Sample records for chronic intern contamination

  1. International journal of food contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The International Journal of Food Contamination publishes baseline, monitoring data, indicating the qualitative and quantitative presence of microbiological and chemical contaminants in foods, animal...

  2. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias; Pathologies non cancereuses potentiellement consecutives a une contamination interne chronique par le cesium 137: cataractes et arythmies cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, G


    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  3. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer


    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  4. fetal contamination with cadmilim following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FETAL CONTAMINATION WITH CADMILIM FOLLOWING CHRONIC. EXPOSURE OF RAT DAMS DURING GESTATION ... UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT, PORT HARCOURT,'NIGERIA. ABSTRACT. Pregnant albino rats (n = 5) ..... Friberg, (1988) Biological monitoring of toxic metals, New York, London, Plenum Press,.

  5. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani


    Full Text Available Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily infected with leeches. In May 2014, a 2-year-old turkey infected with leeches through the contaminated drinking water was referred to a veterinarian with respiratory distress symptoms, anxiety, bleeding from the mouth in Maze-Abdali Village located at 17 km from Dehloran City of Ilam Province in the west of Iran. After physical observations, a moving dark green particle was seen. Limnatis nilotica were detected after separation from the oral cavity of turkey. Respiratory distress and oral cavity bleeding should be regarded in the areas where spring and flooded water were infested with leeches. Untreated and contaminated waters consumption should be prohibited.

  6. Mir Contamination Observations and Implications to the International Space Station (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron


    A series of external contamination measurements were made on the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir external contamination observations summarized in this paper were essential in assessing the system level impact of Russian Segment induced contamination on the International Space Station (ISS). Mir contamination observations include results from a series of flight experiments: CNES Comes-Aragatz, retrieved NASA camera bracket, Euro-Mir '95 ICA, retrieved NASA Trek blanket, Russian Astra-II, Mir Solar Array Return Experiment (SARE), etc. Results from these experiments were studied in detail to characterize Mir induced contamination. In conjunction with Mir contamination observations, Russian materials samples were tested for condensable outgassing rates in the U.S. These test results were essential in the characterization of Mir contamination sources. Once Mir contamination sources were identified and characterized, activities to assess the implications to ISS were implemented. As a result, modifications in Russian materials selection and/or usage were implemented to control contamination and mitigate risk to ISS.

  7. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica


    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  8. Brazil — Mercury contamination in the Amazon | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 11, 2011 ... Maureen Johnson. Brazilian and Canadian researchers seeking to find the source of mercury contamination in the Amazon came to a startling conclusion: agricultural practices rather than gold mining were most to blame. Supported by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the ...

  9. A chronic plant test for the assessment of contaminated soils. Part 2. Testing of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junker, T.; Roembke, J. [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim (Germany); Kalsch, W.


    Background and scope. A new chronic plant test system which is based on experiences with various acute plant tests (e.g. published by OECD or ISO) and existing north American plant-life-cycle bioassays was standardised in a project sponsored by the German government. Characteristic properties of the test system, which can be performed either with Brassica rapa (turnip rape) or Avena sativa (oat), are described in part 1 of this mini-series. Methods. This new test was used to assess the effects of natural soil samples contaminated with TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) or PAHs (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons). The soils were tested after taken from the field as well as after being remediated. Different control and reference soils were used to evaluate the test results. In addition, they were compared with the results of tests in which either TNT or Pyrene were spiked to field and standard soils (see part 1 of this mini-series). Results. All contaminated soils showed clear effects in the chronic plant test (usually B. rapa was more sensitive than A. sativa). LUFA 2.2 standard soil and OECD artificial soil are well-suited as control and mixture substrates, while reference soils collected at uncontaminated sites were several times as phytotoxic. In most of the latter cases, soil properties could be identified as the main cause of these effects (e.g. the pH value). While the sensitivity of the reproduction and biomass endpoints did not differ much in general, it is recommended to measure different endpoints (i.e. biomass and reproduction) due to the different mode-of-action of contaminants. In the case of TNT, a good agreement between the results of single chemical tests and tests with TNT-contaminated soils was found (due to the minimal effects of Pyrene, the same statement is not possible for PAHs). (orig.)

  10. Simulation of internal contamination screening with dose rate meters (United States)

    Fonseca, T. C. F.; Mendes, B. M.; Hunt, J. G.


    Assessing the intake of radionuclides after an accident in a nuclear power plant or after the intentional release of radionuclides in public places allows dose calculations and triage actions to be carried out for members of the public and for emergency response teams. Gamma emitters in the lung, thyroid or the whole body may be detected and quantified by making dose rate measurements at the surface of the internally contaminated person. In an accident scenario, quick measurements made with readily available portable equipment are a key factor for success. In this paper, the Monte Carlo program Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) and MCNPx code are used in conjunction with voxel phantoms to calculate the dose rate at the surface of a contaminated person due to internally deposited radionuclides. A whole body contamination with 137Cs and a thyroid contamination with 131I were simulated and the calibration factors in kBq per μSv/h were calculated. The calculated calibration factors were compared with real data obtained from the Goiania accident in the case of 137Cs and the Chernobyl accident in terms of the 131I. The close comparison of the calculated and real measurements indicates that the method may be applied to other radionuclides. Minimum detectable activities are discussed.

  11. Optimisation of internal contamination monitoring programme by integration of uncertainties. (United States)

    Davesne, E; Casanova, P; Chojnacki, E; Paquet, F; Blanchardon, E


    Potential internal contamination of workers is monitored by periodic bioassay measurements interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose by the use of biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring programme can be defined by choosing adequate measurement techniques and frequency. In this study, the sensitivity of a programme is evaluated by the minimum intake and dose, which may be detected with a given level of confidence by taking into account uncertainties on exposure conditions and measurements. This is made for programme optimisation, which is performed by comparing the sensitivities of different alternative programmes. These methods were applied at the AREVA NC reprocessing plant and support the current monitoring programme as the best compromise between the cost of the measurements and the sensitivity of the programme.

  12. Internalized stigma in people living with chronic pain. (United States)

    Waugh, Olivia C; Byrne, Donald G; Nicholas, Michael K


    Although persistent pain occurs in a sociocultural context, the influence of personal devaluation and invalidation is often neglected. As such, the present study sought to consider whether individuals' experience, perception, or anticipation of negative social reactions to their pain may become internalized and affect the self. To examine this issue, 92 adults with chronic pain responded to a questionnaire exploring the presence of internalized stigma and its association with a range of psychological consequences. As predicted, a large percentage of people with chronic pain (38%) endorsed the experience of internalized stigma. The results showed that internalized stigma has a negative relationship with self-esteem and pain self-efficacy, after controlling for depression. Internalized stigma was also associated with cognitive functioning in relation to pain, in terms of a greater tendency to catastrophize about pain and a reduced sense of personal control over pain. Overall, this study presents a new finding regarding the application of internalized stigma to a chronic pain population. It offers a means of extending our understanding of chronic pain's psychosocial domain. Implications are discussed in terms of the potential to inform clinical treatment and resiliency into the future. This article presents a novel finding regarding the presence of internalized stigma among people living with chronic pain. Internalized stigma is strongly associated with indicators of patient outcome. It presents an area for future work with the aim to improve our understanding and treatment of people living with pain. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra Katia S


    Full Text Available Abstract There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs. This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011. Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  14. Framing international trade and chronic disease (United States)


    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  15. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)


    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  16. International recognition of the Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12. (United States)

    Kosyakov, S I; Minavnina, J V; Phillips, J S; Yung, M W


    The Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 was developed initially in the UK to assess patient-reported health-related quality of life associated with chronic otitis media. This study aimed to determine whether this tool is applicable to the Russian population, which has a materially different healthcare system. A total of 108 patients with different forms of chronic otitis media completed the Russian Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12. The average Russian Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 score was 19.4 (standard deviation = 8.3). The internal consistency of the Russian Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 was high, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.860. The Russian version of the Chronic Otitis Media Questionnaire 12 was found to be a reliable tool for the assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic otitis media. This sets the scene for international collaboration, using this tool to assess the effectiveness of surgical treatments even amongst countries with different healthcare systems.

