WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic marijuana usage

  1. Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis in a Patient with Neurosarcoidosis on Chronic Steroid Therapy Secondary to Recreational Marijuana Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Gongidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is often a fatal disease that typically takes a hematogenous spread after inhalation or accidental skin inoculation of pathogens. We present a patient with a history of heavy marijuana smoking while being on chronic steroid therapy for treatment of neurosarcoidosis who was found to have multiple brain abscesses from Curvularia sp. This is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling dematiaceous fungus that is generally thought to affect solely plants, but there is increasing evidence in the literature of it affecting humans and animals. We review the radiographic findings of neurosarcoidosis and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis as well as the pathophysiology of dematiaceous fungi infections.

  2. The effects of chronic marijuana use on circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Fogler, Kethera; Hall, Kate; Hartmann, Matthew; Dyche, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Animal literature suggests a connection between marijuana use and altered circadian rhythms. However, the effect has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The present study examined the effect of chronic marijuana use on human circadian function. Participants consisted of current users who reported smoking marijuana daily for at least a year and non-marijuana user controls. Participants took a neurocognitive assessment, wore actigraphs and maintained sleep diaries for three weeks. While no significant cognitive changes were found between groups, data revealed that chronic marijuana use may act as an additional zeitgeber and lead to increased entrainment in human users.

  3. Medical marijuana use for chronic pain: risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, Garth T

    2012-01-01

    Questions from patients about medical marijuana use for chronic pain are becoming more common. The information in this report will help patients understand the potential risks and benefits of using this substance for painful conditions.

  4. Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  5. Too Many Mouldy Joints – Marijuana and Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gargani, Yousef; Bishop, Paul; Denning, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a progressive debilitating disease with multiple underlying pulmonary diseases described. Here we report the association of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and long term marijuana smoking in 2 patients and review the literature related to invasive and allergic aspergillosis.

  6. Cardiac asystole following cannabis (marijuana) usage--additional mechanism for sudden death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Samuel

    2013-12-10

    A 21 year old university student previously operated during infancy for an unobstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage with an excellent result, was noted on a routine follow up 24 h Holter monitor to have multiple pauses related to cardiac asystole, the longest lasting 5.8 s and temporally related to marijuana inhalation. A repeat Holter was normal following a two week cessation of marijuana usage and again when carried out 3 months later. The documented periods of asystole may be a precursor of sudden death seen in addicts even without evidence of ischaemic heart disease. PMID:24200372

  7. Chronic pain and marijuana use among a nationally representative sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Cougle, Jesse R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Norberg, Melissa M; Johnson, Kirsten; Kosiba, Jesse; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relations between chronic pain and marijuana use in a large nationally representative survey of adults (n = 5,672; 53% female; M(age) = 45.05, SD = 17.9) conducted in the United States. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifetime history of depression, and alcohol abuse/dependence, there was a significant association between lifetime chronic pain and lifetime and current marijuana use. Moreover, current chronic pain was significantly associated with lifetime marijuana use. There was no significant association between current chronic pain and current marijuana use, possibly owing to limited statistical power. Results suggest that there are generally consistent statistically significant relations between chronic pain and marijuana use. Future work is needed to explicate the developmental patterning between chronic pain and marijuana use. This paper presents the potential linkage between chronic pain and marijuana use. Results from this study suggest that it may be beneficial for clinicians to assess for marijuana use among patients suffering from chronic pain. Such patients may be using marijuana as a maladaptive coping strategy.

  8. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  9. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  10. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  11. The diagnosis of marijuana (cannabis) dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N S; Gold, M S

    1989-01-01

    The definition of marijuana (Cannabis) dependence (addiction) contains three critical elements. These are (a) preoccupation with the acquisition of marijuana, (b) compulsive use of marijuana, (c) relapse to or recurrent use of the marijuana. The manifestations of abnormal marijuana use may assume many forms. Medical, psychiatric, neurological, traumatic, and sociological sequelae occur commonly in acute and chronic marijuana use. Marijuana dependence must be diagnosed primarily as the etiological or precipitating agent to adequately prevent and treat these conditions. The central role of marijuana addiction can be identified. The consequences of the marijuana addiction should be separated from the marijuana addict's actual motivation or craving to use marijuana. Marijuana addicts use abnormally because of what marijuana does to them and not for them. Marijuana reinforces its own use. Psychosocial stressors are not required to produce a marijuana addiction in biologically susceptible individuals. Consequences that result from an addiction to marijuana do not produce the abnormal use. A presumptive diagnosis of marijuana dependence (addiction) can be established by detecting significant consequences associated with marijuana use. A definitive diagnosis entails confirming the presence of addictive behavior by identifying a preoccupation, compulsivity and relapse relative to the drug, marijuana. PMID:2677398

  12. La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  13. Usager

    OpenAIRE

    Warin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Définition de la notion "Usager". Acteur de la définition des besoins sociaux, de l'intérêt collectif et de l'offre de services urbains. Acteur de la légitimation des choix publics budgétaires et fiscaux. Acteur de la cohésion sociale.

  14. Medical marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18. Other people who should not use medical marijuana include: People with heart disease Pregnant women People with a history of psychosis Other concerns linked to marijuana use include: Dangerous driving or other risky behaviors ...

  15. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  16. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  17. Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions and Deaths Related to Pain Killers?

    OpenAIRE

    David Powell; Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Mireille Jacobson

    2015-01-01

    Many medical marijuana patients report using marijuana to alleviate chronic pain from musculoskeletal problems and other sources. If marijuana is used as a substitute for powerful and addictive pain relievers in medical marijuana states, a potential overlooked positive impact of medical marijuana laws may be a reduction in harms associated with opioid pain relievers, a far more addictive and potentially deadly substance. To assess this issue, we study the impact of medical marijuana laws on p...

  18. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  19. The Influence of Marijuana Use on Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; BROWN, SANDRA A.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana use is common in adolescence, yet neural consequences have not been well delineated. This review seeks to ascertain whether heavy marijuana use in adolescence is associated with persistent neurocognitive abnormalities, and whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the impact of chronic marijuana use than adults.

  20. Kalrn promoter usage and isoform expression respond to chronic cocaine exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xin-Ming

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term effects of cocaine on behavior are accompanied by structural changes in excitatory glutamatergic synapses onto the medium spiny neurons of the striatum. The Kalrn gene encodes several functionally distinct isoforms; these multidomain guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs contain additional domains known to interact with phosphatidylinositides as well as with a number of different proteins. Through their activation of Rho proteins and their interactions with other proteins, the different Kalirin isoforms affect cytoskeletal organization. Chronic exposure of adult male rodents to cocaine increases levels of Kalirin 7 in the striatum. When exposed chronically to cocaine, mice lacking Kalirin 7, the major adult isoform, fail to show an increase in dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens, show diminished place preference for cocaine, and exhibit increased locomotor activity in response to cocaine. Results The use of alternate promoters and 3'-terminal exons of the mouse Kalrn gene were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. While the two most distal full-length Kalrn promoters are used equally in the prefrontal cortex, the more proximal of these promoters accounts for most of the transcripts expressed in the nucleus accumbens. The 3'-terminal exon unique to the Kalirin 7 isoform accounts for a greater percentage of the Kalrn transcripts in prefrontal cortex than in nucleus accumbens. Western blot analyses confirmed these differences. Chronic cocaine treatment increases usage of the promoter encoding the Δ-Kalirin isoforms but does not alter full-length Kalirin promoter usage. Usage of the 3'-terminal exon unique to Kalirin 7 increases following chronic cocaine exposure. Conclusions Kalrn promoter and 3'-terminal exon utilization are region-specific. In the nucleus accumbens, cocaine-mediated alterations in promoter usage and 3'-terminal exon usage favor expression of

  1. Marijuana Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  2. DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DEA Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...

  3. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  4. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  5. Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Hansen, Benjamin; Rees, Daniel I.

    2012-01-01

    While at least a dozen state legislatures in the United States have recently considered bills to allow the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government is intensifying its efforts to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using data from the national and state Youth Ris...

  6. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights.

  7. Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users

    OpenAIRE

    McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depr...

  8. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  9. Substance use -- marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get through daily life. Addiction can lead to tolerance. Tolerance means you need more and more marijuana to ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Marijuana Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  10. Research Reports: Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 625KB) Online Only Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22-23, 2016 Meeting Summary Featured ... Parents Need to Know Marijuana: Facts for Teens ​Research Reports This series of reports simplifies the science ...

  11. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  12. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  13. Marijuana and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in marijuana. THC affects the brain's control of emotions, thinking, and coordination. Use of marijuana can lead to: School difficulties Problems with memory and concentration Increased aggression Car accidents Use of other drugs or alcohol Risky sexual behaviors Increased risk of suicide Increased ...

  14. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    7/13 REVISION Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as cannabis (can-a-bis) is the most widely used illegal drug ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  15. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF MARIJUANA USE FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD: PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL ROLE OUTCOMES1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood were examined for adverse life-course outcomes among African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. Data for marijuana use were analyzed at four points in time and on participants’ personality attributes, work functioning, and partner relations in adulthood using growth mixture modeling. Each of the three marijuana-use trajectory groups (maturing-out, late-onset, and chronic marijuana-users) had greater adverse life-course outco...

  17. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  18. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose.

  19. Marijuana: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & ... Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...

  20. The social contagion effect of marijuana use among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir M Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on adolescent substance use has consistently identified a strong relationship between adolescent behavior and the behavior of their peers. However, peer effects are difficult to estimate and causal interpretations must be undertaken with caution since individuals in most cases choose with whom to associate. In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the causal role of peer social networks in explaining marijuana usage among adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer selections to purge the potential biases from the estimates of peer influence. Our peer group measures are drawn not only from the nomination of close friends (N = 6,377, but also from classmates (N = 19,335. Marijuana usage among the peer groups were constructed using the peers' own report of their marijuana consumption. Controlling for parent level characteristics, and other demographic parameters, we find that a 10% increase in the proportion of close friends and classmates who use marijuana increases the probability that an individual chooses to use marijuana by 5%. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that peer effects are important determinants of marijuana use even after controlling for potential biases We also found evidence to show that the influence of close friends and the more exogenous classmates are quite similar in magnitude under our preferred specification, supporting theory predicting the importance of peer influence. Effective policy aimed at reducing marijuana usage among adolescents would consider these significant peer effects.

  1. Medical marijuana: a public health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ushang Desai; Paras Patel

    2013-01-01

    Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical ...

  2. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  3. The usage of Strelnikova's breathing exercises a chronic disease of the sinus paranasalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikiy B.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed that using in treatment of the chronic diseases sinus paranasalis of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity on system Yoga brings about defogging from viscous, thick, rack slime, liquidations of the stagnant phenomena's in nose cavity. Using the respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy does simple not traumatic drainage of the sinus paranasalis that brings about natural defogging nose cavity to account of the evacuations secret of the sinus paranasalis. Thereby, using in physical rehabilitation and recovery of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity for system Yoga with respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy enables significantly improves the condition of children in a dispensary condition.

  4. Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161575.html Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health Study finds heavy users ... 19, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana may be bad to the bone, a new ...

  5. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that it does not recommend marijuana or other cannabis products for the treatment of glaucoma . Speak with ... Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Leer en Español: La Marihuana y el Glaucoma Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search ...

  6. Marijuana: a realistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, G

    1971-04-01

    Much of the current confusion concerning marijuana has been caused by a lack of definition of terms. Variations in drug effect that are related to the type and potency of cannabis preparation and route of administration need clarification. When domestic strength marijuana is smoked recreationally, the subjective effects include relaxation, mild euphoria and increased sensory awareness. The objective effects include tachycardia, reddening of the conjunctivae and a distorted sense of time. Undesirable effects such as panic reactions, amotivational behavior, and acute toxic psychosis occur infrequently and are reversible with proper therapy. Other effects which have been attributed to marijuana are unsubstantiated. The recent upsurge in use of marijuana involves persons of a different type than those who used it heretofore and has greatly increased the number of people familiar with the drug. The disparity between what many people know empirically and the information disseminated through official media has lessened the credibility of physicians with many of our younger citizens. When young people recognize misinformation about marijuana, they are no longer listening when the facts are presented about more dangerous drugs, and the abuse of these drugs must be our main concern. To be considered is the potential hazard to adolescent users who may concomitantly be exposed to a subculture of experimentation with stronger drugs at a time when the opinion of a peer group is a strong factor in their behavior. PMID:5551311

  7. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  8. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  9. Preoperative angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor usage in patients with chronic subdural hematoma: Associations with initial presentation and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Marian C; Schmidt, Tobias; Mitova, Tatyana; Fierstra, Jorn; Bellut, David; Regli, Luca; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bozinov, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the association of preoperative usage of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors with the initial presentation and clinical outcome of patients with chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Patients treated for cSDH between 2009 and 2013 at our institution were included in this retrospective case-control study. Medical charts were reviewed retrospectively and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Out of 203 patients (58 females, mean age 73.2years), 53 (26%) patients were on ACE inhibitors before their presentation with cSDH. Median initial hematoma volume in individuals with ACE inhibitors (179.2±standard error of the mean [SEM] 13.0ml) was significantly higher compared to patients without ACE inhibitors (140.4±SEM 6.2ml; p=0.007). There was an increased probability of surgical reintervention in the ACE inhibitor group (12/53, 23% versus 19/153, 12%; p=0.079), especially in patients older than 80years (6/23, 26% versus 3/45, 7%; p=0.026). ACE inhibitors are associated with higher hematoma volume in patients with cSDH and with a higher frequency of recurrences requiring surgery (especially in the very old). We hypothesize that these effects are due to ACE inhibitor induced bradykinin elevation causing increased vascular permeability of the highly vascularized neomembranes in cSDH. PMID:26898577

  10. Medical marijuana for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. PMID:25503438

  11. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  12. Correlates of Amount Spent on Marijuana Buds During a Discrete Purchase at Medical Marijuana Dispensaries: Results from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Mulholland, Elycia; Freisthler, Bridget; Schaper, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana purchasing behaviors vary by the purchaser's individual characteristics; however, little is known about patients' purchasing behaviors when buying from medical marijuana dispensaries (MMDs). Our objective was to explore whether patient characteristics were associated with amount spent during one financial transaction at medical marijuana dispensaries. We conducted a pilot study of four purposively sampled MMD locations in Long Beach, California, in 2012. A total of 132 medical marijuana patients (33 patients per dispensary) participated in an exit survey about their demographic characteristics, conditions for their medical marijuana recommendation, amount spent at the dispensary, and cross-streets of where they lived. The sample reported amounts spent on discrete purchases of marijuana buds averaging $40.82 (ranging from $10 to $255). Multivariate regression analyses indicated average amount spent differed significantly by patient age and condition. An increase in 10 years of age was associated with a 10% higher amount spent. Receiving a recommendation for anxiety and/or sleeping problems or other nonspecified conditions was related to higher discrete purchase amounts than chronic pain. This pilot suggests that variations in patient purchasing behaviors from MMDs exist. These purchase behaviors can provide insight into variations in how patients use dispensaries, consume products, and allocate personal resources. PMID:26757234

  13. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. PMID:27262456

  14. Marijuana effects on associative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, R I; Wittenborn, J R

    1985-01-01

    Acute marijuana effects on associative processes involved in long-term memory retrieval were studied. Results were partially consistent with expectations based on previous subjective reports that marijuana promotes more uncommon associations. Marijuana altered responses when people gave as many examples of a specified category (e.g., CLOTHING) as they could for 2 min, and when they gave an example of a specified category beginning with a specified letter (e.g., WEAPON - G). Reaction time in the latter task and in prior studies was not altered in the expected manner, a finding problematic for some theoretic interpretations of marijuana's effects on associative processes.

  15. Heterogeneity in men's marijuana use in the 20s: adolescent antecedents and consequences in the 30s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Isaac J; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-02-01

    Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Another issue not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues and the associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses using a longitudinal data set of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Individual psychopathology and family characteristics from the men's adolescence were used to predict their patterns of marijuana use across their 20s, and aspects of the men's psychopathology in their mid-30s were predicted from these patterns. Three patterns of marijuana use in the 20s were identified using growth mixture modeling and were associated with diagnoses of marijuana disorders at age 26 years. Parental marijuana use predicted chronic use for the men in adulthood. Patterns of marijuana use in the 20s predicted antisocial behavior and deviant peer association at age 36 years (controlling for adolescent levels of the outcomes by residualization). These findings indicate that differential patterns of marijuana use in early adulthood are associated with psychopathology toward midlife.

  16. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh Golwala

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  17. Marijuana Use and Dependence in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with Family and Peer Marijuana Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, Monica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the a

  18. Pulmonary effects of marijuana inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Megan L; Naughton, Matthew T

    2011-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug around the world. It is most often consumed through smoking, placing the respiratory system in direct contact with the toxic constituents of the drug, which are similar to those of tobacco cigarettes. However, accurate study of the adverse effects of marijuana is difficult to perform, owing to marijuana's illegal status, variation in smoking technique, often short duration of use compared with tobacco and the frequently confounding factor of concomitant consumption of both marijuana and tobacco. Despite this, there is evidence to suggest that marijuana can impair lung function, damage large airway mucosa and possibly contribute to bullous disease, while its carcinogenic potential is controversial. PMID:21348589

  19. Usage Bibliometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Scholarly usage data provides unique opportunities to address the known shortcomings of citation analysis. However, the collection, processing and analysis of usage data remains an area of active research. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art in usage-based informetric, i.e. the use of usage data to study the scholarly process.

  20. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Kashyap; Kartikeya Kashyap

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on ...

  1. Medical marijuana: a public health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushang Desai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical marijuana important for the treatment of disease is important for the community. Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the US and all over world, several risks associated with it. Major concern is medical marijuana increased the use of marijuana and will create the public health problem in the society. There are several medical benefits from the marijuana but require more research to establish the marijuana as a medicine. Control of medical marijuana is also major issue for the law enforcement agencies and challenge for policymakers also in the United States. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 136-143

  2. Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012) Nabiximols—an oral spray derived from cannabis—(Sativex®, GW Pharmaceuticals) significantly improved spasticity in a proportion ... marijuana and related products to treat MS symptoms. Sativex is now available in 15 countries and approved ...

  3. Medical marijuana: A panacea or scourge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kashyap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy.

  4. Usage Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoletti, Massimo

    Usage automata are an extension of finite stata automata, with some additional features (e.g. parameters and guards) that improve their expressivity. Usage automata are expressive enough to model security requirements of real-world applications; at the same time, they are simple enough to be statically amenable, e.g. they can be model-checked against abstractions of program usages. We study here some foundational aspects of usage automata. In particular, we discuss about their expressive power, and about their effective use in run-time mechanisms for enforcing usage policies.

  5. A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Ziva D.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions including mood lability, sleep disruption, and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in nontreatment seeking marijuana smokers. Volunte...

  6. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  7. Factors associated with having a medical marijuana card among Veterans with recent substance use in VA outpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Bonar, Erin E; Ilgen, Mark A; Walton, Maureen A; Perron, Brian E; Chermack, Stephen T

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatric symptoms, somatic problems, and co-occurring substance use have been associated with medical marijuana consumption among civilian patients with substance use disorders. It is possible that these factors may impact Veterans' ability to engage in or adhere to mental health and substance use disorder treatment. Therefore, we examined whether psychiatric functioning, substance use, and somatic problems were associated with medical marijuana use among Veterans receiving substance use disorder and/or mental health treatment. Participants (n=841) completed screening measures for a randomized controlled trial and 67 (8%) reported that they had a current medical marijuana card. Most of these participants (78%) reported using marijuana to treat severe/chronic pain. Significant bivariate differences revealed that, compared to participants without a medical marijuana card, those with a card were more likely to be in a middle income bracket, unemployed, and they had a significantly higher number of recent days of marijuana use, synthetic marijuana use, and using sedatives prescribed to them. Additionally, a significantly higher proportion of participants with a medical marijuana card scored above the clinical cutoff for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, had significantly higher severity of sleep-related problems, and reported a higher level of pain. These findings highlight the co-occurrence of substance use, PTSD symptoms, sleep-related problems, and chronic pain among Veterans who use medical marijuana. Future research should investigate the inter-relationships among medical marijuana use and other clinical issues (e.g., PTSD symptoms, sleep, pain) over time, and potential implications of medical marijuana use on treatment engagement and response. PMID:27475408

  8. Making sense of medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S; Kleber, H D

    1999-01-01

    The case for marijuana's medical use is primarily from anecdotal clinical reports, human studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and animal studies on constituent compounds. The authors believe that while a key policy issue is to keep marijuana out of the hands of children, its use for medicinal purposes should be resolved by scientific research and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review. Weighed against possible benefits are increased risks such as cancer, pulmonary problems, damage to the immune system, and unacceptable psychological effects. More study is needed to determine the efficacy of marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer patients, as an appetite stimulant for AIDS and cancer patients, as a treatment for neuropathic pain, and as an antispasmodic for multiple sclerosis patients. If this new research shows marijuana to have important medical uses, FDA approval could be sought. However, the better response is accelerated development of delivery systems other than smoking for key ingredients, as well as the identification of targeted molecules that deliver beneficial effects without intoxicating effects. If the National Institutes of Health conducts research on marijuana, we would propose parallel trials on those indications under careful controls making marijuana available to appropriate patients who fail to benefit from standard existing treatments. This effort would begin after efficacy trials and sunset no later than 5 years. If this open-trial mechanism is adopted, the compassion that Americans feel for seriously ill individuals would have an appropriate medical/scientific outlet and not need to rely on referenda that can confuse adolescents by disseminating misleading information about marijuana effects.

  9. Marijuana Effect Expectancies: Relations to Social Anxiety and Marijuana Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2008-01-01

    High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...

  10. Marijuana Use Motives and Social Anxiety among Marijuana Using Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2007-01-01

    Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M age = 18.74, SD = 1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interest...

  11. Effects of Marijuana on Fetal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)

  12. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  13. [Correction of local and central disorders in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis in usage of amus-01-intramag unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Gol'braĭkh, G E; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Valiev, A Z; Surikov, V N

    2007-01-01

    Combined use of dynamic magnetotherapy of local and central action in combination with antibacterial endourethral therapy and rectal administration of vitaprost arrests symptoms of chronic prostatitis. Combination of local and total dynamic magnetotherapy with application of AMUS-01-INTRAMAG unit improves erection quality in 81.8% males with psychogenic form of erectile dysfunction. There was also improvement of spermogram parameters and relieve of asthenovegetative syndrome. PMID:17915452

  14. Literature Review: Rescheduling of Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Venegas, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Medical marijuana legalization has become both a medical and legal issue. Papers range from casual discussion, passionate and involved such as those by Annas1 and Okie2, to serious logical argument exemplified beautifully in Cohen’s3 work.  Annas1 and Okie2 focused on California’s 1996 medical marijuana law and the 2005 Supreme Court trial Gonzales v. Raich respectively.  Cohen3 had a larger scope, reviewing marijuana’s history in the United States from the colonial era to present-day. While ...

  15. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Michael Windle; Erin Stratton; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the...

  16. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. PMID:26167716

  17. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  18. Prolonged cardiac arrest complicating a massive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction associated with marijuana consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Jose; Blaak, Christa; Rajayer, Salil; Gurung, Vikash; Tam, Eric; Morante, Joaquin; Shamian, Ben; Malik, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Recreational substance use and misuse constitute a major public health issue. The annual rate of recreational drug overdose-related deaths is increasing exponentially, making unintentional overdose as the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Marijuana is the most widely used recreational illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Although it is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity, heavy marijuana usage has been associated with life-threatening consequences. Marijuana is increasingly becoming legal in the United States for both medical and recreational use. Although the most commonly seen adverse effects resulting from its consumption are typically associated with neurobehavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms, cases of severe toxicity involving the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this report, the authors describe a case of cannabis-associated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction leading to a prolonged cardiac arrest. PMID:27609717

  19. Prolonged cardiac arrest complicating a massive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction associated with marijuana consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Orsini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recreational substance use and misuse constitute a major public health issue. The annual rate of recreational drug overdose-related deaths is increasing exponentially, making unintentional overdose as the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Marijuana is the most widely used recreational illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Although it is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity, heavy marijuana usage has been associated with life-threatening consequences. Marijuana is increasingly becoming legal in the United States for both medical and recreational use. Although the most commonly seen adverse effects resulting from its consumption are typically associated with neurobehavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms, cases of severe toxicity involving the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this report, the authors describe a case of cannabis-associated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction leading to a prolonged cardiac arrest.

  20. Prolonged cardiac arrest complicating a massive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction associated with marijuana consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Jose; Blaak, Christa; Rajayer, Salil; Gurung, Vikash; Tam, Eric; Morante, Joaquin; Shamian, Ben; Malik, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Recreational substance use and misuse constitute a major public health issue. The annual rate of recreational drug overdose-related deaths is increasing exponentially, making unintentional overdose as the leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Marijuana is the most widely used recreational illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Although it is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity, heavy marijuana usage has been associated with life-threatening consequences. Marijuana is increasingly becoming legal in the United States for both medical and recreational use. Although the most commonly seen adverse effects resulting from its consumption are typically associated with neurobehavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms, cases of severe toxicity involving the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this report, the authors describe a case of cannabis-associated ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction leading to a prolonged cardiac arrest. PMID:27609717

  1. Association of Marijuana Use and Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun B. Pattathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use has become one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world. It is estimated that each year 2.6 million individuals in the USA become new users and most are younger than 19 years of age. Reports describe marijuana use as high as 40–50% in male Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome patients. It is this interest in cannabis in the World, coupled with recognition of a cyclic vomiting illness associated with its chronic use that beckons a review of the most current articles, as well as a contribution from our own experiences in this area. The similarities we have demonstrated for both cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome and cyclic vomiting make the case that cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a subset of patients who have the diagnoses of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the role of marijuana should always be considered in the diagnosis of CVS, particularly in males.

