Full Text Available Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is often a fatal disease that typically takes a hematogenous spread after inhalation or accidental skin inoculation of pathogens. We present a patient with a history of heavy marijuana smoking while being on chronic steroid therapy for treatment of neurosarcoidosis who was found to have multiple brain abscesses from Curvularia sp. This is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling dematiaceous fungus that is generally thought to affect solely plants, but there is increasing evidence in the literature of it affecting humans and animals. We review the radiographic findings of neurosarcoidosis and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis as well as the pathophysiology of dematiaceous fungi infections.
Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...
Gargani, Yousef; Bishop, Paul; Denning, David W.
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a progressive debilitating disease with multiple underlying pulmonary diseases described. Here we report the association of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and long term marijuana smoking in 2 patients and review the literature related to invasive and allergic aspergillosis.
Prescot, Andrew P.; Locatelli, Allison E.; Renshaw, Perry F; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
Converging evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies indicates that heavy marijuana use is associated with cingulate dysfunction. However, there has been limited human data documenting in vivo biochemical brain changes after chronic marijuana exposure. Previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have demonstrated reduced basal ganglia glutamate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetyl aspartate levels in adult chronic marijuana users. Similar studies have not be...
Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.
Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…
Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin
Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different development...
Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized ...
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
Marmor, J B
Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several...
Définition de la notion "Usager". Acteur de la définition des besoins sociaux, de l'intérêt collectif et de l'offre de services urbains. Acteur de la légitimation des choix publics budgétaires et fiscaux. Acteur de la cohésion sociale.
Finn, Kristin V.
Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…
David Powell; Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Mireille Jacobson
Many medical marijuana patients report using marijuana to alleviate chronic pain from musculoskeletal problems and other sources. If marijuana is used as a substitute for powerful and addictive pain relievers in medical marijuana states, a potential overlooked positive impact of medical marijuana laws may be a reduction in harms associated with opioid pain relievers, a far more addictive and potentially deadly substance. To assess this issue, we study the impact of medical marijuana laws on p...
Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron
Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative ...
Brents, Lisa K.
Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844
Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; BROWN, SANDRA A.; Tapert, Susan F.
Marijuana use is common in adolescence, yet neural consequences have not been well delineated. This review seeks to ascertain whether heavy marijuana use in adolescence is associated with persistent neurocognitive abnormalities, and whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the impact of chronic marijuana use than adults.
Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann
This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)
... such as HIV/AIDS and cancer. Some small studies show that marijuana might relieve symptoms in people who have: Multiple ... I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a ... study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol . 2013;11(10):1276-80. ...
Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L
The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence
... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...
... like a cigarette (called a joint) or a cigar (called a blunt). Marijuana can also be smoked ... This Section Signs of Marijuana Use and Addiction Effects of Marijuana on Brains and Bodies Previous Index ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term effects of cocaine on behavior are accompanied by structural changes in excitatory glutamatergic synapses onto the medium spiny neurons of the striatum. The Kalrn gene encodes several functionally distinct isoforms; these multidomain guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs contain additional domains known to interact with phosphatidylinositides as well as with a number of different proteins. Through their activation of Rho proteins and their interactions with other proteins, the different Kalirin isoforms affect cytoskeletal organization. Chronic exposure of adult male rodents to cocaine increases levels of Kalirin 7 in the striatum. When exposed chronically to cocaine, mice lacking Kalirin 7, the major adult isoform, fail to show an increase in dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens, show diminished place preference for cocaine, and exhibit increased locomotor activity in response to cocaine. Results The use of alternate promoters and 3'-terminal exons of the mouse Kalrn gene were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. While the two most distal full-length Kalrn promoters are used equally in the prefrontal cortex, the more proximal of these promoters accounts for most of the transcripts expressed in the nucleus accumbens. The 3'-terminal exon unique to the Kalirin 7 isoform accounts for a greater percentage of the Kalrn transcripts in prefrontal cortex than in nucleus accumbens. Western blot analyses confirmed these differences. Chronic cocaine treatment increases usage of the promoter encoding the Δ-Kalirin isoforms but does not alter full-length Kalirin promoter usage. Usage of the 3'-terminal exon unique to Kalirin 7 increases following chronic cocaine exposure. Conclusions Kalrn promoter and 3'-terminal exon utilization are region-specific. In the nucleus accumbens, cocaine-mediated alterations in promoter usage and 3'-terminal exon usage favor expression of
Anderson, D. Mark; Hansen, Benjamin; Rees, Daniel I.
While at least a dozen state legislatures in the United States have recently considered bills to allow the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government is intensifying its efforts to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using data from the national and state Youth Ris...
Full Text Available Summary: The aim of the present investigation was usage of medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action for temporary placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis. Materials and method: The medicamental paste for temporary placement of root canals consists of a mixture of metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania. Thë paste was used for the treatment of 30 teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Final obturation of the root canals was performed with gutta percha cones and sealer. The efficiency of the treatment was appreciated after examination on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings. Results: During the treatment of the 30 teeth, no exacerbations of the pathological process were recorded. Pain after obturation of the root canals was revealed in only 6 (20% of the treated teeth. No pain, pathologic changes of gingiva, good mastication efficiency in all teeth after treatment were revealed. Conclusions: The high clinical efficiency of the medicamental paste with antibacterial and regeneration action at the level of temporary root canals placement in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis was shown. Keywords: chronic apical periodontitis, medicamental paste for temporary root canals placement, metronidazole, Enterosgel (Silm and Alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania
... get through daily life. Addiction can lead to tolerance. Tolerance means you need more and more marijuana to ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Marijuana Browse the Encyclopedia ...
... 625KB) Online Only Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22-23, 2016 Meeting Summary Featured ... Parents Need to Know Marijuana: Facts for Teens Research Reports This series of reports simplifies the science ...
Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...
McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.
Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depr...
Bauer, Biljana; Kostik, Vesna; Kavrakovski, Zoran
Marijuana is very popular nowadays because of its medical use. This paper gives a short survey and review on the historical development of the ideas associated with marijuana. The aim of this paper is to look inside all faces of marijuana through history. Marijuana represents the dried top parts of female hemp plant in flower, which contains up to 6% tetrahidrocanabinol THC. Throughout human history hemp has been used for many purposes such as recreation, therapy, art, religion, medicine as a...
... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...
... leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp ( Cannabis sativa ) plant. It looks like green, brown, or ... Called: weed, grass, pot, chronic, joint, blunt, herb, cannabis, hashish, Mary Jane How It's Used: Marijuana is ...
... in marijuana. THC affects the brain's control of emotions, thinking, and coordination. Use of marijuana can lead to: School difficulties Problems with memory and concentration Increased aggression Car accidents Use of other drugs or alcohol Risky sexual behaviors Increased risk of suicide Increased ...
Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…
7/13 REVISION Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as cannabis (can-a-bis) is the most widely used illegal drug ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.
This investigation studied the association between developmental trajectories of marijuana use extending from adolescence to age 32 and later antisocial behavior at age 37. Semi-parametric group-based modeling and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Five distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: never-users, quitters/decreasers, occasional users, chronic users, and increasing users. Being either a chronic user or an increasing marijuana user was associate...
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.
Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood were examined for adverse life-course outcomes among African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. Data for marijuana use were analyzed at four points in time and on participants’ personality attributes, work functioning, and partner relations in adulthood using growth mixture modeling. Each of the three marijuana-use trajectory groups (maturing-out, late-onset, and chronic marijuana-users) had greater adverse life-course outco...
Miller, Stephen M.; Siegel, Jason T.; Hohman, Zachary; Crano, William D.
This study was designed to determine whether the relation between parents’ recency of (lifetime) marijuana use (RMU) and their adolescent children’s subsequent marijuana initiation was mediated by the adolescents’ expectancies regarding the consequences of usage, their anticipated severity of punishment for use, and their evaluative attitudes toward marijuana. Parents and their initially marijuana-abstinent adolescent children drawn from the National Survey of Parents and Youth were studied (...
Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & ... Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...
... unease, and worry (anxiety) Feeling stirred up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable ( agitation ) Trouble falling or staying ... not seeing friends who are still using marijuana. Exercise and eat healthy foods . Taking care of your ...
Jennifer Tropp Sneider; Gruber, Staci A.; Jadwiga Rogowska; Silveri, Marisa M.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ) users compared to 18 nonusing...
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...
Greydanus, Donald E; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav
Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mai...
Ushang Desai; Paras Patel
Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical ...
Mir M Ali
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on adolescent substance use has consistently identified a strong relationship between adolescent behavior and the behavior of their peers. However, peer effects are difficult to estimate and causal interpretations must be undertaken with caution since individuals in most cases choose with whom to associate. In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the causal role of peer social networks in explaining marijuana usage among adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer selections to purge the potential biases from the estimates of peer influence. Our peer group measures are drawn not only from the nomination of close friends (N = 6,377, but also from classmates (N = 19,335. Marijuana usage among the peer groups were constructed using the peers' own report of their marijuana consumption. Controlling for parent level characteristics, and other demographic parameters, we find that a 10% increase in the proportion of close friends and classmates who use marijuana increases the probability that an individual chooses to use marijuana by 5%. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that peer effects are important determinants of marijuana use even after controlling for potential biases We also found evidence to show that the influence of close friends and the more exogenous classmates are quite similar in magnitude under our preferred specification, supporting theory predicting the importance of peer influence. Effective policy aimed at reducing marijuana usage among adolescents would consider these significant peer effects.
Filbey, Francesca M; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith
The existing literature on the long-term effects of marijuana on the brain provides an inconsistent picture (i.e., presence or absence of structural changes) due to methodological differences across studies. We overcame these methodological issues by collecting multimodal measures in a large group of chronic marijuana using adults with a wide age range that allows for characterization of changes across lifespan without developmental or maturational biases as in other studies. Our findings sug...
... that it does not recommend marijuana or other cannabis products for the treatment of glaucoma . Speak with ... Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Leer en Español: La Marihuana y el Glaucoma Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search ...
Miller, Stephen M; Siegel, Jason T; Hohman, Zachary; Crano, William D
This study was designed to determine whether the relation between parents' recency of (lifetime) marijuana use (RMU) and their adolescent children's subsequent marijuana initiation was mediated by the adolescents' expectancies regarding the consequences of usage, their anticipated severity of punishment for use, and their evaluative attitudes toward marijuana. Parents and their initially marijuana-abstinent adolescent children drawn from the National Survey of Parents and Youth were studied (N = 1,399). A bootstrapped multiple mediation analysis tested whether adolescents' expectations, anticipated punishment, and attitudes toward marijuana collected in the first year of the longitudinal study mediated the relationship between parents' RMU and their adolescent children's marijuana initiation 1 year later. Analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the parental measure and youths' subsequent initiation (p positive association of parents' RMU with their child's marijuana use and provide insights that may be useful in future prevention efforts. PMID:23586448
Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H
Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465
... described in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of March 8, 1985 (50 FR 9518-20). In this document, FDA... person's medical/psychiatric history and history with drugs. Frequent marijuana users (greater than 100... critical factor in persistent impairment resulting from chronic marijuana use. Individuals with a...
Full Text Available It is analysed that using in treatment of the chronic diseases sinus paranasalis of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity on system Yoga brings about defogging from viscous, thick, rack slime, liquidations of the stagnant phenomena's in nose cavity. Using the respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy does simple not traumatic drainage of the sinus paranasalis that brings about natural defogging nose cavity to account of the evacuations secret of the sinus paranasalis. Thereby, using in physical rehabilitation and recovery of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity for system Yoga with respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy enables significantly improves the condition of children in a dispensary condition.
Kramer, Joan L
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. PMID:25503438
Lamarine, Roland J.
Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…
Gunen, H; Kilinc, O; Polatli, M; Suerdem, M; Uzaslan, E
Despite the introduction of numerous national and international COPD guidelines designed to provide clinicians with optimal evidence-based disease management strategies, COPD remains an underdiagnosed and poorly treated disease. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines recommend disease specific diagnosis and management strategies, and they are widely used internationally. In this short report we present the outcomes of a meeting of respiratory experts in Turkey who reviewed the GOLD guidelines and their applicability to the Turkish healthcare system. In particular, we were interested to investigate the possibility of developing a simplified version of the combined assessment model which we believe will be more acceptable to Turkish pulmonologists and will increase its use in everyday clinical practice. PMID:27015415
... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...
Kepple, Nancy Jo; Mulholland, Elycia; Freisthler, Bridget; Schaper, Elizabeth
Marijuana purchasing behaviors vary by the purchaser's individual characteristics; however, little is known about patients' purchasing behaviors when buying from medical marijuana dispensaries (MMDs). Our objective was to explore whether patient characteristics were associated with amount spent during one financial transaction at medical marijuana dispensaries. We conducted a pilot study of four purposively sampled MMD locations in Long Beach, California, in 2012. A total of 132 medical marijuana patients (33 patients per dispensary) participated in an exit survey about their demographic characteristics, conditions for their medical marijuana recommendation, amount spent at the dispensary, and cross-streets of where they lived. The sample reported amounts spent on discrete purchases of marijuana buds averaging $40.82 (ranging from $10 to $255). Multivariate regression analyses indicated average amount spent differed significantly by patient age and condition. An increase in 10 years of age was associated with a 10% higher amount spent. Receiving a recommendation for anxiety and/or sleeping problems or other nonspecified conditions was related to higher discrete purchase amounts than chronic pain. This pilot suggests that variations in patient purchasing behaviors from MMDs exist. These purchase behaviors can provide insight into variations in how patients use dispensaries, consume products, and allocate personal resources. PMID:26757234
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J
Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. PMID:27262456
Bottalico Dougie Kevin, Edoardo; Duerto-Orlando, Ramòn; Muszala, Lukas; Santamaria, Lorenzo
Questo progetto si prefigge lo scopo d’indagare su quanto la televisione influenzi l’opinione delle persone nei confronti della marijuana. Siamo partiti dal presupposto che il mezzo televisivo desse un’immagine particolarmente negativa della cannabis e dei suoi derivati, soprattutto nell’abito dell’informazione scientifica, dipingendola principalmente come un qualcosa di esclusivamente dannoso per la salute. Abbiamo deciso d’investigare questo fenomeno sul campo, tramite la creazione, in prim...
Neidert, Marian C; Schmidt, Tobias; Mitova, Tatyana; Fierstra, Jorn; Bellut, David; Regli, Luca; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bozinov, Oliver
The aim of this study is to analyze the association of preoperative usage of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors with the initial presentation and clinical outcome of patients with chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Patients treated for cSDH between 2009 and 2013 at our institution were included in this retrospective case-control study. Medical charts were reviewed retrospectively and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Out of 203 patients (58 females, mean age 73.2years), 53 (26%) patients were on ACE inhibitors before their presentation with cSDH. Median initial hematoma volume in individuals with ACE inhibitors (179.2±standard error of the mean [SEM] 13.0ml) was significantly higher compared to patients without ACE inhibitors (140.4±SEM 6.2ml; p=0.007). There was an increased probability of surgical reintervention in the ACE inhibitor group (12/53, 23% versus 19/153, 12%; p=0.079), especially in patients older than 80years (6/23, 26% versus 3/45, 7%; p=0.026). ACE inhibitors are associated with higher hematoma volume in patients with cSDH and with a higher frequency of recurrences requiring surgery (especially in the very old). We hypothesize that these effects are due to ACE inhibitor induced bradykinin elevation causing increased vascular permeability of the highly vascularized neomembranes in cSDH. PMID:26898577
Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.
Surender Kashyap; Kartikeya Kashyap
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on ...
... 2012) Nabiximols—an oral spray derived from cannabis—(Sativex®, GW Pharmaceuticals) significantly improved spasticity in a proportion ... marijuana and related products to treat MS symptoms. Sativex is now available in 15 countries and approved ...
Goldsmith, Robert S.; Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip
Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggest...
Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy.
Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy. PMID:24778478
Cooper, Ziva D.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret
Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions including mood lability, sleep disruption, and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in nontreatment seeking marijuana smokers. Volunte...
Kurtz, Michael J.; Bollen, Johan
Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.
Kurtz, Michael J
Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…
Davis, Alan K; Bonar, Erin E; Ilgen, Mark A; Walton, Maureen A; Perron, Brian E; Chermack, Stephen T
Psychiatric symptoms, somatic problems, and co-occurring substance use have been associated with medical marijuana consumption among civilian patients with substance use disorders. It is possible that these factors may impact Veterans' ability to engage in or adhere to mental health and substance use disorder treatment. Therefore, we examined whether psychiatric functioning, substance use, and somatic problems were associated with medical marijuana use among Veterans receiving substance use disorder and/or mental health treatment. Participants (n=841) completed screening measures for a randomized controlled trial and 67 (8%) reported that they had a current medical marijuana card. Most of these participants (78%) reported using marijuana to treat severe/chronic pain. Significant bivariate differences revealed that, compared to participants without a medical marijuana card, those with a card were more likely to be in a middle income bracket, unemployed, and they had a significantly higher number of recent days of marijuana use, synthetic marijuana use, and using sedatives prescribed to them. Additionally, a significantly higher proportion of participants with a medical marijuana card scored above the clinical cutoff for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, had significantly higher severity of sleep-related problems, and reported a higher level of pain. These findings highlight the co-occurrence of substance use, PTSD symptoms, sleep-related problems, and chronic pain among Veterans who use medical marijuana. Future research should investigate the inter-relationships among medical marijuana use and other clinical issues (e.g., PTSD symptoms, sleep, pain) over time, and potential implications of medical marijuana use on treatment engagement and response. PMID:27475408
Ramesh, Divya; Schlosburg, Joel E; Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Lichtman, Aron H
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide as well as in the Unites States. Prolonged use of marijuana or repeated administration of its primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can lead to physical dependence in humans and laboratory animals. The changes that occur with repeated cannabis use include alterations in behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses. A variety of withdrawal responses occur in cannabis-dependent individuals: anger, aggression, irritability, anxiety and nervousness, decreased appetite or weight loss, restlessness, and sleep difficulties with strange dreams. But the long half-life and other pharmacokinetic properties of THC result in delayed expression of withdrawal symptoms, and because of the lack of contiguity between drug cessation and withdrawal responses the latter are not readily recognized as a clinically relevant syndrome. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of clinical and laboratory animal research has emerged supporting the assertion that chronic exposure to cannabinoids produces physical dependence and may contribute to drug maintenance in cannabis-dependent individuals. However, no medications are approved to treat cannabis dependence and withdrawal. In this review, we describe preclinical and clinical research that supports the existence of a cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome. In addition, we review research evaluating potential pharmacotherapies (e.g., THC, a variety of antidepressant drugs, and lithium) to reduce cannabis withdrawal responses and examine how expanded knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms in the endocannabinoid system may lead to promising new therapeutic targets. PMID:23382144
Buckner, Julia D.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M age = 18.74, SD = 1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interest...
Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.
High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...
Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.
This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…
Hoyt, Les Leanne
Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)
Gruber, Staci A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Sagar, Kelly A.; Gönenc, Atilla; Killgore, William DS
Difficulties in the ability to successfully inhibit impulsive behaviors have been reported in marijuana (MJ) smokers, yet few studies have made direct comparisons between early (prior to age 16) and late (age 16 or later) onset MJ smokers, specifically during behavioral inhibition tasks. The current study utilized the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in chronic, heavy MJ smokers and healthy non-MJ smoking controls which revealed a more ...
Medical marijuana legalization has become both a medical and legal issue. Papers range from casual discussion, passionate and involved such as those by Annas1 and Okie2, to serious logical argument exemplified beautifully in Cohen’s3 work. Annas1 and Okie2 focused on California’s 1996 medical marijuana law and the 2005 Supreme Court trial Gonzales v. Raich respectively. Cohen3 had a larger scope, reviewing marijuana’s history in the United States from the colonial era to present-day. While ...
Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Michael Windle; Erin Stratton; Kegler, Michelle C.
Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the...
Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S
Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. PMID:26167716
Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise
Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…
Mithun B. Pattathan
Full Text Available Cannabis use has become one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world. It is estimated that each year 2.6 million individuals in the USA become new users and most are younger than 19 years of age. Reports describe marijuana use as high as 40–50% in male Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome patients. It is this interest in cannabis in the World, coupled with recognition of a cyclic vomiting illness associated with its chronic use that beckons a review of the most current articles, as well as a contribution from our own experiences in this area. The similarities we have demonstrated for both cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome and cyclic vomiting make the case that cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a subset of patients who have the diagnoses of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the role of marijuana should always be considered in the diagnosis of CVS, particularly in males.
Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N
Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection. PMID:27556668
Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant proportion of road traffic crashes are attributable to alcohol and marijuana use while driving globally. Sale and use of both substances is illegal in Pakistan and is not considered a threat for road traffic injuries. However literature hints that this may not be the case. We did this study to assess usage of alcohol and marijuana in Pakistani commercial drivers. Methods A sample of 857 commercial bus and truck drivers was interviewed in October 2008 at the largest commercial vehicle station in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Time location cluster sampling was used to select the subjects and a structured questionnaire was used to assess the basic demographic profile, substance abuse habits of the drivers while on the road, and reasons for usage of illicit substances while driving were recorded. Self reported information was collected after obtaining informed consent. Chi square and fisher exact tests were used to assess differences between groups and logistic regression was used to identify significant associations between driver characteristics and alcohol and marijuana use. Results Almost 10% of truck drivers use alcohol while driving on Pakistani roads. Marijuana use is almost 30% in some groups. Statistically different patterns of usage are seen between population subgroups based on age, ethnicity, education, and marital status. Regression analysis shows association of alcohol and marijuana use with road rage and error behaviours, and also with an increased risk of being involved in road crashes. The reported reasons for using alcohol or marijuana show a general lack of awareness of the hazardous nature of this practice among the commercial driver population. Conclusion Alcohol and marijuana use is highly prevalent in Pakistani commercial drivers. The issue needs to be recognized by concerned authorities and methods such as random breath tests and sobriety check points need to be employed for proper law
Hill, Kevin P.
With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...
Jacobus, J.; Bava, S.; Cohen-Zion, M.; Mahmood, O.; Tapert, S. F.
Nearly half of 12th graders have tried marijuana, and 6% use daily. This paper reviews studies on neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, brain function, and subjective and objective measures of sleep in relation to adolescent marijuana use. Adolescents who use marijuana heavily tend to show disadvantaged attention, learning, and processing speed; subtle abnormalities in brain structure; increased activation during cognitive tasks despite intact performance; and compromised objective...
Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua
Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic data...
Medicinal marijuana has been at the center of controversy for the treatment of cancer cachexia and AIDS related weight loss. Dronabinol, the oral form of marijuana, was approved for appetite stimulation, but its variability in absorption has led researchers to believe that smoked marijuana may be more effective. The discovery of endocannabinoids and their receptors has drawn attention from the research community, and as a result, marijuana’s role in appetite stimulation is clearer. Marijua...
Kozer E; Koren G
QUESTION: I am treating a 27-year-old woman who is now in her 10th week of pregnancy. She smokes marijuana two to three times a week, but does not use other drugs. She also smokes 20 cigarettes a day. I am concerned about the effects of marijuana exposure on her baby. ANSWER: It is not always possible to isolate the effect of marijuana exposure from other possible confounders on pregnancy outcome. Although marijuana is not an established human teratogen, recent well conducted studies suggest ...
Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…
Nixon, Panda Jnr
The prevalence of marijuana use disorder has increased among marijuana users. Marijuana is an illicit drug that is becoming commonly used among youths and young adults and is detrimental to the human health. This review addresses the questions that most people have about the use and the effects of marijuana on the human health. The review focuses on the effects and its seriousness, affecting physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral changes to the human existence. Most of the findings in this review were based upon studies done recently in the United States of America. This review shows that that the most commonly used illicit drug (marijuana) contains an active chemical called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which causes the mind-altering effects. When marijuana is smoked, its active ingredient, THC, travels throughout the body, including the brain, to produce its many effects. THC attaches to sites called cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells in the brain, affecting the way those cells function. The questions addressed include: "Is there treatments for marijuana abusers?"; and "Can marijuana be used as some forms of medication to human?". PMID:18181401
Johnson, M.; Smith, R.; Morrison, D.; Laszlo, G; White, R.
The case histories are presented of four men with multiple large upper zone lung bullae but otherwise relatively preserved lung parenchyma. Each had a history of significant exposure to marijuana. In three of the four cases the tobacco smoking load had been relatively small, suggesting a possible causal role for marijuana in the pathogenesis of this unusual pattern of bullous emphysema.
Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.
This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…
Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.
Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…
Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...
Benbadis, Selim R; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Bozorg, Ali; Giarratano, Melissa; Kalidas, Kavita; Katzin, Lara; Robertson, Derrick; Vu, Tuan; Smith, Amanda; Zesiewicz, Theresa
Constituents of the Cannabis plant, cannabinoids, may be of therapeutic value in neurologic diseases. The most abundant cannabinoids are Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which possesses psychoactive properties, and cannabidiol, which has no intrinsic psychoactive effects, but exhibits neuroprotective properties in preclinical studies. A small number of high-quality clinical trials support the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity of multiple sclerosis, pain refractory to opioids, glaucoma, nausea and vomiting. Lower level clinical evidence indicates that cannabinoids may be useful for dystonia, tics, tremors, epilepsy, migraine and weight loss. Data are also limited in regards to adverse events and safety. Common nonspecific adverse events are similar to those of other CNS 'depressants' and include weakness, mood changes and dizziness. Cannabinoids can have cardiovascular adverse events and, when smoked chronically, may affect pulmonary function. Fatalities are rare even with recreational use. There is a concern about psychological dependence, but physical dependence is less well documented. Cannabis preparations may presently offer an option for compassionate use in severe neurologic diseases, but at this point, only when standard-of-care therapy is ineffective. As more high-quality clinical data are gathered, the therapeutic application of cannabinoids will likely expand. PMID:25427150
Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C.
Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having
Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C
Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having
Carla J. Berg
Full Text Available Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6% were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.
A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…
Schwartz, R H
Although the adolescent's first use of marijuana is rarely pleasant, peer pressure often causes continued experimenting and a search for the euphoric "high." Preoccupation with use of the drug leads to mood changes, withdrawal, academic underachievement and confusion. Family members may refuse to admit that a drug problem exists and may subsequently develop dependency problems of their own. By assuming responsibility for the adolescent's drug problem, a parent enables the drug use to continue. To break this cycle, family members must seek guidance from a rehabilitation professional. PMID:3871295
Hayaki, Jumi; Hagerty, Claire E.; Herman, Debra S.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.
This study examined associations between the endorsement of drug use expectancies and the frequency and severity of marijuana use in a community sample of 332 women aged 18–24 years who were not explicitly seeking treatment for their marijuana use. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention study of motivational interviewing for various health behaviors and provided self-reports of their current and past marijuana use, marijuana abuse/dependence symptoms, and marijuana use expectanci...
Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.
Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nab...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect
Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price
The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452
Full Text Available Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescription appears to mirror the position of psychiatrists in developing countries. For instance, in a recent survey of psychiatrists in Nigeria, up to 55% of psychiatrists were against the medical use of marijuana. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1098-1098
Birdsall, Shauna M; Birdsall, Timothy C; Tims, Lucas A
The use of medical marijuana in cancer care presents a dilemma for both patients and physicians. The scientific evidence is evolving, yet much of the known information is still insufficient to adequately inform patients as to risks and benefits. In addition, evidence-based dosing and administration information on medical marijuana is lacking. Medical marijuana is now legal, on some level, in 24 states plus the District of Columbia, yet is not legal on the federal level. This review addresses the current state of the research, including potential indications, risks and adverse effects, preliminary data on anticancer effects, as well as legal and quality issues. A summary of the clinical trials underway on medical marijuana in the oncology setting is discussed. PMID:27215434
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... J Drug Policy . 2015;26(2):135-142. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.07.011. Panlilio LV, Zanettini ... Alcohol Depend . 2008;92(1-3):239-247. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.08.005. This publication is ...
Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth
Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple...
Ramesh, Divya; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Wiebelhaus, Jason M.; Lichtman, Aron H.
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide as well as in the Unites States. Prolonged use of marijuana or repeated administration of its primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can lead to physical dependence in humans and laboratory animals. The changes that occur with repeated cannabis use include alterations in behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses. A variety of withdrawal responses occur in cannabis-dependent indivi...
Neavyn, Mark J.; Blohm, Eike; Babu, Kavita M.; Bird, Steven B.
Medical marijuana remains a highly debated treatment regimen despite removal of state penalties against care providers prescribing the drug and patients treated with the drug in many areas of the USA. The utility of marijuana in specific medical conditions has been studied at length, but its effects on driving performance and risk of motor vehicle collision remain unclear. As with other medications that affect psychomotor function, the healthcare provider should be informed of the potential r...
Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R; Lieving, Lori M; Tcheremissine, Oleg V
It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of delay-independent (initial discrimination) from delay-dependent (forgetting or retrieval) components of memory. Using methods developed in the experim...
Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean
Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334
Full Text Available Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana, which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.
Over half of the US states have adopted "medical marijuana" laws (MMLs), and 58% of Americans now favor marijuana legalization. Despite public support, federal law continues to prohibit the use and sale of marijuana due to public health concerns of increased dependence and abuse, youth access, and drugged driving. These essays contribute toward understanding the likely health consequences of marijuana liberalization using evidence from MMLs.Chapter 1 -- Growing Like Weed: Explaining Variation...
Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.
To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...
Sheer, Amy J.; Gorelick, David A.; Collins, Charles C.; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Heishman, Stephen J.; Leff, Michelle K.; Moolchan, Eric T.
Little is known about adolescents’ interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smoker...
Matthew W Johnson; Bickel, Warren K.; Baker, Forest; Moore, Brent A.; Badger, Gary J.; Budney, Alan J.
Studies have found that a variety of drug dependent groups discount delayed rewards more than matched-controls. This study compared delay discounting for a hypothetical $1000 reward among dependent marijuana users, former dependent marijuana users, and matched-controls. Discounting of marijuana was also assessed in the currently marijuana-dependent group. No significant difference in discounting was detected among the groups, however currently dependent users showed a trend to discount money ...
Belendiuk, Katherine A; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O
The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia/wasting syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease, epilepsy and seizures, glaucoma, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis and muscle spasticity, severe and chronic pain, and severe nausea. Post-traumatic stress disorder was also included in the review, as it is the sole psychological disorder for which medical marijuana has been allowed. Studies for this narrative review were included based on a literature search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Findings indicate that, for the majority of these conditions, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of medical marijuana at this time. A significant amount of rigorous research is needed to definitively ascertain the potential implications of marijuana for these conditions. It is important for such work to not only examine the effects of smoked marijuana preparations, but also to compare its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in relation to existing pharmacological treatments. PMID:25896576
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Moustafa Elsheshtawy; Priatharsini Sriganesh; Vasudev Virparia; Falgun Patel; Ashok Khanna
Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.
Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci
Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…
[CLINICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC RESULTS OF THE USAGE OF VARIOUS HIV REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS IN THE SCHEMES OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY OF PATIENT RECEIVING THERAPY FOR THE CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS].
Moshkovich, G F; Minaeva, S V; Varlova, L W; Goryaeva, M P; Gulyaeva, S S; Tichonova, E V
Efficacy, safety, and economical aspects of treatment with abacavir, zidovudine, stavudine, and phosphazide in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy of the HIV-infected patients receiving therapy for hepatitis C virus were tested. Clinical, immunological, and virologic efficacy of treatment and dynamics of hemoglobin, thrombocytes, and alanine aminotransferase as markers of common adverse events recorded at the start of the antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C and after 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 weeks of the treatment were evaluated. The usage of these drugs in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy exhibited efficacy, high tolerability and safety for all HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PMID:27145599
Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H
In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370
Jacobi, Liana; Michelle, Sovinsky
Illicit drug use is prevalent around the world. While the nature of the market makes it difficult to determine the total sales worldwide with certainty, estimates suggest sales are around 150 billion dollar a year in the United States alone. Among illicit drugs marijuana is the most commonly used, where the US government spends upwards of $7.7 billion per year in enforcement of the laws for marijuana sales (Miron, 2005). For the past 30 years there has been a debate regarding whether marijuan...
Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L
A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations. PMID:12744713
Jennifer Tropp Sneider
Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ users compared to 18 nonusing (NU comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform and motor control (visible platform conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ. These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval.
Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Silveri, Marisa M; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ) users compared to 18 non-using (NU) comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform) and motor control (visible platform) conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval - Motor control contrast (NU > MJ). These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval. PMID:23951549
Metrik, Jane; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.; McGeary, John; Cook, Travis A. R.; de Wit, Harriet; Haney, Margaret; Kahler, Christopher W.
Although alcohol and nicotine administration studies have demonstrated that manipulating subjects’ expectancies regarding drug content affects drug response, research with marijuana has not adequately studied drug expectancy effects. The present pilot study was the first to evaluate the credibility and effect of expectancy manipulation on subjective measures and smoking patterns using a marijuana administration balanced-placebo design (BPD). In a 2 × 2 instructional set (told delta-9-tetrahyd...
Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret
Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and femal...
Metts, Julius; Wright, Steven; Sundaram, Jawahar; Hashemi, Nastran
With medical marijuana available in more and more states, family physicians need to know what the evidence says about its use. This review includes a step-by-step guide and a list of red flags to watch for. PMID:27158689
Brown, Seth A
Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124
Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen
This teacher's guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…
Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…
Johnson Joy L
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.
Studies show significant negative effects of smoking marijuana on physical and mental health as well as social and occupational functioning. At the same time, there are more considerations about its ability to treat a number of diseases. This review summarizes current data in scientific literature that examines the medical effects of marijuana on human health with particular emphasis on its potential in medicine. Marijuana has a range of adverse health effects, particularly relating to young people because of higher risk for psychosis, traffic accidents, and cognitive impairment. Marijuana may be helpful in relieving symptoms of nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite and pain relief for persons with cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis. Smoking marijuana can impose significant public health risks. If there is a medical role for using marijuana, it lies in the application of clearly defined medical protocols and chemically defined compounds, not with using the unprocessed cannabis plant. PMID:25327006
Buckner, Julia D.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Welch, Katherine D.
Given that marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance, identification of the role of potentially malleable cognitive factors in marijuana-related behaviors remains an important goal. The Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991) assesses marijuana effect expectancies that are differentially related to marijuana use and use-related problems. Evaluation of the desirability of marijuana effect expectancies may provide additional information regardi...
D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S.
Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijua...
Johnson Joy L; Bottorff Joan L; Moffat Barbara M; Mulvogue Tamsin
Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were reg...
Frank J. Chaloupka; Adit Laixuthai
Data from the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys are used to examine the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Beer prices and minimum legal drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking episodes are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full pr...
Full Text Available Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.
Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok
Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030
Freeman, Geraldine L.
In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly differen...
Kadden, Ronald M.; Litt, Mark D.; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy M.
Previous studies have noted particular difficulty in achieving abstinence among those who are marijuana dependent. The present study employed a dismantling design to determine whether adding contingency management (ContM) to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy (MET+CBT), an intervention used in prior studies of treatment for marijuana dependence, would enhance abstinence outcomes. 240 marijuana dependent participants were recruited via advertisements and assigne...
Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia
Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), ...
BACKGROUND: Economists depict illicit markets as violent, due to the lack of centralized property rights enforcement. At the same time, the importance of friendship networks and drug sharing is a recently documented feature of the marijuana market. Recent studies show an increased role of acquiring marijuana through friends, especially in settings where drug policy is rather punitive. This thesis extends this research into the norms that marijuana users attribute to their definition friendshi...
Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely avai...
Smith, David E
As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth. PMID:26757396
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S
Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167
Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean
Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or ...
Johnson, Kirsten; Mullin, Jennifer L.; Marshall, Erin C.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael
The current study evaluated the prediction that coping motives for marijuana use would mediate the relation between anxiety sensitivity and a marijuana dependence diagnosis after controlling for other co-occurring marijuana use motives. Participants were 136 current marijuana users (47.1% women; Mage = 21.9, SD = 7.2). Results were consistent with a mediational effect, with the relation between anxiety sensitivity and marijuana dependence being explained by the addition of coping motives into...
Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; Hunter, Sarah B; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...
Morrison, Chris; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Remer, Lillian G.
Background The introduction of laws that permit the use of marijuana for medical purposes has led to the emergence of a medical marijuana industry in some US states. This study assessed the spatial distribution of medical marijuana dispensaries according to estimated marijuana demand, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol outlets and other socio-demographic factors. Method Telephone survey data from 5,940 residents of 39 California cities were used to estimate social and demographic correlates of marijuana demand. These individual-level estimates were then used to calculate aggregate marijuana demand (i.e. market potential) for 7,538 census block groups. Locations of actively operating marijuana dispensaries were then related to the measure of demand and the socio-demographic characteristics of census block groups using multilevel Bayesian conditional autoregressive logit models. Results Marijuana dispensaries were located in block groups with greater marijuana demand, higher rates of poverty, alcohol outlets, and in areas just outside city boundaries. For the sampled block groups, a 10% increase in demand within a block group was associated with 2.4% greater likelihood of having a dispensary, and a 10% increase in the city-wide demand was associated with a 6.7% greater likelihood of having a dispensary. Conclusion High demand for marijuana within individual block groups and within cities is related to the location of marijuana dispensaries at a block-group level. The relationship to low income, alcohol outlets and unincorporated areas indicates that dispensaries may open in areas that lack the resources to resist their establishment. PMID:24439710
Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.
A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.
Victor, Hope R.; And Others
Increasing frequency of marijuana use was found to be significantly related to increased creativity, adventuresomeness, internal sensation novelty seeking and impulsivity, and decreased authoritarianism. No differences were noted in manifest anxiety among user groups, but heavier marijuana users earned lower grades in school. (Author)
Freeman, G L
In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109
Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia
Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109
Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele
Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…
Ostrowsky, Michael K.
Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes, and its use by pregnant women could increase even further as a result. Because of concerns regarding impaired neurodevelopment, as well as maternal and fetal exposure to the adverse effects of smoking, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. Obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation. Pregnant women or women contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue use of marijuana for medicinal purposes in favor of an alternative therapy for which there are better pregnancy-specific safety data. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on infants during lactation and breastfeeding, and in the absence of such data, marijuana use is discouraged. PMID:26241291
Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga
Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…
Bari, Pranit; P M Chawan
The paper discusses about web usage mining involves the automatic discovery of user access patterns from one or more Web servers. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. The paper also confers about the procedure in which the web usage mining of the data sets is carried out. Finally the paper concludes with the areas in which web usage mining is implemented
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; VanderWaal, Curtis J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
This article examines relationships between local drug policy (as represented by prosecutor-reported case outcomes for first-offender juvenile marijuana possession cases) and youth self-reported marijuana use, perceived risk, and disapproval. Interviews with prosecutors and surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States were…
Swarnalatha, G.; Pai, S.; Ram, R.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.
Marijuana is used for psychoactive and recreational purpose. We report a case of fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse who recovered following artificial support systems for acute liver failure. There is no published literature of management of marijuana intoxication with molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS). MARS is effective and safe in patients with fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana intoxication.
Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.