  17. Internal sphincterotomy versus topical nitroglycerin ointment for chronic anal fissure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad I. Aslam


    Conclusion: This quasi-experimental study demonstrates that open partial lateral internal sphincterotomy is superior to topical 0.2% nitroglycerin application in the treatment of chronic anal fissure, with good symptomatic relief, high rate of healing, fewer side effects, and a very low rate of early continence disturbances.

  18. Is nasal steroid spray bottle contamination a potential issue in chronic rhinosinusitis? (United States)

    Tan, N C-W; Drilling, A J; Jardeleza, C; Wormald, P-J


    Intranasal steroids are the first line of treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Although contamination of adjunctive devices (e.g. irrigation bottles) has been much investigated, little is known about nasal contamination of the metered-dose spray bottles used to deliver intranasal steroids, and the potential influence on disease chronicity. Twenty-five prospectively recruited patients with stable chronic rhinosinusitis underwent microbiological analysis of their nasal vestibule and middle meatus and also of their steroid bottle tip and contents. Additionally, bottle tips were inoculated in vitro with Staphylococcus aureus and various sterilisation techniques tested. For 18 of the 25 (72 per cent) patients, both nasal and bottle tip swabs grew either Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 7 of the 25 (28 per cent) patients, and 5 of these 7 had concomitant bacterial growth from both nose and steroid bottle. Thus, the cross-contamination rate was 71 per cent for Staphylococcus aureus infected patients and 20 per cent overall. Sterilisation was effective with boiling water, ethanol wipes and microwaving, but not with cold water or dishwashing liquid. Nasal steroid spray bottle tips can become contaminated with sinonasal cavity bacteria. Simple sterilisation methods can eliminate this contamination. Patient education on this matter should be emphasised.

  19. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route (United States)

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  20. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann


    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developinggeneric methodologies for ranking restoration...... techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identification and characterisation of relevant...... restoration techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been...

  1. Effect of external or internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on prechilled broiler carcasses. (United States)

    Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K; Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D


    During processing, fecal material may contact broiler carcasses externally or internally. A study was conducted to determine the effect of external vs. internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on broiler carcasses. In each of 3 trials, 12 carcasses just prior to evisceration were obtained from a commercial processing plant, placed on a shackle line, and eviscerated with commercial equipment in a pilot scale processing plant. Also, approximately 20 intestinal tracts were collected from the processing plant; then cecal contents were collected and pooled. One gram of cecal content was placed on the exterior breast skin (external), inside the carcass cavity (internal), or not applied (control). All carcasses were held 10 min, then placed on the shackle line and passed through a commercial inside-outside bird washer set at 552 kPa, 5 s dwell time, using approximately 189 L per min of tap water at ambient temperature. After a 1-min drip, whole carcass rinses were conducted on each carcass, and coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter counts were determined and reported as log cfu/mL of rinse. External carcass contamination resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) coliform, E. coli, and Campylobacter numbers than internal contamination (5.0 vs. 4.5, 4.9 vs. 4.2, and 3.6 vs. 2.6, respectively). Control carcass counts were significantly lower than external or internal carcass contamination counts for coliforms (3.7), E. coli (3.6), and Campylobacter (2.2). External contamination resulted in higher numbers of bacteria after carcass washing, but carcasses with internal contamination still have higher numbers of bacteria after washing than carcasses without applied contamination.

  2. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rango, Tewodros, E-mail: [Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Jeuland, Marc [Sanford School of Public Policy and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Institute of Water Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter [International Water Management Institute, Colombo (Sri Lanka)


    Chronic kidney disease of unknown (“u”) cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples – from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) – contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. - Highlights: • Drinking water in rural Sri Lanka contains low levels of inorganic nephrotoxicants • Urinary nephrotoxicants are consistent with reference levels from

  3. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with 137 cesium on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignard, Elise; Gueguen, Yann; Grison, Stephane; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maamar [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiological Protection and Human Health Division, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology, BP no 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A. [UMR Universite Blaise Pascal-CNRS 6547, Physiologie Comparee et Endocrinologie Moleculaire, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d' Auvergne, Aubiere Cedex (France)


    More than 20 years after Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, radionuclids are still mainly bound to the organic soil layers. The radiation exposure is dominated by the external exposure to gamma-radiation following the decay of {sup 137}Cs and by soil-to-plant-to-human transfer of {sup 137}Cs into the food chain. Because of this persistence of contamination with {sup 137}Cs, questions regarding public health for people living in contaminated areas were raised. We investigated the biological effects of chronic exposure to {sup 137}Cs on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis metabolisms in rat. Animals were exposed to radionuclide in their drinking water for 9 months at a dose of 6,500 Bq/l (610 Bq/kg/day). Cesium contamination decreases the level of circulating 17{beta}-estradiol, and increases corticosterone level. In testis, several nuclear receptors messenger expression is disrupted; levels of mRNA encoding Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) and LXR{beta} are increased, whereas farnesoid X receptor mRNA presents a lower level. Adrenal metabolism presents a paradoxical decrease in cyp11a1 gene expression. In conclusion, our results show for the first time molecular and hormonal modifications in testicular and adrenal steroidogenic metabolism, induced by chronic contamination with low doses of {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  4. International outbreak of Salmonella Eastbourne infection traced to contaminated chocolate. (United States)

    Craven, P C; Mackel, D C; Baine, W B; Barker, W H; Gangarosa, E J


    Between Dec. 4, 1973, and Feb. 15, 1974, 80 cases of infection due to Salmonella eastbourne, previously a rare isolated serotype in the United States, were reported from twenty-three States. An additional 39 cases were reported from seven Provinces in Canada during a similar period. A telephone case-control study implicated Christmas-wrapped chocolate balls manufactured by a Canadian company as the vehicle of transmission. S. eastbourne was subsequently isolated from several samples of leftover chocolate balls obtained from homes where cases occurred. Investigation of the factory revealed that the contaminated Christmas and Easter chocolates, and a few chocolate items for year-round sale, had been produced between May and October, 1973. Bacteriological testing of samples taken at the plant implicated cocoa beans as the probable source of the salmonella organisms which, in the low-moisture chocolate, were able to survive heating during production. This outbreak and the finding of salmonella of other serotypes in chocolates produced by another manufacturer suggest that chocolate-related salmonellosis may be a significant public-health problem.

  5. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven


    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  6. Discourses on the Toxic Effects of Internal Chemical Contamination in Catalonia, Spain. (United States)

    Larrea-Killinger, Cristina; Muñoz, Araceli; Mascaró, Jaume; Zafra, Eva; Porta, Miquel


    Human exposure to and contamination by environmental toxic compounds generates discourses and practices that merit greater attention. In this article, we assess internal chemical contamination and the risk of toxic effects as an experience related to the production of meaning in everyday life. Drawing on the analysis of semantic networks of narratives from semi-structured interviews conducted with 43 informants in Catalonia, Spain, we consider participants' perceptions of the health risks of toxic compounds, including social discourses on exposure, toxicity, and internal chemical contamination, and on responsibilities, consequences, and proposed strategies for controlling toxic compounds. Informants' narratives on the relationships between nature and nurture suggest that they no longer perceive rigid boundaries separating the human body from the external environment and its chemical pollutants.