  2. Alcohol and marijuana use while driving--an unexpected crash risk in Pakistani commercial drivers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant proportion of road traffic crashes are attributable to alcohol and marijuana use while driving globally. Sale and use of both substances is illegal in Pakistan and is not considered a threat for road traffic injuries. However literature hints that this may not be the case. We did this study to assess usage of alcohol and marijuana in Pakistani commercial drivers. Methods A sample of 857 commercial bus and truck drivers was interviewed in October 2008 at the largest commercial vehicle station in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Time location cluster sampling was used to select the subjects and a structured questionnaire was used to assess the basic demographic profile, substance abuse habits of the drivers while on the road, and reasons for usage of illicit substances while driving were recorded. Self reported information was collected after obtaining informed consent. Chi square and fisher exact tests were used to assess differences between groups and logistic regression was used to identify significant associations between driver characteristics and alcohol and marijuana use. Results Almost 10% of truck drivers use alcohol while driving on Pakistani roads. Marijuana use is almost 30% in some groups. Statistically different patterns of usage are seen between population subgroups based on age, ethnicity, education, and marital status. Regression analysis shows association of alcohol and marijuana use with road rage and error behaviours, and also with an increased risk of being involved in road crashes. The reported reasons for using alcohol or marijuana show a general lack of awareness of the hazardous nature of this practice among the commercial driver population. Conclusion Alcohol and marijuana use is highly prevalent in Pakistani commercial drivers. The issue needs to be recognized by concerned authorities and methods such as random breath tests and sobriety check points need to be employed for proper law

  3. Cannabidiol Oil for Decreasing Addictive Use of Marijuana: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Scott; Opila-Lehman, Janet

    2015-12-01

    This case study illustrates the use of cannabidiol (CBD) oil to decrease the addictive use of marijuana and provide anxiolytic and sleep benefits. Addiction to marijuana is a chronic, relapsing disorder, which is becoming a prevalent condition in the United States. The most abundant compound in the marijuana, which is called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been widely studied and known for its psychoactive properties. The second most abundant component-CBD-has been suggested to have the medicinal effects of decreasing anxiety, improving sleep, and other neuro-protective effects. The mechanism of action for CBD has been suggested to be antagonistic to the psychoactive properties of THC in many locations within the central nervous system. Such action raises the issue of whether it might be beneficial to use CBD in isolation to facilitate withdrawal of marijuana use. The specific use of CBD for marijuana reduction has not been widely studied. The patient was a 27-y-old male who presented with a long-standing diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a daily addiction to marijuana use. In the described intervention, the only change made to the patient's treatment was the addition of CBD oil with the dosage gradually decreasing from 24 to 18 mg. With use of the CBD oil, the patient reported being less anxious, as well as settling into a regular pattern of sleep. He also indicated that he had not used any marijuana since starting the CBD oil. With the decrease in the dosage to 18 mg, the patient was able to maintain his nonuse of marijuana.

  4. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection. PMID:27556668

  5. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...

  6. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  7. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect

  8. The Relationship between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…

  9. Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

  10. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...

  11. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  12. Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

  13. Health effects of marijuana: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Panda Jnr

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use disorder has increased among marijuana users. Marijuana is an illicit drug that is becoming commonly used among youths and young adults and is detrimental to the human health. This review addresses the questions that most people have about the use and the effects of marijuana on the human health. The review focuses on the effects and its seriousness, affecting physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral changes to the human existence. Most of the findings in this review were based upon studies done recently in the United States of America. This review shows that that the most commonly used illicit drug (marijuana) contains an active chemical called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which causes the mind-altering effects. When marijuana is smoked, its active ingredient, THC, travels throughout the body, including the brain, to produce its many effects. THC attaches to sites called cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells in the brain, affecting the way those cells function. The questions addressed include: "Is there treatments for marijuana abusers?"; and "Can marijuana be used as some forms of medication to human?". PMID:18181401

  14. Large lung bullae in marijuana smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M.; Smith, R.; Morrison, D.; Laszlo, G; White, R.

    2000-01-01

    The case histories are presented of four men with multiple large upper zone lung bullae but otherwise relatively preserved lung parenchyma. Each had a history of significant exposure to marijuana. In three of the four cases the tobacco smoking load had been relatively small, suggesting a possible causal role for marijuana in the pathogenesis of this unusual pattern of bullous emphysema.



  15. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  16. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  17. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6% were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p’s <.05. Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules.

  18. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  19. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  20. Frequent marijuana use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H

    1985-01-01

    Although the adolescent's first use of marijuana is rarely pleasant, peer pressure often causes continued experimenting and a search for the euphoric "high." Preoccupation with use of the drug leads to mood changes, withdrawal, academic underachievement and confusion. Family members may refuse to admit that a drug problem exists and may subsequently develop dependency problems of their own. By assuming responsibility for the adolescent's drug problem, a parent enables the drug use to continue. To break this cycle, family members must seek guidance from a rehabilitation professional. PMID:3871295

  1. Expectancies and Marijuana Use Frequency and Severity among Young Females

    OpenAIRE

    Hayaki, Jumi; Hagerty, Claire E.; Herman, Debra S.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between the endorsement of drug use expectancies and the frequency and severity of marijuana use in a community sample of 332 women aged 18–24 years who were not explicitly seeking treatment for their marijuana use. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention study of motivational interviewing for various health behaviors and provided self-reports of their current and past marijuana use, marijuana abuse/dependence symptoms, and marijuana use expectanci...

  2. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  3. Self-reported marijuana effects and characteristics of 100 San Francisco medical marijuana club members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D; Jones, R T; Shank, R; Nath, R; Fernandez, E; Goldstein, K; Mendelson, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other drugs, particularly stimulants. History of substance abuse or dependence and other psychiatric disorders was common. Those with greater past dependence on other drugs thought marijuana to be more effective but also reported worse side effects and quality of life. Quality of life was associated more with marijuana side effects rating than effectiveness. Patients reported potentially serious marijuana side effects on some questionnaires but not others. Inconsistencies in reporting made interpretation of results difficult. Physician supervision of medical marijuana use would allow more effective monitoring of therapeutic and unwanted effects, some unrecognized by patients.

  4. Nabilone Decreases Marijuana Withdrawal and a Laboratory Measure of Marijuana Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nab...

  5. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  6. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse.

  7. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  8. Expectancies and marijuana use frequency and severity among young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaki, Jumi; Hagerty, Claire E; Herman, Debra S; de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    This study examined associations between the endorsement of drug use expectancies and the frequency and severity of marijuana use in a community sample of 332 women aged 18-24years who were not explicitly seeking treatment for their marijuana use. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention study of motivational interviewing for various health behaviors and provided self-reports of their current and past marijuana use, marijuana abuse/dependence symptoms, and marijuana use expectancies. Marijuana use expectancies were measured using the six subscales of the Marijuana Effects Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ). Use frequency was defined as the number of use days in the past month, severity as the total number of DSM-IV marijuana abuse or dependence symptom criteria met. Replicating and extending prior research, expectations regarding Relaxation and Tension Reduction emerged as a robust belief in this cohort, predicting not only frequency (p<.01) but also severity (p<.01) of marijuana use in multivariate analyses. Severity of marijuana use was further predicted by expectations regarding loss of control, affective changes following marijuana use, and other aspects of emotion dysregulation (Global Negative Effects, p<.01). These findings document meaningful associations between substance-related cognitions and use behavior and suggest that marijuana users who hold certain beliefs regarding marijuana use may be particularly susceptible to clinically significant problems associated with their substance use. As such, marijuana use expectancies may represent a clinical target that could be incorporated into future interventions.

  9. The Use of Medical Marijuana in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Shauna M; Birdsall, Timothy C; Tims, Lucas A

    2016-07-01

    The use of medical marijuana in cancer care presents a dilemma for both patients and physicians. The scientific evidence is evolving, yet much of the known information is still insufficient to adequately inform patients as to risks and benefits. In addition, evidence-based dosing and administration information on medical marijuana is lacking. Medical marijuana is now legal, on some level, in 24 states plus the District of Columbia, yet is not legal on the federal level. This review addresses the current state of the research, including potential indications, risks and adverse effects, preliminary data on anticancer effects, as well as legal and quality issues. A summary of the clinical trials underway on medical marijuana in the oncology setting is discussed.

  10. Dimensions of the subjective marijuana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, R O; Shea, D; Costa, L

    1979-01-01

    A Drug History Questionnaire and a Marihuana Effects Questionnaire were completed by 91 male volunteers who were experienced marijuana smokers. A factor analysis was performed on the frequency of occurrence data for the Marihuana Effects Questionnaire. The resultant factors were similar to those reported previously in the literature supporting the existence of a stable, verbally definable marijuana experience. In comparison to the drug history variables of marijuana smokers in the late 1960s, our population showed increased multiple drug use, an earlier age of introduction to cannabis, and heavier use of cannabis. An analysis of the interaction of drug history variables with experienced marijuana effects suggested that the more frequently one uses cannabis, the less pronounced the experienced effects tend to be.

  11. Still on physicians' attitude to medical marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukayode Abayomi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescription appears to mirror the position of psychiatrists in developing countries. For instance, in a recent survey of psychiatrists in Nigeria, up to 55% of psychiatrists were against the medical use of marijuana. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1098-1098

  12. Marijuana effects on associations to novel stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinklenberg, J R; Darley, C F; Roth, W T; Pfefferbaum, A; Kopell, B S

    1978-05-01

    Sixteen college-educated male subjects were given an object description task during placebo conditions and while intoxicated with marijuana extract cookies calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a dose within the range of usual social use. The task was scored for fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and uniqueness, all of which represent associational thinking and are considered to be components of creativity. Marijuana did not enhance any of these measures.

  13. Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... J Drug Policy . 2015;26(2):135-142. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.07.011. Panlilio LV, Zanettini ... Alcohol Depend . 2008;92(1-3):239-247. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.08.005. This publication is ...

  14. Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Health Effects Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  15. [CLINICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC RESULTS OF THE USAGE OF VARIOUS HIV REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS IN THE SCHEMES OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY OF PATIENT RECEIVING THERAPY FOR THE CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkovich, G F; Minaeva, S V; Varlova, L W; Goryaeva, M P; Gulyaeva, S S; Tichonova, E V

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy, safety, and economical aspects of treatment with abacavir, zidovudine, stavudine, and phosphazide in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy of the HIV-infected patients receiving therapy for hepatitis C virus were tested. Clinical, immunological, and virologic efficacy of treatment and dynamics of hemoglobin, thrombocytes, and alanine aminotransferase as markers of common adverse events recorded at the start of the antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C and after 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 weeks of the treatment were evaluated. The usage of these drugs in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy exhibited efficacy, high tolerability and safety for all HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PMID:27145599

  16. [CLINICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC RESULTS OF THE USAGE OF VARIOUS HIV REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS IN THE SCHEMES OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY OF PATIENT RECEIVING THERAPY FOR THE CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkovich, G F; Minaeva, S V; Varlova, L W; Goryaeva, M P; Gulyaeva, S S; Tichonova, E V

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy, safety, and economical aspects of treatment with abacavir, zidovudine, stavudine, and phosphazide in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy of the HIV-infected patients receiving therapy for hepatitis C virus were tested. Clinical, immunological, and virologic efficacy of treatment and dynamics of hemoglobin, thrombocytes, and alanine aminotransferase as markers of common adverse events recorded at the start of the antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C and after 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 weeks of the treatment were evaluated. The usage of these drugs in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy exhibited efficacy, high tolerability and safety for all HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

  17. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  18. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana, which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  19. Breathhold duration and response to marijuana smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, J P; Chait, L D

    1989-06-01

    Marijuana smokers are frequently observed to hold the smoke in their lungs for prolonged periods (10-15 sec) apparently in the belief that prolonged breathholding intensifies the effects of the drug. The actual influence of breathhold duration on response to marijuana smoke has not been studied. The present study examined the effects of systematic manipulation of breathhold duration on the physiological, cognitive and subjective response to marijuana smoke in a group of eight regular marijuana smokers. Subjects were exposed to each of three breathhold duration conditions (0, 10 and 20 sec) on three occasions, scheduled according to a randomized block design. A controlled smoking procedure was used in which the number of puffs, puff volume and postpuff inhalation volume were held constant. Expired air carbon monoxide levels were measured before and after smoking to monitor smoke intake. Typical marijuana effects (increased heart rate, increased ratings of "high" and impaired memory performance) were observed under each of the breathhold conditions, but there was little evidence that response to marijuana was a function of breathhold duration.

  20. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  1. The effect of medical marijuana laws on adolescent and adult use of marijuana, alcohol, and other substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hefei; Hockenberry, Jason M; Cummings, Janet R

    2015-07-01

    We estimate the effect of medical marijuana laws (MMLs) in ten states between 2004 and 2012 on adolescent and adult use of marijuana, alcohol, and other psychoactive substances. We find increases in the probability of current marijuana use, regular marijuana use and marijuana abuse/dependence among those aged 21 or above. We also find an increase in marijuana use initiation among those aged 12-20. For those aged 21 or above, MMLs further increase the frequency of binge drinking. MMLs have no discernible impact on drinking behavior for those aged 12-20, or the use of other psychoactive substances in either age group.

  2. More U.S. Adults Using Marijuana Than Ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160720.html More U.S. Adults Using Marijuana Than Ever Daily use nearly doubled between 2002 ... Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As perceptions of marijuana change, more American adults are using pot than ...

  3. Medical Marijuana Not a Lure for Kids: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161668.html Medical Marijuana Not a Lure for Kids: Study Found no ... kids who live in states with legal medical marijuana more likely to smoke pot? The answer appears ...

  4. Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160603.html Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men Study ... a new study indicates. Researchers asked 42 recreational marijuana smokers to place one hand in extremely cold ...

  5. Essays on the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Over half of the US states have adopted "medical marijuana" laws (MMLs), and 58% of Americans now favor marijuana legalization. Despite public support, federal law continues to prohibit the use and sale of marijuana due to public health concerns of increased dependence and abuse, youth access, and drugged driving. These essays contribute toward understanding the likely health consequences of marijuana liberalization using evidence from MMLs.Chapter 1 -- Growing Like Weed: Explaining Variation...

  6. Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...

  7. Interest in marijuana treatment programs among teenage smokers and nonsmokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheer, Amy J.; Gorelick, David A.; Collins, Charles C.; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Heishman, Stephen J.; Leff, Michelle K.; Moolchan, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about adolescents’ interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smoker...

  8. Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-04-21

    The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia/wasting syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease, epilepsy and seizures, glaucoma, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis and muscle spasticity, severe and chronic pain, and severe nausea. Post-traumatic stress disorder was also included in the review, as it is the sole psychological disorder for which medical marijuana has been allowed. Studies for this narrative review were included based on a literature search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Findings indicate that, for the majority of these conditions, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of medical marijuana at this time. A significant amount of rigorous research is needed to definitively ascertain the potential implications of marijuana for these conditions. It is important for such work to not only examine the effects of smoked marijuana preparations, but also to compare its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in relation to existing pharmacological treatments.

  9. Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Baldini, Lisa L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to provide an objective narrative review of the existing literature pertaining to the benefits and harms of marijuana use for the treatment of the most common medical and psychological conditions for which it has been allowed at the state level. Common medical conditions for which marijuana is allowed (i.e., those conditions shared by at least 80 percent of medical marijuana states) were identified as: Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia/wasting syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease, epilepsy and seizures, glaucoma, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis and muscle spasticity, severe and chronic pain, and severe nausea. Post-traumatic stress disorder was also included in the review, as it is the sole psychological disorder for which medical marijuana has been allowed. Studies for this narrative review were included based on a literature search in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. Findings indicate that, for the majority of these conditions, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of medical marijuana at this time. A significant amount of rigorous research is needed to definitively ascertain the potential implications of marijuana for these conditions. It is important for such work to not only examine the effects of smoked marijuana preparations, but also to compare its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in relation to existing pharmacological treatments. PMID:25896576

  10. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  11. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  12. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Elsheshtawy; Priatharsini Sriganesh; Vasudev Virparia; Falgun Patel; Ashok Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  13. Can marijuana make it better? Prospective effects of marijuana and temperament on risk for anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-09-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors.

  14. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  15. Marijuana as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

    2003-01-01

    A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations. PMID:12744713

  16. A Preliminary Study of Functional Brain Activation among Marijuana Users during Performance of a Virtual Water Maze Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tropp Sneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ users compared to 18 nonusing (NU comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform and motor control (visible platform conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ. These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval.

  17. A preliminary study of functional brain activation among marijuana users during performance of a virtual water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Silveri, Marisa M; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ) users compared to 18 non-using (NU) comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform) and motor control (visible platform) conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval - Motor control contrast (NU > MJ). These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval. PMID:23951549

  18. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  19. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  20. The subjective marijuana experience: great expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Adamec, C; Adamec, R E; Pihl, R O

    1981-10-01

    Participants' expectations of marijuana effects are frequently cited as unmeasured post hoc explanations of variability in response to the drug, or of the data which fail to conform to the experimenters' expectations of the drug's effects. Twenty-four male volunteers, experienced in the use of marijuana, participated in research involving the administration of coltsfoot, placebo, and marijauna to investigate whether expectancy of marijuana effects could be measured and related to observed effects. Data for the Expectancy Questionnaire were derived from the Marihuana Effects Questions filled out when potential participants volunteered for the study and were compared to the High Questionnaire filled out after drug administration sessions. Expectancy was shown to have a quantifiable effect on the drug experience (both placebo and marijuana), even in an experimental situation. Prior frequency of occurrence of specific effects was positively related to both the intensity and duration of the effects in the laboratory. The data are discussed in terms of the learned components in getting stoned, and in terms of the social nature of cannabis intoxication.

  1. Medical marijuana: A treatment worth trying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Julius; Wright, Steven; Sundaram, Jawahar; Hashemi, Nastran

    2016-03-01

    With medical marijuana available in more and more states, family physicians need to know what the evidence says about its use. This review includes a step-by-step guide and a list of red flags to watch for. PMID:27158689

  2. Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

  3. Stigma towards Marijuana Users and Heroin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124

  4. Saying No to Marijuana: A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher's guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  5. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  6. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied.

  7. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients.

  8. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Joy L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

  9. Psychometric Properties of a Valuations Scale for the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Welch, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Given that marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance, identification of the role of potentially malleable cognitive factors in marijuana-related behaviors remains an important goal. The Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991) assesses marijuana effect expectancies that are differentially related to marijuana use and use-related problems. Evaluation of the desirability of marijuana effect expectancies may provide additional information regardi...

  10. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijua...

  11. Bongs and blunts: notes from a suburban marijuana subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Bongs and blunts constitute significant elements of marijuana consumption in the United States, especially among youth. The author draws upon ethnographic methods to provide rich descriptions of these practices amongst a network of suburban marijuana users. The author first provides a description of bong use in a suburban home prior to detailing the same youth network engaging in the process of rolling and smoking a blunt in a public environment. Ultimately, the author examines and contrasts these two features of American marijuana consumption.

  12. Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Frank J. Chaloupka; Adit Laixuthai

    1997-01-01

    Data from the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys are used to examine the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Beer prices and minimum legal drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking episodes are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full pr...

  13. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Elsheshtawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  14. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030

  15. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  16. A longitudinal study of marijuana effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikas, J A; Weller, R A; Morse, C L; Hoffmann, R G

    1985-05-01

    One hundred regular marijuana users volunteered to be extensively interviewed in 1968-1970, and 97 were located and reinterviewed 6 to 8 years later. As part of each interview the subjects filled out a checklist review of 105 effects of marijuana. This report focuses on the differential patterns of effects found at the two time intervals. Scores on groupings of items were examined for changes over time. Reports of sensory and hallucinatory items dropped substantially. Reports of appetite effects, sex effects, and intoxication effects on sleep remained stable. Reports of cognitive effects, mood effects, and aftereffects on sleep appeared to be shifting from desirable to undesirable, with the frequency of desirable effects dropping while frequency of undesirable effects remained the same.

  17. Exploring the Mediational Role of Coping Motives for Marijuana Use in Terms of the Relation between Anxiety Sensitivity and Marijuana Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kirsten; Mullin, Jennifer L.; Marshall, Erin C.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Zvolensky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the prediction that coping motives for marijuana use would mediate the relation between anxiety sensitivity and a marijuana dependence diagnosis after controlling for other co-occurring marijuana use motives. Participants were 136 current marijuana users (47.1% women; Mage = 21.9, SD = 7.2). Results were consistent with a mediational effect, with the relation between anxiety sensitivity and marijuana dependence being explained by the addition of coping motives into...

  18. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; Hunter, Sarah B; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...

  19. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  20. Exploring the perceptions of psychiatric patients regarding marijuana use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Scrooby

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding on marijuana use by psychiatric patients, specifically with regard as to why they continue to smoke marijuana despite the negative consequences, such as readmittance to psychiatric hospitals following marijuana-induced psychosis. It is, therefore, important to understand why psychiatric patients continue to use marijuana, despite experiencing its negative effects. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of psychiatric patients with regard to marijuana use in Potchefstroom, North West Province, as well as to formulate recommendations for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice, with the aim of reducing the readmission of psychiatric patients following marijuana-induced psychosis. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in order to give ‘voice’ to the perceptions of psychiatric patients about marijuana use. Purposive sampling was utilised to identify participants who complied with selection criteria. The sample size was determined by data saturation, which was reached after 10 individual interviews with psychiatric patients. Unstructured individual interviews were utilised to gather data after written approval from the Ethics committee of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus, North West Provincial Department of Health, the clinical manager of the psychiatric hospital where data were collected, as well as from the psychiatric patients. The co-coder and the researcher analysed the data independently. The findings of this study include perceptions of psychiatric patients on the use of marijuana, the negative effects of marijuana use, marijuana use and mental illness, and quitting marijuana. Recommendations were formulated for nursing education, nursing research as well as for nursing practice.

    Opsomming

    Insig in die gebruik van marijuana deur psigiatriese pasiënte is beperk, spesifiek met

  1. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  2. Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

  3. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  4. Marijuana Use in Suburban Schools among Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…

  5. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  6. Committee Opinion No. 637: Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes, and its use by pregnant women could increase even further as a result. Because of concerns regarding impaired neurodevelopment, as well as maternal and fetal exposure to the adverse effects of smoking, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. Obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation. Pregnant women or women contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue use of marijuana for medicinal purposes in favor of an alternative therapy for which there are better pregnancy-specific safety data. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on infants during lactation and breastfeeding, and in the absence of such data, marijuana use is discouraged. PMID:26241291

  7. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539

  8. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  9. "Smoking wet": respiratory failure related to smoking tainted marijuana cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as "wet" or "fry," has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries. We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked "wet" marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered. PMID:23466531

  10. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-01

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  11. Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-02-01

    For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone

  12. Evidence for Connections between Prosecutor-Reported Marijuana Case Dispositions and Community Youth Marijuana-Related Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; VanderWaal, Curtis J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships between local drug policy (as represented by prosecutor-reported case outcomes for first-offender juvenile marijuana possession cases) and youth self-reported marijuana use, perceived risk, and disapproval. Interviews with prosecutors and surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States were…

  13. Fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse: Molecular adsorbent recirculation system therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnalatha, G.; Pai, S.; Ram, R.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana is used for psychoactive and recreational purpose. We report a case of fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana drug abuse who recovered following artificial support systems for acute liver failure. There is no published literature of management of marijuana intoxication with molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS). MARS is effective and safe in patients with fulminant hepatic failure following marijuana intoxication.

  14. Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovská, Petra

    2007-01-01

    General characteristic of web mining including methodology and procedures incorporated into this term. Relation to other areas (data mining, artificial intelligence, statistics, databases, internet technologies, management etc.) Web usage mining - data sources, data pre-processing, characterization of analytical methods and tools, interpretation of outputs (results), and possible areas of usage including examples. Suggestion of solution method, realization and a concrete example's outputs int...