In the United States, one in six teenagers has driven under the influence of marijuana. Driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol is equally prevalent, despite the fact that marijuana use is less common than alcohol use. Much of the research examining the effects of marijuana on driving performance was conducted in the 1970s and led to equivocal findings. During that time, few studies included women and driving simulators were rudimentary. Further, the potency of marijuana commonly...
Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.
Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The numbe...
Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret
Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the...
Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B
There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. D...
Mariani, John J.; Haney, Margaret; Hart, Carl L.; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Levin, Frances R.
A post hoc analysis examined depressive symptoms in regular marijuana smokers interested in nontreatment, laboratory studies and marijuana-dependent treatment-seekers considering clinical trial participation. Among marijuana-dependent treatment-seeking patients screened for a clinical trial, the mean Beck Depression Inventory Score (BDI) was significantly higher than for marijuana-using volunteers screened for non-treatment laboratory studies. Mean self-reported baseline marijuana use was not...
Maa, Edward; Figi, Paige
Charlotte, a little girl with SCN1A-confirmed Dravet syndrome, was recently featured in a special that aired on CNN. Through exhaustive personal research and assistance from a Colorado-based medical marijuana group (Realm of Caring), Charlotte's mother started adjunctive therapy with a high concentration cannabidiol/Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD:THC) strain of cannabis, now known as Charlotte's Web. This extract, slowly titrated over weeks and given in conjunction with her existing antiepileptic drug regimen, reduced Charlotte's seizure frequency from nearly 50 convulsive seizures per day to now 2-3 nocturnal convulsions per month. This effect has persisted for the last 20 months, and Charlotte has been successfully weaned from her other antiepileptic drugs. We briefly review some of the history, preclinical and clinical data, and controversies surrounding the use of medical marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy, and make a case that the desire to isolate and treat with pharmaceutical grade compounds from cannabis (specifically CBD) may be inferior to therapy with whole plant extracts. Much more needs to be learned about the mechanisms of antiepileptic activity of the phytocannabinoids and other constituents of Cannabis sativa. PMID:24854149
Hilderbrand, Richard L
The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so. PMID:22080902
Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril
Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984
Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.
In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) complet...
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.
We examined the longitudinal pathways from marijuana use in the familial environment (parents and siblings) and non-familial environment (peers and significant other), throughout adolescence and young adulthood, to the participants’ own marijuana use in their fourth decade of life (n = 586). Longitudinal pathways to marijuana use were assessed using structural equation modeling. Familial factors were mediated by non-familial factors; sibling marijuana use also had a direct effect on the parti...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate and sand (predominant silicon dioxide are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm and fine aluminum particles ( Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html.
Yacoubian, George S., Jr.
The United States and the Netherlands have antithetical marijuana control policies. The United States' laws criminalize the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, while the Netherlands have maintained, over the past several decades, two relatively liberal marijuana policies implemented during the 1970s and 1980s. According to the…
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The progesterone 17α-hydroxylase activity, which is one of the steroidogenic enzymes in rat testis microsomes, was significantly inhibited by crude marijuana extracts from Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)- and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-strains. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol also inhibited the enzymatic activitiy with relatively higher concentration (100-1000 μM). Testosterone 6β- and 16α-hydroxylase activities together with androstenedione formation from testosterone in rat liver microsomes were also significantly inhibited by the crude marijuana extracts and the cannabinoids. Crude marijuana extracts (1 and 10 μg/ml) of THCA strain stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, although the purified cannabinoids (THC, CBD and CBN) did not show significant effects, such as the extract at the concentration of 0.01-1000 nM. These results indicate that there are some metabolic interactions between cannabinoid and steroid metabolism and that the constituents showing estrogen-like activity exist in marijuana
Hall, Joanne M; Shattell, Mona M; McConnell, Elizabeth A
The United States is trending toward more permissiveness regarding recreational and medicinal marijuana (MJ). Many conditions for which MJ is recommended, prescribed, or self-prescribed are symptoms that advanced practice nurses address daily. Yet, the silence of nursing scientists on ethics, practices, and policies regarding such clinical decisions is deafening. This is but one of many contradictions about MJ use that we discuss in this article. We do not propose to resolve these contradictions; that is left to the community of nurse scientists in interprofessional discourse. Collectively, we must explore these contradictions and, through evidence-based policy recommendations, overcome the silence about how providers view MJ, how it might be helpful, its risks, and cultural shifts that have accompanied a changed political/legal environment. Long term, we must close the gaps in the nursing knowledge base regarding MJ as it affects users and how it is used interventionally. PMID:26950836
Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.
Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marij...
Gruber, Staci A.; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers’ responses to affective stimuli. The anterior ...
Peters, Erica N.; Petry, Nancy M.; LaPaglia, Donna M.; Reynolds, Brady; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Delay discounting is an index of impulsive decision-making and reflects an individual’s preference for smaller immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards. Multiple studies have indicated comparatively high rates of discounting among tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and other types of drug users, but few studies have examined discounting among marijuana users. This report is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial that randomized adults with marijuana dependence to receive one o...
Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S.; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji
Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before ...
Skenderian, Jessica J.; Siegel, Jason T.; Crano, William D.; Alvaro, Eusebio E.; Lac, Andrew
Drug prevention campaigns commonly seek to change outcome expectancies associated with substance use, but the effects of violating such expectancies are rarely considered. This study details an application of the expectancy violation framework in a real world context by investigating whether changes in marijuana expectations are associated with subsequent future marijuana intentions. A cohort of adolescents (N = 1,344; age range = 12-18 years) from the National Survey of Parents and Youth was...
Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E
Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on postsecondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college grade point average (GPA) and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting postsecondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288
Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: 1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; n=126), 2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; n=607), and 3) non-users (never used marijuana; n=343). A conduct problem inventory used in previous studies was adapted for use in the present study. Early conduct...
General characteristic of web mining including methodology and procedures incorporated into this term. Relation to other areas (data mining, artificial intelligence, statistics, databases, internet technologies, management etc.) Web usage mining - data sources, data pre-processing, characterization of analytical methods and tools, interpretation of outputs (results), and possible areas of usage including examples. Suggestion of solution method, realization and a concrete example's outputs int...
Full Text Available There is limited understanding on marijuana use by psychiatric patients, specifically with regard as to why they continue to smoke marijuana despite the negative consequences, such as readmittance to psychiatric hospitals following marijuana-induced psychosis. It is, therefore, important to understand why psychiatric patients continue to use marijuana, despite experiencing its negative effects. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of psychiatric patients with regard to marijuana use in Potchefstroom, North West Province, as well as to formulate recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of psychiatric patients following marijuana-induced psychosis. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in order to give ‘voice’ to the perceptions of psychiatric patients about marijuana use. Purposive sampling was utilised to identify participants who complied with selection criteria. The sample size was determined by data saturation, which was reached after 10 individual interviews with psychiatric patients. Unstructured individual interviews were utilised to gather data after written approval from the Ethics committee of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus, North West Provincial Department of Health, the clinical manager of the psychiatric hospital where data were collected, as well as from the psychiatric patients. The co-coder and the researcher analysed the data independently. The findings of this study include perceptions of psychiatric patients on the use of marijuana, the negative effects of marijuana use, marijuana use and mental illness, and quitting marijuana. Recommendations were formulated for nursing education, nursing research as well as for nursing practice.
Insig in die gebruik van marijuana deur psigiatriese pasiënte is beperk, spesifiek met
Albert E.; Alonso D.; Arenas P.; Genaim S.; Puebla G.
When describing the resource usage of a program, it is usual to talk in asymptotic terms, such as the well-known “big O” notation, whereby we focus on the behaviour of the program for large input data and make a rough approximation by considering as equivalent programs whose resource usage grows at the same rate. Motivated by the existence of non-asymptotic resource usage analyzers, in this paper, we develop a novel transformation from a non-asymptotic cost function (which can be produced by ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.
Bertrand, Anne-Marie; Burgos, Martine; Poissenot, Claude; Privat, Jean-Marie
Selon l’enquête « L’expérience et l’image des bibliothèques municipales », 25,7 % de Français fréquentent une bibliothèque municipale. Ce premier chapitre veut dresser un portrait synthétique de cette population d’usagers. Dans le chapitre III, nous reviendrons plus en détail sur deux sous-populations qui la composent, celles des usagers inscrits (18,3 %) et des usagers non-inscrits (7,4 %). 1. Profils Qui sont les usagers des bibliothèques municipales ? En quoi leurs profils (leur âge, leur ...
Bruce D. Johnson; Geoffrey L. Ream; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.
This paper shows that active police enforcement of civic norms against marijuana smoking in public settings has influenced the locations where marijuana is smoked. It has subtly influenced the various marijuana etiquettes observed in both public and private settings. The ethnographic data reveals the importance of informal sanctions; most marijuana consumers report compliance with etiquettes mainly to avoid stigma from nonusing family, friends, and associates—they express limited concern abou...
Walker, Denise D.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Stephens, Robert S; Roffman, Roger A.
Adolescence is a time in which individuals are particularly likely to engage in health-risk behaviors, with marijuana being the most prevalent illicit drug used. Perceptions of others’ use (i.e., norms) have previously been found to be related to increased marijuana use. Additionally, low refusal self-efficacy has been associated with increased marijuana consumption. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of normative perceptions and self-efficacy on negative marijuana outcomes for a...
Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Hanson, Karen L; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J; Tapert, Susan F.
In adults, studies examining the long-lasting cognitive effects of marijuana use demonstrate subtle deficits in attention, executive function, and memory. Because neuromaturation continues through adolescence, these results cannot necessarily generalize to adolescent marijuana users. The goal of this study was to examine neuropsychological functioning in abstinent marijuana using and demographically similar control adolescents. Data were collected from 65 adolescent marijuana users (n = 31, 2...
Mariani, John J.; Brooks, Daniel; Haney, Margaret; Levin, Frances R.
The quantification method for collecting self-reported marijuana use data is not standardized as it is for alcohol or cigarettes, which presents a methodologic challenge for marijuana use disorder treatment studies. Serum and urine markers of marijuana use have a long half-life, limiting their utility as a clinical trial outcome measure. Structured calendar-based interview procedures can accurately measure the frequency of self-reported marijuana use, but are unable to reliably address issues...
Lutchmansingh, Denyse; Pawar, Leena; Savici, Dana
Habitual smoking of marijuana is associated with multiple respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, and wheezing .These symptoms are not significantly different from those exhibited by tobacco smokers. Furthermore, endobronchial biopsies of habitual smokers of marijuana and /or tobacco have shown that both marijuana and cigarette smoking cause significant bronchial mucosal histopathology and that these effects are additive. Although marijuana smokers have minimal changes in pulmo...
Full Text Available Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS is a rare constellation of clinical findings that includes a history of chronic heavy marijuana use, severe abdominal pain, unrelenting nausea, and intractable vomiting. A striking component of this history includes the use of hot showers or long baths that help to alleviate these symptoms. This is an underrecognized syndrome that can lead to expensive and unrevealing workups and can leave patients self-medicating their nausea and vomiting with the very substance that is causing their symptoms. Long-term treatment of CHS is abstinence from marijuana use—but the acute symptomatic treatment of CHS has been a struggle for many clinicians. Many standard medications used for the symptomatic treatment of CHS (including ondansetron, promethazine, and morphine have repeatedly been shown to be ineffective. Here we present the use of lorazepam as an agent that successfully and safely treats the tenacious symptoms of CHS. Additionally, we build upon existing hypotheses for the pathogenesis of CHS to try to explain why a substance that has been used for thousands of years is only now beginning to cause this paradoxical hyperemesis syndrome.
Renata Brasil Araujo
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature findings report that use of multiple substances can produce adverse clinical and behavioral effects, which may affect craving and the results of drug treatment. Also, the understanding of craving construct and its interaction in the use of smoked substances is underexplored. Objectives To induce and compare craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack-cocaine on hospitalized dependents whose drug of choice is crack-cocaine. Methods Quasi-experimental study with a convenience sample consisting of 210 males divided into 3 equal groups (Group-1: craving induced by crack; Group-2: craving induced by tobacco; and Group-3: craving induced by marijuana. All participants met ICD-10 dependence criteria for cocaine/crack, marijuana and tobacco, were aged between 18 and 65 and had used these substances for at least one year. Photos were used to induce craving and self-report instruments to evaluate possible alterations. Results This study showed that craving for tobacco was more intense than for marijuana and crack, when the groups were compared by VAS. Using specific scales, both craving for tobacco and craving for marijuana were more intense than craving for crack. Discussion These results would imply interventions at the initial stages of abstinence with cognitive-behavioural techniques and pharmacotherapy in order to reduce craving.
Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy
Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes.
Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Precursors of marijuana use in early adolescence are largely unknown because studies generally focus on marijuana use among older adolescents or adults. Methods: In this study, we examined precursors of marijuana use in a sample of 1023 Dutch early adolescents (aged 11-14 at Time 1) who
Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan
Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within...
King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…
Lee, Juliet P; Kirkpatrick, Sean
The paper describes findings from a pilot study of drug use and environment for Southeast Asian youths in the San Francisco Bay Area. From interviews with 31 drug-involved youths living in two low-income predominantly ethnic minority neighborhoods, smoking marijuana emerged as pervasive and highly normative. Smoking marijuana provided a means for coping with the stresses of home and community life, and located youths, moreover, within an alternative ghetto lifestyle of rap music, marijuana smoking, and youth crime, as modeled by co-resident ethnic minority peers, with which many Southeast Asian youths identified. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment as well as social status in the substance use of this group of second-generation youth. PMID:16537331
Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.
The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer
Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…
Alger, Bradley E
With legal cannabis sales at $5.4 billion in 2015 and expected to rise by another billion this year in the United States, legalization and marijuana's impact on health is a hot topic of national debate. Casarett, a physician at the University of Pennsylvania, immerses himself in the culture, science, and smoke of medical marijuana in order to sort out the truth behind the buzz. Our reviewer, who has authored more than 120 research papers and reviews on the regulation of synaptic inhibition and endocannabinoids, tell us what the author got right, but also overlooked on his journey to learn more about a complex and controversial subject. PMID:27408675
Hendershot, Christian S.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.
Multiple studies suggest an association of marijuana use with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most studies have focused on global associations of marijuana use with sexual risk outcomes and few have examined relevant cognitive variables. Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV/STDs and preliminary evidence suggests that marijuana is a potentially important cofactor for sexual risk behavior in this population. Th...
Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i
Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A
Motives for marijuana use are important predictors of problematic outcomes associated with marijuana use. Most measures, to date, were developed by adapting alcohol motives measures. However, the Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) was created using a bottom-up approach to evaluate twelve distinct motives for use. The CMMQ was developed and validated in a normative college population. As such, no known study has evaluated the factor structure and utility of the CMMQ in a heavy-using, high school student population. The current study utilized a sample of 252 heavy marijuana-using high school students recruited for a combination motivational enhancement/cognitive behavioral intervention. Results from baseline measures indicated that the factor structure of the CMMQ was maintained in this population. Results from multiple regression analyses revealed distinct relationships with measures of negative consequences of use, including indices of marijuana use, marijuana-related problems, self-efficacy, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In particular, the Coping motive was associated with several negative outcomes, which is consistent with previous marijuana and alcohol motives literature. Results suggest that the CMMQ may be useful in assessing marijuana motives among heavy marijuana-using adolescents. PMID:26878304
Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lang, Delia L.; Kegler, Michelle C.
Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3%...
Washburn, Isaac J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.
Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Also not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues – and associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses – using a longitudinal dataset of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Indi...
Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.
This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…
Sayeed, Sarah; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Cappella, Joseph; Kirkland Ahern, R.
This paper uses an integrated model of behavior change to predict intentions to use marijuana occasionally and regularly in a US-based national sample of male and female 12 to 18 year olds (n = 600). The model combines key constructs from the theory of reasoned action and social cognitive theory. The survey was conducted on laptop computers, and…
Moore, Christine; Coulter, Cynthia; Uges, Donald; Tuyay, James; van der Linde, Susanne; van Leeuwen, Arthur; Garnier, Margaux; Orbita, Jonathan
The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolite 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) as well as cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) were measured in oral fluid following realistic exposure to marijuana in a Dutch coffee-shop. Ten healthy subje
A. Ebru Tayyar
Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.
Berg, Carla J; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Linda Grimsley; Jan Rodd; Daniel Smith
Objective: Marijuana is a prevalent substance used among young adults and has serious psychosocial and health-related consequences. Thus, identifying factors associated with marijuana use is critical. The current study aimed to examine personality factors and health risk behaviors associated with marijuana use. Methods: We administered an online survey to six colleges in the Southeast. Overall, we recruited 24,055 college students, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate), with complete ...
Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.
Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms among adolescent marijuana users and controls. Methods: Data were collected from marijuana users (n = 16) and demographically similar controls (n =...
Bauer, Scott; Olson, Jennifer; Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in fou...
Morrison, D. M.; Lohr, M. J.; Beadnell, B.; Gillmore, M. Rogers; Lewis, S.; Gilchrist, L.
The current study examines the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict marijuana use among young women who experienced a premarital pregnancy before age 18, using longitudinal data. The validity of the TPB assumption that all other variables work through TPB constructs is also tested. Indicators of four constructs that have been shown in the literature to be predictive of marijuana use -- persistent environmental adversity, emotional distress, adolescent marijuana use, drug use ...
Little, Melissa A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve
The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at 1-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at ...
The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at one-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users ...
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Kassenböhmer, Sonja C.; Le, Trinh(Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904-4714, U.S.A.); McVicar, Duncan; Zhang, Rong
We use unique survey data linked to nearly a decade of administrative welfare data to examine the relationship between early marijuana use (at age 14 or younger) and young people’s educational outcomes. We find evidence that early marijuana use is related to educational penalties that are compounded by high-intensity use and are larger for young people living in families with a history of welfare receipt. The relationships between marijuana use and both high school completion and achieving a ...
Squeglia, Lindsay M.; M. Alejandra Infante; Sunita Bava; Tapert, Susan F.; Joanna Jacobus
Characterizing the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on adolescent brain development is important for understanding potential alterations in neurodevelopment. Several cross sectional studies have identified group differences in white matter integrity after initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use, however none have explored white matter trajectories in adolescents pre- and post initiation of use, particularly for marijuana users. This study followed 16 adolescents with minimal alcohol...
Blevins, Claire E.; Stephens, Robert S.; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.
Research and theory strongly support the importance of situational determinants of substance use as targets for intervention, but few studies have systematically examined situational use characteristics in marijuana dependent adults. The present study describes situational use of marijuana in a population of 87 marijuana dependent adults and reports relationships with outcomes of treatment. Use in negative affective situations was independently associated with psychological distress, maladapt...
Weiland, Barbara J.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.
Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) ...
"Anslingerian" Politics: The History of Anti-Marijuana Sentiment in Federal law and How Harry Anslinger's Anti-Marijuana Politics Continue to Prevent the FDA and other Medical Experts from Studying Marijuana's Medical Utility
Ransom, Jesse J.
This paper is intended to demonstrate how the Federal Bureau of Narcoticsâ€™s propagation of negative images associating marijuana with the anti-social behavior of marginal socio-economic groups in the 1930â€™s still influences the federal governmentâ€™s marijuana policies today. This paper traces the history of marijuanaâ€™s legal, from its legal status Americaâ€™s infancy, where many colonies considered mar...