  7. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Chronic Pain in Internal Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available Holistic medicine seems to be efficient in the treatment of chronic pain in internal organs, especially when the pain has no known cause. It is quite surprising that while chronic pain can be one of the toughest challenges in the biomedical clinic, it is often one of the simplest things to alleviate in the holistic clinic. These pains are regarded as being caused by repressed emotions and are explained as psychosomatic reactions. Using holistic medicine, the patients can often be cured of their suffering when they assume responsibility for the repressed feelings. The holistic process theory of healing states that the return to the natural (pain free state of being is possible whenever the person obtains the resources needed for existential healing. This shift is explained by the related quality of life and life mission theories. The resources needed are “holding” or genuine care in the dimensions of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment, and acceptance with support and processing in the dimensions of feeling, understanding, and letting go of negative attitudes and beliefs. The preconditions for the holistic healing to take place are “love” and trust. Obtaining the full trust of the patient, therefore, seems to be the biggest challenge of holistic medicine, especially when dealing with a patient in pain.

  8. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.


    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  9. Analysis methodology and development of a statistical tool for biodistribution data from internal contamination with actinides. (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Griffiths, Nina M; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne


    The aim of this work was to develop a computational tool that integrates several statistical analysis features for biodistribution data from internal contamination experiments. These data represent actinide levels in biological compartments as a function of time and are derived from activity measurements in tissues and excreta. These experiments aim at assessing the influence of different contamination conditions (e.g. intake route or radioelement) on the biological behavior of the contaminant. The ever increasing number of datasets and diversity of experimental conditions make the handling and analysis of biodistribution data difficult. This work sought to facilitate the statistical analysis of a large number of datasets and the comparison of results from diverse experimental conditions. Functional modules were developed using the open-source programming language R to facilitate specific operations: descriptive statistics, visual comparison, curve fitting, and implementation of biokinetic models. In addition, the structure of the datasets was harmonized using the same table format. Analysis outputs can be written in text files and updated data can be written in the consistent table format. Hence, a data repository is built progressively, which is essential for the optimal use of animal data. Graphical representations can be automatically generated and saved as image files. The resulting computational tool was applied using data derived from wound contamination experiments conducted under different conditions. In facilitating biodistribution data handling and statistical analyses, this computational tool ensures faster analyses and a better reproducibility compared with the use of multiple office software applications. Furthermore, re-analysis of archival data and comparison of data from different sources is made much easier. Hence this tool will help to understand better the influence of contamination characteristics on actinide biokinetics. Our approach can aid

  10. The general relationship between internalizing psychopathology and chronic physical health conditions: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavert, I. van de; Sunderland, M.; Luijten, M.; Slade, T.; Teesson, M.


    Studies have consistently demonstrated a reciprocal relationship between internalizing disorders and several chronic physical health conditions. Yet, much of the extant literature fails to take into account the role of comorbidity among internalizing disorders when examining the relationship with

  11. Contamination vs. Exposure (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Contamination vs. exposure Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... contaminate their surroundings and personal property. Types of Contamination Internal Contamination Internal contamination occurs when people swallow ...

  12. Remediation of a soil chronically contaminated with hydrocarbons through persulfate oxidation and bioremediation. (United States)

    Medina, Rocío; David Gara, Pedro Maximiliano; Fernández-González, Antonio José; Rosso, Janina Alejandra; Del Panno, María Teresa


    The impact of remediation combining chemical oxidation followed by biological treatment on soil matrix and microbial community was studied, of a chronically hydrocarbon contaminated soil sourced from a landfarming treatment. Oxidation by ammonium persulfate produced a significant elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an increase in PAH bioavailability. Organic-matter oxidation mobilized nutrients from the soil matrix. The bacterial populations were affected negatively, with a marked diminution in the diversity indices. In this combined treatment with oxidation and bioremediation working in tandem, the aliphatic-hydrocarbon fractions were largely eliminated along with additional PAHs. The chemical and spectroscopic analyses indicated a change in soil nutrients. In spite of the high residual-sulfate concentration, a rapid recovery of the cultivable bacterial population and the establishment of a diverse and equitable microbial community were obtained. Pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated a marked succession throughout this twofold intervention in accordance with the chemical and biologic shifts observed. These remediation steps produced different effects on the soil physiology. Spectroscopic analysis became a useful tool for following and comparing those treatments, which involved acute changes in a matrix of such chronically hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The combined treatment increased the elimination efficiency of both the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the PAHs at the expense of the mobilized organic matter, thus sustaining the recovery of the resilient populations throughout the treatment. The high-throughput-DNA-sequencing techniques enabled the identification of the predominant populations that were associated with the changes observed during the treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enclosure design for flock-level, chronic exposure of birds to air contaminant mixtures. (United States)

    North, Michelle A; Kinniburgh, David W; Smits, Judit E G


    The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for 5 h/day, 6 days/week for 4 weeks. Fans maintained positive pressure (controls) and negative pressure (treatment), preventing cross-contamination of enclosures and protecting investigators. Four sets of passive, badge-type samplers were distributed across each enclosure, measuring nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds (NO 2 , SO 2 and VOCs, respectively), and were complemented by active monitors measuring VOCs and particulate matter (2.5 µm diameter, PM 2.5 ). We found that the concentrations of NO 2 , SO 2 and PM 2.5 were not different between treatment and control enclosures. Volatile organic compounds (e.g. benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) were approximately six times higher in the treatment enclosure than control (13.23 and 2.13 µg m -1 , respectively). In conclusion, this represents a successful, practical design for studying the effects of sub-chronic to chronic exposure to realistic mixtures of vehicle exhaust contaminants, in groups of birds. Recommended modifications for future research include a chassis dynamometer (vehicle treadmill), to better replicate driving conditions including acceleration and deceleration.

  14. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics (United States)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.


    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  15. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources. (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J


    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  16. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve. (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène


    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  17. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Breitwieser

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  18. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  19. Optimisation of routine monitoring programmes of internal contamination; Optimisation des programmes de surveillance systematique de l'exposition interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, E.; Blanchardon, E. [IRSN - DRPH, Service de Dosimetrie Interne, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Casanova, P. [AREVA NC, Etablissement de La Hague, Service de Sante au Travail, 50444 Beaumont-Hague Cedex (France); Chojnacki, E. [IRSN, Direction de la Prevention des Accidents Majeurs, Service d' Etude et de Modelisation de l' Incendie, du Corium et du Confinement, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Paquet, F. [IRSN, Direction Scientifique, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)


    To optimise the protection of workers against ionising radiation, French regulation imposes the use of limits and dose constraints and the progressive decrease of exposition, in line with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. To verify the compliance of the means of protection with these values when a risk of internal contamination exists, monitoring programmes based on periodic bioassay measurements are performed. However, uncertainties in the dose evaluation arise from the variability of the activity measurements and from incomplete knowledge of the exposure conditions. These uncertainties were taken into account by means of Bayesian statistics. The developed methodology was applied to the analysis of the monitoring programme of workers purifying plutonium in the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant. From the decision threshold of the measurement, the minimum dose detectable (MDD) by the programme with a given confidence level can be calculated through the software OPSCI. It is shown to be a useful support for the optimisation of monitoring programmes by seeking a compromise between their sensitivity and their cost. (authors)

  20. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man; Toxicologie de l'uranium naturel - essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne chez l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalabreysse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [French] Apres le rappel des caracteristiques physiques et des proprietes chimiques de l'uranium naturel pouvant avoir une influence sur sa toxicologie, l'etude detaillee de son metabolisme et de sa toxicite, puis l'application des normes professionnelles d'exposition au cas particulier de ce toxique, il est etabli, a partir des comptes rendus d'accidents et de l'experimentation humaine rapportes dans la litterature, une serie de formules obtenues par developpement mathematique theorique qui posent les principes de la surveillance et de la mise en evidence de la contamination interne par la recherche et le dosage de l'uranium dans les urines d'individus professionnellement exposes. Un essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne individuelle suivant les differents cas de contamination est effectue. Le formulaire propose permet de faire une premiere approximation et d'apprecier rapidement l'importance d

  1. Mediators for internalizing problems in adolescents of parents with chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Oort, F.J.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.