  15. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  16. Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003-2011*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermeyer, Joseph; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Price, Rumi Kato; Balan, Sundari; Thurstone, Christian; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. Methods Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-2011) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS). Using regression analyses, we further tested whether patterns seen in Colorado prior to (2006-8) and during (2009-11) marijuana commercialization differed from patterns in NMMS while controlling for demographics. Results Within Colorado those reporting “great-risk” to using marijuana 1-2 times/week dropped significantly in all age groups studied between 2007-8 and 2010-11 (e.g. from 45% to 31% among those 26 years and older; p=0.0006). By 2010-11 past-year marijuana abuse/dependence had become more prevalent in Colorado for 12-17 year olds (5% in Colorado, 3% in NMMS; p=0.03) and 18-25 year olds (9% vs. 5%; p=0.02). Regressions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived risk (12-17 year olds, p=0.005; those 26 years and older, p=0.01), and trend for difference in changes in availability among those 26 years and older and marijuana abuse/dependence among 12-17 year olds in Colorado compared to NMMS in more recent years (2009-11 vs. 2006-8). Conclusions Our results show that commercialization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with lower risk perception. Evidence is suggestive for marijuana abuse/dependence. Analyses including subsequent years 2012+ once available, will help determine whether such changes represent momentary vs. sustained effects. PMID:24837585

  17. Marijuana’s Dose-Dependent Effects in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.

    2013-01-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The numbe...

  18. Sex Differences in the Effects of Marijuana on Simulated Driving Performance†

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, one in six teenagers has driven under the influence of marijuana. Driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol is equally prevalent, despite the fact that marijuana use is less common than alcohol use. Much of the research examining the effects of marijuana on driving performance was conducted in the 1970s and led to equivocal findings. During that time, few studies included women and driving simulators were rudimentary. Further, the potency of marijuana commonly...

  19. It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

    2014-12-01

    Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring.

  20. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiologic effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the...

  1. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco.

    OpenAIRE

    Polen, M R; Sidney, S; Tekawa, I S; Sadler, M.; Friedman, G D

    1993-01-01

    Even though marijuana smoke contains carcinogens and more tar than tobacco smoke and marijuana intoxication has been implicated as a risk factor for injuries, relatively little epidemiologic evidence has identified marijuana use as a risk factor for ill health. This study is the first to examine the health effects of smoking marijuana by comparing the medical experience of "daily" marijuana smokers who never smoked tobacco (n = 452) with a demographically similar group of nonsmokers of either...

  2. High-performance sport, marijuana, and cannabimimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Richard L

    2011-11-01

    The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so. PMID:22080902

  3. Alcohol and marijuana effects on ocular tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, M C; Brown, B; Adams, A J; Jones, R T

    1976-12-01

    Experienced alcohol and marijuana users were instructed to track with their eyes a small spot that moved horizontally back and forth in pendular (sinusoidal) motion across a 7.5-degree field. The frequency of spot oscillation was gradually increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Hz in 40 sec. Eye movement recordings showed the frequency at which smooth tracking and, soon thereafter, saccadic tracking broke down. These smooth and saccadic cutoff frequencies were reduced after administration of alcohol, but not after marijuana or placebo. For low alcohol doses, smooth tracking was impaired and saccadic tracking was unaffected, much like an effect previously reported for barbiturates. Alcohol seems to affect smooth tracking by increasing the central processing time required to generate the appropriate eye movement. It affects saccadic tracking by slightly decreasing saccadic velocity and to a greater extent by increasing latency time, part of which may be devoted to central processing. The site of action of alcohol appears to be central to both the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the flocculus of the cerebellum.

  4. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  5. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.

  6. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  7. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  8. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) complet...

  9. Pathways from Earlier Marijuana Use in the Familial and Non-Familial Environments to Self-Marijuana Use in the Fourth Decade of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal pathways from marijuana use in the familial environment (parents and siblings) and non-familial environment (peers and significant other), throughout adolescence and young adulthood, to the participants’ own marijuana use in their fourth decade of life (n = 586). Longitudinal pathways to marijuana use were assessed using structural equation modeling. Familial factors were mediated by non-familial factors; sibling marijuana use also had a direct effect on the parti...

  10. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheel Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate and sand (predominant silicon dioxide are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm and fine aluminum particles ( Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html.

  11. Assessing the Relationship between Marijuana Availability and Marijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The United States and the Netherlands have antithetical marijuana control policies. The United States' laws criminalize the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, while the Netherlands have maintained, over the past several decades, two relatively liberal marijuana policies implemented during the 1970s and 1980s. According to the…

  12. Marijuana Use in Epilepsy: The Myth and the Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detyniecki, Kamil; Hirsch, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana has been utilized as a medicinal plant to treat a variety of conditions for nearly five millennia. Over the past few years, there has been an unprecedented interest in using cannabis extracts to treat epilepsy, spurred on by a few refractory pediatric cases featured in the media that had an almost miraculous response to cannabidiol-enriched marijuana extracts. This review attempts to answer the most important questions a clinician may have regarding the use of marijuana in epilepsy. First, we review the preclinical and human evidences for the anticonvulsant properties of the different cannabinoids, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Then, we explore the safety data from animal and human studies. Lastly, we attempt to reconcile the controversy regarding physicians' and patients' opinions about whether the available evidence is sufficient to recommend the use of marijuana to treat epilepsy.

  13. Regular Marijuana Users May Have Impaired Brain Reward Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & ... Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...

  14. Cue reactivity in young marijuana smokers: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2008-12-01

    To develop and evaluate the feasibility of a cue reactivity paradigm for young marijuana smokers, the authors set up a laboratory procedure involving neutral and marijuana-related imagery, video, and in vivo cues. Fifteen adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders completed the procedure, which included continuous measurement of skin conductance and heart rate. Participants also completed questionnaires regarding marijuana craving before, during, and after cue presentations. Higher levels of craving and skin conductance were observed during marijuana cue presentations. The procedure appears to elicit cue reactivity among adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders and should be further evaluated and refined with a larger sample. Implications for future studies are discussed. PMID:19071985

  15. Marijuana extracts possess the effects like the endocrine disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progesterone 17α-hydroxylase activity, which is one of the steroidogenic enzymes in rat testis microsomes, was significantly inhibited by crude marijuana extracts from Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)- and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-strains. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol also inhibited the enzymatic activitiy with relatively higher concentration (100-1000 μM). Testosterone 6β- and 16α-hydroxylase activities together with androstenedione formation from testosterone in rat liver microsomes were also significantly inhibited by the crude marijuana extracts and the cannabinoids. Crude marijuana extracts (1 and 10 μg/ml) of THCA strain stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, although the purified cannabinoids (THC, CBD and CBN) did not show significant effects, such as the extract at the concentration of 0.01-1000 nM. These results indicate that there are some metabolic interactions between cannabinoid and steroid metabolism and that the constituents showing estrogen-like activity exist in marijuana

  16. Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed.

  17. Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, S C; Duncan, T E; Hops, H

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the progressive relations among adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana using latent growth curve analyses. Specifically, the present study examined three models to determine (1) the effect of prior cigarette use on alcohol use and development and the relationship between change in cigarette use and the development of alcohol use (N = 115), (2) the effect of prior alcohol use on cigarette use and development and the relationship between change in alcohol use and the development of cigarette use (N = 199); and (3) the effect of prior alcohol and cigarette use on marijuana use and development, and the relationship between change in alcohol use and cigarette use and the development, of marijuana use (N = 287). Support was found for the relation between prior levels of substance use and involvement in other substances. Cigarette use, in particular, was particularly important in the subsequent involvement of alcohol and marijuana.

  18. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (pmusic (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  19. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical ev...

  20. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marij...

  1. The academic consequences of marijuana use during college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on postsecondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college grade point average (GPA) and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting postsecondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  2. The academic consequences of marijuana use during college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on postsecondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college grade point average (GPA) and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting postsecondary academic achievement.

  3. Impulsivity, negative expectancies, and marijuana use: a test of the acquired preparedness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangsness, Laura; Bry, Brenna H; LaBouvie, Erich W

    2005-06-01

    According to the 'acquired preparedness model,' expectancies mediate the relationship between an impulsive personality style and alcohol use. The current study evaluated whether the model can also be applied to marijuana use. Estimated probabilities and subjective evaluations of personally expected marijuana effects, along with impulsivity and frequency of marijuana use, were assessed in 337 college undergraduates. Tests of mediation examining positive and negative marijuana expectancies showed negative expectancies to be a significant mediator for both males and females. That is, participants who were higher on impulsivity had fewer negative expectancies and in turn used more marijuana. This study provides evidence that the acquired preparedness model may help to explain marijuana use.

  4. Marijuana’s Dose-Dependent Effects in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.

    2015-01-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana “strength,” “high,” “liking,” “good effect,” and “take again” were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana’s cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  5. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  6. Marijuana Use in Hepatitis C Infection does not Affect Liver Biopsy Histology or Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.

  7. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Case Report of a Paradoxical Reaction with Heavy Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS is a rare constellation of clinical findings that includes a history of chronic heavy marijuana use, severe abdominal pain, unrelenting nausea, and intractable vomiting. A striking component of this history includes the use of hot showers or long baths that help to alleviate these symptoms. This is an underrecognized syndrome that can lead to expensive and unrevealing workups and can leave patients self-medicating their nausea and vomiting with the very substance that is causing their symptoms. Long-term treatment of CHS is abstinence from marijuana use—but the acute symptomatic treatment of CHS has been a struggle for many clinicians. Many standard medications used for the symptomatic treatment of CHS (including ondansetron, promethazine, and morphine have repeatedly been shown to be ineffective. Here we present the use of lorazepam as an agent that successfully and safely treats the tenacious symptoms of CHS. Additionally, we build upon existing hypotheses for the pathogenesis of CHS to try to explain why a substance that has been used for thousands of years is only now beginning to cause this paradoxical hyperemesis syndrome.

  8. Civic Norms and Etiquettes Regarding Marijuana Use in Public Settings in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce D. Johnson; Geoffrey L. Ream; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that active police enforcement of civic norms against marijuana smoking in public settings has influenced the locations where marijuana is smoked. It has subtly influenced the various marijuana etiquettes observed in both public and private settings. The ethnographic data reveals the importance of informal sanctions; most marijuana consumers report compliance with etiquettes mainly to avoid stigma from nonusing family, friends, and associates—they express limited concern abou...

  9. Social Norms and Self-efficacy Among Heavy Using Adolescent Marijuana Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Denise D.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Stephens, Robert S; Roffman, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a time in which individuals are particularly likely to engage in health-risk behaviors, with marijuana being the most prevalent illicit drug used. Perceptions of others’ use (i.e., norms) have previously been found to be related to increased marijuana use. Additionally, low refusal self-efficacy has been associated with increased marijuana consumption. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of normative perceptions and self-efficacy on negative marijuana outcomes for a...

  10. WHEN ONSET MEETS DESISTANCE: COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION AND ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA EXPERIMENTATION*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes. PMID:27478762

  11. Induction and comparison of craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brasil Araujo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature findings report that use of multiple substances can produce adverse clinical and behavioral effects, which may affect craving and the results of drug treatment. Also, the understanding of craving construct and its interaction in the use of smoked substances is underexplored. Objectives To induce and compare craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack-cocaine on hospitalized dependents whose drug of choice is crack-cocaine. Methods Quasi-experimental study with a convenience sample consisting of 210 males divided into 3 equal groups (Group-1: craving induced by crack; Group-2: craving induced by tobacco; and Group-3: craving induced by marijuana. All participants met ICD-10 dependence criteria for cocaine/crack, marijuana and tobacco, were aged between 18 and 65 and had used these substances for at least one year. Photos were used to induce craving and self-report instruments to evaluate possible alterations. Results This study showed that craving for tobacco was more intense than for marijuana and crack, when the groups were compared by VAS. Using specific scales, both craving for tobacco and craving for marijuana were more intense than craving for crack. Discussion These results would imply interventions at the initial stages of abstinence with cognitive-behavioural techniques and pharmacotherapy in order to reduce craving.

  12. WHEN ONSET MEETS DESISTANCE: COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION AND ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA EXPERIMENTATION*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes.

  13. Marijuana, phytocannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Stefan S; Agarwal, Ashok; Syriac, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Marijuana has the highest consumption rate among all of the illicit drugs used in the USA, and its popularity as both a recreational and medicinal drug is increasing especially among men of reproductive age. Male factor infertility is on the increase, and the exposure to the cannabinoid compounds released by marijuana could be a contributing cause. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is deeply involved in the complex regulation of male reproduction through the endogenous release of endocannabinoids and binding to cannabinoid receptors. Disturbing the delicate balance of the ECS due to marijuana use can negatively impact reproductive potential. Various in vivo and in vitro studies have reported on the empirical role that marijuana plays in disrupting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, and sperm function such as motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. In this review, we highlight the latest evidence regarding the effect of marijuana use on male fertility and also provide a detailed insight into the ECS and its significance in the male reproductive system.

  14. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  15. 32 CFR 700.1138 - Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities concerning marijuana, narcotics... concerning marijuana, narcotics, and other controlled substances. (a) All personnel shall endeavor to prevent and eliminate the unauthorized use of marijuana, narcotics and other controlled substances within...

  16. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  17. The theory of planned behavior: Precursors of marijuana use in early adolescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Precursors of marijuana use in early adolescence are largely unknown because studies generally focus on marijuana use among older adolescents or adults. Methods: In this study, we examined precursors of marijuana use in a sample of 1023 Dutch early adolescents (aged 11-14 at Time 1) who

  18. Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and Its Defenses against Infection and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the many effects of marijuana use on the lungs. States that patients with pre-existing immune deficits are particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related pulmonary infections. However, warns that habitual use of marijuana may lead to respiratory cancer must await epidemiological studies, which are now possible since 30 years have passed…

  19. Misperceptions of the Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among College Students: Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Roland, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use and perceptions of the prevalence of marijuana use was assessed in a sample of intercollegiate athletes and a separate sample of primarily first-year non-athlete students at a northwestern public university. Marijuana use prevalence in the non-athlete sample was higher than the prevalence found in nationwide surveys…

  20. Comparative Attitudes of University Students and School Teachers on the Use and Legalization of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Madanjit K.

    1977-01-01

    Explored use of marijuana and attitudes toward its legalization among university students and school teachers in Alberta. Students had more permissive attitudes toward marijuana use and its legalization as compared to teachers. Significant relationships were found between drug use and age and legalization of marijuana and sex and religiosity.…

  1. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  2. Social meanings of marijuana use for Southeast Asian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliet P; Kirkpatrick, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes findings from a pilot study of drug use and environment for Southeast Asian youths in the San Francisco Bay Area. From interviews with 31 drug-involved youths living in two low-income predominantly ethnic minority neighborhoods, smoking marijuana emerged as pervasive and highly normative. Smoking marijuana provided a means for coping with the stresses of home and community life, and located youths, moreover, within an alternative ghetto lifestyle of rap music, marijuana smoking, and youth crime, as modeled by co-resident ethnic minority peers, with which many Southeast Asian youths identified. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment as well as social status in the substance use of this group of second-generation youth. PMID:16537331

  3. Possible amotivational effects following marijuana smoking under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherek, Don R; Lane, Scott D; Dougherty, Donald M

    2002-02-01

    Human participants earned money by responding on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule (initial value $50) or received money without responding on a fixed-time (FT) schedule. During the session, participants could terminate the PR schedule and initiate an FT 200-s schedule. In Experiment 1, increases in monetary value produced increased number of responses, time spent, and money earned in the PR component. In Experiment 2, marijuana smoking produced potency-related reductions in the number of responses, time spent, and money earned in the PR component, effects that can be interpreted as amotivational. Increasing the monetary value of the reinforcer diminished the acute marijuana effects on PR responding, suggesting that marijuana exerted an effect primarily on reinforcers of a smaller magnitude.

  4. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  5. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  6. [Marijuana, health, disease, and freedom: analysis of an Internet forum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, F; Simioni, A M

    1999-11-01

    This paper takes a Health Education perspective to analyze a debate forum on the Brazilian Internet site entitled "Universo On-Line", in which the following questions were addressed: "Do you believe that marijuana is harmful to one's health?" "In your opinion, should marijuana use be decriminalized?" By applying qualitative discourse analysis techniques to responses from the forum, we were able to identify six main types of discourse, reflecting the opinions of six "collective subjects" concerning drugs, health, disease, and freedom and existing as social representations in the current Brazilian collective imagination. Research on these social representations allows one to establish criteria for intervention in the field of Health Education. PMID:10578087

  7. Social determinants of alcohol and marijuana effects: a systematic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J D

    1975-01-01

    Based on the sociological perspective on recreational drug effects, three social determinants are propositionally related to the normal effects of alcohol and marijuana. Effects vary across drugs, users, and situations along an experimental-behavioral dimension termed "effect-orientation." The content of normative expectations toward effects and the interactional characteristics of drug-using situations are conceptualized as direct determinants of effect-orientations. The relative clarity of normative expectations indirectly influences effect-orientations through its relationship to the other two social determinants. The theory stresses the importance of comparative research on the normal uses of alcohol and marijuana.

  8. David Casarett's Stoned: A Doctor's Case for Medical Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Bradley E

    2016-01-01

    With legal cannabis sales at $5.4 billion in 2015 and expected to rise by another billion this year in the United States, legalization and marijuana's impact on health is a hot topic of national debate. Casarett, a physician at the University of Pennsylvania, immerses himself in the culture, science, and smoke of medical marijuana in order to sort out the truth behind the buzz. Our reviewer, who has authored more than 120 research papers and reviews on the regulation of synaptic inhibition and endocannabinoids, tell us what the author got right, but also overlooked on his journey to learn more about a complex and controversial subject. PMID:27408675

  9. LACTIC ACIDOSIS: A RARE MANIFESTATION OF SYNTHETIC MARIJUANA INTOXICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, T; Jakkoju, A; Dieguez, J; Laskhmiprasad, L

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are designer drugs that mimic the effect of cannabis, which has become popular with young drug users. These drugs have a similar chemical structure and pharmacologic effects as marijuana, but seem to be more potent. These substances have been banned by the US Drug Enforcement Agency in 2010. Prior to 2010, these drugs were perceived as "safer" by the general population. Synthetic cannabinoids cause effects similar to marijuana making the subjects euphoric. However, they act as full, rather than partial, agonist at the receptor sites causing more severe side effects such as severe agitation, seizures, acute renal failure, and lactic acidosis. PMID:27159480

  10. Marijuana effects on visual imagery in a paired-associate task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, R I; Wittenborn, J R

    1984-06-01

    Marijuana effects on visual imagery, examined using a paired-associate learning task, differed from expectations based on previous subjective reports that marijuana enhances visual imagery. Subjects (48 men, mean age 22.4 yr.) were assigned to four groups (12 subjects per group) differing in (a) whether or not they received specific instructions to use imagery to facilitate learning and (b) whether they received marijuana or placebo. Imagery instructions improved recall, but marijuana did not influence the amount of this improvement. After the memory tests, subjects instructed to use imagery described their images. Marijuana decreased the rated vividness of these imagery descriptions.

  11. Use of marijuana for medical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Jabłoński, Piotr; Kidawa, Michal; Wierzba, Waldemar

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug on the European market. Over 16 million young Europeans have used it at least once in the last few years. The recent trends in the consumption of marihuana differ between countries. Some countries face an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use, including Poland, where the level cannabis use has been systematically increasing since the 1990's. According to a recent ESPAD study, 19% of Polish adolescents aged 15-16 have used cannabis in the last year. Marihuana is also a leading substance when analyzing the data of seizures and crimes. The recent EMCDDA Annual report on the drug situation in Europe notes the increasing potency in cannabis available on the market. Some countries face an increasing number of emergencies caused by marihuana, which was unlikely to have happened previously. In almost all European countries there is an ongoing discussion about loosening marijuana laws or its complete legalization. There is also ongoing discussion on the use of marihuana in therapy as a medicine. Many scientific studies are being conducted in this field. Some of the results are promising; however, there is no well-designed human trial which would unequivocally confirm that medical cannabis is effective as a medicine, or more effective than other medicines on the market. The problem is that the debate on the medical use of marihuana becomes more ideological and less professional. The medical use of marihuana is strongly supported by organizations lobbying for the legalization of cannabis use. Research on the medical use of cannabis should be continued, as there are some promising results supporting therapy in different medical conditions. However, the use of cannabis as a medicine should be discussed only among professionals. If marihuana is to be used for medical purposes, the fact that it is the most popular illicit drug in Europe is irrelevant.

  12. Use of marijuana for medical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Jabłoński, Piotr; Kidawa, Michal; Wierzba, Waldemar

    2016-07-15

    Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug on the European market. Over 16 million young Europeans have used it at least once in the last few years. The recent trends in the consumption of marihuana differ between countries. Some countries face an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use, including Poland, where the level cannabis use has been systematically increasing since the 1990's. According to a recent ESPAD study, 19% of Polish adolescents aged 15-16 have used cannabis in the last year. Marihuana is also a leading substance when analyzing the data of seizures and crimes. The recent EMCDDA Annual report on the drug situation in Europe notes the increasing potency in cannabis available on the market. Some countries face an increasing number of emergencies caused by marihuana, which was unlikely to have happened previously. In almost all European countries there is an ongoing discussion about loosening marijuana laws or its complete legalization. There is also ongoing discussion on the use of marihuana in therapy as a medicine. Many scientific studies are being conducted in this field. Some of the results are promising; however, there is no well-designed human trial which would unequivocally confirm that medical cannabis is effective as a medicine, or more effective than other medicines on the market. The problem is that the debate on the medical use of marihuana becomes more ideological and less professional. The medical use of marihuana is strongly supported by organizations lobbying for the legalization of cannabis use. Research on the medical use of cannabis should be continued, as there are some promising results supporting therapy in different medical conditions. However, the use of cannabis as a medicine should be discussed only among professionals. If marihuana is to be used for medical purposes, the fact that it is the most popular illicit drug in Europe is irrelevant. PMID:27660881

  13. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the subjective, physiological, and pharmacokinetic effects of marijuana smoked by these two methods. Marijuana blunt smokers (12 women and 12 men) were recruited and participated in a 6-session outpatient study. Participants were blindfolded and smoked three puffs from either a blunt or a joint containing marijuana with varying Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations (0.0, 1.8, and 3.6%). Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3h after smoking. Joints produced greater increases in plasma THC and subjective ratings of marijuana intoxication, strength, and quality compared to blunts, and these effects were more pronounced in women compared to men. However, blunts produced equivalent increases in heart rate and higher carbon monoxide levels than joints, despite producing lower levels of plasma THC. These findings demonstrate that smoking marijuana in a tobacco leaf may increase the risks of marijuana use by enhancing carbon monoxide exposure and increasing heart rate compared to joints. PMID:19443132

  14. Marijuana use in pregnancy and lactation: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Torri D; Stickrath, Elaine H

    2015-12-01

    With the legalization of recreational marijuana in many states, we anticipate more women will be using and self-reporting marijuana use in pregnancy. Marijuana is the most common illicit drug used in pregnancy, with a prevalence of use ranging from 3% to 30% in various populations. Marijuana freely crosses the placenta and is found in breast milk. It may have adverse effects on both perinatal outcomes and fetal neurodevelopment. Specifically, marijuana may be associated with fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, and preterm birth. However, data are far from uniform regarding adverse perinatal outcomes. Existing studies are plagued by confounding by tobacco and other drug exposures as well as sociodemographic factors. In addition, there is a lack of quantification of marijuana exposure by the trimester of use and a lack of corroboration of maternal self-report with biological sampling, which contributes to the heterogeneity of study results. There is an emerging body of evidence indicating that marijuana may cause problems with neurological development, resulting in hyperactivity, poor cognitive function, and changes in dopaminergic receptors. In addition, contemporary marijuana products have higher quantities of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol than in the 1980s when much of the marijuana research was completed. The effects on the pregnancy and fetus may therefore be different than those previously seen. Further research is needed to provide evidence-based counseling of women regarding the anticipated outcomes of marijuana use in pregnancy. In the meantime, women should be advised not to use marijuana in pregnancy or while lactating. PMID:25986032

  15. Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The legalization of marijuana is a controversial issue with implications for health care providers, policy makers, and society at large. The use of marijuana for medical reasons is accepted in many states. However, legal sale of the drug for non-medical use began for the first time on January 1, 2014, in Colorado, following a relaxation of marijuana restrictions that is unprecedented worldwide. News reports have indicated that sales of the drug have been brisk. Marijuana-infused food products have been unexpectedly popular, exceeding sales projections. Marijuana use is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders and could result in addiction. Evidence suggests its potency has increased since the 1980s. Colorado has established regulations regarding the sale of marijuana for non-medical use, but concerns still exist. The current article offers a discussion of the health, public policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications of the legalization of marijuana for non-medical use.

  16. Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lang, Delia L.; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3%...

  17. Heterogeneity in Men’s Marijuana Use in the 20s: Adolescent Antecedents and Consequences in the 30s

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Isaac J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Also not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues – and associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses – using a longitudinal dataset of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Indi...