Ketcherside, Ariel; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Baine, Jessica L; Filbey, Francesca M
Specific personality traits have been linked with substance use disorders (SUDs), genetic mechanisms, and brain systems. Thus, determining the specificity of personality traits to types of SUD can advance the field towards defining SUD endophenotypes as well as understanding the brain systems involved for the development of novel treatments. Disentangling these factors is particularly important in highly co morbid SUDs, such as marijuana and nicotine use, so treatment can occur effectively for both. This study evaluated personality traits that distinguish isolated and co-morbid use of marijuana and nicotine. To that end, we collected the NEO Five Factor Inventory in participants who used marijuana-only (n=59), nicotine-only (n=27), both marijuana and nicotine (n=28), and in non-using controls (n=28). We used factor analyses to identify personality profiles, which are linear combinations of the five NEO Factors. We then conducted Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis to test accuracy of the personality factors in discriminating isolated and co-morbid marijuana and nicotine users from each other. ROC curve analysis distinguished the four groups based on their NEO personality patterns. Results showed that NEO Factor 2 (openness, extraversion, agreeableness) discriminated marijuana and marijuana+nicotine users from controls and nicotine-only users with high predictability. Additional ANOVA results showed that the openness dimension discriminated marijuana users from nicotine users. These findings suggest that personality dimensions distinguish marijuana users from nicotine users and should be considered in prevention strategies. PMID:27086256
Mary M. Heitzeg
Full Text Available This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40 were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS. Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20 or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes.
Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B
There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532
The active component of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces numerous beneficial effects, including analgesia, appetite stimulation and nausea reduction, in addition to its psychotropic effects. THC mimics the action of endogenous fatty acid derivatives, referred to as endocannabinoids. The effects of THC and the endocannabinoids are mediated largely by metabotropic receptors that are distributed throughout the nervous and peripheral organ systems. Ther...
Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.
Full Text Available Cristina B Bares1, Jorge Delva2, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor2, Fernando Andrade31Curtis Research and Training Center, School of Social Work, 2School of Social Work, 3School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America.Methods: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables.Results: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.Keywords: parenting, families, adolescent
Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E.; Yang, Chongming; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Reeve, Bryce B.; Blazer, Dan G.
While item response theory (IRT) research shows a latent severity trait underlying response patterns of substance abuse and dependence symptoms, little is known about IRT-based severity estimates in relation to clinically relevant measures. In response to increased prevalences of marijuana-related treatment admissions, an elevated level of marijuana potency, and the debate on medical marijuana use, we applied dimensional approaches to understand IRT-based severity estimates for marijuana use ...
... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...
Jacobus, J.; McQueeny, T.; Bava, S.; Schweinsburg, B.C.; Frank, L.R.; Yang, T. T.; Tapert, S. F.
Structural brain abnormalities have been observed in adolescents with alcohol use disorders but less is known about neuropathological brain characteristics of teens with subdiagnostic binge drinking or the common pattern of binge drinking combined with marijuana use. The goal of this study was to examine white matter integrity in adolescents with histories of binge drinking and marijuana use.
Stephens, Robert S.; And Others
Randomly assigned adults (n=212) seeking treatment for marijuana use to relapse prevention (RP) or social support (SSP) group discussion intervention. Data collected at 12 months posttreatment revealed substantial reductions in frequency of marijuana use and associated problems; no significant difference between treatments on days of marijuana…
Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007
This report focuses on past month marijuana and blunt use among youths aged 12 to 17.7 Data are presented by demographic and academic characteristics. All findings are based on data from the 2005 NSDUH. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions on the use of marijuana and blunts. Respondents who reported lifetime use of…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008
Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug in the United States, with approximately 14.8 million Americans over the age of 12 reporting past-month use in 2006. While marijuana use declined in the 1980s, its use among all youth--including college students--rose steadily in the 1990s. Prevention professionals report concern because marijuana…
Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.
Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…
Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.
The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…
Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.
We report on research--both quantitative and qualitative--conducted to explore perceptions of prototypes of marijuana users, as well as the extent to which self-prototype congruence predicted marijuana use intention. Results of a survey of undergraduates (N = 139) showed that prototypes of users and non-users differed in terms of key attributes,…
Johnson, Joy L.; Moffat, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan; Shoveller, Jean; Fischer, Benedikt; Haines, Rebecca J.
This ethnographic study aimed at developing a richer understanding of how youth, their schools, and the communities in which they are emplaced coincide to generate a set of local social processes that affect marijuana use. We trace the interplay between high school staff and students with regards to marijuana use in the proximity of a local high…
Lewis, Todd F.; Wahesh, Edward
Relatively little is known about the extent of marijuana use and related risk-taking behavior by college students on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Undergraduate students (N = 212) from an HBCU in the southern region of the United States completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed their marijuana-related behaviors and…
Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilco...
Tighe, Patrick A
Numerous states have recently legalized recreational marijuana, which has created a burgeoning marijuana industry needing and demanding access to a variety of banking and financial services. Due, however, to the interplay between the federal criminalization of marijuana and federal anti-money laundering laws, U.S. financial institutions cannot handle legally the proceeds from marijuana activity. As a result, most financial institutions are unwilling to flout federal anti-money laundering laws, and so too few marijuana-related businesses can access banking services. This Note argues that the most viable policy option for resolving this "underbanking" problem is a financial cooperative approach such as a cannabis-only financial cooperative. Even in light of federal anti-money laundering laws, this Note contends that the Federal Reserve is legally authorized to grant some cannabis-only financial cooperatives access to its payment system services under the Monetary Control Act of 1980. PMID:27008718
Schweinsburg, Alecia Denise
Marijuana is commonly used in adolescence, yet the impact on the developing brain is unclear. Working memory impairments have been observed in adult marijuana users after recent use, but may remit after a month of abstinence. The differential effects related to recent use and abstinence have not been delineated in adolescents. To address this question, three studies examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain response during spatial working memory (SWM) among adolescents. Adol...
Systematic review and economic analysis of the comparative effectiveness of different inhaled corticosteroids and their usage with long-acting beta2 agonists for the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and children aged 12 years and over
Shepherd, J; Rogers, G.; R. Anderson; Main, C; Thomson-Coon, J.; Hartwell, D.; Z. Liu; Loveman, Emma; Green, C.J.; Pitt, M.; Stein, K; Harris, P.; Frampton, GK; Smith, M; Takeda, A.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) alone and ICS used in combination with a long-acting beta2 agonist (LABA) in the treatment of chronic asthma in adults and children aged over 12 years. DATA SOURCES: Major electronic bibliographic databases, e.g. MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched up to February/March 2006 (and updated again in October 2006). REVIEW METHODS: A systematic review of clinical and cost-effectiveness studies was conducted. Co...
Rodríguez-Castro, Carlos E.; Alkhateeb, Haider; Elfar, Ahmed; Saifuddin, Fatima; Abbas, Aamer; Siddiqui, Tariq
Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Myopericarditis Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: Ibuprofen Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance worldwide and its consumption portends significant side effects. Nowadays, in order to increase its psychotropic effect, various substances are being added constantly to it to promote its potency that might hold toxic effects to different organs including the heart and might lead to other unreported complications such as myopericarditis. Herein, we are presenting a unique case of recurrent myopericarditis after the consumption of contaminated marijuana, an association that has not been reported in literature before. Case Report: A 29-year-old man presented to our institution with pressure-like left-sided chest pain that is aggravated by cough and deep inspiration and relieved by sitting and leaning forward. Examination revealed pericardial rub and workup showed elevated white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and troponin I level of 2.99 ng/ml. ECG upon admission showed ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads with PR-segment depression. Echocardiogram revealed only concentric hypertrophy. Patient was admitted to another institution with similar symptoms 2 months earlier. Patient admitted to using adulterated Marijuana on both occasions prior to hospitalization. Review of medical records from the outside hospital revealed similar ECG and laboratory findings. Treatment with Ibuprofen resulted in resolution of patient’s symptoms and ECG abnormalities. Conclusions: Recurrent myopericarditis in our patient is likely the result of consumption of contaminated Marijuana. Careful history taking in patients presenting with myopericarditis is crucial as it might be the causal link. PMID:24523950
Kelly A Sagar
Full Text Available Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in those diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether marijuana may alleviate or exacerbate mood symptomatology. As bipolar disorder and marijuana use are individually associated with cognitive impairment, it also remains unclear whether there is an additive effect on cognition when bipolar patients use marijuana. The current study aimed to determine the impact of marijuana on mood in bipolar patients and to examine whether marijuana confers an additional negative impact on cognitive function. Twelve patients with bipolar disorder who smoke marijuana (MJBP, 18 bipolar patients who do not smoke (BP, 23 marijuana smokers without other Axis 1 pathology (MJ, and 21 healthy controls (HC completed a neuropsychological battery. Further, using ecological momentary assessment, participants rated their mood three times daily as well as after each instance of marijuana use over a four-week period. Results revealed that although the MJ, BP, and MJBP groups each exhibited some degree of cognitive impairment relative to HCs, no significant differences between the BP and MJBP groups were apparent, providing no evidence of an additive negative impact of BPD and MJ use on cognition. Additionally, ecological momentary assessment analyses indicated alleviation of mood symptoms in the MJBP group after marijuana use; MJBP participants experienced a substantial decrease in a composite measure of mood symptoms. Findings suggest that for some bipolar patients, marijuana may result in partial alleviation of clinical symptoms. Moreover, this improvement is not at the expense of additional cognitive impairment.
Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.
Semcho, Stephen; Bilsky, Sarah A; Lewis, Sarah F; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W
Given increasing marijuana use and abuse among young adults in the United States and the associated physical and mental health consequences, it is important to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to problematic marijuana use. A convergence of theory and research underscores the relevance of particular marijuana use motives generally, and coping-related motives specifically, in enhancing risk for marijuana use problems. Distress tolerance is a transdiagnostic emotion vulnerability factor that may relate to coping-related motives for marijuana use. The current study was designed to further explore this relationship within a treatment-seeking sample of young adults (Mage=24.40; SD=2.06 years). Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting distress tolerance is related to coping motives for marijuana use within this treatment-seeking sample, even after accounting for a number of theoretically relevant covariates. Theoretical and applied implications of distress tolerance as it relates to coping motives for marijuana use as treatment targets are discussed. PMID:26921722
Covey, Dan P; Wenzel, Jennifer M; Cheer, Joseph F
Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug worldwide. Recent trends indicate that this may soon change; not due to decreased marijuana use, but to an amendment in marijuana's illegal status. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor mediates marijuana's psychoactive and reinforcing properties. CB1 receptors are also part of the brain endocannabinoid (eCB) system and support numerous forms of learning and memory, including the conditioned reinforcing properties of cues predicting reward or punishment. This is accomplished via eCB-dependent alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, which plays an obligatory role in reward learning and motivation. Presynaptic CB1 receptors control midbrain dopamine neuron activity and thereby shape phasic dopamine release in target regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). By also regulating synaptic input to the NAc, CB1 receptors modulate NAc output onto downstream neurons of the basal ganglia motor circuit, and thereby support goal-directed behaviors. Abused drugs promote short- and long-term adaptations in eCB-regulation of mesolimbic dopamine function, and thereby hijack neural systems related to the pursuit of rewards to promote drug abuse. By pharmacologically targeting the CB1 receptors, marijuana has preferential access to this neuronal system and can potently alter eCB-dependent processing of reward-related stimuli. As marijuana legalization progresses, greater access to this drug should increase the utility of marijuana as a research tool to better understand the eCB system, which has the potential to advance cannabinoid-based treatments for drug addiction. PMID:25463025
Shi, Yuyan; Meseck, Kristin; Jankowska, Marta M.
Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of store types, marijuana stores were more likely to locate in neighborhoods that had a lower proportion of young people, had a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority population, had a lower household income, had a higher crime rate, or had a greater density of on-premise alcohol outlets. The availability of medical and recreational marijuana stores was differentially correlated with household income and racial and ethnic composition. Conclusions. Neighborhood disparities existed in the availability of marijuana stores, and associations between availability of stores and neighborhood characteristics varied by store types. This study highlighted the need for regulatory measures to prevent marijuana related outcomes in high risk neighborhoods. PMID:27213075
Full Text Available The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at one-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate. Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at baseline, quitting was defined as having not used marijuana in the last 30 days at one-year follow-up (43% of baseline users. To account for the level of influence we employed a theory-based analytic strategy, hierarchical regression. In the final multivariate model, lower level of baseline marijuana use and less of a likelihood to endorse pro-drug-use myths remained predictors of marijuana use cessation one year later. Implications of these findings include the need to develop cessation programs that reduce psychological dependence on marijuana use, and correct cognitive misperceptions about drug use in order to help adolescents make decisions that lead to health-promoting behaviors.
Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A
Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878
Lindsay M. Squeglia
Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on adolescent brain development is important for understanding potential alterations in neurodevelopment. Several cross sectional studies have identified group differences in white matter integrity after initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use, however none have explored white matter trajectories in adolescents pre- and post initiation of use, particularly for marijuana users. This study followed 16 adolescents with minimal alcohol and marijuana use at ages 16–18 over three years. At follow-up, teens were 19–22 years old; half of the participants initiated heavy alcohol use and half initiated heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed 20 clusters in association and projection fibers tracts (p < 0.01 in which a group by time interaction was found. Most consistently, white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy decreased for those who initiated both heavy alcohol and marijuana use over the follow-up interval. No effect of time or change in white matter integrity was seen for those who initiated alcohol use only in the majority of clusters. In most regions, at the baseline time point, teens who would later initiate both alcohol and marijuana use demonstrated white matter integrity greater than or equal to teens that initiated alcohol use only. Findings suggest poorer tissue integrity associated with combined initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use in late adolescence. While pre-existing differences may also be related to likelihood of substance use, the present data suggest an effect on tissue integrity for these teens transitioning to combined alcohol and marijuana use in later adolescence.
While there is ample evidence that social and communication networks play a key role during the spread of new ideas, products, or services, network effects are expected to have diminished influence in the stationary state, when all users are aware of the innovation, and its usage pattern is determined mainly by its utility to the user. Here we study four mobile phone-based services available to over six million subscribers, allowing us to simultaneously monitor the communication network between individuals and the time-resolved service usage patterns. We find that usage highly correlates with the structure of the communication network, and demonstrate the coexistence on the same social network of two distinct usage classes, network effects being responsible for the quantifiable differences between them. To test the predictive power of our theory, we demonstrate that traditional marketing techniques are ineffective in permanently boosting service adoption, and propose a hub-based incentive mechanism that has t...
Niko De Silva; Benno Torgler
Liberal drug policy reform is often criticized for â€˜sending the wrong messageâ€™, particularly to youth. Reform opponents argue that liberal policies such as decriminalisation and medical marijuana laws will cause marijuana to be perceived as less risky and lead to an increase in use. We seek to test this claim empirically, exploiting the timing and unique properties of state level medical marijuana laws in the US to isolate policy signalling effects. We use survey-derived state-level estim...
Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate
OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786
Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A
Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production. PMID:26289652
Lavins, Eric S; Lavins, Bethany D; Jenkins, Amanda J
It is well known that United States paper currency in general circulation is contaminated with trace amounts of illicit substances such as cocaine, heroin and marijuana. As is the case with cocaine, differentiating "background levels" of the various cannabinoid constituents of Cannabis sativa L., namely, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) contaminating currency found in the general circulation from currency associated with illegal drug activity is imperative if a legal nexus is to be established with the latter. We analyzed 165 randomly collected paper currency notes from 12 U.S. cities (N = 125) and 4 foreign countries (N = 40) for THC, CBD, CBN, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Uncirculated US 1 dollar notes were added as negative controls. Drug residues were washed from individual bills, extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction protocol, derivatized, and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by selected ion monitoring. For the US 1 dollar currency, THC was present in 1.6% (2 notes), CBN 10.31% (13 notes), CBD 1.6% (2 notes). The following concentrations were determined: 0.085 microg/bill and 0.146 microg/bill for THC; 0.014-0.774 microg/bill (mean 0.166 microg/bill) for CBN; and 0.032 microg/bill and 0.086 microg/bill for CBD. For the foreign currency (Colombia, Qatar, India, and New Zealand), THC and CBN were present in 22.5% (9 notes). The following concentration ranges were determined: THC 0.026-0.065 microg/bill (mean 0.049 microg/bill), CBN 0.061-0.197 microg/bill (mean 0.115 microg/bill). All of the positive THC and CBN were found in the New Zealand polypropylene notes. This study demonstrated that marijuana (cannabinoids) may contaminate both paper and plastic currency. PMID:15516293
In this study, the authors compared indirect measures that attempt to quantify the level of marijuana associations among adolescents. They also evaluated whether these various methods overlap or tap different aspects of associative processes that may act in concert to influence marijuana use. Automatic drug-relevant associations were assessed in 121 at-risk youth in continuation high schools in California with the use of a word association index and computer-based, reaction time measures (i.e...
Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen
This study examined psychosocial mechanisms by which children’s early sensation seeking may influence their later marijuana use. In a longitudinal study, 4th and 5th grade elementary school children (N = 420) were followed until they were in 11th and 12th grades in high school with annual or biennial assessments. Sensation seeking (assessed over the first 4 assessments) predicted affiliating with deviant peers and level of favorable social images of kids who use marijuana (both assessed over ...
Zvolensky, Michael J.; Cougle, Jesse R.; Johnson, Kirsten A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Bernstein, Amit
This study examined the relations between marijuana use and panic attacks and panic disorder using a large representative survey of adults (N = 5,672; 53% women; Mage = 45.05 years, SD = 17.9) conducted in the United States (Kessler et al., 2004). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, income, education, race, and sex) and the presence of a lifetime substance use disorder, lifetime marijuana use was significantly associated with increased odds of a lifetime panic...
Pejnović Franelić, Iva; Kuzman, Marina; Pavić Šimetin, Ivana; KERN, JOSIPA
Aim To investigate the association between environmental factors (perceived availability of marijuana, perceived use among friends and siblings, use of alcohol and tobacco, family structure, parental control, school performance) and lifetime prevalence and frequent and early marijuana use in high school students. Methods We used self-reported data from 15-16 years old participants of the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) conducted i...
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.
Heterogeneous classes of comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use were examined in order to determine how they are related to subsequent antisocial behavior, poor self control and internalizing behavior. Data are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American (n=243) and Puerto Rican (n=232) adolescents and adults in the community. Logistic regression analyses were employed to measure the association between the comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use and the psy...
Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Valerie S. Knopik
Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana’s ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7–3.0 % delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affec...
Buckner, Julia D.; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Despite emerging evidence of the efficacy of psychotherapies for marijuana dependence, variability in outcome exists. This study examined the role of anxiety on treatment involvement and outcome. Four questions were examined: (1) is greater anxiety associated with greater impairment at baseline; (2) is baseline anxiety related to greater marijuana use and problems following treatment; (3) does adding cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to motivation enhancement therapy (MET) reduce anxiety rel...
Full Text Available Paul T Wertlake, Michael D Henson Pacific Toxicology Laboratories, Chatsworth, CA, USA Abstract: Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. Keywords: laboratory test, assay, medical management
de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.; Pollard, Michael S.; Tucker, Joan S.
Friends are thought to influence adolescent drug use. However, few studies have examined the role of drugs in friendship selection, which is necessary to draw sound conclusions about influence. This study applied statistical models for social networks to test the contribution of selection and influence to associations in marijuana use among friends in two large high schools (N = 1,612; M age = 16.4). There was evidence for friend selection based on similar lifetime and current marijuana use a...
Illegal marijuana cultivation on California public lands has become an increasingly significant problem affecting natural resources and public safety. The major perpetrators are Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations exploiting California’s abundant resources and lucrative markets for illegal marijuana. Cultivators degrade some of the few natural places left by altering land, diverting water, applying chemicals, and inhabiting sites for long periods of time. In order to reduce the long-term i...
Hammond, Christopher J.; PILVER, COREY E.; Rugle, Loreen; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Mayes, Linda C.; Malison, Robert T.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; HOFF, RANI A.; Potenza, Marc N.
Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regres...
Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.
This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community ...
Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (Mage = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual part...
Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret
Marijuana dependence is a substantial public health problem, with existing treatments showing limited efficacy. In laboratory and clinical studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist oral Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol) has been shown to decrease marijuana withdrawal, but not relapse. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, potentially contributing to its failure to decrease relapse. The synthetic THC analogue, nabilone, has better bioavailability than dronabinol. We therefore aim...
Marya Hynes; Maria Demarco; Juan Carlos Araneda; Francisco Cumsille
Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was...
KANNIKA DAMRONGPLASIT; CHENG HSIAO
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of marijuana decriminalization policy on marijuana smoking prevalence. Due to mixed findings in the existing studies, we attempt to find a common basis to explain the different results across papers. The main purpose is to provide a coherent background as to what outcomes may be expected from certain type of data, econometric models, and explanatory variables. If possible, we also try to provide the explanation as to why certain results are found.
MacCoun Robert; Pacula Rosalie Liccardo; Chriqui Jamie; Harris Katherine; Reuter Peter
Deterrence theory proposes that legal compliance is influenced by the anticipated risk of legal sanctions. This implies that changes in law will produce corresponding changes in behavior, but the marijuana decriminalization literature finds only fragmentary support for this prediction. But few studies have directly assessed the accuracy of citizens perceptions of legal sanctions. The heterogeneity in state statutory penalties for marijuana possession across the United States provides an oppor...
Padula, Claudia B.; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Tapert, Susan F.
Previous studies have suggested neural disruption and reorganization in adult marijuana users. However, it remains unclear whether these effects persist in adolescents after 28 days of abstinence and, if they do, what Performance X Brain Response interactions occur. Adolescent marijuana users (n = 17). and controls (n = 17) aged 16-18 years were recruited from local schools. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected after 28 days' monitored abstinence as participants performed...
Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K. Yaragudri
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of...
Bauer, Scott; Olson, Jennifer; Cockrill, Adam; van Hattem, Michael; Miller, Linda; Tauzer, Margaret; Leppig, Gordon
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species. PMID:25785849
Williams, Arthur Robin; Olfson, Mark; Kim, June H; Martins, Silvia S; Kleber, Herbert D
Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed laws implementing medical marijuana programs. The nineteen programs that were in operation as of October 2014 collectively had over one million participants. All states (including D.C.) with medical marijuana laws require physicians directly or indirectly to authorize the use of marijuana at their discretion, yet little is known about how medical marijuana programs vary regarding adherence to basic principles of medical practice and associated rates of enrollment. To explore this, we analyzed marijuana programs according to seven components of traditional medical care and pharmaceutical regulation. We then examined enrollment rates, while controlling for potentially confounding state characteristics. We found that fourteen of the twenty-four programs were nonmedical and collectively enrolled 99.4 percent of participants nationwide, with enrollment rates twenty times greater than programs deemed to be "medicalized." Policy makers implementing or amending medical marijuana programs should consider the powerful relationship between less regulation and greater enrollment. Researchers should consider variations across programs when assessing programs' population-level effects. PMID:26953303
Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H
Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112
Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species.
In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens
Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.
In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.
Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California’s real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of “illegal” wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the “il/legal” dynamics of marijuana land use. As marijuana becomes licit, prohibitionist policies have enabled the capture of ground rent by landed interests from the marijuana industry at a time when the price of marijuana is declining (in part due to its increasing licitness). The resulting “drug war rentier nexus,” a state–land–finance complex, is becoming a key, if obscured, component within marijuana’s contemporary political economy. PMID:26594104
KHOUDOUR,L; LANGLAIS,A; Charpentier, C.; MOTTE,C; PIAN,C
Il s'agit d'étendre la surveillance vidéo de l'enceinte du métro vers l'intérieur des rames. Les images captées constituent des prises de vue des événements qui se déroulent à l'intérieur des véhicules afin notamment d'améliorer la sécurité des usagers transportes. Il est possible de mémoriser les images des quelques instants précédant un incident usager, d'analyser ces images en temps différé et de mieux appréhender en temps réel le comportement des usagers face à des événements ou des consi...
Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
Better understanding of the temporal sequence of hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use will help to inform smoking prevention efforts. To address this gap in the literature, we assessed all three of these smoking behaviors in a sample of 424 first-year college women. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated whether hookah use predicts initiating/resuming cigarette and/or initiating marijuana use, and whether cigarette and/or marijuana use predict initiating hookah use. Participants (67% Wh...
Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California’s real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of “illegal” wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the “il/legal” dynamics of marijuana land use. As ...
Farrelly, Matthew C.; Bray, Jeremy W.; Gary A. Zarkin; Brett W. Wendling; Rosalie Liccardo Pacula
Recent studies have shown that efforts to curb alcohol use by increasing the price of alcohol and limiting youth's access have succeeded, but they may have had the unintended consequencce of increasing marijuana use. This possibility is troubling in light of a recent government report that shows that marijuana use among teens more than doubled between 1990 and 1997. What impact will the proposed large increase in cigarette prices have on the demand for other substances such as marijuana? To b...
Joanna Jacobus; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Alejandro D. Meruelo; Norma Castro; Ty Brumback; Giedd, Jay N.; Tapert, Susan F.
Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30) and controls (CON, n = 38) with limited substanc...
Boggess, Lyndsay; Perez, Deanna; Cope, Kathryn; Root, Carl; Stretesky, Paul
As of 2013, medical marijuana is legal in 20 states and the District of Columbia, but few studies have investigated the consequences of the retail centers that sell the drug. We draw upon the social construction literature to frame our research and help us determine whether medical marijuana centers in Denver, Colorado (USA) are considered locally undesirable land uses (LULUs). The geography of health and environmental justice frameworks lead us to hypothesize that marijuana centers are more ...
Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.; Haubenstock, N. A.; Howe, T. A.
Marijuana in Alaska can have numerous sources. Confiscated plants are known to originate either from within the state (e.g., Fairbanks and the Matanuska-Susitna Valley) or from numerous areas outside the state (e.g., Latin America, Canada and the contiguous United States). Latin America reportedly supplies a large percentage of the marijuana currently distributed in the lower 48 states of the U.S.A. However, in more remote areas of the country such as Fairbanks, Alaska, the supply proportions from different geographic areas are not well known. This is due to an insufficient ability to trace source regions from which confiscated marijuana was originally grown. As such, we have analyzed multiple stable isotopes (C, N, O and H) preserved in marijuana samples to identify the likely geographic source from which the marijuana originated (Drug Enforcement Agency license # RW0324551). These samples were confiscated in Fairbanks, Alaska and supplied to us by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Police Department. Among 36 marijuana plant samples, we found an unexpectedly large range in the stable carbon isotope compositions (‰13C = -62.2‰ to -24.4‰), with twelve of the 36 samples exhibiting exceedingly low δ13C (-36.1‰ to -62.2‰) relative to typical δ13C of other C3 plants. Interior growing conditions (e.g., hydroponics and/or greenhouses) and a variety of CO2 sources (e.g., CO2 from tanks and fermentation CO2 generators) frequently supplied to growing marijuana to improve yields may account for these exceptionally low δ13C values. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18O and δD vs. V-SMOW) of the marijuana samples were found to range from 10.0‰ to 27.6‰ and -197.1‰ to -134.9‰ respectively. The large range of values suggests that the samples originated from multiple sources ranging from low to high latitudes. δ15N of the marijuana samples also exhibited a large range (-7.0‰ to 14.8‰). This project has implications for the
Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...
Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak
The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…
Haardörfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J; Lewis, Michael; Payne, Jackelyn; Pillai, Drishti; McDonald, Bennett; Windle, Michael
Limited research has examined polysubstance use profiles among young adults focusing on the various tobacco products currently available. We examined use patterns of various tobacco products, marijuana, and alcohol using data from the baseline survey of a multiwave longitudinal study of 3418 students aged 18-25 recruited from seven U.S. college campuses. We assessed sociodemographics, individual-level factors (depression; perceptions of harm and addictiveness,), and sociocontextual factors (parental/friend use). We conducted a latent class analysis and multivariable logistic regression to examine correlates of class membership (Abstainers were referent group). Results indicated five classes: Abstainers (26.1% per past 4-month use), Alcohol only users (38.9%), Heavy polytobacco users (7.3%), Light polytobacco users (17.3%), and little cigar and cigarillo (LCC)/hookah/marijuana co-users (10.4%). The most stable was LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users (77.3% classified as such in past 30-day and 4-month timeframes), followed by Heavy polytobacco users (53.2% classified consistently). Relative to Abstainers, Heavy polytobacco users were less likely to be Black and have no friends using alcohol and perceived harm of tobacco and marijuana use lower. Light polytobacco users were older, more likely to have parents using tobacco, and less likely to have friends using tobacco. LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users were older and more likely to have parents using tobacco. Alcohol only users perceived tobacco and marijuana use to be less socially acceptable, were more likely to have parents using alcohol and friends using marijuana, but less likely to have friends using tobacco. These findings may inform substance use prevention and recovery programs by better characterizing polysubstance use patterns. PMID:27074202
Polanco, Xavier; Besagni, Dominique
A new type of statistical analysis of the science and technical information (STI) in the Web context is produced. We propose a set of indicators about Web users, visualized bibliographic records, and e-commercial transactions. In addition, we introduce two Web usage factors. Finally, we give an overview of the co-usage analysis. For these tasks, we introduce a computer based system, called Miri@d, which produces descriptive statistical information about the Web users' searching behaviour, and what is effectively used from a free access digital bibliographical database. The system is conceived as a server of statistical data which are carried out beforehand, and as an interactive server for online statistical work. The results will be made available to analysts, who can use this descriptive statistical information as raw data for their indicator design tasks, and as input for multivariate data analysis, clustering analysis, and mapping. Managers also can exploit the results in order to improve management and d...
Ly, Christine; Gehricke, Jean-G.
The study examined the association between marijuana use, ADHD symptoms, and sleep quality in 56 men and 20 women with ADHD. Participants, ages 18-45, were assessed with the Assessment of Hyperactivity and Attention, drug use survey, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Moderate to strong correlations were found between marijuana use and inattentive symptoms in men, and marijuana use and decreased sleep quality in women. Men and women with ADHD may use marijuana for different reasons.
Maule, W J
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. PMID:26126326
in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... and reflecting. The paper will explore the various cultural issues and explicate how the social context plays a major role in the use of Internet even if there is sufficient access. These issues will be addressed from an empowerment perspective. The paper ends by recommending the methods to be adopted for more......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been widely recognized as a tool for human development (UNDP 2001). The rate at which ICT are growing is changing the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. (Tongia, et al. 2005) Internet is one of the Information & Communication...
Drath, D B; Shorey, J M; Price, L; Huber, G L
Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchopulmonary lavage from male rats after 30 consecutive days of in vivo exposure to marijuana and tobacco smoke. No significant differences were found between either group of experimental animals and controls in the number of cells recovered, the protein content per 10(6) cells, or the percentage of cells that adhered to plastic surfaces. The ability of macrophages to phagocytize viable bacteria was not affected by exposure to either marijuana or tobacco smoke in that both treatment groups ingested Staphylococcus aureus over a 60-min period as well as did control cells. Differences were found between the groups, however, with respect to cellular metabolism. Marijuana smoke inhalation caused a small decrease in the amount of oxygen consumed by macrophages during phagocytosis, as compared with control cells. This may have been reflected in the even greater decrease in superoxide formation observed during particle engulfment by these treated cells. Tobacco smoke, on the other hand, increased oxygen consumption and was without effect on superoxide release. Neither tobacco nor marijuana smoke treatment had an effect on the direct oxidation of glucose via the hexose monophosphate shunt. Our results indicate that, despite several metabolic alterations in response to marijuana and tobacco smoke, alveolar macrophages were not compromised with respect to their ability to ingest a particulate challenge. PMID:225274
Huansuriya, Thipnapa; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D
The authors combined the 2-step flow of communication model and the theory of planned behavior to create a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of a set of advertisements from the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign promoting parent-child drug communication. The sample consisted of 1,349 pairs of parents and children who responded to the first and second annual rounds of the National Survey of Parents and Youth, and 1,276 pairs from Rounds 3 and 4. Parents' exposure to the campaign reported at Round 1 was indirectly associated with youth's lowered intentions to use marijuana at Round 2. Ad exposure was associated with positive changes in parental attitudes toward drug communication and perceived social approval of antidrug communications. These two beliefs, along with perceived behavioral control, predicted parents' intentions to discuss drugs with their children. Parental intentions to discuss drugs reported at Round 1 were associated with youth's report of actual drug communication with their parents at Round 2. Frequency and breadth of the topics in parent-child drug communication were associated with less positive attitudes toward marijuana use among youth who spoke with their parents. Together, the child's attitudes toward marijuana use and perceived ability to refuse marijuana use predicted youth's intentions to use marijuana. The proposed model fit well with the data and was replicated in a parallel analysis of the data from Rounds 3 and 4. Implications for future antidrug media campaign efforts are discussed. PMID:24308793
Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.
Rolle, Italia V; Kennedy, Sara M; Agaku, Israel; Jones, Sherry Everett; Bunnell, Rebecca; Caraballo, Ralph; Xu, Xin; Schauer, Gillian; McAfee, Tim
What is already known on this topic? Since 2010, the proportion of U.S. 12th grade students who reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days (21.4%) has surpassed the proportion reporting use of cigarettes during the preceding 30 days (19.2%).What is added by this report? During 1997–2013, the proportion of white, black, and Hispanic high school students overall who were exclusive cigarette or cigar users decreased 64%, from 20.5% to 7.4%. The proportion of white, black, and Hispanic students who were exclusive marijuana users more than doubled from 4.2% to 10.2%, and among cigarette or cigar users, marijuana use increased, with considerable increases identified among black and Hispanic students toward the end of the study period.What are the implications for public health practice? Despite significant declines since 1997, approximately 30% of white, black, and Hispanic U.S. high school students were current users of cigarettes, cigars, or marijuana in 2013. Policy and programmatic efforts might benefit from integrated approaches that focus on reducing the use of tobacco and marijuana among youths. PMID:26468662
Li, Haoyuan; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal
Recently, the applications ofWeb usage mining are more and more concentrated on finding valuable user behaviors from Web navigation record data, where the sequential pattern model has been well adapted. However with the growth of the explored user behaviors, the decision makers will be more and more interested in unexpected behaviors, but not only in those already confirmed. In this paper, we present our approach USER, that finds unexpected sequences and implication rules from sequential data...
Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.
Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…
Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.
This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…
Repetto, Paula B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The association between marijuana use and depressive symptoms was examined longitudinally in a sample of 622 African American youth, interviewed on six occasions, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). We considered whether depressive symptoms predicted changes in marijuana use and vice versa from high school through the transition into young…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or...
Nykodym, Nick; Boyd, John A.
The research findings of profane language usage need to be extended so that more may be learned about human communication. In order to establish profane language usage norms, eighty-six university students were asked to estimate their profane language usage in each of three categories (excretory, religious, and sexual) in reference to three…
... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...
Kirby, John A.; Lindquist, Roy P.
Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, CA, border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992, to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.
Kirby, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program; Lindquist, R.P. [Customs Service, Washington, DC (United States)
Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.
Phillips, Michael M; Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Dykema, Kristy R
Measuring self-reported substance use behavior is challenging due to issues related to memory recall and patterns of bias in estimating behavior. Limited research has focused on the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate marijuana use. This study assessed the feasibility of using short message service (SMS) texting as a method of EMA with college-age marijuana users. Our goals were to evaluate overall response/compliance rates and trends of data missingness, response time, baseline measures (e.g., problematic use) associated with compliance rates and response times, and differences between EMA responses of marijuana use compared to timeline followback (TLFB) recall. Nine questions were texted to participants on their personal cell phones 3 times a day over a 2-week period. Overall response rate was high (89%). When examining predictors of the probability of data missingness with a hierarchical logistic regression model, we found evidence of a higher propensity for missingness for Week 2 of the study compared to Week 1. Self-regulated learning was significantly associated with an increase in mean response time. A model fit at the participant level to explore response time found that more time spent smoking marijuana related to higher response times, while more time spent studying and greater "in the moment" academic motivation and craving were associated with lower response times. Significant differences were found between the TLFB and EMA, with greater reports of marijuana use reported through EMA. Overall, results support the feasibility of using SMS text messaging as an EMA method for college-age marijuana users. PMID:24749751
Hill, Virginia A; Schaffer, Michael I; Stowe, G Neil
The presence of the metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (C-THC) in hair is generally accepted as the definitive proof of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ingestion. During hair analysis, the removal of any potential C-THC external contamination that could result from marijuana smoke or close personal contact via a wash procedure is critical. Here, we performed a series of experiments to demonstrate that C-THC is the reliable indicator of marijuana ingestion when paired with the correct washing procedure to remove potential external contamination. PMID:27185816
Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.
Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation.
Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation
FREDERICK, BLAISE DEB.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; Scott E. Lukas
Smoking is the preferred method of administration for two of the most frequently abused drugs, marijuana and nicotine. The high temporal and spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) make it a natural choice for studying the neurobiological effects of smoked drugs if the challenges of smoking in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner can be overcome. We report on a design for an MR-compatible smoking device that can be used for smoking marijuana (or tobacco) during fMRI ex...
Full Text Available Abstract Background: As the "war on drugs" enters the latter half of its third decade since being forged into the American lexicon by President Ronald Reagan, the public has grown more skeptical of the current strategy and has proven to be receptive to a broader consideration of alternatives to incarceration. This has been the case most notably with marijuana offenses, where the policy discussion has shifted in some localities to one of decriminalization or de-prioritizing law enforcement resources dedicated to pursuing possession offenses. Despite the increased profile surrounding marijuana policy in recent years, there remains a significant degree of misunderstanding regarding the current strategy, both in terms of how resources are being allocated and to what eventual gain. Methods: Previous studies have analyzed drug offenses as a general category, but there has yet to be a single study that has focused specifically on marijuana offenders at all stages of the system. This report analyzes multiple sources of data for the period 1990–2002 from each of the critical points in the criminal justice system, from arrest through court processing and into the correctional system, to create an overall portrait of this country's strategy in dealing with marijuana use. Results: The study found that since 1990, the primary focus of the war on drugs has shifted to low-level marijuana offenses. During the study period, 82% of the increase in drug arrests nationally (450,000 was for marijuana offenses, and virtually all of that increase was in possession offenses. Of the nearly 700,000 arrests in 2002, 88% were for possession. Only 1 in 18 of these arrests results in a felony conviction, with the rest either being dismissed or adjudicated as a misdemeanor, meaning that a substantial amount of resources, roughly $4 billion per year for marijuana alone, is being dedicated to minor offenses. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that law enforcement
Truong, Ngoc Cuong
Demand-Side Management (DSM) is one of the key elements of future Smart Electricity Grids. DSM involves mechanisms to reduce or shift the consumption of electricity in an attempt to minimise peaks. By so doing it is possible to avoid using expensive peaking plants that are also highly carbon emitting. A key challenge in DSM, however, is the need to predict energy usage from specific home appliances accurately so that consumers can be notified to shift or reduce the use of high energy-consumin...
Fleury-Vilatte, Béatrice; Walter, Jacques
Dans cette deuxième série d’articles consacrés au constructivisme, Bernard Delforce, Isabelle Gavillet et Nicolas Pélissier prolongent la discussion menée par Roger Bautier, Denis Benoit et Roselyne Koren sur les usages de la notion par des chercheurs travaillant dans le domaine du journalisme, quitte à s’interroger sur les effets d’une telle centration. Si l’approche historique et le recours aux sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) et aux sciences du langage nourrissaient l...
D. M. Antioushenya
Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.