    Parents’ chronic medical condition (CMC) is related to internalizing problem behavior in adolescents. Following the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model of Hocking and Lochman, our study examines whether the effect of illness and demographic parameters on the child’s internalizing problems is

  2. Modelling chronic exposure to contaminated soil: a toxicokinetic approach with the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa. (United States)

    Gimbert, Frédéric; de Vaufleury, Annette; Douay, Francis; Scheifler, Renaud; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Badot, Pierre-Marie


    To enlarge the possibilities of using organisms of the soil fauna to assess the bioaccumulative potential of chemicals, the kinetic of soil cadmium (Cd) transfer to the terrestrial gastropod Helix aspersa was investigated under laboratory conditions during a long-term experiment (6 months). During the exposure phase (3 months), juvenile snails were subjected to three different concentrations of Cd spiked in artificial ISO soil (ISO 0, 20 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1)) and to a field soil (ME4) industrially contaminated by 20 mg Cd kg (-1). For both soils, internal steady-state Cd concentrations were reached in the viscera of the snails, the main storage organ for Cd, after 2 weeks of exposure whatever the Cd concentration in soil. The equilibrium concentrations in the viscera were 0.7 (+/-0.1), 11.3 (+/-2.4), 73.3 (+/-4.8) and 6.3 (+/-1.3) mg Cd kg(-1) dry mass for ISO 0, ISO 20, ISO 100 and ME4, respectively. During the depuration phase (3 months), from 0 to 52% of the accumulated Cd in the viscera were removed by excretion or relocation in the foot. However, the snails were not able to depurate down to initial concentrations. Data were modelled by integrating a specific growth rate constant into one-compartment toxicokinetic models. This allowed the calculation of Cd uptake rates that can be used as indicators of metal bioavailability. Since this parameter was found to be lower for snails exposed to the field soil ME4, we concluded that lower Cd bioavailability in this field soil was responsible of the lower transfer to the snails compared to the ISO 20 soil, even though they were polluted to similar extents. Internal validation showed that the toxicokinetic models could be applied for predictive purposes, promising for the development of a bioaccumulation directive for terrestrial environment.

  3. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study. (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M


    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P comorbidities.

  4. Early and late assessment of internal drainage of chronic dacryocystitis. (United States)

    Mansour, Khaled; Janssen, Alfred G; van Bijsterveld, O Paul


    To evaluate the efficacy of internal drainage of a lacrimal abscess, we treated 10 patients with pyocele of the lacrimal sac, who did not want to undergo operative intervention. A temporary nasolacrimal stent was placed in the nasolacrimal duct, and the pussy material was collected for microbiological examination to adjust the preliminary antibiotic treatment which was given systemically and locally. The stents were removed after the infection had subsided clinically. Three years later, there was a recurrence of the infection in only 1 patient. This internal drainage of the lacrimal sac, combined with systemic and local antibiotics, was successful in 90% of the patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Early and late assessment of internal drainage of chronic dacryocystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansour, K; Janssen, A. G.; van Bijsterveld, OP


    To evaluate the efficacy of internal drainage of a lacrimal abscess, we treated 10 patients with pyocele of the lacrimal sac, who did not want to undergo operative intervention. A temporary nasolacrimal stent was placed in the nasolacrimal duct, and the pussy material was collected for

  6. A Review of International Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Urticaria. (United States)

    Beck, Lisa A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Maurer, Marcus


    Both spontaneous and inducible forms of chronic urticaria pose a significant economic burden and have an adverse effect on patients' quality of life. The international guidelines and US practice parameters for the diagnosis and management of chronic urticaria both recommend performing a thorough patient history and physical examination, conducting limited routine laboratory testing, and taking a stepwise approach to treatment. These documents differ in several areas, such as the order of diagnostic procedures and the treatment for patients non-responsive to standard dose H1-antihistamines. Patients with chronic urticaria who visit a specialist have typically been treated with second-generation H1-antihistamines - the recommended first-line treatments. The advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option should be taken into consideration when selecting therapies beyond H1-antihistamines. Greater awareness of the international guidelines and US practice parameters will likely improve the quality of care for patients with chronic urticaria.

  7. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille


    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chronically petroleum-contaminated soils in Mexico and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on spore germination. (United States)

    Franco-Ramírez, Alicia; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Varela-Fregoso, Lucía; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Alarcón, Alejandro


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been hypothesized to enhance plant adaptation and growth in petroleum-contaminated soils. Nevertheless, neither AMF-biodiversity under chronically petroleum-contaminated soils nor spore germination response to petroleum hydrocarbons has been well studied. Chronically petroleum-contaminated rhizosphere soil and roots from Echinochloa polystachya, Citrus aurantifolia and C. aurantium were collected from Activo Cinco Presidentes, Tabasco, Mexico. Root colonization and spore abundance were evaluated. Additionally, rhizosphere soil samples were propagated using Sorghum vulgare L. as a plant trap under greenhouse conditions; subsequently, AMF-spores were identified. AMF-colonization ranged from 63 to 77% while spore number ranged from 715 to 912 in 100 g soil, suggesting that AMF tolerate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. From grass species, four AMF-morphospecies were identified: Glomus ambisporum, G. sinuosum (previously described as Sclerocystis sinuosum), Acaulospora laevis, and Ambispora gerdermanni. From citrus trees, four AMF-species were also identified: Scutellospora heterogama, G. ambisporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, and G. citricola. In a second study, it was observed that spore germination and hyphal length of G. mosseae, G. ambisporum, and S. heterogama were significantly reduced by either volatile compounds of crude oil or increased concentrations of benzo[a ]pyrene or phenanthrene in water-agar.

  9. Method for assessing the chronic toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment-associated contaminants using the amphipod Corophium volutator. (United States)

    Scarlett, A; Rowland, S J; Canty, M; Smith, E L; Galloway, T S


    Acute sediment toxicity tests do not test key life stage events such as moulting and reproduction and therefore do not reveal the longer-term effects of contaminant exposure. A laboratory method is described for determining the chronic toxicity of contaminants associated with whole sediments. The test is conducted using neonates of the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator at 15 degrees C, salinity 25 psu and a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. The endpoints are survival and growth after 28 days and survival, growth and reproduction of amphipods upon termination of test i.e. reproduction within all control vessels (ca 75 days). The sediment chronic toxicity test was used to investigate the effects of sediments spiked with environmentally relevant preparations of slightly weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil, including a water-accommodated-fraction (WAF) and a chemically-dispersed (Corexit 9527) WAF. Sediment oil concentrations were quantified using ultra-violet fluorescence. The amphipods exposed to chemically dispersed oil had higher mortality and lower growth rates than control-, Corexit 9527- and WAF-exposed organisms, resulting in reduced reproduction. The described method supplements the standard acute sediment test and would be particularly useful when long-term ecological effects are suspected but acute tests reveal no significant mortality. The sediment chronic test reported herein has shown that sediment that was not evidently toxic during 10-day acute tests could have population-level effects on sediment-dwelling amphipods.