  18. Cannabinoids in oral fluid following passive exposure to marijuana smoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, Christine; Coulter, Cynthia; Uges, Donald; Tuyay, James; van der Linde, Susanne; van Leeuwen, Arthur; Garnier, Margaux; Orbita, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolite 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) as well as cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) were measured in oral fluid following realistic exposure to marijuana in a Dutch coffee-shop. Ten healthy subje

  19. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  20. Adolescent Marijuana Use Intentions: Using Theory to Plan an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Sarah; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Cappella, Joseph; Kirkland Ahern, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses an integrated model of behavior change to predict intentions to use marijuana occasionally and regularly in a US-based national sample of male and female 12 to 18 year olds (n = 600). The model combines key constructs from the theory of reasoned action and social cognitive theory. The survey was conducted on laptop computers, and…

  1. Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire-Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealday, O.; Stein, L. A. R.; Barnett, N.; Golembeske, C.; Lebeau, R.; Colby, S. M.; Monti, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a brief version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ; Schafer & Brown, 1991). The original MEEQ was reduced to 6 items (MEEQ-B). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and two factors were identified (positive effects and negative effects) accounting for 52.3% of the variance.…

  2. Toxic effects of marijuana on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Balaji; Korniyenko, Aleksandr

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of marijuana-induced ST segment elevation mimicking Brugada syndrome in a young man. Cannabis can have a multitude of effects on the different organ systems of the body; we take a closer look at its effects on the cardiovascular system, including acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure. PMID:22194141

  3. Public Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Resko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns in public perceptions and attitudes toward marijuana use among adolescents. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI was used to collect data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan identified through random-digit dialing (n = 560. CATI interviews were supplemented with web- and paper-based surveys for nonrespondents. We used latent class analysis to characterize patterns in public perception, using a vignette technique that assessed (a whether adults recognize adolescent marijuana use as a problem, (b how they view the efficacy of treatment, (c how they view help-seeking with mental health professionals, and (d whether they support prevention services for adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between class membership and demographics, substance use, and methodological factors. Three latent classes were identified: (a a discriminating group, (b a low-concern group, and (c a high-concern group. Age and substance use were among the strongest determinants for membership in the discriminating group. Results provide insight into how the general public perceives marijuana use and marijuana-related problems among adolescents.

  4. Patterns of Alcohol and Marijuana Use at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adolescent substance use has been examined extensively. Beyond simple prevalence estimates, however, little research has been conducted on substance use in the school context. The present investigation was an in-depth study of students' attitudes and behaviors regarding alcohol and marijuana use during the school day. Based on a…

  5. Identifying classes of conjoint alcohol and marijuana use in entering freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Amie L; Wickham, Robert; Macia, Kathryn; Shields, Micah; Macher, Rayna; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    The current study identified classes of conjoint marijuana and alcohol use in entering college freshmen using latent profile analysis (N = 772; 53% male, 60% White; Mage = 18). Results yielded 4 distinct groups: Class 1 (moderate drinking with recent marijuana use: 22% of sample), Class 2 (moderate drinking with no recent marijuana use: 25%), Class 3 (light drinking with no recent marijuana use: 40%) and Class 4 (heavy drinking with recent marijuana use: 14%). Separate pairwise contrasts examined cross-class differences in demographics and drinking behaviors, comparing differences in drinking when current marijuana use was controlled (Class 1 vs. 4) and differences in marijuana use when drinking was held relatively constant (Class 1 vs. 2). Among moderate drinkers, recent marijuana users were more likely to drink more than intended, drink to get drunk, and had more problems (including higher rates of blackouts, physical injury, and DUI) relative to peers who refrained from marijuana. No cross-class differences were found for alcohol expectancies or behavioral motives. Findings from these analyses show the presence of distinct groups of conjoint users with different drinking behaviors and consequence profiles, and suggest that conjoint alcohol-marijuana use may be more problematic overall than single substance involvement and highlight the need for developing campus prevention and intervention programs that address the increased risk from polysubstance involvement.

  6. Rivet usage at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radziej, Markus; Hebbeker, Thomas; Sonnenschein, Lars [III. Phys. Inst. A, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In this talk an overview of Rivet and its usage at the CMS experiment is presented. Rivet stands for ''Robust Independent Validation of Experiment and Theory'' and is used for optimizing and validating Monte Carlo event generators. By using the results of published analyses, distributions of the simulation can be compared to experimental measurements (corrected for detector effects). This gives insight into the agreement on the particle-level. Starting off with an introduction to the Rivet environment, the purpose of this tool in modern particle physics is explained. Before taking a closer look at the analysis structure, the software necessary to get comparisons is outlined. Analysis implementations are discussed using code examples, showcasing the powerful framework that Rivet provides. A few selected final distributions displaying both Monte Carlo generated events and recorded data are presented, showing the potential to perform particle-level comparisons.

  7. Association Between Use of Marijuana and Male Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Tina Djernis; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2015-01-01

    . They responded to questionnaires including information on marijuana and recreational drug use during the past 3 months (no use, use once per week or less, or use more than once per week). A total of 45% had smoked marijuana within the last 3 months. Regular marijuana smoking more than once per week...... was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval (CI): -48, -1) lower sperm concentration and a 29% (95% CI: -46, -1) lower total sperm count after adjustment for confounders. The combined use of marijuana more than once per week and other recreational drugs reduced the sperm concentration by 52% (95% CI: -68......, -27) and total sperm count by 55% (95% CI: -71, -31). Marijuana smokers had higher levels of testosterone within the same range as cigarette smokers. Our findings are of public interest as marijuana use is common and may be contributing to recent reports of poor semen quality....

  8. Marijuana use, abuse, and dependence: evaluation of panic responsivity to biological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation examined marijuana use, abuse, and dependence in relation to anxious and fearful responding to panic-relevant bodily sensations elicited by a biological challenge procedure among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 64; 46.9% women; M(age) = 20.97, SD = 6.01). Results indicated that those who were dependent on marijuana had greater self-reported panic attack symptoms post-challenge than those who abused marijuana. No differences were found between those who did not meet criteria for either abuse or dependence (users), and those who abused or were dependent on marijuana. No group differences were found for heart rate reactivity. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of marijuana use and its disorders in terms of panic responsivity. PMID:20235439

  9. Prolonged atrial fibrillation precipitated by new-onset seizures and marijuana abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dinesh; Huntwork, Margaret; Shetty, Varun; Sequeira, Gina; Akingbola, Olugbenga

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of prolonged atrial fibrillation (AF) precipitated by new-onset generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and marijuana abuse in a developmentally normal 18-year-old adolescent with a structurally normal heart. Our case highlights an interesting association and a unique pathophysiology between generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, marijuana abuse, and AF. We suggest that seizures and marijuana abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the etiology of AF in children. PMID:24420812

  10. Young Mothers’ Decisions to Use Marijuana: A Test of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, D. M.; Lohr, M. J.; Beadnell, B.; Gillmore, M. Rogers; Lewis, S.; Gilchrist, L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict marijuana use among young women who experienced a premarital pregnancy before age 18, using longitudinal data. The validity of the TPB assumption that all other variables work through TPB constructs is also tested. Indicators of four constructs that have been shown in the literature to be predictive of marijuana use -- persistent environmental adversity, emotional distress, adolescent marijuana use, drug use ...

  11. Predicting Self-Initiated Marijuana Use Cessation among Youth at Continuation High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Melissa A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at 1-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at ...

  12. Predicting self-initiated marijuana use cessation among youth at continuation high schools

    OpenAIRE

    MelissaA.Little; DonnaSpruijt-Metz

    2013-01-01

    The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at one-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users ...

  13. Marijuana effects on the speed of memory retrieval in the letter-matching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, R I; Wittenborn, J R

    1986-02-01

    Marijuana's effect on the speed of retrieving simple information from memory was studied using a task in which subjects saw two letters and decided whether or not they had the same name. Subjects smoked a single marijuana or placebo cigarette under double-blind conditions. Marijuana slowed reaction time relative to placebo, but this effect was not influenced by the demands on memory retrieval or by providing advance information relevant to the required decisions, suggesting that memory retrieval was unimpaired.

  14. "High"-School: The Relationship between Early Marijuana Use and Educational Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Kassenböhmer, Sonja C.; Le, Trinh(Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904-4714, U.S.A.); McVicar, Duncan; Zhang, Rong

    2013-01-01

    We use unique survey data linked to nearly a decade of administrative welfare data to examine the relationship between early marijuana use (at age 14 or younger) and young people’s educational outcomes. We find evidence that early marijuana use is related to educational penalties that are compounded by high-intensity use and are larger for young people living in families with a history of welfare receipt. The relationships between marijuana use and both high school completion and achieving a ...

  15. "Anslingerian" Politics: The History of Anti-Marijuana Sentiment in Federal law and How Harry Anslinger's Anti-Marijuana Politics Continue to Prevent the FDA and other Medical Experts from Studying Marijuana's Medical Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Ransom, Jesse J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is intended to demonstrate how the Federal Bureau of Narcotics’s propagation of negative images associating marijuana with the anti-social behavior of marginal socio-economic groups in the 1930’s still influences the federal government’s marijuana policies today. This paper traces the history of marijuana’s legal, from its legal status America’s infancy, where many colonies considered mar...

  16. Marijuana effects on sensitivity to reinforcement in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R

    2002-04-01

    Under controlled laboratory conditions, eight adult subjects smoked placebo and three different potencies of marijuana cigarettes ranging in Delta(9) THC content. Immediately following smoking, subjects were exposed to a laboratory task that provided concurrently available response options. One option systematically decreased in reinforcement frequency throughout the session, and thus required a reallocation of behavior to the non-decreasing option to maximize monetary earnings. After smoking the two highest doses (1.77% and 3.58% Delta(9) THC) subjects earned fewer reinforcers and allocated a higher proportion of responding to the decreasing option, compared with placebo and the lowest dose. The difference in reinforcers earned could not be accounted for by a change in response rates. Quantitative and graphical analyses revealed that the higher doses produced considerable periods of time spent on the decreasing option despite earning few reinforcers. The data are discussed with regard to marijuana effects on dopamine/cannabinoid systems and adaptive behavior change.

  17. Discriminability of personality profiles in isolated and Co-morbid marijuana and nicotine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Baine, Jessica L; Filbey, Francesca M

    2016-04-30

    Specific personality traits have been linked with substance use disorders (SUDs), genetic mechanisms, and brain systems. Thus, determining the specificity of personality traits to types of SUD can advance the field towards defining SUD endophenotypes as well as understanding the brain systems involved for the development of novel treatments. Disentangling these factors is particularly important in highly co morbid SUDs, such as marijuana and nicotine use, so treatment can occur effectively for both. This study evaluated personality traits that distinguish isolated and co-morbid use of marijuana and nicotine. To that end, we collected the NEO Five Factor Inventory in participants who used marijuana-only (n=59), nicotine-only (n=27), both marijuana and nicotine (n=28), and in non-using controls (n=28). We used factor analyses to identify personality profiles, which are linear combinations of the five NEO Factors. We then conducted Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis to test accuracy of the personality factors in discriminating isolated and co-morbid marijuana and nicotine users from each other. ROC curve analysis distinguished the four groups based on their NEO personality patterns. Results showed that NEO Factor 2 (openness, extraversion, agreeableness) discriminated marijuana and marijuana+nicotine users from controls and nicotine-only users with high predictability. Additional ANOVA results showed that the openness dimension discriminated marijuana users from nicotine users. These findings suggest that personality dimensions distinguish marijuana users from nicotine users and should be considered in prevention strategies. PMID:27086256

  18. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents.

  19. The couple that smokes together: Dyadic marijuana use and relationship functioning during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Schlauch, Robert C; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    Self-reported marijuana use has been associated with poor relationship functioning and decreased stability over time. The present study examined the behavioral interactions of couples with concordant and discordant patterns of marijuana use during conflict, using individual self-reports and observation by independent coders. Heavy drinking community couples (N = 149) participated in a conflict resolution paradigm. Interactions were recorded and coded by naïve coders. Approximately 30% of the sample reported past year marijuana use. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of dyadic marijuana use on maladaptive relationship functioning. A Robust Actor × Partner Marijuana Use interaction was detected for a range of behavioral outcomes, assessed by both self-report and direct observation, including relationship satisfaction, anger experience, patterns of demand and withdrawal during conflict, constructive behaviors, and overall relationship quality. Specifically, couples in which both partners used or abstained from marijuana displayed more adaptive relationship functioning across indicators relative to couples in which only 1 partner identified as a marijuana user. This pattern was particularly strong for couples in which the female partner used marijuana and the male partner did not. Couples with discordant, rather than concordant, marijuana use displayed distinct conflict resolution behaviors that were consistent with the long-term negative relationship outcomes that have been observed in previous studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Invited Commentary: The Association Between Marijuana Use and Male Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L

    2015-09-15

    Approximately 15% of all couples are unable to conceive after a year and are labeled infertile. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to lifestyle factors that may impact fertility. In the United States, it is estimated that there are more than 17 million current users of marijuana with 4.6 million using marijuana almost daily. Although common, to date, little data exist on the impact of marijuana use on male fertility. In the current issue of the Journal, Gundersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(6):473-481) provide data examining the relationship between marijuana use and semen quality from young men recruited out of the general Danish population. Men who reported daily marijuana use displayed significant lower sperm concentration and sperm counts compared with nonusers, while testosterone levels were higher. The current report provides important information for patients and providers regarding the negative association of marijuana use on semen quality. Although the benefit of marijuana cessation on recovery is uncertain, further study on the impact of marijuana use on male reproductive health is warranted as more states explore marijuana legalization.

  1. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Heitzeg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n = 40 were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS. Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n = 20 or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes.

  2. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated

  3. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eGrewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  4. Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used i...

  5. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  6. The effects of marijuana: a social psychological interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinder, I D

    1978-05-01

    BECAUSE OF MARIJUANA'S apparent widespread and growing use, and possible future decriminalization, there is understandable concern about the effects of marijuana on behavior. However, in any serious deliberation about effects on behavior, two divergent views are equally unacceptable: that of the naive medical moralizer, who believes that marijuana turns people into vicious criminals; and that of the uncritical humanist, who holds that it affects everyone differently. The first position, characterized here as medical, moves from drug to behavior as though the latter were wholly physiological and a more or less predictably invariant function of the former. The second position, uncritical humanism, views the world as a composite of more of less free human elements which remain inscrutable and unpredictable, regardless of whether any individual is straight or high. Somewhere between these antipodal positions of absolute uniformity and absolute uniformity and absolute diversity lies the reality of patterned variability--i.e., types of users and types of effects of use. Situational factors such as when, where, with whom, and the like are admittedly important, but I propose here to limit attention to the user as social psychological actor in order to reduce analysis to a manageable number of parameters. PMID:757986

  7. Systeme, norme, usage: Etudes contrastives (System, Norm, Usage: Contrastive Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gak, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of languages can be an effective instructional technique if used well. The comparison of isolated elements is less effective than the examination of languages at several levels: system, norm, and usage. (MSE)

  8. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grogan-Kaylor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristina B Bares1, Jorge Delva2, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor2, Fernando Andrade31Curtis Research and Training Center, School of Social Work, 2School of Social Work, 3School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America.Methods: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables.Results: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.Keywords: parenting, families, adolescent

  9. Network effects in service usage

    CERN Document Server

    Szabó, G

    2006-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that social and communication networks play a key role during the spread of new ideas, products, or services, network effects are expected to have diminished influence in the stationary state, when all users are aware of the innovation, and its usage pattern is determined mainly by its utility to the user. Here we study four mobile phone-based services available to over six million subscribers, allowing us to simultaneously monitor the communication network between individuals and the time-resolved service usage patterns. We find that usage highly correlates with the structure of the communication network, and demonstrate the coexistence on the same social network of two distinct usage classes, network effects being responsible for the quantifiable differences between them. To test the predictive power of our theory, we demonstrate that traditional marketing techniques are ineffective in permanently boosting service adoption, and propose a hub-based incentive mechanism that has t...

  10. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  11. Marijuana Use as a Sex-Drug is Associated with HIV Risk Among Black MSM and Their Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Skaathun, Britt; Michaels, Stuart; Young, Lindsay; Khanna, Aditya; Friedman, Samuel R; Davis, Billy; Pitrak, David; Schneider, John

    2016-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are highest risk for HIV seroconversion in the United States. Little attention has been paid to marijuana use among BMSM and potential for HIV risk. A sample of 202 BMSM was generated through respondent driven sampling. The relationship between differential marijuana use and both HIV risk behavior and social network factors were examined using weighted logistic regression. Of the BMSM in this sample 60.4 % use marijuana in general and 20.8 % use marijuana as sex-drug. General marijuana use was significantly associated with participation in group sex (AOR 3.50; 95 % CI 1.10-11.10) while marijuana use as a sex drug was significantly associated with both participation in condomless sex (AOR 2.86; 95% CI 1.07-7.67) and group sex (AOR 3.39; 95% CI 1.03-11.22). Respondents with a moderate or high perception of network members who use marijuana were more likely to use marijuana both in general and as a sex-drug. Network member marijuana use, while not associated with risk behaviors, is associated with individual marijuana use and individual marijuana use in the context of sex is associated with risk practices. Targeting interventions towards individuals and their respective networks that use marijuana as a sex drug may reduce HIV risk.

  12. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  13. Use of Marijuana and Blunts among Adolescents: 2005. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on past month marijuana and blunt use among youths aged 12 to 17.7 Data are presented by demographic and academic characteristics. All findings are based on data from the 2005 NSDUH. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions on the use of marijuana and blunts. Respondents who reported lifetime use of…

  14. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  15. Beyond the Barriers: Marking the Place for Marijuana Use at a Canadian High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joy L.; Moffat, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan; Shoveller, Jean; Fischer, Benedikt; Haines, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study aimed at developing a richer understanding of how youth, their schools, and the communities in which they are emplaced coincide to generate a set of local social processes that affect marijuana use. We trace the interplay between high school staff and students with regards to marijuana use in the proximity of a local high…

  16. Marijuana Use among Students at Institutions of Higher Education. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug in the United States, with approximately 14.8 million Americans over the age of 12 reporting past-month use in 2006. While marijuana use declined in the 1980s, its use among all youth--including college students--rose steadily in the 1990s. Prevention professionals report concern because marijuana…

  17. Examining Marijuana User and Non-User Prototypes in Formative Research for Prevention Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on research--both quantitative and qualitative--conducted to explore perceptions of prototypes of marijuana users, as well as the extent to which self-prototype congruence predicted marijuana use intention. Results of a survey of undergraduates (N = 139) showed that prototypes of users and non-users differed in terms of key attributes,…

  18. Legalizing Cannabis: A physician's primer on the pulmonary effects of marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmansingh, Denyse; Pawar, Leena; Savici, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Habitual smoking of marijuana is associated with multiple respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, and wheezing .These symptoms are not significantly different from those exhibited by tobacco smokers. Furthermore, endobronchial biopsies of habitual smokers of marijuana and /or tobacco have shown that both marijuana and cigarette smoking cause significant bronchial mucosal histopathology and that these effects are additive. Although marijuana smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothoraces. The relationship between marijuana smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. These findings should warn individuals that marijuana smoking may result in serious short-term and long-term respiratory complications, and habitual marijuana use should be viewed with caution. The medical literature so far does not support routine evaluation by pulmonary function tests or imaging studies; until more definitive data is available, we do not recommend the regular use of these tests in the evaluation of habitual marijuana smokers.

  19. Perceived Norms and Marijuana Use at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Wahesh, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the extent of marijuana use and related risk-taking behavior by college students on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Undergraduate students (N = 212) from an HBCU in the southern region of the United States completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed their marijuana-related behaviors and…

  20. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  1. “Smoking Wet”: Respiratory Failure Related to Smoking Tainted Marijuana Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Christopher R.; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as “wet” or “fry,” has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries.

  2. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  3. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  4. Assessment of Marijuana Use and Psychosocial Behaviors at Two Historically Black Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen-Reid, Terra L.; Rhodes, Warren A.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed three constructs (resilient, invulnerable, and vulnerable) as they related to marijuana use, examining the role of spirituality and social support as potential buffering mechanisms. Data on 103 African American undergraduates from two historically black colleges indicated that students who continued to use marijuana were less spiritual…

  5. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  6. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  7. Underbanked: Cooperative Banking as a Potential Solution to the Marijuana-Banking Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous states have recently legalized recreational marijuana, which has created a burgeoning marijuana industry needing and demanding access to a variety of banking and financial services. Due, however, to the interplay between the federal criminalization of marijuana and federal anti-money laundering laws, U.S. financial institutions cannot handle legally the proceeds from marijuana activity. As a result, most financial institutions are unwilling to flout federal anti-money laundering laws, and so too few marijuana-related businesses can access banking services. This Note argues that the most viable policy option for resolving this "underbanking" problem is a financial cooperative approach such as a cannabis-only financial cooperative. Even in light of federal anti-money laundering laws, this Note contends that the Federal Reserve is legally authorized to grant some cannabis-only financial cooperatives access to its payment system services under the Monetary Control Act of 1980.

  8. Acute marijuana effects on response-reinforcer relations under multiple variable-interval schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S D; Cherek, D R; Pietras, C J; Tcheremissine, O V

    2004-07-01

    Acute marijuana administration may alter response-reinforcer relationships via a change in reinforcer efficacy, but may also impair coordination and motor function. One approach to evaluating drug effects on both motor function and reinforcer efficacy involves fitting the matching law equation to data obtained under multiple variable interval (VI) schedules. The present report describes an experiment that examined the effects of acute marijuana on response properties using this approach. Six human subjects responded under a multiple VI schedule for monetary reinforcers after smoking placebo and two active doses of marijuana. The low marijuana dose produced unsystematic changes in responding. As measured by the matching law equation parameters (k and rB), at the high dose five subjects showed a decrease-motor-related properties of response rate and four subjects' responding indicated a decrease in reinforcer efficacy. These data raise the possibility that, at high doses, marijuana administration alters both motor function and reinforcer efficacy.

  9. Concurrent life-course trajectories of employment and marijuana-use: exploring interdependence of longitudinal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Motoaki; Huang, David Y C; Weiss, Robert E; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes data on 7661 individuals who participated in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to estimate trajectories of employment and marijuana-use over a 17-year period. Bivariate random intercept and slope modeling is applied to examine concurrently the cross-correlation between the two concurrent longitudinal trajectories from age 23 to 39. Parameter estimates indicate baseline level (at age 23) of employment to be negatively correlated with marijuana, suggesting marijuana-use is associated with lower workforce productivity at age 23. The longitudinal employment slope is positively correlated with employment intercept for both males and females, indicating that survey participants with higher levels of employment at age 23 are more likely to have a positive impact on employment trajectory over time. For males, however, the employment slope is also significantly correlated with marijuana intercept (r=-0.07), indicating marijuana-use in early adulthood may uniquely lower workforce productivity over age.

  10. Underbanked: Cooperative Banking as a Potential Solution to the Marijuana-Banking Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous states have recently legalized recreational marijuana, which has created a burgeoning marijuana industry needing and demanding access to a variety of banking and financial services. Due, however, to the interplay between the federal criminalization of marijuana and federal anti-money laundering laws, U.S. financial institutions cannot handle legally the proceeds from marijuana activity. As a result, most financial institutions are unwilling to flout federal anti-money laundering laws, and so too few marijuana-related businesses can access banking services. This Note argues that the most viable policy option for resolving this "underbanking" problem is a financial cooperative approach such as a cannabis-only financial cooperative. Even in light of federal anti-money laundering laws, this Note contends that the Federal Reserve is legally authorized to grant some cannabis-only financial cooperatives access to its payment system services under the Monetary Control Act of 1980. PMID:27008718

  11. The effect of medical marijuana laws on crime: evidence from state panel data, 1990-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morris

    Full Text Available Debate has surrounded the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes for decades. Some have argued medical marijuana legalization (MML poses a threat to public health and safety, perhaps also affecting crime rates. In recent years, some U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, reigniting political and public interest in the impact of marijuana legalization on a range of outcomes.Relying on U.S. state panel data, we analyzed the association between state MML and state crime rates for all Part I offenses collected by the FBI.Results did not indicate a crime exacerbating effect of MML on any of the Part I offenses. Alternatively, state MML may be correlated with a reduction in homicide and assault rates, net of other covariates.These findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes.

  12. Joint Effects: A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Bipolar Disorder and Marijuana Use on Cognitive Function and Mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Sagar

    Full Text Available Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in those diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether marijuana may alleviate or exacerbate mood symptomatology. As bipolar disorder and marijuana use are individually associated with cognitive impairment, it also remains unclear whether there is an additive effect on cognition when bipolar patients use marijuana. The current study aimed to determine the impact of marijuana on mood in bipolar patients and to examine whether marijuana confers an additional negative impact on cognitive function. Twelve patients with bipolar disorder who smoke marijuana (MJBP, 18 bipolar patients who do not smoke (BP, 23 marijuana smokers without other Axis 1 pathology (MJ, and 21 healthy controls (HC completed a neuropsychological battery. Further, using ecological momentary assessment, participants rated their mood three times daily as well as after each instance of marijuana use over a four-week period. Results revealed that although the MJ, BP, and MJBP groups each exhibited some degree of cognitive impairment relative to HCs, no significant differences between the BP and MJBP groups were apparent, providing no evidence of an additive negative impact of BPD and MJ use on cognition. Additionally, ecological momentary assessment analyses indicated alleviation of mood symptoms in the MJBP group after marijuana use; MJBP participants experienced a substantial decrease in a composite measure of mood symptoms. Findings suggest that for some bipolar patients, marijuana may result in partial alleviation of clinical symptoms. Moreover, this improvement is not at the expense of additional cognitive impairment.