Lac, Andrew; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T
Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N = 2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents' marijuana beliefs-attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control-as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r = .54, p < .001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12-18 years of age. PMID:18989783
Walczak, Dorota; Kowal, Aneta; Jankowska, Renata
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most frequent chronic diseases. Slightly reversable and progressive decrease in airflow through the airways is characteristic for the disease. It has been brought up last years that COPD course influences not only pulmonary system status but also many co-existing diseases in the eldery, especially cardio-vascular diseases, such as: ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, heart arrythmias, heart infarction. Wide usage and established position in the treatment of cardio-vascular diseases have the antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-blockers). The aim of this work was the combination of the studies results quoted in the literature about the usage of beta-blockers in cardiovascular diseases co-existing with COPD. Conclusions. Nowadays there are no unambiguous recommendations for the usage of beta-blocker in patients with COPD and the decision about including them into treatment depends on the individually estimated risk of complications. PMID:23437704
S.L. Ames; J.L. Grenard; A.W. Stacy; L. Xiao; Q. He; S.W Wong; G. Xue; R.W. Wiers; A. Bechara
This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe difference
Mathys, C.; Burk, W.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
This study examined prospective associations between late adolescents' friendships and substance use (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco) using a stochastic actor-based modeling approach and the moderating role of popularity. Participants were 450 adolescents (53% female, M age = 15.5 years) who completed
If recreational marijuana is legalized for adults in California, a rational implementation of public policy would neither criminalize youth possession, nor medically pathologize it by conflating possession with addiction. The harms of a criminal justice approach to juveniles should not exceed the harms of the drug itself. Juvenile arrests and probation have consequences: (1) arrest records, probation, and juvenile hall; (2) an incarceration subculture, "crime school," psychological and re-entry costs; (3) school "zero-tolerance" expulsions and suspensions; (4) ineligibility for federal school loans; (5) employment screening problems; (6) racial disparities in arrests; (7) fines and attorney's fees; and (8) immigration/naturalization problems. Marijuana-related arrest rates in California dropped after a 2011 law making possession under 1 oz. an infraction for all, but juvenile marijuana arrests continue to outnumber arrests for hard drugs. Recommendations for prudent implementation policy include: stable marijuana tax funding for Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) in high schools; elimination of "zero-tolerance" suspension/expulsion policies in favor of school retention and academic remediation programs; juvenile justice transparency discriminating among infractions, misdemeanors, and felonies. Criminal sanctions and durations must be proportional to the offense. Probation-based interventions should be reserved for larger possession amounts and recidivist offenders, and outcomes should be independently evaluated. PMID:26891110
Fishman, Scott M
This feature presents information for patients in a question and answer format. It is written to simulate actual questions that many pain patients ask and to provide answers in a context and language that most pain patients will comprehend. Issues addressed in this issue are carpel tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis, marijuana. PMID:17844729
Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine
Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…
Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.
This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)
Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P
Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1,856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (M age = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; in addition, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Childs, Kristina; Schmeidler, James
This article examines the impact of sociodemographic characteristics and psychosocial factors on the probability and frequency of marijuana use and, for youths initiating use, on their frequency of use over four time points. The sample consists of 278 justice-involved youths completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a…
Nguyen, Holly; Reuter, Peter
Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for…
Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele
The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…
Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David
This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In…
Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda
Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…
Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.
Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…
Duarte, Rosa; Escario, Jose-Julian; Molina, Jose-Alberto
The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of peer behaviour on student marijuana consumption. Our hypothesis is that, in contrast to the traditional measures of peer group effects carried out at class or school level, the use of a closer peer group, which we relate to the group of friends, is more relevant in the explanation of marijuana…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…
King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.
Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…
Full Text Available Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.
Pu Wang; Timothy Hunter; Bayen, Alexandre M; Katja Schechtner; González, Marta C.
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, wh...
Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven
Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...
ZHANG Hui; SONG Hantao; XU Xiaomei
A semantic session analysis method partitioning Web usage logs is presented. Semantic Web usage log preparation model enhances usage logs with semantic. The Markov chain model based on ontology semantic measurement is used to identifying which active session a request should belong to. The competitive method is applied to determine the end of the sessions.Compared with other algorithms, more successful sessions are additionally detected by semantic outlier analysis.
Kim, Ha Ryong; Jung, Mi Hyun; Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck
Since the largely abused worldwide used of marijuana, there have been many ongoing debates regarding the adverse health effects of marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking was recently proved to cause pulmonary toxicity by inducing genotoxic effects or generating reactive oxygen species. Because p53, a tumor suppressor gene, has an important pathophysiologic role in the regulation of lung epithelial cell DNA damage responses, we hypothesized that p53 may be involved in the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by marijuana smoking. First, we confirmed that marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) induces oxidative stress in BEAS-2B cells. We observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was increased by MSC in the DCFH-DA assay. Also, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase) activity and their mRNA expressions were up-regulated by MSC. Second, we investigated p53 involvement in the MSC-induced apoptotic pathway in BEAS-2B cells. The results showed that MSC increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation as markers of apoptosis. In addition, the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bax) were increased by MSC and phospho-p53, along with the increase of Bax protein expression by MSC. Apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression were partially blocked by an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin-α). The results indicate that p53 plays a role in MSC-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that MSC partially induces p53-mediated apoptosis through ROS generation in human lung epithelial cells and this may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23665932
Conroy, Deirdre A; Kurth, Megan E; Strong, David R; Brower, Kirk J; Stein, Michael D
Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States. Research on the relationship between marijuana and sleep is still in its infancy. The study examined differences in sleep characteristics between a community sample of daily users, non-daily marijuana users, and non-users. A total of 98 subjects (45 M; 53 F) participated. The mean age was 22.3 (standard deviation = 3.0). There were 53 females and 55% of the sample was Caucasian. Recruitment was done online and via print advertisements in the community. Groups were categorized as non-daily users (n = 29), daily users (n = 49), and non-user controls (n = 20). Sleep was characterized by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. A standard cut off score of >10 for the Insomnia Severity Index was found in 38.8% of daily users, 10.3% of non-daily users, and 20% of non-users. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores in daily users (7.0+/-3.8) were higher than non-daily (4.9+/-3.2) and non-user controls (5.0+/-3.7), p = .02. Insomnia Severity Index scores in daily users (7.9+/-6.1) were higher than non-daily (5.1+/-4.3) and non-user controls (4.3+/-4.8), p = .01. Covariate adjusted regression analyses revealed mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index scores were significantly lower for non-daily users and controls relative to the daily users. When adjusting for depression and anxiety, these unique associations were not significant. There were no differences in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale or Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. Daily marijuana users endorsed more sleep disturbance than non-daily users. Future studies should consider mood in the relationship between marijuana use and sleep. PMID:26727193
Ketul Patel; Dr. A.R. Patel
The traffic on World Wide Web is increasing rapidly and huge amount of data is generated due to users’ numerous interactions with web sites. Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to discover the useful and interesting patterns from web usage data. It supports to know frequently accessed pages, predict user navigation, improve web site structure etc. In order to apply Web Usage Mining, various steps are performed. This paper discusses the process of Web Usage Mining con...
Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha
Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)
Heard, Jr., John T.; Tritz, Gerald J.
A method is detailed for introducing computer usage into any course in a medical curriculum and concomitantly stimulating student utilization of such technology. It is felt medicine will rely more heavily upon computer uses in the future, and that familiarity with computer technology provides confidence and competence in physician usage. (MP)
This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…
Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.
Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)
Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.
Although a robust literature documents a positive association between alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV), there is limited temporal research on this relation. Moreover, the role of marijuana in influencing IPV has been mixed. Thus, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol and marijuana use and dating violence perpetration. A secondary aim was to examine whether angry affect moderated the temporal relation between alcohol and mariju...
Jones, Mark Edward
Undergraduates at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (N = 306) were surveyed to investigate the formation of alcohol and marijuana use motives. Based upon a hypothesized path model effect expectancies, use motives, use frequencies, and use-related problems for alcohol and marijuana were assessed via self-report. Personality factors of sensation-seeking, sociability, and neuroticism-anxiety were also assessed during this single session. Many of the hypothesized pathways wer...
Green, Charles; Schmitz, Joy; Lindsay, Jan; Pedroza, Claudia; Lane, Scott; Agnelli, Rob; Kjome, Kimberley; Moeller, F. Gerard
Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1) examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2) apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect. Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided complete data for the historical (Study 1: N = 64 placebo), and current (Study 2: N = 113) data sets. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES) as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo), baseline marijuana use (days in past 30), and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES. Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect. PMID:23115553
Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E; Yang, Chongming; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Reeve, Bryce B; Blazer, Dan G
While item response theory (IRT) research shows a latent severity trait underlying response patterns of substance abuse and dependence symptoms, little is known about IRT-based severity estimates in relation to clinically relevant measures. In response to increased prevalences of marijuana-related treatment admissions, an elevated level of marijuana potency, and the debate on medical marijuana use, we applied dimensional approaches to understand IRT-based severity estimates for marijuana use disorders (MUDs) and their correlates while simultaneously considering gender- and race/ethnicity-related differential item functioning (DIF). Using adult data from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 37,897), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for MUDs among past-year marijuana users were examined by IRT, logistic regression, and multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) approaches. Among 6917 marijuana users, 15% met criteria for a MUD; another 24% exhibited subthreshold dependence. Abuse criteria were highly correlated with dependence criteria (correlation = 0.90), indicating unidimensionality; item information curves revealed redundancy in multiple criteria. MIMIC analyses showed that MUD criteria were positively associated with weekly marijuana use, early marijuana use, other substance use disorders, substance abuse treatment, and serious psychological distress. African Americans and Hispanics showed higher levels of MUDs than Whites, even after adjusting for race/ethnicity-related DIF. The redundancy in multiple criteria suggests an opportunity to improve efficiency in measuring symptom-level manifestations by removing low-informative criteria. Elevated rates of MUDs among African Americans and Hispanics require research to elucidate risk factors and improve assessments of MUDs for different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:22351489
Full Text Available Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1 examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2 apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect.Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided samples for the historical dataset (Study 1: N = 64 complete observations and current dataset (Study 2: N = 113 complete observations. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo, baseline marijuana use (days in past 30, and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES.Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect.
Peters, Erica N.; Leeman, Robert F; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Corbin, William R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.
Few studies have examined the co-occurrence of alcohol and marijuana use in clinical samples of young adults. The present study investigated whether co-occurring marijuana use is associated with characteristics indicative of a high level of risk in young adult heavy drinkers. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 years (N = 122) participated in an ongoing 8-week randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of placebo-controlled naltrexone plus brief individual counseling to reduce h...
Brunet, Laurence; Moodie, Erica E M; Rollet, Kathleen; Cooper, Curtis; Walmsley, Sharon; Potter, Martin; Klein, Marina B; ,
Background. Marijuana smoking is common and believed to relieve many symptoms, but daily use has been associated with liver fibrosis in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to estimate the effect of marijuana smoking on liver disease progression in a Canadian prospective multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfected persons. Methods. Data were analyzed for 690 HCV polymerase chain reaction positive (PCR-positive) individuals without significant fibro...
Lac, Andrew; ALVARO, EUSEBIO M.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.
Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N=2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents’ marijuana beliefs—attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control—as posited by the Theory of ...
Zumbrun, Elizabeth E.; Sido, Jessica M.; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Use of marijuana during pregnancy is fairly commonplace and can be expected increase in frequency as more states legalize its recreational use. The cannabinoids present in marijuana have been shown to be immunosuppressive, yet the effect of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids on the immune system of the developing fetus, its long term consequences during adult stage of life, and transgenerational effects have not been well characterized. Confounding factors such as coexisting drug use make the ...
Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Cheung, Erick H; Brown, Gregory G.; BROWN, SANDRA A.; Tapert, Susan F.
Alcohol and marijuana use are prevalent in adolescence, yet the neural impact of concomitant use remains unclear. We previously demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to spatial working memory (SWM) among teens with alcohol use disorders (AUD) compared to controls, and predicted that adolescents with marijuana aid alcohol use disorders would show additional abnormalities. Participants were three groups of 15-17-year-olds: 19 non-abusing controls, 15 AUD teens with ...
Walsh, Kate; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Aharonovich, Efrat; Strous, Rael; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah
Background Substance dependence is more common among trauma-exposed individuals; however, most studies suggest that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) accounts for the link between trauma exposure (TE) and substance dependence. Objectives This study examined associations between TE and substance dependence (alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana), and whether PTSD accounted for this association. Method 1,317 Jewish Israeli household residents completed in-person structured interviews assessing TE, PTSD, and substance (alcohol, nicotine, marijuana) dependence between 2007–2009. Regression analyses examined associations among TE, PTSD, and substance dependence. Results In the full sample, mean number of traumatic events was 2.7 (sd=2.2), with 83.7% experiencing at least one event. In the full sample, mean number of PTSD symptoms was 2.5 (sd=3.4), with 13.5% meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria. Prevalence of alcohol dependence was 13.4%; nicotine dependence 52.8%; and marijuana dependence 12.1%. Number of traumatic events was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.2–1.4) and nicotine (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3) dependence. Similarly, any traumatic event exposure was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR= 3.1; 95% CI= 1.6–6.0) and nicotine (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2–2.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms were associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3), nicotine (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.1–1.2), and marijuana (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.04–1.2) dependence; similarly, a PTSD diagnosis was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.1–5.5), nicotine (OR=2.2; 95% CI = 1.4–3.4), and marijuana (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2–5.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms accounted for a sizeable proportion of the TE effect on alcohol (46%) and nicotine dependence (31%). Conclusion Individuals with more traumatic events had heightened risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence, and PTSD symptoms partially accounted for this risk. However, marijuana
Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. We propose a novel research agenda and a potential treatment strategy, based on observations that both acute and chronic exposure to cannabis are associated with dose-related cognitive impairments, most consistently in att...
Williams, Arthur Robin; Olfson, Mark; Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Kleber, Herbert D.
Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed laws implementing medical marijuana programs. The nineteen programs that were in operation as of October 2014 collectively had over one million participants. All states (including D.C.) with medical marijuana laws require physicians directly or indirectly to authorize the use of marijuana at their discretion, yet little is known about how medical marijuana programs vary regarding adherence to basic principles of medical practice and associated rates of enrollment. To explore this, we analyzed marijuana programs according to seven components of traditional medical care and pharmaceutical regulation. We then examined enrollment rates, while controlling for potentially confounding state characteristics. We found that fourteen of the twenty-four programs were nonmedical and collectively enrolled 99.4 percent of participants nationwide, with enrollment rates twenty times greater than programs deemed to be “medicalized.” Policy makers implementing or amending medical marijuana programs should consider the powerful relationship between less regulation and greater enrollment. Researchers should consider variations across programs when assessing programs' population-level effects. PMID:26953303
Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.
In the last 2000 years the world's population and the worldwide total energy consumption have been continuously increasing, at a rate even greater than exponential. By now a situation has been reached in which energy resources are running short, which for a long time have been treated as though they were almost inexhaustible. The ongoing growth of the world's population and a growing hunger for energy in underdeveloped and emerging countries imply that the yearly overall energy consumption will continue to grow, by about 1.6 percent every year so that it would have doubled by 2050. This massive energy consumption has led to and is progressively leading to severe changes in our environment and is threatening a climatic state that, for the last 10 000 years, has been unusually benign. The coincidence of the shortage of conventional energy resources with the hazards of an impending climate change is a dangerous threat to the well-being of all, but it is also a challenging opportunity for improvements in our energy usage. On a global scale, conventional methods such as the burning of coal, gas and oil or the use of nuclear fission will still dominate for some time. In their case, the challenge consists in making them more efficient and environmentally benign, and using them only where and when it is unavoidable. Alternative energies must be expanded and economically improved. Among these, promising techniques such as solar thermal and geothermal energy production should be promoted from a shadow existence and further advanced. New technologies, for instance nuclear fusion or transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste, are also quite promising. Finally, a careful analysis of the national and global energy flow systems and intelligent energy management, with emphasis on efficiency, overall effectiveness and sustainability, will acquire increasing importance. Thereby, economic viability, political and legal issues as well as moral aspects such as fairness to disadvantaged
Hayaki, Jumi; Herman, Debra S.; Hagerty, Claire E.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.
This study tests the acquired preparedness model (APM) to explain associations among trait impulsivity, social learning principles, and marijuana use outcomes in a community sample of female marijuana users. The APM states that individuals with high-risk dispositions are more likely to acquire certain types of learning that, in turn, instigate problematic substance use behaviors. In this study, three domains of psychosocial learning were tested: positive and negative marijuana use expectancie...
Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L.
Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251, young adult, female, bar drinkers. Multi-level modeling was used to assess the li...
D’Souza, G; Palefsky, J.M.; Zhong, Y; Minkoff, H; Massad, L.S.; Anastos, K; Levine, AM; Moxley, M; Xue, X.; Burk, R; Strickler, HD
Marijuana use was recently reported to have a positive cross-sectional association with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Laboratory data suggest that marijuana could have an immunomodulatory effect. Little is known, however, regarding the effects of marijuana use on cervical HPV or neoplasia. Therefore, we studied the natural history (ie, prevalence, incident detection, clearance/persistence) of cervical HPV and cervical neoplasia (ie, squamous intraepithelial lesions ...
Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.
The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexi...
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; LEE, JUNG YEON
Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N=838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were es...
Bui, Quan M.
Full Text Available We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:414–417.
Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.; Kamon, Jody L.; Thostensen, Jeff
An initial efficacy test of an innovative behavioral outpatient treatment model for adolescents with problematic use of marijuana enrolled 69 adolescents, aged 14–18, and randomly assigned them to one of two treatment conditions. Both conditions received individualized Motivational Enhancement and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MET/CBT) and a twice-weekly drug-testing program. The experimental contingency management condition involved a clinic delivered, abstinence-based incentive program, and...
Lac, Andrew; Unger, Jennifer B.; Basáñez, Tatiana; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Given the important contextual function of family dynamics and traditional gender roles in Latino cultures, parental influences on substance use among Latino adolescents may differ across genders. This study examined associations between family factors (parental monitoring, parent–child communication, family cohesion, and familism) and marijuana use among 1,369 Latino adolescents in Southern California. Students from seven schools completed surveys in 9th and 11th grades. Longitudinal hierarc...
Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer A.; Severtson, Stevan G.; Day, Nancy L.
The relation between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and school achievement was evaluated in a sample of 524 14-year-olds. Women were recruited during pregnancy and assessed, along with their offspring, at multiple phases from infancy to early adulthood. The sample represents a low-income population. Half of the adolescents are male and 55% are African American. School achievement was assessed with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Screener (Psychological Corporation, 1992). A...
Justinova, Zuzana; Goldberg, Steven R.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Tanda, Gianluigi
Drug self-administration behavior has been one of the most direct and productive approaches for studying the reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs, which are critical in determining their abuse potential. Cannabinoids, which are usually abused by humans in the form of marijuana, have become the most frequently abused illicit class of drugs in the United States. The early elucidation of the structure and stereochemistry of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 1964, which is now recognized...
Thames, AD; Mahmood, Z.; Burggren, AC; A Karimian; Kuhn, TP
© 2015 Taylor & Francis The current study examined the independent and combined effects of HIV and marijuana (MJ) use (no use, light use, and moderate-to-heavy use) on neurocognitive functioning among a convenience sample of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV–) individuals recruited from HIV community care clinics and advertisements in the Greater Los Angeles area. MJ users consisted of individuals who reported regular use of MJ for at least 12 months, with last reported use within the...
Fábio Galvão Dantas
ABSTRACT The medicinal use of components of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) has been studied around the world. Some of these components may have anti-convulsive properties, though the reports are controversial, and sometimes come from single case reports and clinical anecdotes. Because of ethical aspects, as some of the components of cannabis have psychotropic effects, this is a very important issue. New researches have demonstrated that some components of cannabis that don't have psychotropic ac...
Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Singer, Lynn
Abuse of drugs by pregnant women both in the United States and worldwide has raised many questions regarding the effects of prenatal drug exposure on the developing fetus and subsequent child outcomes. Studies using the neurobehavioral teratology model have been undertaken to determine specific prenatal drug effects on cognitive and behavioral development. Here we summarize the findings of studies that have investigated the developmental effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, marijuana, sti...
Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09μg/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 μg/g and Cr = 14.3μg/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).
Sneider, Jennifer T; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Silveri, Marisa M.
Marijuana (MJ) remains the most widely used illicit drug of abuse, and accordingly, is associated with adverse effects on mental and physical health, and neurocognitive decline. Studies investigating the neurobiology of underlying MJ effects have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in brain areas that contain moderate to high concentrations of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors and that are implicated in MJ-related cognitive decrements. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS),...
Hartwell, Karen J.; Back, Sudie E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Brady, Kathleen T.
Identification of the motives for drug use is critical to the development of effective interventions. Furthermore, consideration of the differences in motives for drug use across substance dependent populations may assist in tailoring interventions. To date, few studies have systematically compared motives for substance use across drug classes. The current study examined motives for drug use between non-treatment seeking individuals with current prescription opioid, marijuana, or cocaine depe...
Mauer Marc; King Ryan S
Abstract Background: As the "war on drugs" enters the latter half of its third decade since being forged into the American lexicon by President Ronald Reagan, the public has grown more skeptical of the current strategy and has proven to be receptive to a broader consideration of alternatives to incarceration. This has been the case most notably with marijuana offenses, where the policy discussion has shifted in some localities to one of decriminalization or de-prioritizing law enforcement res...
Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise
RESEARCH SUMMARY: This article examines the growth in marijuana misdemeanor arrests in New York City (NYC) from 1980 to 2003 and its differential impact on blacks and Hispanics. Since 1980, the New York City Police Department (NYPD) expanded its use of arrest and detention for minor offenses under its quality-of-life (QOL) policing initiative. Arrest data indicate that during the 1990s the primary focus of QOL policing became smoking marijuana in public view (MPV). By 2000, MPV had become the most common misdemeanor arrest, accounting for 15% of all NYC adult arrests and rivaling controlled substance arrests as the primary focus of drug abuse control. Of note, most MPV arrestees have been black or Hispanic. Furthermore, black and Hispanic MPV arrestees have been more likely to be detained prior to arraignment, convicted, and sentenced to jail than their white counterparts. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: In light of the disparities, we recommend that the NYPD consider scaling back on MPV enforcement and reducing the harshness of treatment by routinely issuing Desk Appearance Tickets when the person is not wanted on other charges, so that most MPV arrestees would not be detained. Furthermore, we recommend that legislators should consider making smoking marijuana in public a violation and not a misdemeanor. Lastly, we suggest ways that NYC could monitor the effectiveness of these policy modifications to assure that the city continues to meet its goals for order maintenance. PMID:18841246
Full Text Available Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people’s understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger on-line survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using ‘pot’ was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman’s contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood.
Mostaghim, Amir; Hathaway, Andrew D
Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people's understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger online survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, ON, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using "pot" was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman's contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood. PMID:24348431
Mostaghim, Amir; Hathaway, Andrew D.
Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people’s understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger online survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, ON, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using “pot” was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman’s contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood. PMID:24348431
Pyle, Tara M; Bridges, Ana J
Background and aims Research indicates that excessive pornography use can negatively impact romantic relationships. However, it is unclear whether these negative outcomes are different than negative outcomes produced by other compulsive or addictive behaviors, such as drug use. This study compared perceptions of relationship outcomes from either a romantic partner's excessive marijuana or pornography use. Furthermore, this study experimentally manipulated four factors potentially related to perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior. Methods A total of 186 college-aged women read 16 scenarios describing heterosexual romantic relationships in which one partner used either pornography or marijuana. Each scenario varied on four variables: relationship commitment, secrecy of partner's behavior, frequency of partner's behavior, and context of partner's behavior. Results Results suggest that partner pornography and marijuana use are perceived to impact romantic relationships similarly and are influenced by similar factors, such as greater frequency, higher secrecy, and partner's availability for interaction. Conclusions Such findings are consistent with recommendations by professionals that compulsive pornography use be considered worthy of treatment intervention. PMID:26165604
Full Text Available Vanishing lung syndrome (VLS is a rare and distinct clinical syndrome that usually affects young men. VLS leads to severe progressive dyspnea and is characterized by extensive, asymmetric, peripheral, and predominantly upper lobe giant lung bullae. Case reports have suggested an additive role of marijuana use in the development of this disease in young male tobacco smokers. We herein report a case of a 65-year-old Hispanic male previously diagnosed with severe emphysema and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, with a history of intravenous heroin use and active marijuana smoking who presents to the emergency department with severe progressive shortness of breath he was found to have multiple large subpleural bullae occupying more than one-third of the hemithorax on chest computerized tomography (CT, characteristic of vanishing lung syndrome. The patient was mechanically ventilated and later developed a pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement and referral for surgical bullectomy. Surgical bullectomy has shown high success rates in alleviating the debilitating symptoms and preventing the life threatening complications of this rare syndrome. This case further emphasizes the importance of recognizing VLS in patients with severe emphysema and heavy marijuana smoking.
Cloutier, Renee M; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R
Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713
Rybka, Kathryn M.
Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)
Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own--surprisingly few--driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045
Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001
In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.
I. I. Karpunin; V. V. Kuzmich; T. F. Balabanova
An analysis on usage of vegetal wastes for energy production is presented in the paper.The paper reveals that logging debris and linen chaffs are considered as a prospective raw material for energy production in theRepublicofBelarus.
Soto-Mendoza, Valeria; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia; Desmontils, Emmanuel; Garcia-Macias, Jose Antonio
Jagli, Mrs. Dhanamma; Oswal, Sangeeta
Web usage mining: automatic discovery of patterns in clickstreams and associated data collected or generated as a result of user interactions with one or more Web sites. This paper describes web usage mining for our college log files to analyze the behavioral patterns and profiles of users interacting with a Web site. The discovered patterns are represented as clusters that are frequently accessed by groups of visitors with common interests. In this paper, the visitors and hits were forecaste...
K. Poongothai; M. Parimala; S. Sathiyabama
Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effective Web site management, creating adaptive Web sites, business and support services, personalization, network traffic flow analysis etc., Web site under study is part of a nonprofit organization that does not sell any products. It was crucial to understand who the users were, what they looked at, and how th...
Mobile Internet is the outcome of two intense and global trends of the recent years: mobile/wireless and the Internet. Despite the potential the hundreds of millions of new mobile devices sold globally each year present, little information on mobile data service usage apart from mobile operator portals is currently available. In this research, mobile Internet usage was measured in fall 2005 using three fundamentally different methods to answer the question What are the characteristics of ...
Mitrea, Oana Stefana
The thesis focuses on the interlaced re-building of communication, movement, and information due to the integration of the wireless telephony in the daily life. The core of the theoretical part of the dissertation consists in the construction of a dispositif model that explains wireless telephony constitution, usage, and impact. The model outlines technology, subjects, usage, perception, representation, and socio-cultural frames. The reciprocal interactions between the mobile telephony appara...
The rapid e-commerce growth has made both business community and customers face a new situation. Due to intense competition on one hand and the customer's option to choose from several alternatives business community has realized the necessity of intelligent marketing strategies and relationship management. Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effec...
Qiang WANG; Lijuan ZHAO; Xuekun FANG; Jianhua XU; Yifan LI; Yehong SHI; Jianxin HU
Abstract Chlordane （1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7, 7a-tetra-hydro-4,7-methanoindane） is one of organochlor- ine pesticides （OCPs） which has been listed as one of the persistent organic pollutants （POPs） to be reduced and finally eliminated in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, because of its great persistence, toxicity, bio-accumulation and long-range transport potential. It is critical to create a national chlordane usage inventories for China to compile chlordane emission inventories, which is helpful for carrying out risk assessments and other researches related to chlordane in China. The annual data of chlordane usage was calculated and modified in accordance with the reported annual production of chlordane which was caculated on the basis of the termite distribution, the data of chlordane usage rate and the annual new construction area （NCA）. With the help of Geographic Information System, the usage data of this NCA were allocated to a grid system then, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6°latitude resolution and a size for each grid cell of approximately 25 km by 25 km. Between 1988 and 2008, the total usage of chlordane in China was 2745 t, accounting for approximately 80% of the production in the same period. Zhejiang Province was the largest consumer of chlordane in China, whose usage adds up to 980 t, greatly exceeding other provinces/regions, followed by Jiangsu Province （534 t） and Sichuan Province （428 t）. The region with the least usage of chlordane was Beijing. Provinces of Guizhou, Henan and Hebei did not use any chlordane, even though termites had occurred in these provinces. Gridded usage inventories showed that the intensive use of chlordane was concentrated in the southeast part of China, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta in particular. The satisfaction of the inventories was supported by the consistence between the estimated data of annual usage and the reported annual production of
Ito, Tiffany A; Henry, Erika A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bryan, Angela D
Opinions about marijuana use in the United States are becoming increasingly favorable, making it important to understand how psychosocial influences impact individuals' use in this context. Here, we used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of initial attitudes, norms, and efficacy to resist use on initial intentions and then to examine the effect of initial intentions on actual marijuana use measured 1 year later using data drawn from a community with relatively high use. We expanded the traditional theory of planned behavior model by investigating 2 types of normative influence (descriptive and injunctive) and 2 types of intentions (use intentions and proximity intentions), reasoning that exposure to high use in the population may produce high descriptive norms and proximity intentions overall, but not necessarily increase actual use. By contrast, we expected greater variability in injunctive norms and use intentions and that only use intentions would predict actual use. Consistent with hypotheses, intentions to use marijuana were predicted by injunctive norms (and attitudes) and in turn predicted marijuana use 1 year later. By contrast, descriptive norms were relatively high among all participants and did not predict intentions. Moreover, proximity intentions were not predictive of actual use. We also found that increasing intentions to use over a 1-year period predicted greater use. Given the greater efficacy of theory-based as compared with non-theory-based interventions, these findings provide critical information for the design of successful interventions to decrease marijuana-associated harms. PMID:26168227
Full Text Available Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDsIt will be our tradition to start every issue with a topic which demands attention of peopleespecially pharma professionals and of course the researchers. NSAIDs are proved to be verybeneficial as analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. Their usage is becoming moreand more as they are available as OTC drugs. Its worth to remember that they too possessesnumber of side effects, including GI side effects, Nephropathy, liver failure and prolongedbleeding after an injury or surgery. It is now reported NSAIDs causes dementia and showsnegative effect on protein synthesis. Their cardiovascular risk was in the head lines for severalmonths. One more fact is that no NSAID should be taken for more than 10 days, unless a doctorhas prescribed otherwise. Unnecessary and indiscriminate usage of NSAIDS increasingalarmingly (Green, 2001 and should be taken care of. They often take along with prescriptiondrugs and there are several incidences of drug interactions. For example concomitant usage ofanticoagulants or oral glucocorticoids should be avoided. (Ibuprofen, Clinical Pharmacologywww.clinicalpharmacology.com. So, indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs should be regulated.
This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…
Budney, Alan J; Sargent, James D; Lee, Dustin C
The proliferation of vaporization ('vaping') as a method for administering cannabis raises many of the same public health issues being debated and investigated in relation to e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Good epidemiological data on the prevalence of vaping cannabis are not yet available, but with current trends towards societal approval of medicinal and recreational use of cannabis, the pros and cons of vaping cannabis warrant study. As with e-cigs, vaping cannabis portends putative health benefits by reducing harm from ingesting toxic smoke. Indeed, vaping is perceived and being sold as a safer way to use cannabis, despite the lack of data on the health effects of chronic vaping. Other perceived benefits include better taste, more efficient and intense effects and greater discretion which allows for use in more places. Unfortunately, these aspects of vaping could prompt an increased likelihood of trying cannabis, earlier age of onset, more positive initial experiences, and more frequent use, thereby increasing the probability of problematic use or addiction. Sales and marketing of vaping devices with no regulatory guidelines, especially related to advertising or product development targeting youth, parallels concerns under debate related to e-cigs and youth. Thus, the quandary of whether or not to promote vaping as a safer method of cannabis administration for those wishing to use cannabis, and how to regulate vaping and vaping devices, necessitates substantial investigation and discussion. Addressing these issues in concert with efforts directed towards e-cigs may save time and energy and result in a more comprehensive and effective public health policy on vaping. PMID:26264448
Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul
The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.
Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A
The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory
Full Text Available Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effective Web site management, creating adaptive Web sites, business and support services, personalization, network traffic flow analysis etc., Web site under study is part of a nonprofit organization that does not sell any products. It was crucial to understand who the users were, what they looked at, and how their interests changed with time. To achieve this, one of the promising approaches is web usage mining, which mines web logs for user models and recommendations. Web usage mining algorithms have been widely utilized for modeling user web navigation behavior. In this study we advance a model for mining of user's navigation pattern. The proposal of our work proceeds in the direction of building a robust web usage knowledge discovery system, which extracts the web user profiles at the web server, application server and core application level. The proposal optimizes the usage mining framework with fuzzy C means clustering algorithm (to discover web data clusters and compare with Expected Maximization cluster system to analyze the Web site visitor trends. The evolutionary clustering algorithm is proposed to optimally segregate similar user interests. The clustered data is then used to analyze the trends using inference system. By linking the Web logs with cookies and forms, it is further possible to analyze the visitor behavior and profiles which could help an e-commerce site to address several business questions. Experimentation conducted with CFuzzy means and Expected Maximization clusters in Syskill Webert data set from UCI, shows that EM shows 5% to 8% better performance than CFuzzy means in terms of cluster number.
Smith, James William; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian
In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incentivizing software developers to create energy-efficient applications.
With the emergence of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, the Web site has become a key communication channel in organizations. To satisfy the objectives of the Web site and of its target audience, adapting the Web site content to the users' expectations has become a major concern. In this context, Web usage mining, a relatively new research area, and Web analytics, a part of Web usage mining that has most emerged in the corporate world, offer many Web communication analysis techniques. T...
The Internet is a tool for learning and obtaining a vast amount of information, but it is a tool which also has associated problems. The number of risks associated with the internet has been increasing both in number and in danger. As a result, protection measures must be developed to minimize the risks. One of the most important groups of such measures are Internet Usage Policies. An Internet Usage Policy addresses the problem by providing a set of guideline to be followed which minimize the...
This paper describes work recently done to upgrade usage of the plant process computer at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The use of computers to aid reactor operators in understanding plant status and diagnosing plant difficulties is currently being widely studied by the nuclear industry. In this regard, an effort was initiated to improve LOFT process computer usage, since the existing plant process computer has been an available, but only lightly used resource, for aiding LOFT reactor operators. This is a continuing effort and has, to date, produced improvements in data collection, data display for operators, and methods of computer operation
Sharma, Dinkar; Money, Sharon
Addiction has been characterized as an attentional bias towards drug-related cues. In two experiments we investigate the effects of non-words that have been associatively trained to addiction-related images in a group of marijuana and cocaine users. These associated non-words were presented along with unstudied non-words in a subsequent addiction Stroop task. Results indicate a slowdown in responding to the colour of non-words that were paired with cocaine-related images compared with non-coc...
Dougherty, D M; Cherek, D. R.; Roache, J D
In three experiments, 8 human subjects participated in a study of the effects of smoked marijuana on progressive-interval schedule performance. A two-component chained progressive-interval fixed-interval schedule of point delivery was used. In the progressive-interval component, the interval length began at 20 s and increased either geometrically or arithmetically (by either 20 s, 40 s, 80 s, 100 s, or 160 s) on each subsequent interval. After this interval elapsed, a single button press prod...
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...
Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid
Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...
Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian
Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.
Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr
Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…
Ghani, Ejaz; Goswami, Arti Grover; Kerr, William R.
India's manufacturing sector has undergone many spatial adjustments since 1989, including, for example, the organized sector's migration to rural locations, the powerful rise of informal manufacturing within cities, and the development of intermediate cities for manufacturing. This paper investigates the impact of these spatial adjustments for electricity usage in India s manufacturing sec...
The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting ...
This paper describes predicate adjective usage in modern standard Russian using a corpus of written Russian derived from "Pravda" (neutral literary style) and "Krokodil" (conversational material). The short, long nominative, and instrumental forms are examined in relation to the type of adjective, copulative verb, sentence subject, and other…
Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.
Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo
Here we reported the pattern of codon usage and the factors which influenced the codon usage pattern in mitochondrial cytochrome B (MT-CYB) gene among pisces, aves and mammals. The F1 axis of correspondence analysis showed highly significant positive correlation with nucleobases A3, C and C3 and significant negative correlation with T and T3 while F2 of correspondence analysis showed significant positive correlation with C and C3 and significant negative correlation with A and A3. From the neutrality plot, it was evident that the GC12 was influenced by mutation pressure and natural selection with a ratio of 0.10/0.90=0.11 in pisces, 0.024/0.976=0.0245 in aves and in mammals 0.215/0.785=0.273, which indicated that the role of natural selection was more than mutation pressure on structuring the bases at the first and second codon positions. Natural selection played the major role; but compositional constraint and mutation pressure also played a significant role in codon usage pattern. Analysis of codon usage pattern has contributed to the better understanding of the mechanism of distribution of codons and the evolution of MT-CYB gene. PMID:27063508
Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…
Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.
The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…
Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela
Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…
Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying
This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…
Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Carreiro, Stephanie P; Babu, Kavita M
Despite their widespread Internet availability and use, many of the new drugs of abuse remain unfamiliar to health care providers. The herbal marijuana alternatives, like K2 or Spice, are a group of herbal blends that contain a mixture of plant matter in addition to chemical grade synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic cathinones, commonly called "bath salts," have resulted in nationwide emergency department visits for severe agitation, sympathomimetic toxicity, and death. Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects. Methoxetamine has recently become available via the Internet and is marked as "legal ketamine." Moreover, the piperazine derivatives, a class of amphetamine-like compounds that includes BZP and TMFPP, are making a resurgence as "legal Ecstasy." These psychoactives are available via the Internet, frequently legal, and often perceived as safe by the public. Unfortunately, these drugs often have adverse effects, which range from minimal to life-threatening. Health care providers must be familiar with these important new classes of drugs. This paper discusses the background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures. PMID:22271566
Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna
The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome. PMID:18313952
Roussell, Aaron; Omori, Marisa
Although there is a vast literature on drug use and addiction, there is little work that addresses the long-term use of drugs within the general population. We take a more contextual look in examining longitudinal drug use patterns over the course of 14 years for a representative sample of young adults in their late teens and early twenties in the United States using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We use a growth trajectory modelling approach for cocaine and marijuana users to determine general use careers. Using contextual and life-course variables, we then estimate a multinomial logistic regression model to predict group membership. In addition to establishing general use career groups, we ask how well mainstream theories comport with our findings and how the different chemical makeup of cocaine and marijuana influence our findings. We find four general use career groups: (i) high use/late desistance; (ii) peaked use/strong desistance; (iii) low use; and (iv) stable use/gradual desistance. Our results suggest similar careers for users of both drugs, with desistance over time as the rule for all groups. We also find some support for life-course and contextual factors in drug using patterns, but our findings challenge other psychological and criminological theories. PMID:27037510
Ehrenreich, Heidi; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao
Rising marijuana use and its lowered perceived risk among adolescents highlight the importance of examining patterns of marijuana use over time. This study identified trajectories of marijuana use among adolescents followed from middle through high school, characterized these by co-occurring problem behaviors and teacher-rated academic skills (study skills, attention problems, and learning problems), and tested sixth-grade predictors of trajectory membership. The sample consisted of a randomly-selected cohort of 619 students assessed annually from sixth to twelfth grade. Using group-based modeling, we identified four trajectories of marijuana use: Abstainer (65.6%), Sporadic (13.9%), Experimental (11.5%), and Increasing (9.0%). Compared to Abstainers, students in the Sporadic, Experimental and Increasing trajectories reported significantly more co-occurring problem behaviors of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical aggression. Sporadic and Experimental users reported significantly less smoking and physical aggression, but not alcohol use, than Increasing users. Teachers consistently rated Abstainers as having better study skills and less attention and learning problems than the three marijuana use groups. Compared to Abstainers, the odds of dropping out of high school was at least 2.7 times higher for students in the marijuana use trajectories. Dropout rates did not vary significantly between marijuana use groups. In sixth grade, being male, cigarette smoking, physical aggression and attention problems increased the odds of being in the marijuana use trajectories. Multiple indicators--student self-reports, teacher ratings and high school dropout records--showed that marijuana was not an isolated or benign event in the life of adolescents but part of an overall problem behavior syndrome. PMID:25376473
Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Reefhuis, J.; Herron, A.M.; Williams, M.L.; Roeleveld, N.