  10. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination? (United States)

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S


    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies.

  11. A protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras to estimate internal contamination in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Araujo, F.; Melo, D. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebelo, A.M.O. [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Teran, M.; Paolino, A. [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rojo, A.M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Puerta, J.A.; Morales, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Bejerano, G.M.L. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Alfaro, M.; Ruiz, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac (Mexico); Videla, R.; Pinones, O. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, S. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Navarro, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain); Cruz-Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    The concern about accidents involving radioactive materials has led to the search of alternative methods to quickly identify and quantify radionuclides in workers and in the population. One of the options to face up an eventual demand for mass monitoring of internal contamination is the use of a nuclear medicine diagnostic equipment known as gamma camera, a device used to scan patients who have been administered specific amounts of radioactive materials for medical purposes. Although the gamma camera is used for image diagnosis, it can be calibrated with anthropomorphic phantoms or point sources for the quantification of radionuclide activities in the human body. This work presents a protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras for such application. In order to evaluate the suitability of this type of equipment, a gamma camera available in a public hospital located in Rio de Janeiro was calibrated for the in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I. The calibration includes the determination of detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities for each radionuclide. The results show that the gamma camera presents enough sensitivity to detect activity levels corresponding to effective doses below 1 mSv. The protocol is the basis to establish a network of Nuclear Medicine Centres, located in public hospitals in eight countries of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) and in Spain that could be requested to collaborate in remediation actions in the event of an accident involving incorporation of radioactive materials. This protocol is one of the most significant outputs of the IAEA-ARCAL Project (RLA/9/049-LXXVIII) aimed to the Harmonization of Internal Dosimetry Procedures. (authors)

  12. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Lewis, Randolf V; Raisbeck, Merl F; Cook, Walter W


    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  13. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V


    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CND transmission...

  14. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V


    ... from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  15. Air contamination measurements for the evaluation of internal dose to workers in nuclear medicine departments (United States)

    De Massimi, B.; Bianchini, D.; Sarnelli, A.; D'Errico, V.; Marcocci, F.; Mezzenga, E.; Mostacci, D.


    Radionuclides handled in nuclear medicine departments are often characterized by high volatility and short half-life. It is generally difficult to monitor directly the intake of these short-lived radionuclides in hospital staff: this makes measuring air contamination of utmost interest. The aim of the present work is to provide a method for the evaluation of internal doses to workers in nuclear medicine, by means of an air activity sampling detector, to ensure that the limits prescribed by the relevant legislation are respected. A continuous air sampling system measures isotope concentration with a Nal(TI) detector. Energy efficiency of the system was assessed with GEANT4 and with known activities of 18F. Air is sampled in a number of areas of the nuclear medicine department of the IRST-IRCCS hospital (Meldola- Italy). To evaluate committed doses to hospital staff involved (doctors, technicians, nurses) different exposure situations (rooms, times, radionuclides etc) were considered. After estimating the intake, the committed effective dose has been evaluated, for the different radionuclides, using the dose coefficients mandated by the Italian legislation. Error propagation for the estimated intake and personal dose has been evaluated, starting from measurement statistics.

  16. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare. (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf


    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  17. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination


    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta


    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species....

  18. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification (United States)

    Perry, J. L.


    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  19. International differences in chronic kidney disease prevalence: a key public health and epidemiologic research issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Brück, Katharina; Fraser, Simon; Zoccali, Carmine; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.


    In this narrative review, we studied the association of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CKD prevalence at an ecological level and describe potential reasons for international differences in estimated CKD prevalence across European countries. We found substantial variation in risk

  20. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.


    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  1. Sub-chronic effect of Rambo insect powder contaminated diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of superoxide dismutase (SOD) induction in rats exposed to locally produced insecticide, “Rambo” of which the active chemical compound is permethrin (0.6% w/w) was performed. The rats were divided into three groups of five rats per cage. Each group of rats was fed with normal diet contaminated with 1 %, 5 ...

  2. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji


    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  3. Absorption and backscatter of internal conversion electrons in the measurements of surface contamination of ¹³⁷Cs. (United States)

    Yunoki, A; Kawada, Y; Yamada, T; Unno, Y; Sato, Y; Hino, Y


    We measured 4π and 2π counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons (ICEs), gross β-particles and also β-rays alone with various source conditions regarding absorber and backing foil thickness using e-X coincidence technique. Dominant differences regarding the penetration, attenuation and backscattering properties among ICEs and β-rays were revealed. Although the abundance of internal conversion electrons of (137)Cs-(137)Ba is only 9.35%, 60% of gross counts may be attributed to ICEs in worse source conditions. This information will be useful for radionuclide metrology and for surface contamination monitoring. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology


    Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

  5. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea eLumactud


    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  6. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination. (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta


    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  7. Chronic diseases and mortality among immigrants to Israel from areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster: a follow-up study. (United States)

    Slusky, Danna A; Cwikel, Julie; Quastel, Michael R


    To examine six chronic diseases and all-cause mortality among immigrants to Israel from areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The medical data were obtained from the two largest HMOs in Israel. In the assessment of chronic diseases, individuals were divided into three groups: less exposed (n = 480), more exposed (n = 359), and liquidators (n = 45) and in the mortality analysis, into two groups: less exposed (n = 792) and more exposed (n = 590). Compared to the less exposed, adults from the more exposed group had increased odds of respiratory disorders (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.21, 4.54) and elevated odds, with borderline significance, of ischemic heart disease (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.97, 4.20). In addition, the liquidators had increased odds of hypertension compared to the less exposed (OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.24, 5.64). The Cox proportional-hazards model indicated no difference in the ratio of all-cause mortality between the exposed groups during the follow up period. Our study, conducted approximately two decades after the accident, suggests that exposure to radionuclides may be associated with increased odds of respiratory disorders and hypertension.

  8. Implants with internal hexagon and conical implant-abutment connections: an in vitro study of the bacterial contamination. (United States)

    D'Ercole, Simonetta; Scarano, Antonio; Perrotti, Vittoria; Mulatinho, Jorge; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tripodi, Domenico


    Prevention of microbial leakage at the implant-abutment junction is a major challenge for the construction of 2-stage implants in order to minimize inflammatory reactions and to maximize bone stability at the implant neck. The aim of the present in vitro study was an evaluation of the leakage observed over a period of 28 days in Cone Morse taper internal connections and in screwed-abutments connections. In the present study 10 specimens of Cone Morse (Group 1) and 10 of internal hexagon (Group 2) implants were used. The inner parts of 5 implants per group were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PS) suspension and 5 implants per group with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA). The possible penetration of bacterial suspension into the surrounding solution was determined by the observation of turbidity of the broth. In Group 1, bacterial contamination was found in 3 out of 5 implant-abutment assemblies seeded with the PS and in 2 samples out of 5 in the assemblies seeded with AA, with a total of leaked assemblies in this group of 5 out of 10. In Group 2, bacterial contamination was found in 4 out of 5 implant-abutment assemblies seeded with the PS, and in 4 out of 5 samples seeded with AA, with a total of leaked assemblies of 8 out of 10. The present data confirm the reported high permeability to bacterial leakage of screw-retained abutment connections, and the lower infiltration rates-although not significantly-of Cone Morse taper internal connections.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction.

