of research and methodological discrepancies between existing studies. Implications for the findings are discussed, and suggestions made for future research.
Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J
Promoting physical activity is essential for addressing elevated cardiovascular risk and high obesity rates affecting people with serious mental illness. Numerous challenges interfere with exercise participation in this high-risk group including mental health symptoms, low motivation, and limited access to safe and affordable options for physical activity. Wearable devices and mobile health technologies may afford new opportunities for promoting physical activity and supporting behavioral weight loss efforts. This exploratory study examined whether daily step count measured using Fitbit wearable devices was associated with weight loss and improved fitness among individuals with serious mental illness enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle program. Participants (n=34) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (23.5%), major depression (50.0%), or bipolar disorder (26.5%), and wore Fitbits most of the days (M=86.2%; SD=18.4%) they were enrolled in the study. At 6-months, higher average daily step count was associated with greater weight loss (F=5.07; df=1,32; p=0.0314), but not improved fitness (F=1.92; df=1,31; p=0.176). These findings demonstrate that encouraging participants with serious mental illness enrolled in lifestyle interventions to collect more steps may contribute to greater weight loss. This suggests that wearable devices may offer a feasible and potentially effective strategy for supporting behavioral weight loss in community mental health settings. PMID:27479104
Kaushik, Anya; Kostaki, Evgenia; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos
One in ten children and adolescents suffer with mental health difficulties at any given time, yet less than one third seek treatment. Untreated mental illness predisposes to longstanding individual difficulties and presents a great public health burden. Large scale initiatives to reduce stigmatization of mental illness, identified as a key deterrent to treatment, have been disappointing. This indicates the need for a clearer understanding of the stigmatizing processes faced by young people, so that more effective interventions are employed. A systematic review of the literature, assessing public stigma and self-stigma (i.e. internalized public stigma) specifically in children and adolescents with mental health difficulties (YP-MHD), was conducted. Forty-two studies were identified, confirming that stigmatization of YP-MHD is a universal and disabling problem, present amongst both children and adults. There was some variation by diagnosis and gender, and stigmatization was for the most part unaffected by labelling. Self-stigmatization led to more secrecy and an avoidance of interventions. The findings confirm that stigmatization of mental illness is poorly understood due to a lack of research and methodological discrepancies between existing studies. Implications for the findings are discussed, and suggestions made for future research. PMID:27517643
Full Text Available Objective: Stigma toward individuals with mental disorders has been studied extensively. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, the past decade has been marked by a significant increase in information on stigma toward mental illness, but these findings have yet to be applied to mental health services in Latin America. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies relating to stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors specifically considered differences in this region as compared with manifestations reported in Western European countries. Methods: A systematic search of scientific papers was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SciELO, LILACS, Imbiomed, and Bireme databases. The search included articles published from 2002 to 2014. Results: Twenty-six studies from seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean were evaluated and arranged into the following categories: public stigma, consumer stigma, family stigma, and multiple stigmas. Conclusion: We identified some results similar to those reported in high-income settings. However, some noteworthy findings concerning public and family stigma differed from those reported in Western European countries. Interventions designed to reduce mental illness-related stigma in this region may benefit from considering cultural dynamics exhibited by the Latino population.
Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra
This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…
Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias
Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…
Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Nery Filho, Antônio
Psychiatric information and practice are closely related with the field of criminal law, questioning classical penal law premises, such as responsibility and freewill. We have analyzed the articles related to mental health in Brazilian penal laws, since Código Criminal do Império do Brazil (Brazilian Empire criminal laws) from 1830. Our objective is to describe the structuring of a legal status for the mentally ill in Brazil, as well as the model of penal intervention in the lives of those considered as 'dangerous' and 'irresponsible'. In order to do so, we have analyzed not only specific articles on penal law, but also texts by specialized analysts. In addition, we have discussed the concepts that keep mentally-ill criminals in a rather ambiguous situation, i.e. legal irresponsibility, potential aggressiveness and safety policies.
McIntyre, Roger S
Patients with severe mental disorders have increased mortality rates compared with the general population. The leading cause of death for individuals with psychotic illnesses or bipolar disorder is cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is often the result of patients' health problems associated with their psychiatric disorders, including, but not limited to, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Such problems occur more often and have worse outcomes in patients with serious mental illness than the general population because of a combination of factors such as inadequate access to quality care, poor lifestyle choices, and the association between some antipsychotic medications and weight gain. Coordinated somatic and psychiatric treatment, weight-neutral or weight-reducing pharmaceuticals, and behavioral weight management programs may help lessen the burden of CVD in the mental health population. PMID:19573473
De Hert, Marc; Correll, Christoph U.; Bobes, Julio; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Cohen, Dan; Asai, Itsuo; Detraux, Johan; Gautam, Shiv; Moeller, Hans-Jurgen; Ndetei, David M.; Newcomer, John W.; Uwakwe, Richard; Leucht, Stefan
The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic t
Perry, Brea L; Pescosolido, Bernice A
In response to health problems, individuals may strategically activate their social network ties to help manage crisis and uncertainty. While it is well-established that social relationships provide a crucial safety net, little is known about who is chosen to help during an episode of illness. Guided by the Network Episode Model, two aspects of consulting others in the face of mental illness are considered. First, we ask who activates ties, and what kinds of ties and networks they attempt to leverage for discussing health matters. Second, we ask about the utility of activating health-focused network ties. Specifically, we examine the consequences of network activation at time of entry into treatment for individuals' quality of life, social satisfaction, ability to perform social roles, and mental health functioning nearly one year later. Using interview data from the longitudinal Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, N = 171), we focus on a sample of new patients with serious mental illness and a group with less severe disorders who are experiencing their first contact with the mental health treatment system. Three findings stand out. First, our results reveal the nature of agency in illness response. Whether under a rational choice or habitus logic, individuals appear to evaluate support needs, identifying the best possible matches among a larger group of potential health discussants. These include members of the core network and those with prior mental health experiences. Second, selective activation processes have implications for recovery. Those who secure adequate network resources report better outcomes than those who injudiciously activate network ties. Individuals who activate weaker relationships and those who are unsupportive of medical care experience poorer functioning, limited success in fulfilling social roles, and lower social satisfaction and quality of life later on. Third, the evidence suggests that social networks matter above and
Background: Chronic pain is common in childhood and often co-occurs with psychiatric disorders. It frequently influences daily activities, undermines the child’s confidence in one's health, and affects general well-being. Parents of children with chronic pain often suffer from chronic illness themse
Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.
Evaluated the emotional consequences of using wish-fulfilling fantasy (palliative) and information-seeking (instrumental) coping strategies among patients (N=151) faced with chronic illness. Results showed information-seeking to have positive effects on adjustment and wish-fulfilling fantasy to have deleterious consequences. (LLL)