CONTEXT: Illicit drug use is associated with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have examined these associations among drug users of all reproductive ages, using a control group of nonusers. METHODS: Associations between marijuana and cocaine use, and outcom
Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.
Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional…
A. Benschop; N. Liebregts; P. van der Pol; R. Schaap; R. Buisman; M. van Laar; W. van den Brink; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf
The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥3 days per week) c
Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…
Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid
Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…
Petrovska, Biljana Bauer
Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. PMID:22654398
Ireland, Jack; Stys, J. E.
The Helioviewer Project enables visual exploration of the Sun and the inner heliosphere for everyone, everywhere via intuitive interfaces and novel technology. Images from the SDO, STEREO, SOHO, PROBA2 and Yohkoh missions are currently available. Users of the Helioviewer Project have made over one million movies and over two million screenshots since detailed (and anonymous) logging of Helioviewer Project usage was implemented in February 2011. These usage logs are analyzed to give a detailed breakdown on user interaction with solar and heliospheric data via Helioviewer Project clients and services. We present summary statistics on how our users are using our clients and services, which data they are interested in, and how they choose to interact with different data sources.
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the characteristics of credit card holders and the extent of credit card usage, the level of credit card knowledge, and the consumer's choice perspectives. The characteristics of credit card holders studied were (a) gender, (b) age, (c) marital status, (d) education, (e) income, and (f) occupation. Data for this study were collected in Bangkok, Thailand by telephone interviews during July- August 1993. The sample consisted of 1...
Cronin, F J; Krebs-Smith, S M; Wyse, B W; Light, L
On the basis of an analysis of three-day food records, food comsumption by major segments of the U.S. population was examined for 65 food groups and subgroups. This study indicates that demographic factors, particularly age, race, and region, can affect both the percentage of persons using certain foods and the mean frequency of their use. Both the similarities and the differences on these parameters are of interest when food usage is examined by demographic variables. PMID:7142608
This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.
Samaneh Beheshti-Kashi; Baharak Makki
This paper presents the results of an online survey which was conducted to analyse the use of social web inthe context of daily news. Users’ motivation and habit in the news consumption were focused. Moreover,users’ news behaviour was distinguished in three purposes such news consumption, news production andnews dissemination to find out if the usage has a passive or active character. In a second step it wasquestioned which social software is used for which purpose. In conclusion users apprec...
My bachelor‘s thesis deals with social networks and marketing on social networks. The thesis analyzes the biggest and most interesting social networks on the internet – Facebook, Twitter and networks LinkedId and Foursquare. In detail, the thesis describes two networks – Facebook and Twitter. These thesis analyzed history of Facebook, main differences between real a and fictitious profiles. In the next step, thesis deals with most used marketing methods to promote products and brands by usage...
Al–Ali, Badereddin Mohamad; Patzak, Johanna; Fischereder, Katja; Pummer, Karl; Shamloul, Rany
Introduction The objective of this pilot study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on erectile function (EF) in men. Material and Methods We recruited 20 consecutive men complaining of erectile dysfunction (ED) for at least six months (Group A), and another group of 10 healthy men with no complaints of ED (Group B). Anamnesis, basic laboratory investigations, and clinical examinations were performed. All men completed the German version of the Sexual Health...
Reed, P.; Vile, R; L.A. Osborne; Romano, M.; R. Truzoli
Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their ...
Bettinotti, Adriana M.; Garavaglia, Mauricio
Statistical testing with Markov Chain Usage Models is an effective method to be used by programmers and testers during web sites development, to guarantee the software reliability. The JUMBL software works on this models; it supports model construction with the TML language and analysis, tests generation and execution and analysis of tests results. This paper is targeted at test automation for web sites development with JUMBL and JWebUnit.
The animations change the static pictures into the movable ones. By special recording and then fast playing a lot of pictures one by one, which differ only by details, it looks like moving. This way of playing makes the best of imperfection of human eye, which considers fast changing like a smooth moving. By progress from original, hand drawn pictures, there is less work difficulty, and author´s personality reflects in usage of computer graphic effects, like bitmap and vector graphic...
Bilal AFSAR; Jawaria Andleeb QURESH; Asim REHMAN; Rehmat Ullah BANGASH
The present age is the era of information technology and everywhere microwaves are scattered. Everybody wants to explore itself with this information technology and happenings taking place of Internet for the purpose of education, awareness, entertainment and especially interaction with strangers. In Pakistan, the awareness of internet usage is increasing and people are gaining knowledge about online buying and selling. Although the Internet may well empower consumers, there is a paucity of s...
To support closure of the Savannah River Site High Level Waste tanks, the PORFLOW computer program is being applied to predict long term movement of residual contaminants from the tanks. The PORFLOW program has greater capabilities than simpler programs that have been used previously, and PORFLOW results have been accepted by state and federal regulators throughout the United States. This document briefly discusses the PORFLOW capabilities and presents lists of reports showing PORFLOW's usage history and testing
Kari, Tuomas; Makkonen, Markus
Different kinds of digital gaming concepts that combine exercise and games, commonly referred to as exergames, have become increasingly common in recent years. These games, which can be used because of both hedonic and utilitarian reasons, have also become a subject of growing interest among academic researchers. However, the factors that explain their usage remain vaguely understood. This study aims to find out what kinds of factors explain the intentions to use exergames as p...
Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)
Gracia Abilla, Sara
This document contains the results of the energy usage optimization in HEMAV test-bed. It has been developed as part of an internship in HEMAV, a young European company based in Molins de Rei, Barcelona dedicated to make safe civil services with RPAS technology. The main objectives of this study are increase the flight time of the hexacopter by studying the behaviour of different propellers and increasing or decreasing the number of batteries. And, finally, study the influence of performing d...
This bachelor’s essay is focused on usage of operating system Linux in enterprise SBD Cheb. In theoretical part is described Linux and his history. There are also described functions of server, because Linux is used in SBD Cheb on the servers. In practical part there are some researches, that say why is Linux on the servers so favourite. Linux is compared to Microsoft Windows and after describing of the servers in the enterprise is created a SWOT analysis.
Local area network of controllers at the Karlsruhe cyclotyron is shown. Experience after two years of usage is described. The system is applied controlling, data acquisition, management, databases usage
Schwedt, Todd J
Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044
Full Text Available Abstract Background An important challenge in conducting social research of specific relevance to harm reduction programs is locating hidden populations of consumers of substances like cannabis who typically report few adverse or unwanted consequences of their use. Much of the deviant, pathologized perception of drug users is historically derived from, and empirically supported, by a research emphasis on gaining ready access to users in drug treatment or in prison populations with higher incidence of problems of dependence and misuse. Because they are less visible, responsible recreational users of illicit drugs have been more difficult to study. Methods This article investigates Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS as a method of recruiting experienced marijuana users representative of users in the general population. Based on sampling conducted in a multi-city study (Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, and compared to samples gathered using other research methods, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of RDS recruitment as a means of gaining access to illicit substance users who experience few harmful consequences of their use. Demographic characteristics of the sample in Toronto are compared with those of users in a recent household survey and a pilot study of Toronto where the latter utilized nonrandom self-selection of respondents. Results A modified approach to RDS was necessary to attain the target sample size in all four cities (i.e., 40 'users' from each site. The final sample in Toronto was largely similar, however, to marijuana users in a random household survey that was carried out in the same city. Whereas well-educated, married, whites and females in the survey were all somewhat overrepresented, the two samples, overall, were more alike than different with respect to economic status and employment. Furthermore, comparison with a self-selected sample suggests that (even modified RDS recruitment is a cost-effective way of
Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay
This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected…
Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...
Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM
Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.
Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu
Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.
Lee, Jung-Rok; Choi, Joohong; Shultz, Tyler O; Wang, Shan X
As medical and recreational use of cannabis, or marijuana, becomes more prevalent, law enforcement needs a tool to evaluate whether drivers are operating vehicles under the influence of cannabis, specifically the psychoactive substance, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, the cutoff concentration of THC that causes impairment is still controversial, and current on-site screening tools are not sensitive enough to detect trace amounts of THC in oral fluids. Here we present a novel sensing platform that employs giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors integrated with a portable reader system and smartphone to detect THC in saliva using competitive assays. With a simple saliva collection scheme, we have optimized the assay to measure THC in the range from 0 to 50 ng/mL, covering most cutoff values proposed in previous studies. This work facilitates on-site screening for THC and shows potential for testing of other small molecule drugs and analytes in point-of-care (POC) settings. PMID:27434697
Dunham, Sage J B; Hooker, Paul D; Hyde, Robyn M
In this work, methods for the rapid identification, extraction, and quantification of the synthetic cannabinoid, JWH-018, from commercially available "Spice" (a herbal marijuana alternative) are presented. JWH-018 was identified in three different products using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry coupled with a direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization source, a process that was completed in less then five minutes and required no sample preparation. Extraction of the JWH-018 from the spice samples using an automated accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) instrument provided clean extracts with few plant pigments. Subsequent quantification by isocratic HPLC produced the following results (mg JWH-018/g plant material): Weekend Warrior brand "Hash": 90 (±3%) mg/g, Weekend Warrior brand "Leaf": 29 (±6%) mg/g, TrainWreck Hayze brand: 28 (±4%) mg/g. Vegetative samples spiked with JWH-018 gave a recovery of 97% (±1%). PMID:23092847
Kristen A Ford
Full Text Available Prior research has shown a relationship between early onset marijuana (MJ use and depression, however this relationship is complex and poorly understood. Here, we utilized passive music listening and fMRI to examine functional brain activation to a rewarding stimulus in 75 participants (healthy controls (HC, patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, frequent MJ users (MJ, and the combination of MDD and MJ (MDD+MJ. For each participant a preferred and neutral piece of instrumental music was determined (utilizing ratings on a standardized scale, and each completed two 6-minute fMRI scans of a passive music listening task. Data underwent preprocessing and 61 participants were carried forward for analysis (17 HC, 15 MDD, 15 MJ, 14 MDD+MJ. Two statistical analyses were performed using SPM8, an ANCOVA with two factors (group x music-type and a whole brain, multiple regression analysis incorporating two predictors of interest (MJ use in past 28 days; and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score. We identified a significant group x music-type interaction. Post hoc comparisons showed the preferred music had significantly greater activation in the MDD+MJ group in areas including the right middle and inferior frontal gyri extending into the claustrum and putamen and the anterior cingulate. No significant differences were identified in MDD, MJ or HC groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that activation in medial frontal cortex was positively correlated with amount of MJ use, and activation in areas including the insula was negatively correlated with BDI score. Results showed modulation in brain activation during passive music listening specific to MDD, frequent MJ users. This supports the suggestion that frequent MJ use, when combined with MDD, is associated with changes in neurocircuitry involved in reward-processing in ways that are absent with either frequent marijuana use or MDD alone. This could help inform clinical recommendations for youth with
Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D.; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso
It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51% female, median age= 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were ...
Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo; Guimaraes, Valerie C K; Guimaraes, Tor
Purpose - Without use the expected benefits from healthcare management systems (HMS) cannot be derived. Thus, while use alone may not guarantee success, one can safely assume that the more use the better. HMS has been instrumental in facilitating care providers' work. However, many hospitals have encountered usage problems and some user-related factors have been recognized in the literature as potentially important to make HMS more successful. The purpose of this paper is to test the importance of the factors proposed in the literature as important determinants of HMS usage measured by the number of hours used and the frequency of use. Design/methodology/approach - Several user-related variables such as user participation, user expertise, and user training previously studied separately by different authors are brought together into an integrated model to be tested empirically. Data from 213 nurses using their hospital HMS have been used to test proposed relationships between the independent variables and HMS usage results. Findings - The results confirm the importance of these factors and provide the basis for managerial recommendations. Hospital managers can use the resources validated by this study to improve their own operations and improve the likelihood of success implementing HMS. Future research projects may identify other possible factors important for HMS implementation success to improve the model proposed here. Originality/value - HMS is a very widely used and an important system for hospitals, but has been neglected in research. This is one of the first rigorous studies of HMS, and the results provide new practical insights for hospital administrators. PMID:27298061
Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D
It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51 % female, median age = 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were used to create three groups: lifetime non-drug users (n = 77), lifetime marijuana only users (n = 46) and lifetime marijuana and other drug users (n = 45). In the presence of demographic and physiological covariates, non-drug users were approximately two times more likely (AOR 2.73, CI 1.18, 6.31; p = .03) to have higher TNF levels than marijuana only users. Drug use was not associated with IL-1α. The influence of marijuana may be selective in nature, potentially localizing around innate immunity and the induction of cellular death. PMID:25731665
The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)
Garcia, Johan; Hurtig, Per; Brunström, Anna
KauNet is an emulation system that allows deterministic placement of packet losses and bit-errors as well as more precise control over bandwidth and delay changes. KauNet is an extension to the well-known Dummynet emulator in FreeBSD and allows the use of pattern and scenario files to increase control and repeatability. This report provides a comprehensive description of the usage of KauNet, as well as a technical description of the design and implementation of KauNet.
Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System
Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.
This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.
Ono, Hiroshi; Zavodny , Madeline
The authors examine racial and ethnic differences in computer ownership and Internet usage using data from a survey conducted by the Nomura Research Institute in 2000. They focus on on-line shopping because few studies have examined racial and ethnic differences in e-commerce. The results indicate that blacks and Hispanics are less likely to own or use a computer than are non-Hispanic whites but are not less likely to shop on-line. Indeed, blacks appear to shop on-line more frequently and to ...
At German universities, podcasting is still a relatively new method of teaching and learning, on which only few studies are available so far. The present report aims to describe students’ usage behaviour and their assess- ment of podcasting. The findings are based on a survey of students at the University of Flensburg, who took part in lectures recorded and made avail- able as podcasts during the 2007 summer term and 2007/08 winter term. A total of 148 students took part at the two survey ses...
Burckhart, H J; Caspers, F; Doré, V; Gatignon, L; Martel, C; Nonis, M; Tommasini, D
Some of the efforts of CERN to optimize its energy usage are presented. Work is proceeding in several areas: campus and infrastructure, accelerators and beam lines, as well as R&D for future accelerators. The existing building stock is being renovated and new buildings apply an integrated energy concept. The energy efficiency of the accelerators and beam lines can be further enhanced by powering more equipment dynamically only during the time it is really needed. For designing new accelerators novel approaches are being investigated to re-use energy which in today’s installations gets dumped thermally.
Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.
Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto
Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339
Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.
The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.
Nur Budi Mulyono
Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1
Full Text Available Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire, sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28. This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.
Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto
Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339
Satar, Mehmet; Özlü, Ferda; Yapıcıoğlu, Hacer; İskit, Serdar
Prune Belly syndrome (PBS), comprises a triad of anomalies that include abdominal wall flaccidity, urologic anomalies and bilateral cryptorchidism in males. The abdominal musculature hypoplasia predisposes to respiratory problems, respiratory infections secondary to impaired cough mechanism, and cause chronic constipation secondary to ineffective valsalva ability. Here, the authors present a newborn baby with Prune Belly syndrome who had respiratory and gastrointestinal problems which resolved after corset use. To the authors knowledge, this is the first case of corset usage in the treatment of PBS in a newborn infant. PMID:26729223
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... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...
Golub Andrew; Johnson Bruce D; Dunlap Eloise
Abstract Background During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) greatly expanded arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV). By 2000, MPV accounted for 15% of all arrests. The NYPD's supporters report this arrest activity is just part of quality-of-life (QOL) policing, which seeks to promote order in public locations by aggressively patrolling for behaviors that offend the general population. The NYPD's critics contend the NYPD has disproportionately targeted poor, black a...
Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi M.; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M.
Marijuana (MJ) use and HIV infection are both associated with neurocognitive deficits, yet there is little research to date examining their interactions, specifically how they pertain to procedural learning (PL). We examined a sample of 86 individuals with a history of dependence for multiple substances who underwent a comprehensive evaluation including measures of mental health, substance use history, and three measures of PL: the photoelectric Rotary Pursuit Task (RPT), the Star Mirror Trac...
Willford, Jennifer A.; Chandler, Lynette S.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.
Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-y...
Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.
Parental monitoring is commonly accredited as an important protective factor against risky adolescent behaviors. In this meta-analytic review, associations of adolescents’ perceptions of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana use were collected and quantified across 25 independent samples from 17 empirical studies involving 35,367 unique participants. Applying a random-effects model, the average magnitude of effect was r = −.21,. The association was significantly stronger in female-onl...
Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12...
Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J
Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products. PMID:26802106
Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L
This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491
Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante
The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939
Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar tradução e adaptação transcultural do Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF10, que avalia o craving por maconha em uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODO: O MCQ-SF foi traduzido do inglês para o português, aplicado em 10 sujeitos, submetido ao brainstorming num grupo de três indivíduos para reprodução individual e verbal, item a item. Realizou-se o back-translation, uma versão para o idioma de origem, a partir da primeira tradução e do brainstorming. Logo após, traduziu-se novamente para o português. Um comitê de juízes especialistas analisou todas as traduções. RESULTADOS: Após as considerações do comitê e um estudo-piloto com 30 sujeitos, a versão final do MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil foi construída. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram uma equivalência semântica satisfatória entre as versões. O MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil pode ser útil para avaliar o craving pela maconha nos dependentes dessa substância.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate and adapt culturally the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF10 which evaluates the craving for marijuana in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF was translated from English to Portuguese, administered to 10 subjects, submitted to a brainstorming in a group of three people for individual and verbal reproduction, item by item. Back-translation was executed, a translation for the original language, based on first translation and from brainstorming. Soon after, it was translated again into Portuguese. A committee of specialists analyzed all translations. RESULTS: After the committee considerations and a pilot study with 30 subjects, the final version of MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil was built. CONCLUSION: The results showed a satisfactory semantic equivalence between versions. The MCQ/Versão Brasil can be useful to evaluate the craving for marijuana on the dependents of this substance.
Gillon, Yves; Chaboud, Christian; Boutrais, Jean; Mullon, Christian; Weber, Jacques
Depuis une dizaine d'années, l'idée que la sauvegarde de notre planète passe par le développement économique et le partage équitable des bénéfices s'est largement répandue. Dans le cas des ressources naturelles renouvelables, quel est donc ce "bon usage" qui permettrait de concilier préservation des écosystèmes et bien-être des populations locales ? Les études de cas en milieu tropical rassemblées dans cet ouvrage soulignent la diversité et la complexité des systèmes mis en place pour gérer c...
Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan
Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity. PMID:27142427