  10. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito [Kainan Hospital Aichi Prefectural Welfare Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi (Japan); Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya (Japan)


    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  11. Open versus closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy in the management of chronic anal fissures: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta


    Conclusion: Closed lateral internal sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic fissures as it is effective, safe, less expensive, and associated with a lower rate of complications than the open sphincterotomy technique.

  12. Internal distribution of uranium and associated genotoxic damages in the chronically exposed bivalve Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Olivier, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat, 186 BP3, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Adam, Christelle; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat, 186 BP3, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)


    Uranium (U) internal distribution and involved effects in the bivalve Corbicula fluminea have been studied after direct chronic exposure (90 d, 10 {mu}g.L-1). U distribution was assessed at the subcellular level (Metal Rich Granules -MRG-, pellets and cytosol fractions) in two main organs of the bivalve (gills and visceral mass). Micro-localisation was investigated by TEM-EDX analysis in the gills epithelium. DNA damage in gill and hemolymph samples was measured by the Comet assay. The 90-d exposure period led to a significant increase of U concentration in gills over time (x5) and a large U quantity in subcellular granules in gills. Finally, a significant increase (x2) in DNA damage was noted in exposed gills and haemocytes. This study shows that the accumulation levels and consequently the potential toxicity cannot be successfully predicted only on the basis of concentration in water or in tissues and subcellular fractions after chronic exposure. - Highlights: > Relevant information concerning the chronic impact of uranium on biota is scarce. > We study its biological speciation to explain bioavailability, accumulation, toxicity. > 80% of U accumulated was measured in the pellet fraction (organelles + granules/MRG). > Chronic exposure to U induced genetic damage in gill and haemolymph cells of the bivalve.

  13. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutosh Ghosh


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  14. Update in the methodology of the chronic stress paradigm: internal control matters. (United States)

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Couch, Yvonne; Kholod, Natalia; Boyks, Marco; Malin, Dmitry; Leprince, Pierre; Steinbusch, Harry Mw


    To date, the reliability of induction of a depressive-like state using chronic stress models is confronted by many methodological limitations. We believe that the modifications to the stress paradigm in mice proposed herein allow some of these limitations to be overcome. Here, we discuss a variant of the standard stress paradigm, which results in anhedonia. This anhedonic state was defined by a decrease in sucrose preference that was not exhibited by all animals. As such, we propose the use of non-anhedonic, stressed mice as an internal control in experimental mouse models of depression. The application of an internal control for the effects of stress, along with optimized behavioural testing, can enable the analysis of biological correlates of stress-induced anhedonia versus the consequences of stress alone in a chronic-stress depression model. This is illustrated, for instance, by distinct physiological and molecular profiles in anhedonic and non-anhedonic groups subjected to stress. These results argue for the use of a subgroup of individuals who are negative for the induction of a depressive phenotype during experimental paradigms of depression as an internal control, for more refined modeling of this disorder in animals.

  15. Update in the methodology of the chronic stress paradigm: internal control matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyks Marco


    Full Text Available Abstract To date, the reliability of induction of a depressive-like state using chronic stress models is confronted by many methodological limitations. We believe that the modifications to the stress paradigm in mice proposed herein allow some of these limitations to be overcome. Here, we discuss a variant of the standard stress paradigm, which results in anhedonia. This anhedonic state was defined by a decrease in sucrose preference that was not exhibited by all animals. As such, we propose the use of non-anhedonic, stressed mice as an internal control in experimental mouse models of depression. The application of an internal control for the effects of stress, along with optimized behavioural testing, can enable the analysis of biological correlates of stress-induced anhedonia versus the consequences of stress alone in a chronic-stress depression model. This is illustrated, for instance, by distinct physiological and molecular profiles in anhedonic and non-anhedonic groups subjected to stress. These results argue for the use of a subgroup of individuals who are negative for the induction of a depressive phenotype during experimental paradigms of depression as an internal control, for more refined modeling of this disorder in animals.

  16. The general relationship between internalizing psychopathology and chronic physical health conditions: a population-based study. (United States)

    van de Pavert, Iris; Sunderland, Matthew; Luijten, Maartje; Slade, Tim; Teesson, Maree


    Studies have consistently demonstrated a reciprocal relationship between internalizing disorders and several chronic physical health conditions. Yet, much of the extant literature fails to take into account the role of comorbidity among internalizing disorders when examining the relationship with poor physical health. The current study applied latent variable modelling to investigate the shared and specific relationships between internalizing (fear and distress factors) and a range of physical health conditions. Data comprised 8841 respondents aged 16-85 years who took part in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Multiple indicator, multiple causes models were used to parse the shared and specific relationships between internalizing disorders and variables associated with poor physical health. The study found that several physical conditions were significantly related to mean levels of fear and distress. The results were broadly similar but minor differences emerged depending on whether lifetime or past 12 months indicators of mental disorders and physical conditions were utilized in the model. Finally, the results demonstrated that the association between individual mental disorders and physical health conditions are better accounted for by indirect relationships with broad transdiagnostic dimensions rather than including additional disorder-specific relationships. The results indicate that researchers should focus on common mechanisms across multiple internalizing disorders and poor physical health when developing prevention and treatment initiatives.

  17. Chronic dietary risk characterization for pesticide residues: a ranking and scoring method integrating agricultural uses and food contamination data. (United States)

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Reninger, Jean-Cédric; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles


    A method has been developed to identify pesticide residues and foodstuffs for inclusion in national monitoring programs with different priority levels. It combines two chronic dietary intake indicators: ATMDI based on maximum residue levels and agricultural uses, and EDI on food contamination data. The mean and 95th percentile of exposure were calculated for 490 substances using individual and national consumption data. The results show that mean ATMDI exceeds the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 10% of the pesticides, and the mean upper-bound EDI is above the ADI for 1.8% of substances. A seven-level risk scale is presented for substances already analyzed in food in France and substances not currently sought. Of 336 substances analyzed, 70 pesticides of concern (levels 2-5) should be particularly monitored, 22 of which are priority pesticides (levels 4 and 5). Of 154 substances not sought, 36 pesticides of concern (levels 2-4) should be included in monitoring programs, including 8 priority pesticides (level 4). In order to refine exposure assessment, analytical improvements and developments are needed to lower the analytical limits for priority pesticide/commodity combinations. Developed nationally, this method could be applied at different geographic scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huggett, A.; Petersen, B.J.; Walker, R.; Fisher, C.E.; Notermans, S.H.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abbott, P.; Debackere, M.; Hathaway, S.C.; Hecker, E.F.F.; Knaap, A.G.A.; Kuznesof, P.M.; Meyland, I.; Moy, G.; Narbonne, J.-F.; Paakkanen, J.; Smith, M.R.; Tennant, D.; Wagstaffe, P.; Wargo, J.; Würtzen, G.


    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure

  19. Influence of a chronic {sup 90}Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems; Influence d'une contamination chronique par ingestion de {sup 90}Sr sur les systemes hematopoietique, immunitaire et osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas


    Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. {sup 90}Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of {sup 90}Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of {sup 90}Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 {+-} 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of {sup 90}Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  20. Internal contamination of a 2-component implant system after occlusal loading and provisionally luted reconstruction with or without a washer device. (United States)

    Rimondini, L; Marin, C; Brunella, F; Fini, M


    Microbial internal contamination of oral implants has been suggested as being responsible for inflammatory infiltration of peri-implant tissues at the fixture-abutment interface of 2-stage and 2-component implant systems; it is also considered as a potential source of pathogens. The present in vivo study evaluated contamination of the inner abutment-implant retaining screw, after occlusal loading and provisionally-luted reconstruction with or without a washer device. Eight 2-component oral implants sealed with an o-ring silicon washer device and 9 without a seal were placed in 7 patients with high oral hygiene standards. Two months after prosthetic reconstruction, crowns and internal screws were removed, and organic and inorganic screw contamination was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. An amorphous and crystalline contamination, suggestive of calcium and phosphate compounds, was seen on all screw surfaces. Microbial contamination was more frequently observed in the unsealed group. No differences in bacterial morphotypes were observed between the sealed and unsealed implants. Cocci were the most representative morphotypes, while rods were seldom seen. In clinical situations, leakage occurs at the implant-abutment interface, although bacterial contamination is limited in patients with high oral hygiene standards. Contamination may be reduced by using a washer device.