  13. Joint trajectories of victimization and marijuana use and their health consequences among urban African American and Puerto Rican young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2013-06-01

    We examined the joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use from emerging adulthood to the early thirties and their health consequences in the early thirties among urban African American and Puerto Rican men. Data were collected from a community sample of young men (N = 340) when they were 19, 24, 29, and 32 years old. The joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use were extracted using growth mixture modeling. Three distinct joint trajectory groups of violent victimization and marijuana use were identified: high violent victimization/consistently high marijuana use; low violent victimization/increasingly high marijuana use, and low violent victimization/low marijuana use. Group comparisons using regression analyses showed that men who had experienced high levels of violent victimization and were high frequency marijuana over time users experienced the most adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including more health problems, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorders.

  14. Analyse des besoins des usagers

    OpenAIRE

    KHOUDOUR,L; LANGLAIS,A; Charpentier, C.; MOTTE,C; PIAN,C

    2002-01-01

    Il s'agit d'étendre la surveillance vidéo de l'enceinte du métro vers l'intérieur des rames. Les images captées constituent des prises de vue des événements qui se déroulent à l'intérieur des véhicules afin notamment d'améliorer la sécurité des usagers transportes. Il est possible de mémoriser les images des quelques instants précédant un incident usager, d'analyser ces images en temps différé et de mieux appréhender en temps réel le comportement des usagers face à des événements ou des consi...

  15. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  16. Distress tolerance predicts coping motives for marijuana use among treatment seeking young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semcho, Stephen; Bilsky, Sarah A; Lewis, Sarah F; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-07-01

    Given increasing marijuana use and abuse among young adults in the United States and the associated physical and mental health consequences, it is important to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to problematic marijuana use. A convergence of theory and research underscores the relevance of particular marijuana use motives generally, and coping-related motives specifically, in enhancing risk for marijuana use problems. Distress tolerance is a transdiagnostic emotion vulnerability factor that may relate to coping-related motives for marijuana use. The current study was designed to further explore this relationship within a treatment-seeking sample of young adults (Mage=24.40; SD=2.06 years). Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting distress tolerance is related to coping motives for marijuana use within this treatment-seeking sample, even after accounting for a number of theoretically relevant covariates. Theoretical and applied implications of distress tolerance as it relates to coping motives for marijuana use as treatment targets are discussed. PMID:26921722

  17. Cannabinoid modulation of drug reward and the implications of marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Wenzel, Jennifer M; Cheer, Joseph F

    2015-12-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug worldwide. Recent trends indicate that this may soon change; not due to decreased marijuana use, but to an amendment in marijuana's illegal status. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor mediates marijuana's psychoactive and reinforcing properties. CB1 receptors are also part of the brain endocannabinoid (eCB) system and support numerous forms of learning and memory, including the conditioned reinforcing properties of cues predicting reward or punishment. This is accomplished via eCB-dependent alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, which plays an obligatory role in reward learning and motivation. Presynaptic CB1 receptors control midbrain dopamine neuron activity and thereby shape phasic dopamine release in target regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). By also regulating synaptic input to the NAc, CB1 receptors modulate NAc output onto downstream neurons of the basal ganglia motor circuit, and thereby support goal-directed behaviors. Abused drugs promote short- and long-term adaptations in eCB-regulation of mesolimbic dopamine function, and thereby hijack neural systems related to the pursuit of rewards to promote drug abuse. By pharmacologically targeting the CB1 receptors, marijuana has preferential access to this neuronal system and can potently alter eCB-dependent processing of reward-related stimuli. As marijuana legalization progresses, greater access to this drug should increase the utility of marijuana as a research tool to better understand the eCB system, which has the potential to advance cannabinoid-based treatments for drug addiction. PMID:25463025

  18. Characteristics of Jamaicans who smoke marijuana before sex and their risk status for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D T; Bain, B C; Wyatt, G E; LeFranc, E; Ricketts, H; Chambers, C C; Tucker, M B

    1996-03-01

    Because of the high prevalence of marijuana smoking in Jamaica, it is important to know if this practice is associated with increased risk for STD infections. A national sample of 2 580 randomly selected Jamaicans, aged 15 to 49 years were administered a questionnaire to measure a number of health and behavioural variables. The results indicated that more persons who smoked marijuana before sex had a history of STD infections than non-marijuana smokers, the difference was significant among men (46% vs 26%, p < 0.001) but not among women (19% vs 8%, p = 0.09). There was no difference in age, however, more of the smokers were unmarried, poorly educated and unemployed than persons who did not smoke marijuana before sex. They were also more likely to engage in high risk sex behaviours and other risk taking behaviors than non-smokers. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that marijuana smoking before sex was an independent risk factor for STDs among men (Odds Ratio = 2.0, p = 0.04). Although it was not possible to determine if the association was causal, the increased risk for STDs among men who smoke marijuana before sex should be incorporated into the Jamaican STD/AIDS control programme by making special efforts to encourage condom use among marijuana smokers.

  19. Distress tolerance predicts coping motives for marijuana use among treatment seeking young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semcho, Stephen; Bilsky, Sarah A; Lewis, Sarah F; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-07-01

    Given increasing marijuana use and abuse among young adults in the United States and the associated physical and mental health consequences, it is important to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to problematic marijuana use. A convergence of theory and research underscores the relevance of particular marijuana use motives generally, and coping-related motives specifically, in enhancing risk for marijuana use problems. Distress tolerance is a transdiagnostic emotion vulnerability factor that may relate to coping-related motives for marijuana use. The current study was designed to further explore this relationship within a treatment-seeking sample of young adults (Mage=24.40; SD=2.06 years). Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting distress tolerance is related to coping motives for marijuana use within this treatment-seeking sample, even after accounting for a number of theoretically relevant covariates. Theoretical and applied implications of distress tolerance as it relates to coping motives for marijuana use as treatment targets are discussed.

  20. Predicting self-initiated marijuana use cessation among youth at continuation high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Little

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at one-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate. Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at baseline, quitting was defined as having not used marijuana in the last 30 days at one-year follow-up (43% of baseline users. To account for the level of influence we employed a theory-based analytic strategy, hierarchical regression. In the final multivariate model, lower level of baseline marijuana use and less of a likelihood to endorse pro-drug-use myths remained predictors of marijuana use cessation one year later. Implications of these findings include the need to develop cessation programs that reduce psychological dependence on marijuana use, and correct cognitive misperceptions about drug use in order to help adolescents make decisions that lead to health-promoting behaviors.

  1. Cannabinoid modulation of drug reward and the implications of marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Wenzel, Jennifer M; Cheer, Joseph F

    2015-12-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug worldwide. Recent trends indicate that this may soon change; not due to decreased marijuana use, but to an amendment in marijuana's illegal status. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor mediates marijuana's psychoactive and reinforcing properties. CB1 receptors are also part of the brain endocannabinoid (eCB) system and support numerous forms of learning and memory, including the conditioned reinforcing properties of cues predicting reward or punishment. This is accomplished via eCB-dependent alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, which plays an obligatory role in reward learning and motivation. Presynaptic CB1 receptors control midbrain dopamine neuron activity and thereby shape phasic dopamine release in target regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). By also regulating synaptic input to the NAc, CB1 receptors modulate NAc output onto downstream neurons of the basal ganglia motor circuit, and thereby support goal-directed behaviors. Abused drugs promote short- and long-term adaptations in eCB-regulation of mesolimbic dopamine function, and thereby hijack neural systems related to the pursuit of rewards to promote drug abuse. By pharmacologically targeting the CB1 receptors, marijuana has preferential access to this neuronal system and can potently alter eCB-dependent processing of reward-related stimuli. As marijuana legalization progresses, greater access to this drug should increase the utility of marijuana as a research tool to better understand the eCB system, which has the potential to advance cannabinoid-based treatments for drug addiction.

  2. White Matter Integrity Pre- and Post Marijuana and Alcohol Initiation in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Squeglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on adolescent brain development is important for understanding potential alterations in neurodevelopment. Several cross sectional studies have identified group differences in white matter integrity after initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use, however none have explored white matter trajectories in adolescents pre- and post initiation of use, particularly for marijuana users. This study followed 16 adolescents with minimal alcohol and marijuana use at ages 16–18 over three years. At follow-up, teens were 19–22 years old; half of the participants initiated heavy alcohol use and half initiated heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed 20 clusters in association and projection fibers tracts (p < 0.01 in which a group by time interaction was found. Most consistently, white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy decreased for those who initiated both heavy alcohol and marijuana use over the follow-up interval. No effect of time or change in white matter integrity was seen for those who initiated alcohol use only in the majority of clusters. In most regions, at the baseline time point, teens who would later initiate both alcohol and marijuana use demonstrated white matter integrity greater than or equal to teens that initiated alcohol use only. Findings suggest poorer tissue integrity associated with combined initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use in late adolescence. While pre-existing differences may also be related to likelihood of substance use, the present data suggest an effect on tissue integrity for these teens transitioning to combined alcohol and marijuana use in later adolescence.

  3. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment.

  4. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  5. Modeling Educational Usage of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a structural model explaining how users could utilize Facebook for educational purposes. In order to shed light on the educational usage of Facebook, in constructing the model, the relationship between users' Facebook adoption processes and their educational use of Facebook were included indirectly while the…

  6. Smoke Signals and Mixed Messages: Medical Marijuana & Drug Policy Signalling Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Niko De Silva; Benno Torgler

    2011-01-01

    Liberal drug policy reform is often criticized for ‘sending the wrong message’, particularly to youth. Reform opponents argue that liberal policies such as decriminalisation and medical marijuana laws will cause marijuana to be perceived as less risky and lead to an increase in use. We seek to test this claim empirically, exploiting the timing and unique properties of state level medical marijuana laws in the US to isolate policy signalling effects. We use survey-derived state-level estim...

  7. Genetic variation in hemp and marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) according to amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datwyler, Shannon L; Weiblen, George D

    2006-03-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is one of the earliest known cultivated plants and is important in the global economy today as a licit and an illicit crop. Molecular markers distinguishing licit and illicit cultivars have forensic utility, but no direct comparison of hemp and marijuana amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been made to date. Genetic variation was surveyed in three populations of fiber hemp and a potent cultivar of marijuana using AFLP markers. Ten primer pairs yielded 1206 bands, of which 88% were polymorphic. Eighteen bands represented fixed differences between all fiber populations and the drug cultivar. These markers have practical utility for (1) establishing conspiracy in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana, (2) identifying geographic sources of seized drugs, and (3) discriminating illegal, potent marijuana cultivars from hemp where the cultivation of industrial hemp is permitted.

  8. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  9. The privileged normalization of marijuana use - an analysis of Canadian newspaper reporting, 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Johnson, Joy L; Repta, Robin; Ostry, Aleck; Young, Mary Lynn; Shoveller, Jeannie; Sawatzky, Richard; Greaves, Lorraine; Ratner, Pamela A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically examine predominant themes within mainstream media reporting about marijuana use in Canada. To ascertain the themes present in major Canadian newspaper reports, a sample (N = 1999) of articles published between 1997 and 2007 was analyzed. Drawing from Manning's theory of the symbolic framing of drug use within media, it is argued that a discourse of 'privileged normalization' informs portrayals of marijuana use and descriptions of the drug's users. Privileged normalization implies that marijuana use can be acceptable for some people at particular times and places, while its use by those without power and status is routinely vilified and linked to deviant behavior. The privileged normalization of marijuana by the media has important health policy implications in light of continued debate regarding the merits of decriminalization or legalization and the need for public health and harm reduction approaches to illicit drug use.

  10. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  11. Alcohol and marijuana effects on static visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A J; Brown, B; Flom, M C; Jones, R T; Jampolsky, A

    1975-11-01

    Static visual acuity was measured at two contrast levels (12 and 49%) in ten subjects in a double blind experiment involving five drug conditions of alcohol and marijuana (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/kg body weight of 95% ethanol, 8 and 15 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and a placebo). We found no statistically significant change in static visual acuity for any of the dose levels at any of the measurement time up to six hours following drug ingestion; this is sharply contrasted with the marked decrements in acuity which were found in the same subjects under the same drug conditions when the targets were in motion and required corrdinated eye movements for their resolution.

  12. Student Empowerment Through Internet Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... and reflecting. The paper will explore the various cultural issues and explicate how the social context plays a major role in the use of Internet even if there is sufficient access. These issues will be addressed from an empowerment perspective. The paper ends by recommending the methods to be adopted for more......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been widely recognized as a tool for human development (UNDP 2001). The rate at which ICT are growing is changing the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. (Tongia, et al. 2005) Internet is one of the Information & Communication...

  13. Impact of environmental factors on marijuana use in 11 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pejnović Franelić, Iva; Kuzman, Marina; Pavić Šimetin, Ivana; KERN, JOSIPA

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between environmental factors (perceived availability of marijuana, perceived use among friends and siblings, use of alcohol and tobacco, family structure, parental control, school performance) and lifetime prevalence and frequent and early marijuana use in high school students. Methods We used self-reported data from 15-16 years old participants of the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) conducted i...

  14. Subjective, cognitive, and cardiovascular dose-effect profile of nabilone and dronabinol in marijuana smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Haney, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana dependence is a substantial public health problem, with existing treatments showing limited efficacy. In laboratory and clinical studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist oral Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol) has been shown to decrease marijuana withdrawal, but not relapse. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, potentially contributing to its failure to decrease relapse. The synthetic THC analogue, nabilone, has better bioavailability than dronabinol. We therefore aim...

  15. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Marijuana Use: Early Sensation Seeking, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Social Images

    OpenAIRE

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial mechanisms by which children’s early sensation seeking may influence their later marijuana use. In a longitudinal study, 4th and 5th grade elementary school children (N = 420) were followed until they were in 11th and 12th grades in high school with annual or biennial assessments. Sensation seeking (assessed over the first 4 assessments) predicted affiliating with deviant peers and level of favorable social images of kids who use marijuana (both assessed over ...

  16. Marijuana Use and Panic Psychopathology Among a Representative Sample of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Cougle, Jesse R.; Johnson, Kirsten A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between marijuana use and panic attacks and panic disorder using a large representative survey of adults (N = 5,672; 53% women; Mage = 45.05 years, SD = 17.9) conducted in the United States (Kessler et al., 2004). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, income, education, race, and sex) and the presence of a lifetime substance use disorder, lifetime marijuana use was significantly associated with increased odds of a lifetime panic...

  17. Comorbid Trajectories of Tobacco and Marijuana Use as Related to Psychological Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous classes of comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use were examined in order to determine how they are related to subsequent antisocial behavior, poor self control and internalizing behavior. Data are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American (n=243) and Puerto Rican (n=232) adolescents and adults in the community. Logistic regression analyses were employed to measure the association between the comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use and the psy...

  18. Effect of anxiety on treatment presentation and outcome: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence of the efficacy of psychotherapies for marijuana dependence, variability in outcome exists. This study examined the role of anxiety on treatment involvement and outcome. Four questions were examined: (1) is greater anxiety associated with greater impairment at baseline; (2) is baseline anxiety related to greater marijuana use and problems following treatment; (3) does adding cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to motivation enhancement therapy (MET) reduce anxiety rel...

  19. Marijuana consequences in a motivational context: Goal congruence reduces likelihood of taking steps toward change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Joseph Clarke, C; Simons, Raluca M; Spelman, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    This study tested a model of marijuana use, problems, and motivation and barriers to change among a sample of 422 undergraduate students ages 18-25 (M=19.68, SD=1.60) who used marijuana at least once in the past 6 months. We tested a structural equation model (SEM) with use motives (i.e., coping, enhancement, and expansion), perceived use utility, and gender as exogenous variables predicting marijuana use behavior (i.e., use and problems), motivation to change (i.e., problem recognition and perceived costs and benefits of change), and the ultimate outcome, taking steps to reduce marijuana use. Controlling for level of use and problems, expansion motives had a direct effect on increased perceived costs of change and enhancement motives had direct inverse effects on problem recognition and perceived benefits of change. However, the total effect of expansion motives on taking steps was not significant. The perceived role of marijuana in achieving personal strivings (i.e., use utility) was inversely associated with problem recognition, perceived benefits of change, and taking steps toward change. In contrast, coping motives, despite being associated with greater perceived costs of change, were positively associated with taking steps. Problem recognition was positively associated with both increased perceived costs and benefits of reducing marijuana use, reflecting individuals' ambivalence about change. As expected, perceived benefits and costs of reducing use were positively and negatively associated with taking steps toward changing marijuana use, respectively. The results identify individual difference factors that contribute to motivation for change and are consistent with motivational models of change readiness. These results highlight the extent to which integration of marijuana use with personal goal achievement may interfere with taking steps to change use patterns despite associated negative consequences.

  20. Testing the Effects of Peer Socialization versus Selection on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Treated Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community ...

  1. Marijuana’s Acute Effects on Cognitive Bias for Affective and Marijuana Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana’s ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7–3.0 % delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affec...

  2. Altered subjective reward valuation among drug-deprived heavy marijuana users: Aversion to uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Hefner, Kathryn R.; Starr, Mark. J.; Curtin, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and its use is rising. Nonetheless, scientific efforts to clarify the risk for addiction and other harm associated with marijuana use have been lacking. Maladaptive decision-making is a cardinal feature of addiction that is likely to emerge in heavy users. In particular, distorted subjective reward valuation related to homeostatic or allostatic processes has been implicated for many drugs of abuse. Selective changes in resp...

  3. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertlake PT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul T Wertlake, Michael D Henson Pacific Toxicology Laboratories, Chatsworth, CA, USA Abstract: Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. Keywords: laboratory test, assay, medical management 

  4. Selection and Influence Mechanisms Associated With Marijuana Initiation and Use in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.; Pollard, Michael S.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    Friends are thought to influence adolescent drug use. However, few studies have examined the role of drugs in friendship selection, which is necessary to draw sound conclusions about influence. This study applied statistical models for social networks to test the contribution of selection and influence to associations in marijuana use among friends in two large high schools (N = 1,612; M age = 16.4). There was evidence for friend selection based on similar lifetime and current marijuana use a...

  5. Cannabis (marijuana) contamination of United States and foreign paper currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavins, Eric S; Lavins, Bethany D; Jenkins, Amanda J

    2004-09-01

    It is well known that United States paper currency in general circulation is contaminated with trace amounts of illicit substances such as cocaine, heroin and marijuana. As is the case with cocaine, differentiating "background levels" of the various cannabinoid constituents of Cannabis sativa L., namely, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) contaminating currency found in the general circulation from currency associated with illegal drug activity is imperative if a legal nexus is to be established with the latter. We analyzed 165 randomly collected paper currency notes from 12 U.S. cities (N = 125) and 4 foreign countries (N = 40) for THC, CBD, CBN, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Uncirculated US 1 dollar notes were added as negative controls. Drug residues were washed from individual bills, extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction protocol, derivatized, and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by selected ion monitoring. For the US 1 dollar currency, THC was present in 1.6% (2 notes), CBN 10.31% (13 notes), CBD 1.6% (2 notes). The following concentrations were determined: 0.085 microg/bill and 0.146 microg/bill for THC; 0.014-0.774 microg/bill (mean 0.166 microg/bill) for CBN; and 0.032 microg/bill and 0.086 microg/bill for CBD. For the foreign currency (Colombia, Qatar, India, and New Zealand), THC and CBN were present in 22.5% (9 notes). The following concentration ranges were determined: THC 0.026-0.065 microg/bill (mean 0.049 microg/bill), CBN 0.061-0.197 microg/bill (mean 0.115 microg/bill). All of the positive THC and CBN were found in the New Zealand polypropylene notes. This study demonstrated that marijuana (cannabinoids) may contaminate both paper and plastic currency.

  6. Butane Hash Oil Burns Associated with Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production. PMID:26289652

  7. Cannabis (marijuana) contamination of United States and foreign paper currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavins, Eric S; Lavins, Bethany D; Jenkins, Amanda J

    2004-09-01

    It is well known that United States paper currency in general circulation is contaminated with trace amounts of illicit substances such as cocaine, heroin and marijuana. As is the case with cocaine, differentiating "background levels" of the various cannabinoid constituents of Cannabis sativa L., namely, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) contaminating currency found in the general circulation from currency associated with illegal drug activity is imperative if a legal nexus is to be established with the latter. We analyzed 165 randomly collected paper currency notes from 12 U.S. cities (N = 125) and 4 foreign countries (N = 40) for THC, CBD, CBN, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Uncirculated US 1 dollar notes were added as negative controls. Drug residues were washed from individual bills, extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction protocol, derivatized, and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by selected ion monitoring. For the US 1 dollar currency, THC was present in 1.6% (2 notes), CBN 10.31% (13 notes), CBD 1.6% (2 notes). The following concentrations were determined: 0.085 microg/bill and 0.146 microg/bill for THC; 0.014-0.774 microg/bill (mean 0.166 microg/bill) for CBN; and 0.032 microg/bill and 0.086 microg/bill for CBD. For the foreign currency (Colombia, Qatar, India, and New Zealand), THC and CBN were present in 22.5% (9 notes). The following concentration ranges were determined: THC 0.026-0.065 microg/bill (mean 0.049 microg/bill), CBN 0.061-0.197 microg/bill (mean 0.115 microg/bill). All of the positive THC and CBN were found in the New Zealand polypropylene notes. This study demonstrated that marijuana (cannabinoids) may contaminate both paper and plastic currency. PMID:15516293

  8. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Peter [RWTH Aachen U.; Hufnagel, Dirk [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Merida; Linares, L. [Andes U., Merida; Wagner, R. [TI, San Diego; Konstantinov, P. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins U.; Bradley, D. [Wisconsin U., Madison

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  9. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-05-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.

  10. Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2011-06-01

    Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders.

  11. Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bauer

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species.

  12. Older, Less Regulated Medical Marijuana Programs Have Much Greater Enrollment Rates Than Newer 'Medicalized' Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Olfson, Mark; Kim, June H; Martins, Silvia S; Kleber, Herbert D

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed laws implementing medical marijuana programs. The nineteen programs that were in operation as of October 2014 collectively had over one million participants. All states (including D.C.) with medical marijuana laws require physicians directly or indirectly to authorize the use of marijuana at their discretion, yet little is known about how medical marijuana programs vary regarding adherence to basic principles of medical practice and associated rates of enrollment. To explore this, we analyzed marijuana programs according to seven components of traditional medical care and pharmaceutical regulation. We then examined enrollment rates, while controlling for potentially confounding state characteristics. We found that fourteen of the twenty-four programs were nonmedical and collectively enrolled 99.4 percent of participants nationwide, with enrollment rates twenty times greater than programs deemed to be "medicalized." Policy makers implementing or amending medical marijuana programs should consider the powerful relationship between less regulation and greater enrollment. Researchers should consider variations across programs when assessing programs' population-level effects. PMID:26953303

  13. Altered subjective reward valuation among drug-deprived heavy marijuana users: Aversion to uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Starr, Mark J; Curtin, John J

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and its use is rising. Nonetheless, scientific efforts to clarify the risk for addiction and other harm associated with marijuana use have been lacking. Maladaptive decision-making is a cardinal feature of addiction that is likely to emerge in heavy users. In particular, distorted subjective reward valuation related to homeostatic or allostatic processes has been implicated for many drugs of abuse. Selective changes in responses to uncertainty have been observed in response to intoxication and deprivation from various drugs of abuse. To assess for these potential neuroadaptive changes in reward valuation associated with marijuana deprivation, we examined the subjective value of uncertain and certain rewards among deprived and nondeprived heavy marijuana users in a behavioral economics decision-making task. Deprived users displayed reduced valuation of uncertain rewards, particularly when these rewards were more objectively valuable. This uncertainty aversion increased with increasing quantity of marijuana use. These results suggest comparable decision-making vulnerability from marijuana use as other drugs of abuse, and highlights targets for intervention. PMID:26595464

  14. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens

  15. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. PMID:24176069

  16. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War’s Rentier Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California’s real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of “illegal” wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the “il/legal” dynamics of marijuana land use. As marijuana becomes licit, prohibitionist policies have enabled the capture of ground rent by landed interests from the marijuana industry at a time when the price of marijuana is declining (in part due to its increasing licitness). The resulting “drug war rentier nexus,” a state–land–finance complex, is becoming a key, if obscured, component within marijuana’s contemporary political economy. PMID:26594104

  17. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  18. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War’s Rentier Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Polson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California’s real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of “illegal” wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the “il/legal” dynamics of marijuana land use. As ...

  19. Hookah, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study of Smoking Behaviors among First-Year College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Better understanding of the temporal sequence of hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use will help to inform smoking prevention efforts. To address this gap in the literature, we assessed all three of these smoking behaviors in a sample of 424 first-year college women. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated whether hookah use predicts initiating/resuming cigarette and/or initiating marijuana use, and whether cigarette and/or marijuana use predict initiating hookah use. Participants (67% Wh...

  20. Stable Isotopic Constraints on the Geographic Sources of Marijuana in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.; Haubenstock, N. A.; Howe, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Marijuana in Alaska can have numerous sources. Confiscated plants are known to originate either from within the state (e.g., Fairbanks and the Matanuska-Susitna Valley) or from numerous areas outside the state (e.g., Latin America, Canada and the contiguous United States). Latin America reportedly supplies a large percentage of the marijuana currently distributed in the lower 48 states of the U.S.A. However, in more remote areas of the country such as Fairbanks, Alaska, the supply proportions from different geographic areas are not well known. This is due to an insufficient ability to trace source regions from which confiscated marijuana was originally grown. As such, we have analyzed multiple stable isotopes (C, N, O and H) preserved in marijuana samples to identify the likely geographic source from which the marijuana originated (Drug Enforcement Agency license # RW0324551). These samples were confiscated in Fairbanks, Alaska and supplied to us by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Police Department. Among 36 marijuana plant samples, we found an unexpectedly large range in the stable carbon isotope compositions (‰13C = -62.2‰ to -24.4‰), with twelve of the 36 samples exhibiting exceedingly low δ13C (-36.1‰ to -62.2‰) relative to typical δ13C of other C3 plants. Interior growing conditions (e.g., hydroponics and/or greenhouses) and a variety of CO2 sources (e.g., CO2 from tanks and fermentation CO2 generators) frequently supplied to growing marijuana to improve yields may account for these exceptionally low δ13C values. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18O and δD vs. V-SMOW) of the marijuana samples were found to range from 10.0‰ to 27.6‰ and -197.1‰ to -134.9‰ respectively. The large range of values suggests that the samples originated from multiple sources ranging from low to high latitudes. δ15N of the marijuana samples also exhibited a large range (-7.0‰ to 14.8‰). This project has implications for the

  1. Des usages du constructivisme (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury-Vilatte, Béatrice; Walter, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Dans cette deuxième série d’articles consacrés au constructivisme, Bernard Delforce, Isabelle Gavillet et Nicolas Pélissier prolongent la discussion menée par Roger Bautier, Denis Benoit et Roselyne Koren sur les usages de la notion par des chercheurs travaillant dans le domaine du journalisme, quitte à s’interroger sur les effets d’une telle centration. Si l’approche historique et le recours aux sciences de l’information et de la communication (SIC) et aux sciences du langage nourrissaient l...

  2. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  3. Neighborhood environment and urban African American marijuana use during high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboussin, Beth A; Green, Kerry M; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-12-01

    African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis indicated early in high school posed the greatest risk for initiation and progression of marijuana use. Community violence exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning from no marijuana use to infrequent use (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.40, p marijuana use. There was evidence for partial mediation of these associations by perceptions of harm and depressed mood. Drug activity and sales was associated with progression from infrequent to frequent and problematic use (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.029). African American youth living in urban environments with exposure to drug activity, violence, and neighborhood disorder are at increased risk for both initiation and progression to more frequent and problematic marijuana use during high school. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions for African American youth that are mindful of the impact of the additional stressors of living in a high-risk urban environment during a critical developmental transition period. Reducing exposure to drug activity and violence in high-risk urban neighborhoods may be the first step to potentially halt increasing rates of marijuana use among African Americans.

  4. Polytobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use patterns in college students: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardörfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J; Lewis, Michael; Payne, Jackelyn; Pillai, Drishti; McDonald, Bennett; Windle, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Limited research has examined polysubstance use profiles among young adults focusing on the various tobacco products currently available. We examined use patterns of various tobacco products, marijuana, and alcohol using data from the baseline survey of a multiwave longitudinal study of 3418 students aged 18-25 recruited from seven U.S. college campuses. We assessed sociodemographics, individual-level factors (depression; perceptions of harm and addictiveness,), and sociocontextual factors (parental/friend use). We conducted a latent class analysis and multivariable logistic regression to examine correlates of class membership (Abstainers were referent group). Results indicated five classes: Abstainers (26.1% per past 4-month use), Alcohol only users (38.9%), Heavy polytobacco users (7.3%), Light polytobacco users (17.3%), and little cigar and cigarillo (LCC)/hookah/marijuana co-users (10.4%). The most stable was LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users (77.3% classified as such in past 30-day and 4-month timeframes), followed by Heavy polytobacco users (53.2% classified consistently). Relative to Abstainers, Heavy polytobacco users were less likely to be Black and have no friends using alcohol and perceived harm of tobacco and marijuana use lower. Light polytobacco users were older, more likely to have parents using tobacco, and less likely to have friends using tobacco. LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users were older and more likely to have parents using tobacco. Alcohol only users perceived tobacco and marijuana use to be less socially acceptable, were more likely to have parents using alcohol and friends using marijuana, but less likely to have friends using tobacco. These findings may inform substance use prevention and recovery programs by better characterizing polysubstance use patterns.

  5. Polytobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use patterns in college students: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardörfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J; Lewis, Michael; Payne, Jackelyn; Pillai, Drishti; McDonald, Bennett; Windle, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Limited research has examined polysubstance use profiles among young adults focusing on the various tobacco products currently available. We examined use patterns of various tobacco products, marijuana, and alcohol using data from the baseline survey of a multiwave longitudinal study of 3418 students aged 18-25 recruited from seven U.S. college campuses. We assessed sociodemographics, individual-level factors (depression; perceptions of harm and addictiveness,), and sociocontextual factors (parental/friend use). We conducted a latent class analysis and multivariable logistic regression to examine correlates of class membership (Abstainers were referent group). Results indicated five classes: Abstainers (26.1% per past 4-month use), Alcohol only users (38.9%), Heavy polytobacco users (7.3%), Light polytobacco users (17.3%), and little cigar and cigarillo (LCC)/hookah/marijuana co-users (10.4%). The most stable was LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users (77.3% classified as such in past 30-day and 4-month timeframes), followed by Heavy polytobacco users (53.2% classified consistently). Relative to Abstainers, Heavy polytobacco users were less likely to be Black and have no friends using alcohol and perceived harm of tobacco and marijuana use lower. Light polytobacco users were older, more likely to have parents using tobacco, and less likely to have friends using tobacco. LCC/hookah/marijuana co-users were older and more likely to have parents using tobacco. Alcohol only users perceived tobacco and marijuana use to be less socially acceptable, were more likely to have parents using alcohol and friends using marijuana, but less likely to have friends using tobacco. These findings may inform substance use prevention and recovery programs by better characterizing polysubstance use patterns. PMID:27074202

  6. Marijuana use is associated with inattention in men and sleep quality in women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Christine; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the association between marijuana use, ADHD symptoms, and sleep quality in 56 men and 20 women with ADHD. Participants, ages 18-45, were assessed with the Assessment of Hyperactivity and Attention, drug use survey, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Moderate to strong correlations were found between marijuana use and inattentive symptoms in men, and marijuana use and decreased sleep quality in women. Men and women with ADHD may use marijuana for different reasons.

  7. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  8. Parent-child drug communication: pathway from parents' ad exposure to youth's marijuana use intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huansuriya, Thipnapa; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D

    2014-01-01

    The authors combined the 2-step flow of communication model and the theory of planned behavior to create a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of a set of advertisements from the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign promoting parent-child drug communication. The sample consisted of 1,349 pairs of parents and children who responded to the first and second annual rounds of the National Survey of Parents and Youth, and 1,276 pairs from Rounds 3 and 4. Parents' exposure to the campaign reported at Round 1 was indirectly associated with youth's lowered intentions to use marijuana at Round 2. Ad exposure was associated with positive changes in parental attitudes toward drug communication and perceived social approval of antidrug communications. These two beliefs, along with perceived behavioral control, predicted parents' intentions to discuss drugs with their children. Parental intentions to discuss drugs reported at Round 1 were associated with youth's report of actual drug communication with their parents at Round 2. Frequency and breadth of the topics in parent-child drug communication were associated with less positive attitudes toward marijuana use among youth who spoke with their parents. Together, the child's attitudes toward marijuana use and perceived ability to refuse marijuana use predicted youth's intentions to use marijuana. The proposed model fit well with the data and was replicated in a parallel analysis of the data from Rounds 3 and 4. Implications for future antidrug media campaign efforts are discussed.

  9. Metabolic and functional characteristics of alveolar macrophages recovered from rats exposed to marijuana smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Shorey, J M; Price, L; Huber, G L

    1979-07-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchopulmonary lavage from male rats after 30 consecutive days of in vivo exposure to marijuana and tobacco smoke. No significant differences were found between either group of experimental animals and controls in the number of cells recovered, the protein content per 10(6) cells, or the percentage of cells that adhered to plastic surfaces. The ability of macrophages to phagocytize viable bacteria was not affected by exposure to either marijuana or tobacco smoke in that both treatment groups ingested Staphylococcus aureus over a 60-min period as well as did control cells. Differences were found between the groups, however, with respect to cellular metabolism. Marijuana smoke inhalation caused a small decrease in the amount of oxygen consumed by macrophages during phagocytosis, as compared with control cells. This may have been reflected in the even greater decrease in superoxide formation observed during particle engulfment by these treated cells. Tobacco smoke, on the other hand, increased oxygen consumption and was without effect on superoxide release. Neither tobacco nor marijuana smoke treatment had an effect on the direct oxidation of glucose via the hexose monophosphate shunt. Our results indicate that, despite several metabolic alterations in response to marijuana and tobacco smoke, alveolar macrophages were not compromised with respect to their ability to ingest a particulate challenge. PMID:225274

  10. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  11. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both.

  12. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. PMID:26126326

  13. Adolescent self-control predicts joint trajectories of marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood among urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood.

  14. The Use of Contingency Management and Motivational/Skills-Building Therapy to Treat Young Adults with Marijuana Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Easton, Caroline J.; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen A.; Neavins, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Ford, Haley L.; Vitolo, Sally A.; Doebrick, Cheryl A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent young adults (N = 136), all referred by the criminal justice system, were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: a motivational/skills-building intervention (motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy; MET/CBT) plus incentives contingent on session attendance or submission of marijuana-free urine…

  15. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or...

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Marijuana Use in a Sample of Inner-City African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Paula B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2008-01-01

    The association between marijuana use and depressive symptoms was examined longitudinally in a sample of 622 African American youth, interviewed on six occasions, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). We considered whether depressive symptoms predicted changes in marijuana use and vice versa from high school through the transition into young…

  17. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  18. Adolescents' Beliefs about Marijuana Use: A Comparison of Regular Users, Past Users and Never/Occasional Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Stephan, Philippe; Laget, Jacques; Chinet, Leonie; Bernard, Mathieu; Halfon, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire investigating adolescents' opinions and experiences regarding marijuana use was administered to 163 adolescents and young adults (96 boys and 67 girls) aged 13 to 20 (mean age = 16.8, s.d. = 1.5). Items referred to marijuana and other substances' dangerousness, representations regarding the positive and negative consequences of…

  19. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  20. [Beta-blockers usage in cardio-vascular diseases co-existing with COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Dorota; Kowal, Aneta; Jankowska, Renata

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most frequent chronic diseases. Slightly reversable and progressive decrease in airflow through the airways is characteristic for the disease. It has been brought up last years that COPD course influences not only pulmonary system status but also many co-existing diseases in the eldery, especially cardio-vascular diseases, such as: ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, heart arrythmias, heart infarction. Wide usage and established position in the treatment of cardio-vascular diseases have the antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-blockers). The aim of this work was the combination of the studies results quoted in the literature about the usage of beta-blockers in cardiovascular diseases co-existing with COPD. Conclusions. Nowadays there are no unambiguous recommendations for the usage of beta-blocker in patients with COPD and the decision about including them into treatment depends on the individually estimated risk of complications. PMID:23437704

  1. Semantic Session Analysis for Web Usage Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; SONG Hantao; XU Xiaomei

    2007-01-01

    A semantic session analysis method partitioning Web usage logs is presented. Semantic Web usage log preparation model enhances usage logs with semantic. The Markov chain model based on ontology semantic measurement is used to identifying which active session a request should belong to. The competitive method is applied to determine the end of the sessions.Compared with other algorithms, more successful sessions are additionally detected by semantic outlier analysis.

  2. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program; Lindquist, R.P. [Customs Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  3. Medical marijuana in the workplace: challenges and management options for occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Robert S; Targino, Marcelo C; Fanciullo, Gilbert J; Martin, Douglas W; Hartenbaum, Natalie P; White, Jeremy M; Franklin, Phillip

    2015-05-01

    Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments.

  4. Acute marijuana effects on rCBF and cognition: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D S; Block, R I; Flaum, M; Schultz, S K; Boles Ponto, L L; Watkins, G L; Hurtig, R R; Andreasen, N C; Hichwa, R D

    2000-11-27

    The effects of smoking marijuana on cognition and brain function were assessed with PET using H2(15)O. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in five recreational users before and after smoking a marijuana cigarette, as they repeatedly performed an auditory attention task. Blood flow increased following smoking in a number of paralimbic brain regions (e.g. orbital frontal lobes, insula, temporal poles) and in anterior cingulate and cerebellum. Large reductions in rCBF were observed in temporal lobe regions that are sensitive to auditory attention effects. Brain regions showing increased rCBF may mediate the intoxicating and mood-related effects of smoking marijuana, whereas reduction of task-related rCBF in temporal lobe cortices may account for the impaired cognitive functions associated with acute intoxication.

  5. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma-ray emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John A.; Lindquist, Roy P.

    1994-10-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, CA, border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992, to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  6. Subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular dose-effect profile of nabilone and dronabinol in marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana dependence is a substantial public health problem, with existing treatments showing limited efficacy. In laboratory and clinical studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 agonist oral Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol) has been shown to decrease marijuana withdrawal but not relapse. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, potentially contributing to its failure to decrease relapse. The synthetic THC analogue, nabilone, has better bioavailability than dronabinol. We therefore aimed to characterize nabilone's behavioral and physiological effects across a range of acute doses in current marijuana smokers and compare these with dronabinol's effects. Participants (4 female; 10 male) smoking marijuana 6.6 (standard deviation = 0.7) days/week completed this outpatient, within-subjects, double-blind, randomized protocol. Over seven sessions, the time-dependent subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular effects of nabilone (2, 4, 6, 8 mg), dronabinol (10, 20 mg) and placebo were assessed. Nabilone (4, 6, 8 mg) and dronabinol (10, 20 mg) increased ratings of feeling a good effect, a strong effect and/or 'high' relative to placebo; nabilone had a slower onset of peak subjective effects than dronabinol. Nabilone (6, 8 mg) modestly lowered psychomotor speed relative to placebo and dronabinol. There were dose-dependent increases in heart rate after nabilone, and nabilone (2 mg) and dronabinol (10 mg) decreased systolic blood pressure. Thus, nabilone produced sustained, dose-related increases in positive mood, few cognitive decrements and lawful cardiovascular alterations. It had a longer time to peak effects than dronabinol, and effects were more dose-related, suggesting improved bioavailability. Nabilone was well tolerated by marijuana smokers, supporting further testing as a potential medication for marijuana dependence. PMID:22260337

  7. Feasibility of text messaging for ecological momentary assessment of marijuana use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael M; Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Dykema, Kristy R

    2014-09-01

    Measuring self-reported substance use behavior is challenging due to issues related to memory recall and patterns of bias in estimating behavior. Limited research has focused on the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate marijuana use. This study assessed the feasibility of using short message service (SMS) texting as a method of EMA with college-age marijuana users. Our goals were to evaluate overall response/compliance rates and trends of data missingness, response time, baseline measures (e.g., problematic use) associated with compliance rates and response times, and differences between EMA responses of marijuana use compared to timeline followback (TLFB) recall. Nine questions were texted to participants on their personal cell phones 3 times a day over a 2-week period. Overall response rate was high (89%). When examining predictors of the probability of data missingness with a hierarchical logistic regression model, we found evidence of a higher propensity for missingness for Week 2 of the study compared to Week 1. Self-regulated learning was significantly associated with an increase in mean response time. A model fit at the participant level to explore response time found that more time spent smoking marijuana related to higher response times, while more time spent studying and greater "in the moment" academic motivation and craving were associated with lower response times. Significant differences were found between the TLFB and EMA, with greater reports of marijuana use reported through EMA. Overall, results support the feasibility of using SMS text messaging as an EMA method for college-age marijuana users. PMID:24749751

  8. Notes from the Field: Death Following Ingestion of an Edible Marijuana Product--Colorado, March 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock-Allen, Jessica B; Barker, Lisa; VanDyke, Michael; Holmes, Dawn B

    2015-07-24

    In March 2014, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) learned of the death of a man aged 19 years after consuming an edible marijuana product. CDPHE reviewed autopsy and police reports to assess factors associated with his death and to guide prevention efforts. The decedent's friend, aged 23 years, had purchased marijuana cookies and provided one to the decedent. A police report indicated that initially the decedent ate only a single piece of his cookie, as directed by the sales clerk. Approximately 30-60 minutes later, not feeling any effects, he consumed the remainder of the cookie. During the next 2 hours, he reportedly exhibited erratic speech and hostile behaviors. Approximately 3.5 hours after initial ingestion, and 2.5 hours after consuming the remainder of the cookie, he jumped off a fourth floor balcony and died from trauma. The autopsy, performed 29 hours after time of death, found marijuana intoxication as a chief contributing factor. Quantitative toxicologic analyses for drugs of abuse, synthetic cannabinoid, and cathinones ("bath salts") were performed on chest cavity blood by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The only confirmed findings were cannabinoids (7.2 ng/mL delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and 49 ng/mL delta-9 carboxy-THC, an inactive marijuana metabolite). The legal whole blood limit of delta-9 THC for driving a vehicle in Colorado is 5.0 ng/mL. This was the first reported death in Colorado linked to marijuana consumption without evidence of polysubstance use since the state approved recreational use of marijuana in 2012. PMID:26203632

  9. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation.

  10. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation

  11. Carboxy-THC in Washed Hair: Still the Reliable Indicator of Marijuana Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Virginia A; Schaffer, Michael I; Stowe, G Neil

    2016-06-01

    The presence of the metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (C-THC) in hair is generally accepted as the definitive proof of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ingestion. During hair analysis, the removal of any potential C-THC external contamination that could result from marijuana smoke or close personal contact via a wash procedure is critical. Here, we performed a series of experiments to demonstrate that C-THC is the reliable indicator of marijuana ingestion when paired with the correct washing procedure to remove potential external contamination. PMID:27185816

  12. An MR-compatible device for delivering smoked marijuana during functional imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick, Blaise deB.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the preferred method of administration for two of the most frequently abused drugs, marijuana and nicotine. The high temporal and spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) make it a natural choice for studying the neurobiological effects of smoked drugs if the challenges of smoking in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner can be overcome. We report on a design for an MR-compatible smoking device that can be used for smoking marijuana (or tobacco) during fMRI ex...

  13. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  14. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  15. 40 CFR 35.6320 - Usage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6320 Usage rate. (a) Usage rate approval. To... be included in the Cooperative Agreement before the recipient incurs these equipment costs. (b)...

  16. MESUR metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Sompel, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Usage data is increasingly regarded as a valuable resource in the assessment of scholarly communication items. However, the development of quantitative, usage-based indicators of scholarly impact is still in its infancy. The Digital Library Research & Prototyping Team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research library has therefore started a program to expand the set of usage-based tools for the assessment of scholarly communication items. The two-year MESUR project, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, aims to define and validate a range of usage-based impact metrics, and issue guidelines with regards to their characteristics and proper application. The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting c...

  17. Pathways from parental knowledge and warmth to adolescent marijuana use: an extension to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T

    2009-03-01

    Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N = 2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents' marijuana beliefs-attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control-as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r = .54, p < .001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12-18 years of age. PMID:18989783

  18. Challenges for future energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 2000 years the world's population and the worldwide total energy consumption have been continuously increasing, at a rate even greater than exponential. By now a situation has been reached in which energy resources are running short, which for a long time have been treated as though they were almost inexhaustible. The ongoing growth of the world's population and a growing hunger for energy in underdeveloped and emerging countries imply that the yearly overall energy consumption will continue to grow, by about 1.6 percent every year so that it would have doubled by 2050. This massive energy consumption has led to and is progressively leading to severe changes in our environment and is threatening a climatic state that, for the last 10 000 years, has been unusually benign. The coincidence of the shortage of conventional energy resources with the hazards of an impending climate change is a dangerous threat to the well-being of all, but it is also a challenging opportunity for improvements in our energy usage. On a global scale, conventional methods such as the burning of coal, gas and oil or the use of nuclear fission will still dominate for some time. In their case, the challenge consists in making them more efficient and environmentally benign, and using them only where and when it is unavoidable. Alternative energies must be expanded and economically improved. Among these, promising techniques such as solar thermal and geothermal energy production should be promoted from a shadow existence and further advanced. New technologies, for instance nuclear fusion or transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste, are also quite promising. Finally, a careful analysis of the national and global energy flow systems and intelligent energy management, with emphasis on efficiency, overall effectiveness and sustainability, will acquire increasing importance. Thereby, economic viability, political and legal issues as well as moral aspects such as fairness to disadvantaged

  19. Cannabinoid receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and marijuana misuse interactions on white matter and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2011-05-01

    Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk.

  20. [Factors forming opnion on marijuana legalization in Poland among group of students from medical and technical college faculty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts.

  1. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  2. "Me, My Classmates and My Buddies": Analysing Peer Group Effects on Student Marijuana Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, Jose-Julian; Molina, Jose-Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of peer behaviour on student marijuana consumption. Our hypothesis is that, in contrast to the traditional measures of peer group effects carried out at class or school level, the use of a closer peer group, which we relate to the group of friends, is more relevant in the explanation of marijuana…

  3. Clinical Approach to the Heavy Cannabis User in the Age of Medical Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Timmen L

    2016-01-01

    This article begins with a case vignette exemplifying the common clinical problem of heavy marijuana users. The epidemiology and basic science underlying cannabis dependence is outlined, followed by clinical strategies for basing a therapeutic alliance on known research findings and using motivational interviewing to deal with typical patterns of denial.

  4. Functional imaging of implicit marijuana associations during performance on an Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Ames; J.L. Grenard; A.W. Stacy; L. Xiao; Q. He; S.W Wong; G. Xue; R.W. Wiers; A. Bechara

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe difference

  5. Marijuana Use among Juvenile Arrestees: A Two-Part Growth Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Childs, Kristina; Schmeidler, James

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the impact of sociodemographic characteristics and psychosocial factors on the probability and frequency of marijuana use and, for youths initiating use, on their frequency of use over four time points. The sample consists of 278 justice-involved youths completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a…

  6. How Risky Is Marijuana Possession? Considering the Role of Age, Race, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Holly; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for…

  7. Mitigation of Marijuana-Related Legal Harms to Youth in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    If recreational marijuana is legalized for adults in California, a rational implementation of public policy would neither criminalize youth possession, nor medically pathologize it by conflating possession with addiction. The harms of a criminal justice approach to juveniles should not exceed the harms of the drug itself. Juvenile arrests and probation have consequences: (1) arrest records, probation, and juvenile hall; (2) an incarceration subculture, "crime school," psychological and re-entry costs; (3) school "zero-tolerance" expulsions and suspensions; (4) ineligibility for federal school loans; (5) employment screening problems; (6) racial disparities in arrests; (7) fines and attorney's fees; and (8) immigration/naturalization problems. Marijuana-related arrest rates in California dropped after a 2011 law making possession under 1 oz. an infraction for all, but juvenile marijuana arrests continue to outnumber arrests for hard drugs. Recommendations for prudent implementation policy include: stable marijuana tax funding for Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) in high schools; elimination of "zero-tolerance" suspension/expulsion policies in favor of school retention and academic remediation programs; juvenile justice transparency discriminating among infractions, misdemeanors, and felonies. Criminal sanctions and durations must be proportional to the offense. Probation-based interventions should be reserved for larger possession amounts and recidivist offenders, and outcomes should be independently evaluated.

  8. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  9. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  10. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  11. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  12. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  13. Popularity as a Moderator of Peer Selection and Socialization of Adolescent Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathys, C.; Burk, W.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined prospective associations between late adolescents' friendships and substance use (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco) using a stochastic actor-based modeling approach and the moderating role of popularity. Participants were 450 adolescents (53% female, M age = 15.5 years) who completed

  14. Effectiveness of School-based Drug Prevention Programs for Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Nancy S.; Lessard, Terri; Marshall, Diana; Ochshorn, Peter; Roona, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Synthesizes evaluation of drug use programs (N=37) in schools for grades 6-12 by coding program characteristics and calculating weighted effect sizes (WES) for marijuana use. Program type and sample size were found to be significant predictors of program effectiveness. The primary finding for prevention program planning is that interactive…

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design.…

  16. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  17. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis in pain management, marijuana for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    This feature presents information for patients in a question and answer format. It is written to simulate actual questions that many pain patients ask and to provide answers in a context and language that most pain patients will comprehend. Issues addressed in this issue are carpel tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis, marijuana. PMID:17844729

  19. Sex Differences in Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Disinhibition Predicting Marijuana Use Across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Julia W.; Collado, Anahi; Shadur, Julia M.; Lejuez, Carl W.; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition has been consistently linked to substance use across development. Recent research suggests, however, that these relations may be influenced by both sex and measurement approach. The current study examined the moderating effect of sex on the association between behavioral and self-report measures of disinhibition and marijuana use across adolescence. Participants were 115 boys and 89 girls initially evaluated at grade 8 using a laboratory behavioral assessment and self-report questionnaires of disinhibitory variables. Marijuana use was measured annually from grades 9 through 12. Results suggest that boys and girls did not differ on either self-reported or behaviorally assessed levels of disinhibition, and that disinhibition measured using both approaches was associated with increases in marijuana use over time. There was a significant interaction between sex and disinhibition, suggesting that boys (but not girls) who self-reported elevations in disinhibition evidenced greater increases in marijuana use. The current findings add to a growing literature supporting the importance of using multiple methods to assess disinhibition and highlight the critical role of biological sex in understanding these relations. PMID:26237324

  20. Functional Activation and Effective Connectivity Differences in Adolescent Marijuana Users Performing a Simulated Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Acheson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, “Wins” and “Losses” were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during “Losses.” Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both “Wins” and “Losses.” However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the “Losses” condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity.