  1. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.


    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathways as a tool to improve appropriateness in Internal Medicine Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ventrella


    Full Text Available In recent decades, in the medical field, criteria and methods of decision-making have radically changed, going from an environment dominated by opinions and knowledge transmitted from experts to a context of evidence-based medicine, that finds its practical realization in the drafting of guidelines (GL. However, GL have a poor implementation in the real world for several factors. In the field of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, there are already many GL, international, national, regional and by specific scientific societies. This multiplicity, while it responds to the legitimate needs to respect the diversity of interpretation of the available scientific data, on the other hand, however, can be an element of confusion for physicians. In this varied scenery we have tried to create some new tools, easy and quick to use, in order to improve the local application of existing GL on COPD, by planning a limited number of pathways in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD, which focus on the fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic aspects, as a tool to improve appropriateness in Internal Medicine Departments. These pathways, reported on individual sheets, which can be distributed to medical personnel of wards/units involved in the care of patients with COPD (First Aid, Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Pulmonology, Intensive Respiratory Care Unit, Resuscitation, are useful to support the physician in the decision-making process and help you to resolve any disputes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Miššík


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain some preliminary data necessary for the assessment of the possible existence of small-area local sources of contaminated mushrooms in forested areas with comparatively low inventory of man-made 137Cs. On the study plot near Čierne-Svrčinovec (North-western Slovakia 31 samples were collected during periodic sampling in the years 2012-2013 and analysed by gamma-spectrometry. Activities 137Cs in mushrooms from entire sampling plot followed the lognormal distribution with extremely high variation and high positive skew, with projected three-sigma (99.75% range from 0.49 to 1537 (dry weight, d.w. and with geometrical average of 27.4 (d.w.. Another 11 samples were collected or bought from roadside vendors living in Roma slums near villages Richnava and Kluknava (Spiš region, eastern Slovakia. Obtained edible wild mushrooms were in a good shape despite prolonged drought indicating existence of well hidden forested sites in slum surroundings. Highest activity of 137Cs in this set was recorded in Boletus edulis (263.3 ± 20.3 (d.w.. Both geometric mean (49.0 and expectation value (91.2 d.w. of lognormal distribution were higher than that of the study plot on NW Slovakia. No sample exceeded the legal radiohygienic limit for radiocesium contamination. The limited extent of presented study only slightly indicates the possibility of slow changes in spatial redistribution of bioavailable 137Cs in forest ecosystem. However, available data on this subject from different sources suggest that there is no reason for massive occurrence of highly contaminated fruiting bodies in small areas surrounding settlements, where some critical groups of individuals, who are used to consume large amounts of mushrooms from limited geographical area could in such case develop significant internal contamination.

  4. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)


    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  5. Disentangling the Sleep-Pain Relationship in Pediatric Chronic Pain: The Mediating Role of Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pavlova


    Full Text Available Background. Pediatric chronic pain often emerges in adolescence and cooccurs with internalizing mental health issues and sleep impairments. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep problems may precede the onset of chronic pain as well as anxiety and depression. Studies conducted in pediatric populations with pain-related chronic illnesses suggest that internalizing mental health symptoms may mediate the sleep-pain relationship; however, this has not been examined in youth with primary pain disorders. Objective. To examine whether anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated relationships between sleep quality and pain outcomes among youth with chronic pain. Methods. Participants included 147 youth (66.7% female aged 8–18 years who were referred to a tertiary-level chronic pain program. At intake, the youth completed psychometrically sound measures of sleep quality, pain intensity, pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results. As hypothesized, poor sleep quality was associated with increased pain intensity and pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated these sleep-pain relationships. Discussion. For youth with chronic pain, poor sleep quality may worsen pain through alterations in mood and anxiety; however, prospective research using objective measures is needed. Future research should examine whether targeting sleep and internalizing mental health symptoms in treatments improve pain outcomes in these youth.

  6. Comparison of botox and lateral internal sphincterotomy treatment outcomes in chronic anal fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Dinç


    Full Text Available Objective: Both botox and lateral internal sfinkterotomi are treatment technics used in chronic anal fissure; provide the relaxation of anal sphincter and as a result of this, healing occurs. Aim of this study is to compare efficacy of botox and LIS treatment in chronic anal fissure and discussing with the literature. Methods: 60 of 66 patients who has chronic anal fissure, that we reached, treated but not healed with medical therapy, appealed to the Dr. Sami Ulus Hospital included the study. Gender, age, fissure localization, complaints (pain, bleeding, itching, constipation, complaint length, recurrences after treatment, continence conditions and complications of patients were registered. Results: Sixty patients were enrolled the study. Of the 60 patients; 38(63.3% were male and 22 (27.7% were female. Mean age of all patients was 35.93 ± 11.45 (21 -60. Pain was the common complaint of the all patients. 10 (32.3% recurrence were detected in botox treatment group (Group-I, only 1 (3.4% recurrence was in LIS group (Group-II. There was no complication as an incontinence in group-I but 3 cases with incontinence (10.39% were obtained in group-II. In the evaluation of these 3 cases by Cleveland Clinic Continence Scoring System, 2 cases classified as gas incontinence and 1 case as moderate fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Although botulinum toxin injection seen as an alternative treatment method with low complication rates such as incontinence, high recurrence is an important shortcoming of this technic. LIS performed by experienced surgeons remained the most popular treatment modality with low complication rates and great deal of healing success.

  7. Complexity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalized in internal medicine: a survey by FADOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nozzoli


    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the most frequent pathologies among patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine (IM Departments. COPD is frequently associated with concomitant diseases, which represent major causes of death, and affect disease management. Objectives of our study are to assess the prevalence of COPD patients in IM, to evaluate their comorbidity status, and to describe their complexity, by means of the validated multidimensional prognostic index (MPI score. COMPLEXICO is an observational, prospective, multicenter study, enrolling consecutive patients hospitalized for any cause in IM, with diagnosis of COPD documented by spirometry. A total of 1002 patients in 43 IM Units in Italy were enrolled. The prevalence of COPD in IM was found to be 18.1%, and 72.8% of patients had at least three chronic diseases other than COPD. The mean MPI was 0.43±0.15, and according to a stratification algorithm 31.8% of patients were classified as having low-risk, 58.9% moderate-risk and 9.3% severe-risk of adverse outcome. More than two-thirds of COPD patients in our study present moderate to severe risk of poor outcome according to the MPI stratification.