  1. Mitigation of Marijuana-Related Legal Harms to Youth in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    If recreational marijuana is legalized for adults in California, a rational implementation of public policy would neither criminalize youth possession, nor medically pathologize it by conflating possession with addiction. The harms of a criminal justice approach to juveniles should not exceed the harms of the drug itself. Juvenile arrests and probation have consequences: (1) arrest records, probation, and juvenile hall; (2) an incarceration subculture, "crime school," psychological and re-entry costs; (3) school "zero-tolerance" expulsions and suspensions; (4) ineligibility for federal school loans; (5) employment screening problems; (6) racial disparities in arrests; (7) fines and attorney's fees; and (8) immigration/naturalization problems. Marijuana-related arrest rates in California dropped after a 2011 law making possession under 1 oz. an infraction for all, but juvenile marijuana arrests continue to outnumber arrests for hard drugs. Recommendations for prudent implementation policy include: stable marijuana tax funding for Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) in high schools; elimination of "zero-tolerance" suspension/expulsion policies in favor of school retention and academic remediation programs; juvenile justice transparency discriminating among infractions, misdemeanors, and felonies. Criminal sanctions and durations must be proportional to the offense. Probation-based interventions should be reserved for larger possession amounts and recidivist offenders, and outcomes should be independently evaluated. PMID:26891110

  2. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence into Adulthood: Environmental and Individual Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In…

  3. Do alcohol and marijuana use decrease the probability of condom use for college women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1,856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (M age = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; in addition, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  4. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  5. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  6. Marijuana smoke condensate induces p53-mediated apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Jung, Mi Hyun; Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Since the largely abused worldwide used of marijuana, there have been many ongoing debates regarding the adverse health effects of marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking was recently proved to cause pulmonary toxicity by inducing genotoxic effects or generating reactive oxygen species. Because p53, a tumor suppressor gene, has an important pathophysiologic role in the regulation of lung epithelial cell DNA damage responses, we hypothesized that p53 may be involved in the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by marijuana smoking. First, we confirmed that marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) induces oxidative stress in BEAS-2B cells. We observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was increased by MSC in the DCFH-DA assay. Also, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase) activity and their mRNA expressions were up-regulated by MSC. Second, we investigated p53 involvement in the MSC-induced apoptotic pathway in BEAS-2B cells. The results showed that MSC increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation as markers of apoptosis. In addition, the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bax) were increased by MSC and phospho-p53, along with the increase of Bax protein expression by MSC. Apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression were partially blocked by an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin-α). The results indicate that p53 plays a role in MSC-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that MSC partially induces p53-mediated apoptosis through ROS generation in human lung epithelial cells and this may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23665932

  7. Medical Marijuana programs: implications for cannabis control policy--observations from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Room, Robin

    2015-01-01

    While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, an increasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, including decriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although it has among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and the current (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabis control. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implement a 'medical marijuana access regulations' program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic use and access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program's regulations and approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low and most medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program's auspices. This year, the government introduced new 'marijuana for medical purposes regulations', which allow physicians to 'authorize' medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial; supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozens of commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting - as with medical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California--de facto 'legalization'. We discuss the question whether the evolving scope and realities of 'medical cannabis' provisions in Canada offer a 'sneaky side door' or a 'better third way' to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are of these developments.

  8. Marijuana use patterns and sleep among community-based young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Kurth, Megan E; Strong, David R; Brower, Kirk J; Stein, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States. Research on the relationship between marijuana and sleep is still in its infancy. The study examined differences in sleep characteristics between a community sample of daily users, non-daily marijuana users, and non-users. A total of 98 subjects (45 M; 53 F) participated. The mean age was 22.3 (standard deviation = 3.0). There were 53 females and 55% of the sample was Caucasian. Recruitment was done online and via print advertisements in the community. Groups were categorized as non-daily users (n = 29), daily users (n = 49), and non-user controls (n = 20). Sleep was characterized by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. A standard cut off score of >10 for the Insomnia Severity Index was found in 38.8% of daily users, 10.3% of non-daily users, and 20% of non-users. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores in daily users (7.0+/-3.8) were higher than non-daily (4.9+/-3.2) and non-user controls (5.0+/-3.7), p = .02. Insomnia Severity Index scores in daily users (7.9+/-6.1) were higher than non-daily (5.1+/-4.3) and non-user controls (4.3+/-4.8), p = .01. Covariate adjusted regression analyses revealed mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index scores were significantly lower for non-daily users and controls relative to the daily users. When adjusting for depression and anxiety, these unique associations were not significant. There were no differences in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale or Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire. Daily marijuana users endorsed more sleep disturbance than non-daily users. Future studies should consider mood in the relationship between marijuana use and sleep. PMID:26727193

  9. Medical Marijuana programs: implications for cannabis control policy--observations from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Room, Robin

    2015-01-01

    While prohibition has been the dominant regime of cannabis control in most countries for decades, an increasing number of countries have been implementing cannabis control reforms recently, including decriminalization or even legalization frameworks. Canada has held out from this trend, although it has among the highest cannabis use rates in the world. Cannabis use is universally criminalized, and the current (conservative) federal government has vowed not to implement any softening reforms to cannabis control. As a result of several higher court decisions, the then federal government was forced to implement a 'medical marijuana access regulations' program in 2001 to allow severely ill patients therapeutic use and access to therapeutic cannabis while shielding them from prosecution. The program's regulations and approval processes were complex and subject to extensive criticism; initial uptake was low and most medical marijuana users continued their use and supply outside the program's auspices. This year, the government introduced new 'marijuana for medical purposes regulations', which allow physicians to 'authorize' medical marijuana use for virtually any health condition for which this is considered beneficial; supply is facilitated by licensed commercial producers. It is expected that some 500,000 users, and dozens of commercial producers will soon be approved under the program, arguably constituting - as with medical marijuana schemes elsewhere, e.g. in California--de facto 'legalization'. We discuss the question whether the evolving scope and realities of 'medical cannabis' provisions in Canada offer a 'sneaky side door' or a 'better third way' to cannabis control reform, and what the potential wider implications are of these developments. PMID:25287942

  10. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  11. Understanding the Mobile Telephony Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrea, Oana Stefana

    2006-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the interlaced re-building of communication, movement, and information due to the integration of the wireless telephony in the daily life. The core of the theoretical part of the dissertation consists in the construction of a dispositif model that explains wireless telephony constitution, usage, and impact. The model outlines technology, subjects, usage, perception, representation, and socio-cultural frames. The reciprocal interactions between the mobile telephony appara...

  12. Policies Composition Based on Data Usage Context

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Mendoza, Valeria; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia; Desmontils, Emmanuel; Garcia-Macias, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In federated query processing, different datasets can be queried simultaneously. Each dataset has different privacy policies attached, but,which privacy policy will govern the usage of the query result? In this work we propose a mechanism, based on semantic web technologies, tocompose privacy policies. The originality of our approach is that our composition rules are based on the data usage context and deduced implicitterms.

  13. Business Intelligence from Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ajith

    2004-01-01

    The rapid e-commerce growth has made both business community and customers face a new situation. Due to intense competition on one hand and the customer's option to choose from several alternatives business community has realized the necessity of intelligent marketing strategies and relationship management. Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effec...

  14. Tattoo inks in general usage contain nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Löschner, Katrin; Löf, D;

    2011-01-01

    the particle sizes in tattoo inks in general usage. Methods The particle size was measured by laser diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results The size of the pigments could be divided into three main classes. The black pigments were the smallest, the white pigments the largest...... in general usage is new and may contribute to the understanding of tattoo ink kinetics. How the body responds to NP tattoo pigments should be examined further....

  15. Feature Usage Explorer: Usage Monitoring and Visualization Tool in HTML5 Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunas Marciuska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Feature Usage Explorer is a JavaScript library, which automatically detects features in HTML5 based applications and monitors their usage. The collected information can be visualized in a Feature Usage Diagram, which is automatically generated from an input json file. Currently, the users of Feature Usage Explorer have to design their own tool in order to generate the json file from collected usage information. This option remains viable when using the library in order not to constraint the user’s choice of preferred data storage. Feature Usage Explorer can be reused in any HTML5 based applications where an understanding of how users interact with the system is required (i.e. user experience and usability studies, human computer interaction field, or requirement prioritization area.

  16. Gridded usage inventories of chlordane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang WANG; Lijuan ZHAO; Xuekun FANG; Jianhua XU; Yifan LI; Yehong SHI; Jianxin HU

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chlordane (1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7, 7a-tetra-hydro-4,7-methanoindane) is one of organochlor- ine pesticides (OCPs) which has been listed as one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to be reduced and finally eliminated in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, because of its great persistence, toxicity, bio-accumulation and long-range transport potential. It is critical to create a national chlordane usage inventories for China to compile chlordane emission inventories, which is helpful for carrying out risk assessments and other researches related to chlordane in China. The annual data of chlordane usage was calculated and modified in accordance with the reported annual production of chlordane which was caculated on the basis of the termite distribution, the data of chlordane usage rate and the annual new construction area (NCA). With the help of Geographic Information System, the usage data of this NCA were allocated to a grid system then, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6°latitude resolution and a size for each grid cell of approximately 25 km by 25 km. Between 1988 and 2008, the total usage of chlordane in China was 2745 t, accounting for approximately 80% of the production in the same period. Zhejiang Province was the largest consumer of chlordane in China, whose usage adds up to 980 t, greatly exceeding other provinces/regions, followed by Jiangsu Province (534 t) and Sichuan Province (428 t). The region with the least usage of chlordane was Beijing. Provinces of Guizhou, Henan and Hebei did not use any chlordane, even though termites had occurred in these provinces. Gridded usage inventories showed that the intensive use of chlordane was concentrated in the southeast part of China, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta in particular. The satisfaction of the inventories was supported by the consistence between the estimated data of annual usage and the reported annual production of

  17. The influence of baseline marijuana use on treatment of cocaine dependence: application of an informative-priors Bayesian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eGreen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1 examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2 apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect.Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided samples for the historical dataset (Study 1: N = 64 complete observations and current dataset (Study 2: N = 113 complete observations. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo, baseline marijuana use (days in past 30, and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES.Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect.

  18. The Influence of Baseline Marijuana Use on Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: Application of an Informative-Priors Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Charles; Schmitz, Joy; Lindsay, Jan; Pedroza, Claudia; Lane, Scott; Agnelli, Rob; Kjome, Kimberley; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1) examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2) apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect. Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided complete data for the historical (Study 1: N = 64 placebo), and current (Study 2: N = 113) data sets. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES) as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo), baseline marijuana use (days in past 30), and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES. Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect. PMID:23115553

  19. The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol, Marijuana, Angry Affect, and Dating Violence Perpetration: A Daily Diary Study With Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Although a robust literature documents a positive association between alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV), there is limited temporal research on this relation. Moreover, the role of marijuana in influencing IPV has been mixed. Thus, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol and marijuana use and dating violence perpetration. A secondary aim was to examine whether angry affect moderated the temporal relation between alcohol and mariju...

  20. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jacobus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  1. Older, Less Regulated Medical Marijuana Programs Have Much Greater Enrollment Rates Than Newer ‘Medicalized’ Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Olfson, Mark; Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Kleber, Herbert D.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed laws implementing medical marijuana programs. The nineteen programs that were in operation as of October 2014 collectively had over one million participants. All states (including D.C.) with medical marijuana laws require physicians directly or indirectly to authorize the use of marijuana at their discretion, yet little is known about how medical marijuana programs vary regarding adherence to basic principles of medical practice and associated rates of enrollment. To explore this, we analyzed marijuana programs according to seven components of traditional medical care and pharmaceutical regulation. We then examined enrollment rates, while controlling for potentially confounding state characteristics. We found that fourteen of the twenty-four programs were nonmedical and collectively enrolled 99.4 percent of participants nationwide, with enrollment rates twenty times greater than programs deemed to be “medicalized.” Policy makers implementing or amending medical marijuana programs should consider the powerful relationship between less regulation and greater enrollment. Researchers should consider variations across programs when assessing programs' population-level effects. PMID:26953303

  2. Expectancies and Self-Efficacy Mediate the Effects of Impulsivity on Marijuana Use Outcomes: An Application of the Acquired Preparedness Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hayaki, Jumi; Herman, Debra S.; Hagerty, Claire E.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the acquired preparedness model (APM) to explain associations among trait impulsivity, social learning principles, and marijuana use outcomes in a community sample of female marijuana users. The APM states that individuals with high-risk dispositions are more likely to acquire certain types of learning that, in turn, instigate problematic substance use behaviors. In this study, three domains of psychosocial learning were tested: positive and negative marijuana use expectancie...

  3. The Influence of Marijuana and Alcohol Use on Condom Use Behavior: Findings from a Sample of Young Adult Female Bar Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251, young adult, female, bar drinkers. Multi-level modeling was used to assess the li...

  4. Marijuana Use is Not Associated with Cervical Human Papillomavirus Natural History or Cervical Neoplasia in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative Women

    OpenAIRE

    D’Souza, G; Palefsky, J.M.; Zhong, Y; Minkoff, H; Massad, L.S.; Anastos, K; Levine, AM; Moxley, M; Xue, X.; Burk, R; Strickler, HD

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana use was recently reported to have a positive cross-sectional association with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Laboratory data suggest that marijuana could have an immunomodulatory effect. Little is known, however, regarding the effects of marijuana use on cervical HPV or neoplasia. Therefore, we studied the natural history (ie, prevalence, incident detection, clearance/persistence) of cervical HPV and cervical neoplasia (ie, squamous intraepithelial lesions ...

  5. Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Say No to Indiscriminate usage of NSAIDsIt will be our tradition to start every issue with a topic which demands attention of peopleespecially pharma professionals and of course the researchers. NSAIDs are proved to be verybeneficial as analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory agents. Their usage is becoming moreand more as they are available as OTC drugs. Its worth to remember that they too possessesnumber of side effects, including GI side effects, Nephropathy, liver failure and prolongedbleeding after an injury or surgery. It is now reported NSAIDs causes dementia and showsnegative effect on protein synthesis. Their cardiovascular risk was in the head lines for severalmonths. One more fact is that no NSAID should be taken for more than 10 days, unless a doctorhas prescribed otherwise. Unnecessary and indiscriminate usage of NSAIDS increasingalarmingly (Green, 2001 and should be taken care of. They often take along with prescriptiondrugs and there are several incidences of drug interactions. For example concomitant usage ofanticoagulants or oral glucocorticoids should be avoided. (Ibuprofen, Clinical Pharmacologywww.clinicalpharmacology.com. So, indiscriminate usage of NSAIDs should be regulated.

  6. EBSCO's Usage Consolidation Attempts to Streamline Gathering, Storage, and Reporting of Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of EBSCO's new Usage Consolidation product designed to streamline the harvesting, storage, and analysis of usage statistics from electronic resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the product are discussed as well as an early beta partner's experience. In the current atmosphere of flat or declining budgets, libraries…

  7. An Epidemiological Model for Examining Marijuana Use over the Life Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Paddock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trajectories of drug use are usually studied empirically by following over time persons sampled from either the general population (most often youth and young adults or from heavy or problematic users (e.g., arrestees or those in treatment. The former, population-based samples, describe early career development, but miss the years of use that generate the greatest social costs. The latter, selected populations, help to summarize the most problematic use, but cannot easily explain how people become problem users nor are they representative of the population as a whole. This paper shows how microsimulation can synthesize both sorts of data within a single analytical framework, while retaining heterogeneous influences that can impact drug use decisions over the life course. The RAND Marijuana Microsimulation Model is constructed for marijuana use, validated, and then used to demonstrate how such models can be used to evaluate alternative policy options aimed at reducing use over the life course.

  8. Marijuana effects on immunity: suppression of human natural killer cell activity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specter, S C; Klein, T W; Newton, C; Mondragon, M; Widen, R; Friedman, H

    1986-01-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana, was tested for its ability to modulate human natural killer (NK) cell function. THC was toxic for peripheral blood lymphocytes at 20 micrograms/ml but not at 10 micrograms/ml or less. This component of marijuana also was inhibitory for NK activity against K562, a human tumor cell line at concentrations down to 5 micrograms/ml when pre-incubated with the effector cells. Suppression of NK function was dependent upon the concentration of THC and the length of time of pre-incubation but was independent of the ratio of effector to target cells. Prostaglandins were not involved in suppression of NK activity.

  9. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui, Quan M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:414–417.

  10. High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Naomi; Sahai, Tanmay; Richards, Rocco; Roberts, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the simultaneous administration of cytochrome P-450 3A inhibitors and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Tacrolimus toxicity can be severe and may include multiorgan damage. We present a case of suspected tacrolimus toxicity in a postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient who was concurrently using oral marijuana. This case represents an important and growing clinical scenario with the increasing legalization and use of marijuana throughout the United States. PMID:27595035

  11. Psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quan M; Simpson, Scott; Nordstrom, Kimberly

    2015-05-01

    We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient's psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. PMID:25987916

  12. High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hauser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the simultaneous administration of cytochrome P-450 3A inhibitors and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Tacrolimus toxicity can be severe and may include multiorgan damage. We present a case of suspected tacrolimus toxicity in a postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient who was concurrently using oral marijuana. This case represents an important and growing clinical scenario with the increasing legalization and use of marijuana throughout the United States.

  13. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  14. Ventricular fibrillation triggered by marijuana use in a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Baranchuk, Adrian; Johri, Amer M; Simpson, Christopher S.; Methot, Michelle; Damian P. Redfearn

    2008-01-01

    Background A 60-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a left eye orbital rupture sustained during a fall due to syncope shortly after smoking more than his usual amount of marijuana. Case presentation The patient reported experiencing a shock from his implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) device prior to the loss of consciousness. There was no biochemical, electrocardiographic, or clinical evidence of ischemia. ICD interrogation revealed one episode of ventricular fib...

  15. Elemental characterization of marijuana (cannabis sativa) as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09μg/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 μg/g and Cr = 14.3μg/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).

  16. Prenatal Tobacco, Marijuana, Stimulant, and Opiate Exposure: Outcomes and Practice Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Singer, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Abuse of drugs by pregnant women both in the United States and worldwide has raised many questions regarding the effects of prenatal drug exposure on the developing fetus and subsequent child outcomes. Studies using the neurobehavioral teratology model have been undertaken to determine specific prenatal drug effects on cognitive and behavioral development. Here we summarize the findings of studies that have investigated the developmental effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, marijuana, sti...

  17. Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David

    2007-06-01

    Evidence about the relationship between contextual variables and substance use is conflicting. Relationships between neighborhood income and income distribution and the prevalence and frequency of substance use in 59 New York City (NYC) neighborhoods were assessed while accounting for individual income and other socio-demographic variables. Measures of current substance use (in the 30 days prior to the survey) were obtained from a random-digit-dial phone survey of adult residents of NYC and data from the 2000 U.S. Census to calculate median neighborhood income and income distribution (assessed using the Gini coefficient). Among 1355 respondents analyzed (female=56.2%, mean age=40.4), 23.9% reported cigarette, 40.0% alcohol, and 5.4% marijuana use in the previous 30 days. In ecologic assessment, neighborhoods with both the highest income and the highest income maldistribution had the highest prevalence of drinking alcohol (69.0%) and of smoking marijuana (10.5%) but not of cigarette use; there was no clear ecologic association between neighborhood income, income distribution, and cigarette use. In multilevel multivariable models adjusting for individual income, age, race, sex, and education, high neighborhood median income and maldistributed neighborhood income were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use but not of cigarette use. Both high neighborhood income and maldistributed income also were associated with greater frequency of alcohol use among current alcohol drinkers. These observations suggest that neighborhood income and income distribution may play more important roles in determining population use of alcohol and marijuana than individual income, and that determinants of substance use may vary by potential for drug dependence. Further research should investigate specific pathways that may explain the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and use of different substances.

  18. Self-Administration of Cannabinoids by Experimental Animals and Human Marijuana Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Justinova, Zuzana; Goldberg, Steven R.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Tanda, Gianluigi

    2005-01-01

    Drug self-administration behavior has been one of the most direct and productive approaches for studying the reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs, which are critical in determining their abuse potential. Cannabinoids, which are usually abused by humans in the form of marijuana, have become the most frequently abused illicit class of drugs in the United States. The early elucidation of the structure and stereochemistry of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 1964, which is now recognized...

  19. Marijuana, Spice 'herbal high', and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K Yaragudri

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of Δ⁹-THC and other cannabimimetics, including the psychoactive ingredients of the branded product 'Spice' branded products. These exocannabinoids interfere with the function of an endocannabinoid (eCB) system, present in the developing CNS from E12.5 (week 5 of gestation in humans), and required for proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Until recently, it was not known whether the eCB system is also present in the developing CNS during the initial stages of its ontogeny, i.e. from E7.0 onwards (week 2 of gestation in humans), and if so, whether this system is also susceptible to the action of exocannabinoids. Here, we review current data, in which the presence of an eCB system during the initial stage of development of the CNS is demonstrated. Furthermore, we focus on recent advances on the effect of canabimimetics on early gestation. The relevance of these findings and potential adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to 'high potency' marijuana, Spice branded products and/or cannabinoid research chemicals during this period is discussed. Finally, we address the implication of these findings in terms of the potential dangers of synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy, and the ongoing debate over legalization of marijuana.

  20. Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents: Gender Differences in Protective Familial Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lac, Andrew; Unger, Jennifer B.; Basáñez, Tatiana; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Given the important contextual function of family dynamics and traditional gender roles in Latino cultures, parental influences on substance use among Latino adolescents may differ across genders. This study examined associations between family factors (parental monitoring, parent–child communication, family cohesion, and familism) and marijuana use among 1,369 Latino adolescents in Southern California. Students from seven schools completed surveys in 9th and 11th grades. Longitudinal hierarc...

  1. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Quan M Bui; Simpson, Scott; Nordstrom, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of m...

  2. Problem Drug Use, Marijuana, and European Projects: How Epidemiology Helped Czech Policy Reformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Morávek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available I examine the transfer of the Problem Drug Use (PDU concept into Czech scientific discourse through European institutions’ projects, and view PDU’s utilization by Czech researchers in relation to marijuana decriminalization efforts.PDU is defined as intravenous and/or long-term and regular use of opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines. Out of a vast array of illicit drug use patterns, this concept isolates a relatively small population with the riskiest use patterns to become the focus of public policies. A series of European Union and Council of Europe projects in 1990’s helped bring PDU into European research mainstream. The new common standard, promoted by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, was utilized by Czech authors in a 2001 policy analysis entitled “Impact Analysis Project of the New Drug Legislation in the Czech Republic” (PAD. PDU played a crucial role in PAD’s drug problem modeling, focusing on a “hard core” of opiate and methamphetamine users, while diverting attention from a large group of cannabis users.By using the new European methodological standard, PAD’s authors constructed marijuana as a non-problem. This helped drug policy reformers in the Czech Government legitimize their focus on “harder” drugs, and subsequently propose more lenient sanctions for the possession and cultivation of marijuana. I argue that continued ignorance of marijuana problems might jeopardize the tolerant expert-driven drug policy in the Czech Republic. Measurement of problem cannabis use should be introduced.

  3. Problem Drug Use, Marijuana, and European Projects: How Epidemiology Helped Czech Policy Reformers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Morávek

    2008-01-01

    I examine the transfer of the Problem Drug Use (PDU) concept into Czech scientific discourse through European institutions’ projects, and view PDU’s utilization by Czech researchers in relation to marijuana decriminalization efforts.PDU is defined as intravenous and/or long-term and regular use of opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines. Out of a vast array of illicit drug use patterns, this concept isolates a relatively small population with the riskiest use patterns to become the focus of public ...

  4. Semantic analysis in web usage mining

    OpenAIRE

    Norguet, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, the Web site has become a key communication channel in organizations. To satisfy the objectives of the Web site and of its target audience, adapting the Web site content to the users' expectations has become a major concern. In this context, Web usage mining, a relatively new research area, and Web analytics, a part of Web usage mining that has most emerged in the corporate world, offer many Web communication analysis techniques. T...

  5. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James William; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incentivizing software developers to create energy-efficient applications.

  6. Improved usage of the LOFT process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes work recently done to upgrade usage of the plant process computer at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The use of computers to aid reactor operators in understanding plant status and diagnosing plant difficulties is currently being widely studied by the nuclear industry. In this regard, an effort was initiated to improve LOFT process computer usage, since the existing plant process computer has been an available, but only lightly used resource, for aiding LOFT reactor operators. This is a continuing effort and has, to date, produced improvements in data collection, data display for operators, and methods of computer operation

  7. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  8. The highs that bind: school context, social status and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Matt; Rees, Chris E; McCuddy, Timothy; Carson, Dena C

    2015-05-01

    Substance use has been closely linked with the structural characteristics of adolescent social networks. Those who drink, smoke, and use drugs typically enjoy an elevated status among their peers. Rates of substance use vary substantially across schools, and indicators of school structure and climate account for at least part of this variation. Emerging research suggests peer-group processes are contingent on school context, but questions remain regarding the school-level mechanisms which condition the influence of network characteristics on substance use. The present study uses multilevel logistic regression models to examine the moderating influence of school connectedness, school drug culture, and global network density on the association between peer network status and marijuana use. The analyses draw on self, peer, and parental data from a sample of 7,548 high-school aged youth nested within 106 schools participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (mean age = 15.2; % white = 59 %; male = 45 %). The results indicate that school connectedness significantly reduces the effect of social status on marijuana use. This provides evidence that school-level mechanisms can reduce the instrumentality of marijuana consumption in the status attainment process in adolescence.

  9. Perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior: Comparing pornography and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Tara M; Bridges, Ana J

    2012-12-01

    Background and aims Research indicates that excessive pornography use can negatively impact romantic relationships. However, it is unclear whether these negative outcomes are different than negative outcomes produced by other compulsive or addictive behaviors, such as drug use. This study compared perceptions of relationship outcomes from either a romantic partner's excessive marijuana or pornography use. Furthermore, this study experimentally manipulated four factors potentially related to perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior. Methods A total of 186 college-aged women read 16 scenarios describing heterosexual romantic relationships in which one partner used either pornography or marijuana. Each scenario varied on four variables: relationship commitment, secrecy of partner's behavior, frequency of partner's behavior, and context of partner's behavior. Results Results suggest that partner pornography and marijuana use are perceived to impact romantic relationships similarly and are influenced by similar factors, such as greater frequency, higher secrecy, and partner's availability for interaction. Conclusions Such findings are consistent with recommendations by professionals that compulsive pornography use be considered worthy of treatment intervention. PMID:26165604

  10. Vanishing Lung Syndrome in a Patient with HIV Infection and Heavy Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer Tashtoush

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanishing lung syndrome (VLS is a rare and distinct clinical syndrome that usually affects young men. VLS leads to severe progressive dyspnea and is characterized by extensive, asymmetric, peripheral, and predominantly upper lobe giant lung bullae. Case reports have suggested an additive role of marijuana use in the development of this disease in young male tobacco smokers. We herein report a case of a 65-year-old Hispanic male previously diagnosed with severe emphysema and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, with a history of intravenous heroin use and active marijuana smoking who presents to the emergency department with severe progressive shortness of breath he was found to have multiple large subpleural bullae occupying more than one-third of the hemithorax on chest computerized tomography (CT, characteristic of vanishing lung syndrome. The patient was mechanically ventilated and later developed a pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement and referral for surgical bullectomy. Surgical bullectomy has shown high success rates in alleviating the debilitating symptoms and preventing the life threatening complications of this rare syndrome. This case further emphasizes the importance of recognizing VLS in patients with severe emphysema and heavy marijuana smoking.

  11. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine.

  12. An Examination of Social Anxiety in Marijuana and Cigarette Use Motives Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Renee M; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713

  13. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  14. The scope of usage-based theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the "cognitive commitment" of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works.

  15. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  16. Usage Patterns of Open Genomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Genome Expression Omnibus (GEO), a data repository in biomedical sciences, to examine the usage patterns of open data repositories. It attempts to identify the degree of recognition of data reuse value and understand how e-science has impacted a large-scale scholarship. By analyzing a list of 1,211 publications that cite GEO data…

  17. MESUR: metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting ...

  18. Sporforming probiotics and their usage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.

  19. Current Usage of Relative Pronouns in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozete, Oscar

    1981-01-01

    Examines variations in current usage that pose problems in teaching Spanish relative pronouns. Discusses their treatment in first-year college textbooks, in the professional literature and in newspapers and magazines prose. Attempts to provide a description of the use of these pronouns applicable to classroom presentation. (MES)

  20. Codon usage trend in mitochondrial CYB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2016-07-15

    Here we reported the pattern of codon usage and the factors which influenced the codon usage pattern in mitochondrial cytochrome B (MT-CYB) gene among pisces, aves and mammals. The F1 axis of correspondence analysis showed highly significant positive correlation with nucleobases A3, C and C3 and significant negative correlation with T and T3 while F2 of correspondence analysis showed significant positive correlation with C and C3 and significant negative correlation with A and A3. From the neutrality plot, it was evident that the GC12 was influenced by mutation pressure and natural selection with a ratio of 0.10/0.90=0.11 in pisces, 0.024/0.976=0.0245 in aves and in mammals 0.215/0.785=0.273, which indicated that the role of natural selection was more than mutation pressure on structuring the bases at the first and second codon positions. Natural selection played the major role; but compositional constraint and mutation pressure also played a significant role in codon usage pattern. Analysis of codon usage pattern has contributed to the better understanding of the mechanism of distribution of codons and the evolution of MT-CYB gene. PMID:27063508

  1. Prevalence of marijuana use does not differentially increase among youth after states pass medical marijuana laws: Commentary on and reanalysis of US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Melanie M; Mauro, Christine; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerda, Magdalena; Martins, Silvia S; Feng, Tianshu

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on marijuana use in the USA, particularly among youth. The article by Stolzenberg et al. (2015) "The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use" concludes that "implementation of medical cannabis laws increase juvenile cannabis use". This result is opposite to the findings of other studies that analysed the same US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data as well as opposite to studies analysing other national data which show no increase or even a decrease in youth marijuana use after the passage of MML. We provide a replication of the Stolzenberg et al. results and demonstrate how the comparison they are making is actually driven by differences between states with and without MML rather than being driven by pre and post-MML changes within states. We show that Stolzenberg et al. do not properly control for the fact that states that pass MML during 2002-2011 tend to already have higher past-month marijuana use before passing the MML in the first place. We further show that when within-state changes are properly considered and pre-MML prevalence is properly controlled, there is no evidence of a differential increase in past-month marijuana use in youth that can be attributed to state MML.

  2. Injuries, negative consequences, and risk behaviors among both injured and uninjured emergency department patients who report using alcohol and marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolard Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brief intervention (BI to reduce hazardous drinking and negative consequences such as injury has been effective when given in the emergency department (ED. The effectiveness and effect of BI has varied between injured and uninjured ED patients. This study compares injured and uninjured ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use to determine their need and their readiness for BI. Patients and Methods: Participants volunteered to enter a randomized controlled trial of BI to reduce hazardous alcohol and marijuana use. Adult ED patients who had had alcohol in the last month and smoked marijuana in the last year were recruited. Those patients who were admitted to hospital, were under police custody, or were seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorder were excluded. Research assistants interviewed participants using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.1. Binominal tests of proportions, t-test analyses, and transformations were conducted as appropriate. Results: Injured (n = 249 and uninjured (n = 266 study participants reported very high, statistically equivalent (P > 0.05, rates of binge drinking (4-5 days/month, marijuana use (13 days/month, driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol (>49% in the last 3 months, injury (>83% in the last year, and other negative consequences (>64% in the last 3 months prior to their ED visit. These behaviors and the consequences demonstrate a need for change. Both injured and uninjured subjects were ready to change (>56% and confident they could change (>91% alcohol and marijuana use. Discussion: ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use also use other hazardous substances and participate in high-risk behaviors. In both injured and uninjured patients who admit using alcohol and marijuana, the ED visit is an opportunity to deliver BI to reduce alcohol and marijuana use and associated risk behaviors and the subsequent injury and

  3. Testing an expanded theory of planned behavior model to explain marijuana use among emerging adults in a promarijuana community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tiffany A; Henry, Erika A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Opinions about marijuana use in the United States are becoming increasingly favorable, making it important to understand how psychosocial influences impact individuals' use in this context. Here, we used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of initial attitudes, norms, and efficacy to resist use on initial intentions and then to examine the effect of initial intentions on actual marijuana use measured 1 year later using data drawn from a community with relatively high use. We expanded the traditional theory of planned behavior model by investigating 2 types of normative influence (descriptive and injunctive) and 2 types of intentions (use intentions and proximity intentions), reasoning that exposure to high use in the population may produce high descriptive norms and proximity intentions overall, but not necessarily increase actual use. By contrast, we expected greater variability in injunctive norms and use intentions and that only use intentions would predict actual use. Consistent with hypotheses, intentions to use marijuana were predicted by injunctive norms (and attitudes) and in turn predicted marijuana use 1 year later. By contrast, descriptive norms were relatively high among all participants and did not predict intentions. Moreover, proximity intentions were not predictive of actual use. We also found that increasing intentions to use over a 1-year period predicted greater use. Given the greater efficacy of theory-based as compared with non-theory-based interventions, these findings provide critical information for the design of successful interventions to decrease marijuana-associated harms. PMID:26168227

  4. Decreased prevalence of diabetes in marijuana users: cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavashisth, Tripathi B; Norris, Keith C; Pan, Deyu; Sinha, Satyesh K; Ortega, Juan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and marijuana use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants The study included participants of the NHANES III, a nationally representative sample of the US population. The total analytic sample was 10 896 adults. The study included four groups (n=10 896): non-marijuana users (61.0%), past marijuana users (30.7%), light (one to four times/month) (5.0%) and heavy (more than five times/month) current marijuana users (3.3%). DM was defined based on self-report or abnormal glycaemic parameters. We analysed data related to demographics, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, plasma haemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose level and the serum levels of C reactive protein and four additional inflammatory markers as related to marijuana use. Main outcome measures OR for DM associated with marijuana use adjusted for potential confounding variables (ie, odds of DM in marijuana users compared with non-marijuana users). Results Marijuana users had a lower age-adjusted prevalence of DM compared to non-marijuana users (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.55; p0.5 mg/dl) was significantly higher (p<0.0001) among non-marijuana users (18.9%) than among past (12.7%) or current light (15.8%) or heavy (9.2%) users. In a robust multivariate model controlling for socio-demographic factors, laboratory values and comorbidity, the lower odds of DM among marijuana users was significant (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.55; p<0.0001). Conclusions Marijuana use was independently associated with a lower prevalence of DM. Further studies are needed to show a direct effect of marijuana on DM. PMID:22368296

  5. Usage of FLASH tool in advertising animations

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The animations change the static pictures into the movable ones. By special recording and then fast playing a lot of pictures one by one, which differ only by details, it looks like moving. This way of playing makes the best of imperfection of human eye, which considers fast changing like a smooth moving. By progress from original, hand drawn pictures, there is less work difficulty, and author´s personality reflects in usage of computer graphic effects, like bitmap and vector graphic...

  6. Characterizing food usage by demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, F J; Krebs-Smith, S M; Wyse, B W; Light, L

    1982-12-01

    On the basis of an analysis of three-day food records, food comsumption by major segments of the U.S. population was examined for 65 food groups and subgroups. This study indicates that demographic factors, particularly age, race, and region, can affect both the percentage of persons using certain foods and the mean frequency of their use. Both the similarities and the differences on these parameters are of interest when food usage is examined by demographic variables. PMID:7142608

  7. CONSUMER PANACEA OVER INTERNET USAGE IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal AFSAR; Jawaria Andleeb QURESH; Asim REHMAN; Rehmat Ullah BANGASH

    2011-01-01

    The present age is the era of information technology and everywhere microwaves are scattered. Everybody wants to explore itself with this information technology and happenings taking place of Internet for the purpose of education, awareness, entertainment and especially interaction with strangers. In Pakistan, the awareness of internet usage is increasing and people are gaining knowledge about online buying and selling. Although the Internet may well empower consumers, there is a paucity of s...

  8. Usage of Operating System Linux in Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s essay is focused on usage of operating system Linux in enterprise SBD Cheb. In theoretical part is described Linux and his history. There are also described functions of server, because Linux is used in SBD Cheb on the servers. In practical part there are some researches, that say why is Linux on the servers so favourite. Linux is compared to Microsoft Windows and after describing of the servers in the enterprise is created a SWOT analysis.

  9. Usage of socioware in synchronous marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrichová, Vladimíra

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor‘s thesis deals with social networks and marketing on social networks. The thesis analyzes the biggest and most interesting social networks on the internet – Facebook, Twitter and networks LinkedId and Foursquare. In detail, the thesis describes two networks – Facebook and Twitter. These thesis analyzed history of Facebook, main differences between real a and fictitious profiles. In the next step, thesis deals with most used marketing methods to promote products and brands by usage...

  10. Correlation matrix for quartet codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sorba, Paul

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that the sum of usage probabilities for codons, belonging to quartets, that have as third nucleotide C or A, is independent of the biological species for vertebrates. The comparison between the theoretical correlation matrix derived from these sum rules and the experimentally computed matrix for 26 species shows a satisfactory agreement. The Shannon entropy, weakly depending on the biological species, gives further support. Suppression of codons containing the dinucleotides CG or AU is put in evidence.

  11. Recommendations for PDF usage in LHC predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Placakyte, Ringaile

    2016-01-01

    A short review of the currently available modern parton distribution functions (PDFs)and the theory predictions obtained using those PDFs for several benchmark processes at LHC, including Higgs boson production, is presented in this write-up. It includes the discussion on theory assumptions made in the determination procedure of PDFs and an impact on the differences in the obtained predictions, followed by the alternative to PDF4LHC recommendations for the usage of PDF sets for theory predictions at the LHC.

  12. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  13. Explaining the Usage Intentions of Exergames

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Tuomas; Makkonen, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Different kinds of digital gaming concepts that combine exercise and games, commonly referred to as exergames, have become increasingly common in recent years. These games, which can be used because of both hedonic and utilitarian reasons, have also become a subject of growing interest among academic researchers. However, the factors that explain their usage remain vaguely understood. This study aims to find out what kinds of factors explain the intentions to use exergames as p...

  14. Porflow Capabilities, Usage, History, and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support closure of the Savannah River Site High Level Waste tanks, the PORFLOW computer program is being applied to predict long term movement of residual contaminants from the tanks. The PORFLOW program has greater capabilities than simpler programs that have been used previously, and PORFLOW results have been accepted by state and federal regulators throughout the United States. This document briefly discusses the PORFLOW capabilities and presents lists of reports showing PORFLOW's usage history and testing

  15. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  16. Energy usage optimization in HEMAV RPAS platform

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Abilla, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the results of the energy usage optimization in HEMAV test-bed. It has been developed as part of an internship in HEMAV, a young European company based in Molins de Rei, Barcelona dedicated to make safe civil services with RPAS technology. The main objectives of this study are increase the flight time of the hexacopter by studying the behaviour of different propellers and increasing or decreasing the number of batteries. And, finally, study the influence of performing d...

  17. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  18. Reasons for Recent Marijuana Use in Relation to Use of Other Illicit Drugs among High School Seniors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Kamboukos, Dimita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Studies show that illicit cannabis (marijuana) use is related to use of other illicit drugs and that reasons for use are related to frequency of marijuana use. However, research is needed to examine whether specific reasons for marijuana use are associated with use of other illicit drugs. Methods Data from recent-marijuana-using high school seniors were examined from 12 cohorts of Monitoring the Future (Weighted N=6,481) to examine whether reasons for recent marijuana use are associated with use of eight other illicit drugs. Results Using “to experiment” decreased odds of reporting use of each drug and using to decrease effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting use of each drug. In multivariable models, using marijuana “to experiment” decreased the odds for reporting use of hallucinogens other than LSD and narcotics other than heroin. Using marijuana for “insight” increased the odds for use of hallucinogens other than LSD, and use due to “boredom” increased the odds for reporting use of powder cocaine and hallucinogens other than LSD. Using marijuana to increase effects of other drugs increased odds of reporting each of the eight drugs, and using it to decrease other drug effects increased odds of reporting use of crack, hallucinogens other than LSD, and amphetamine/stimulants. Conclusions This study helped identify illicit marijuana users who are more likely to report use of other illicit drugs. Prevention efforts need to focus on students who report certain reasons for marijuana use as they may be at risk for use of other illicit drugs. PMID:26115351

  19. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  20. Usage of the cyclotron facility local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local area network of controllers at the Karlsruhe cyclotyron is shown. Experience after two years of usage is described. The system is applied controlling, data acquisition, management, databases usage

  1. Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Sargent, James D; Lee, Dustin C

    2015-11-01

    The proliferation of vaporization ('vaping') as a method for administering cannabis raises many of the same public health issues being debated and investigated in relation to e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Good epidemiological data on the prevalence of vaping cannabis are not yet available, but with current trends towards societal approval of medicinal and recreational use of cannabis, the pros and cons of vaping cannabis warrant study. As with e-cigs, vaping cannabis portends putative health benefits by reducing harm from ingesting toxic smoke. Indeed, vaping is perceived and being sold as a safer way to use cannabis, despite the lack of data on the health effects of chronic vaping. Other perceived benefits include better taste, more efficient and intense effects and greater discretion which allows for use in more places. Unfortunately, these aspects of vaping could prompt an increased likelihood of trying cannabis, earlier age of onset, more positive initial experiences, and more frequent use, thereby increasing the probability of problematic use or addiction. Sales and marketing of vaping devices with no regulatory guidelines, especially related to advertising or product development targeting youth, parallels concerns under debate related to e-cigs and youth. Thus, the quandary of whether or not to promote vaping as a safer method of cannabis administration for those wishing to use cannabis, and how to regulate vaping and vaping devices, necessitates substantial investigation and discussion. Addressing these issues in concert with efforts directed towards e-cigs may save time and energy and result in a more comprehensive and effective public health policy on vaping.

  2. Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Sargent, James D; Lee, Dustin C

    2015-11-01

    The proliferation of vaporization ('vaping') as a method for administering cannabis raises many of the same public health issues being debated and investigated in relation to e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Good epidemiological data on the prevalence of vaping cannabis are not yet available, but with current trends towards societal approval of medicinal and recreational use of cannabis, the pros and cons of vaping cannabis warrant study. As with e-cigs, vaping cannabis portends putative health benefits by reducing harm from ingesting toxic smoke. Indeed, vaping is perceived and being sold as a safer way to use cannabis, despite the lack of data on the health effects of chronic vaping. Other perceived benefits include better taste, more efficient and intense effects and greater discretion which allows for use in more places. Unfortunately, these aspects of vaping could prompt an increased likelihood of trying cannabis, earlier age of onset, more positive initial experiences, and more frequent use, thereby increasing the probability of problematic use or addiction. Sales and marketing of vaping devices with no regulatory guidelines, especially related to advertising or product development targeting youth, parallels concerns under debate related to e-cigs and youth. Thus, the quandary of whether or not to promote vaping as a safer method of cannabis administration for those wishing to use cannabis, and how to regulate vaping and vaping devices, necessitates substantial investigation and discussion. Addressing these issues in concert with efforts directed towards e-cigs may save time and energy and result in a more comprehensive and effective public health policy on vaping. PMID:26264448

  3. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”,...

  4. A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usluel, Yasemin Kocak; Askar, Petek; Bas, Turgay

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage, which is the indicator of diffusion. A model composed of the variables which can explain ICT usage in Turkish higher education is established and tested within the study. The two dimensions of ICT usage are considered: instructional and managerial. The data collected…

  5. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  6. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  7. KauNet : Design and Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Johan; Hurtig, Per; Brunström, Anna

    2008-01-01

    KauNet is an emulation system that allows deterministic placement of packet losses and bit-errors as well as more precise control over bandwidth and delay changes. KauNet is an extension to the well-known Dummynet emulator in FreeBSD and  allows the use of pattern and scenario files to increase control and repeatability. This report provides a comprehensive description of the usage of KauNet, as well as a technical description of the design and implementation of KauNet.

  8. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  9. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  10. Podcasting in Higher Education: Students’ Usage Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Fietze

    2010-01-01

    At German universities, podcasting is still a relatively new method of teaching and learning, on which only few studies are available so far. The present report aims to describe students’ usage behaviour and their assess- ment of podcasting. The findings are based on a survey of students at the University of Flensburg, who took part in lectures recorded and made avail- able as podcasts during the 2007 summer term and 2007/08 winter term. A total of 148 students took part at the two survey ses...

  11. Effect of illicit recreational drugs upon sleep: cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Berger, Mathias; Hornyak, Magdolna

    2008-10-01

    The illicit recreational drugs cocaine, ecstasy and marijuana have pronounced effects upon sleep. Administration of cocaine increases wakefulness and suppresses REM sleep. Acute cocaine withdrawal is often associated with sleep disturbances and unpleasant dreams. Studies have revealed that polysomnographically assessed sleep parameters deteriorate even further during sustained abstinence, although patients report that sleep quality remains unchanged or improves. This deterioration of objective sleep measures is associated with a worsening in sleep-related cognitive performance. Like cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a substance with arousing properties. Heavy MDMA consumption is often associated with persistent sleep disturbances. Polysomnography (PSG) studies have demonstrated altered sleep architecture in abstinent heavy MDMA users. Smoked marijuana and oral Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce REM sleep. Moreover, acute administration of cannabis appears to facilitate falling asleep and to increase Stage 4 sleep. Difficulty sleeping and strange dreams are among the most consistently reported symptoms of acute and subacute cannabis withdrawal. Longer sleep onset latency, reduced slow wave sleep and a REM rebound can be observed. Prospective studies are needed in order to verify whether sleep disturbances during cocaine and cannabis withdrawal predict treatment outcome. PMID:18313952

  12. Cannabis expectancies in substance misusers: French validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, Eric; Notides, Christine; Vorspan, Florence; Debray, Marcel; Nieto, Isabel; Leroux, Mayliss; Lépine, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (48 items) and study the cannabis expectancies according to the patterns of substance use and psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV). A sample of 263 subjects (average age 33.1 years [SD = 8.7], 56% men) consisting of cannabis users (n = 64), psychiatric inpatients (n = 175, most of whom were hospitalized for withdrawal), and a control group (n = 24) completed the questionnaire. Internal reliability was good (α= .87) and temporal reliability was satisfactory, with 24 of 48 items having a significant κ ≥ .41. Factor analysis showed four main factors that explained 42.1% of the total variance. The women feared Cognitive Impairment and Negative Effects, and Negative Behavioral Effects more than the men. The onset age of cannabis use, onset age of abuse, abuse and dependence were associated with fewer negative expectancies. Cannabis dependents differed from abusers by more Relaxation and Social Facilitation expectancies. Patients with major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder feared negative effects the most. Schizophrenic patients expected more Perceptual Enhancement and Craving. The French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and is valid to assess cannabis expectancies in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders.

  13. Normalising desistance: contextualising marijuana and cocaine use careers in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussell, Aaron; Omori, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    Although there is a vast literature on drug use and addiction, there is little work that addresses the long-term use of drugs within the general population. We take a more contextual look in examining longitudinal drug use patterns over the course of 14 years for a representative sample of young adults in their late teens and early twenties in the United States using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). We use a growth trajectory modelling approach for cocaine and marijuana users to determine general use careers. Using contextual and life-course variables, we then estimate a multinomial logistic regression model to predict group membership. In addition to establishing general use career groups, we ask how well mainstream theories comport with our findings and how the different chemical makeup of cocaine and marijuana influence our findings. We find four general use career groups: (i) high use/late desistance; (ii) peaked use/strong desistance; (iii) low use; and (iv) stable use/gradual desistance. Our results suggest similar careers for users of both drugs, with desistance over time as the rule for all groups. We also find some support for life-course and contextual factors in drug using patterns, but our findings challenge other psychological and criminological theories. PMID:27037510

  14. Marijuana Use from Middle to High School: Co-occurring Problem Behaviors, Teacher-Rated Academic Skills and Sixth-Grade Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Heidi; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Rising marijuana use and its lowered perceived risk among adolescents highlight the importance of examining patterns of marijuana use over time. This study identified trajectories of marijuana use among adolescents followed from middle through high school, characterized these by co-occurring problem behaviors and teacher-rated academic skills (study skills, attention problems, and learning problems), and tested sixth-grade predictors of trajectory membership. The sample consisted of a randomly-selected cohort of 619 students assessed annually from sixth to twelfth grade. Using group-based modeling, we identified four trajectories of marijuana use: Abstainer (65.6%), Sporadic (13.9%), Experimental (11.5%), and Increasing (9.0%). Compared to Abstainers, students in the Sporadic, Experimental and Increasing trajectories reported significantly more co-occurring problem behaviors of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical aggression. Sporadic and Experimental users reported significantly less smoking and physical aggression, but not alcohol use, than Increasing users. Teachers consistently rated Abstainers as having better study skills and less attention and learning problems than the three marijuana use groups. Compared to Abstainers, the odds of dropping out of high school was at least 2.7 times higher for students in the marijuana use trajectories. Dropout rates did not vary significantly between marijuana use groups. In sixth grade, being male, cigarette smoking, physical aggression and attention problems increased the odds of being in the marijuana use trajectories. Multiple indicators--student self-reports, teacher ratings and high school dropout records--showed that marijuana was not an isolated or benign event in the life of adolescents but part of an overall problem behavior syndrome.

  15. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  16. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  17. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  18. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  19. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  20. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Benschop; N. Liebregts; P. van der Pol; R. Schaap; R. Buisman; M. van Laar; W. van den Brink; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf

    2014-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥3 days per week) c