  8. Internal distribution of uranium and associated genotoxic damages in the chronically exposed bivalve Corbicula fluminea. (United States)

    Simon, Olivier; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Adam, Christelle; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline


    Uranium (U) internal distribution and involved effects in the bivalve Corbicula fluminea have been studied after direct chronic exposure (90 d, 10 μg.L-1). U distribution was assessed at the subcellular level (Metal Rich Granules -MRG-, pellets and cytosol fractions) in two main organs of the bivalve (gills and visceral mass). Micro-localisation was investigated by TEM-EDX analysis in the gills epithelium. DNA damage in gill and hemolymph samples was measured by the Comet assay. The 90-d exposure period led to a significant increase of U concentration in gills over time (× 5) and a large U quantity in subcellular granules in gills. Finally, a significant increase (× 2) in DNA damage was noted in exposed gills and haemocytes. This study shows that the accumulation levels and consequently the potential toxicity cannot be successfully predicted only on the basis of concentration in water or in tissues and subcellular fractions after chronic exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization to evaluate the internal contamination of dental implants and comparison of bacterial leakage with cast or pre-machined abutments. (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cássio; Barbosa, Rodrigo Edson Santos; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Watanabe, Evandro; Ito, Izabel Yoko; de Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira


    To evaluate the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method for detection and quantitation of bacteria from the internal parts of dental implants and to compare bacterial leakage from implants connected either to cast or to pre-machined abutments. Nine plastic abutments cast in a Ni-Cr alloy and nine pre-machined Co-Cr alloy abutments with plastic sleeves cast in Ni-Cr were connected to Branemark-compatible implants. A group of nine implants was used as control. The implants were inoculated with 3 microl of a solution containing 10(8) cells/ml of Streptococcus sobrinus. Bacterial samples were immediately collected from the control implants while assemblies were completely immersed in 5 ml of sterile Tripty Soy Broth (TSB) medium. After 14 days of anaerobic incubation, occurrence of leakage at the implant-abutment interface was evaluated by assessing contamination of the TSB medium. Internal contamination of the implants was evaluated with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. DNA-DNA hybridization was sensitive enough to detect and quantify the microorganism from the internal parts of the implants. No differences in leakage and in internal contamination were found between cast and pre-machined abutments. Bacterial scores in the control group were significantly higher than in the other groups (PDNA-DNA hybridization technique is suitable for the evaluation of the internal contamination of dental implants although further studies are necessary to validate the use of computational methods for the improvement of the test accuracy.

  10. Botulinum toxin injection versus lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulusoy Nefise B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although lateral internal sphincterotomy is the gold-standard treatment for chronic anal fissure, intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin seems to be a reliable new option. The aim of this non-randomized study is to compare the effect of lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments on the outcome and reduction of anal sphincter pressures in patients with chronic anal fissure. Methods Patients with chronic anal fissure were treated with either botulinum toxin injection or lateral internal sphincterotomy by their own choice. Maximal resting pressure and maximal squeeze pressure measurements were performed before and 2 weeks after treatments by anal manometry. Patients were followed for fissure relapse during 14 months. Results Twenty-one consecutive outpatients with posterior chronic anal fissure were enrolled. Eleven patients underwent surgery and ten patients received botulinum toxin injection treatment. Before the treatment, anal pressures were found to be similar in both groups. After the treatment, the maximal resting pressures were reduced from 104 ± 22 mmHg to 86 ± 15 mmHg in the surgery group (p 0.05 in the surgery group, and from 117 ± 62 mmHg to 76 ± 34 (p 0.05. There were no relapses during the 14 months of follow up. Conclusion Lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments both seem to be equally effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

  11. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241. (United States)

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann


    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  12. International Network of Chronic Kidney Disease cohort studies (iNET-CKD): a global network of chronic kidney disease cohorts. (United States)

    Dienemann, Thomas; Fujii, Naohiko; Orlandi, Paula; Nessel, Lisa; Furth, Susan L; Hoy, Wendy E; Matsuo, Seiichi; Mayer, Gert; Methven, Shona; Schaefer, Franz; Schaeffner, Elke S; Solá, Laura; Stengel, Bénédicte; Wanner, Christoph; Zhang, Luxia; Levin, Adeera; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Feldman, Harold I


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden, yet it is still underrepresented within public health agendas in many countries. Studies focusing on the natural history of CKD are challenging to design and conduct, because of the long time-course of disease progression, a wide variation in etiologies, and a large amount of clinical variability among individuals with CKD. With the difference in health-related behaviors, healthcare delivery, genetics, and environmental exposures, this variability is greater across countries than within one locale and may not be captured effectively in a single study. Studies were invited to join the network. Prerequisites for membership included: 1) observational designs with a priori hypotheses and defined study objectives, patient-level information, prospective data acquisition and collection of bio-samples, all focused on predialysis CKD patients; 2) target sample sizes of 1,000 patients for adult cohorts and 300 for pediatric cohorts; and 3) minimum follow-up of three years. Participating studies were surveyed regarding design, data, and biosample resources. Twelve prospective cohort studies and two registries covering 21 countries were included. Participants age ranges from >2 to >70 years at inclusion, CKD severity ranges from stage 2 to stage 5. Patient data and biosamples (not available in the registry studies) are measured yearly or biennially. Many studies included multiple ethnicities; cohort size ranges from 400 to more than 13,000 participants. Studies' areas of emphasis all include but are not limited to renal outcomes, such as progression to ESRD and death. iNET-CKD (International Network of CKD cohort studies) was established, to promote collaborative research, foster exchange of expertise, and create opportunities for research training. Participating studies have many commonalities that will facilitate comparative research; however, we also observed substantial differences. The diversity we observed across

  13. Identification of Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: An International Modified Delphi Survey. (United States)

    Morisset, Julie; Johannson, Kerri A; Jones, Kirk D; Wolters, Paul J; Collard, Harold R; Walsh, Simon L F; Ley, Brett


    Current diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP) involves considering a combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological information in multidisciplinary team discussions. However, this approach is highly variable with poor agreement between centers. We aimed to identify diagnostic criteria for cHP that reach consensus among international experts. A 3-round modified Delphi survey was conducted between April and August 2017. Forty-five experts in interstitial lung disease from 14 countries participated in the online survey. Diagnostic items included in round 1 were generated using expert interviews and literature review. During rounds 1 and 2, experts rated the importance of each diagnostic item on a 5-point Likert scale. The a priori threshold of consensus was ≥ 75% of experts rating a diagnostic item as very important or important. In the third round, experts graded the items that met consensus as important and provided their level of diagnostic confidence for a series of clinical scenarios. Consensus was achieved on 18 of the 40 diagnostic items. Among these, experts gave the highest level of importance to the identification of a causative antigen, time relation between exposure and disease, mosaic attenuation on chest imaging, and poorly formed non-necrotizing granulomas on pathology. In clinical scenarios, the diagnostic confidence of experts in cHP was heightened by the presence of these diagnostic items. This consensus-based approach for the diagnosis of cHP represents a first step towards the development of international guidelines for the diagnosis of cHP.

  14. International differences in chronic kidney disease prevalence: a key public health and epidemiologic research issue. (United States)

    Stel, Vianda S; Brück, Katharina; Fraser, Simon; Zoccali, Carmine; Massy, Ziad A; Jager, Kitty J


    In this narrative review, we studied the association of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CKD prevalence at an ecological level and describe potential reasons for international differences in estimated CKD prevalence across European countries. We found substantial variation in risk factors for CKD such as in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, raised blood pressure, physical inactivity, current smoking and salt intake per day. In general, the countries with a higher CKD prevalence also had a higher average score on CKD risk factors, and vice versa. There was no association between cardiovascular mortality rates and CKD prevalence. In countries with a high CKD prevalence, the prevention of noncommunicable diseases may be considered important, and, therefore, all five national response systems (e.g. an operational national policy, strategy or action plan to reduce physical inactivity and/or promote physical activity) have been implemented. Furthermore, both the heterogeneity in study methods to assess CKD prevalence as well as the international differences in the implementation of lifestyle measures will contribute to the observed variation in CKD prevalence. A robust public health approach to reduce risk factors in order to prevent CKD and reduce CKD progression risk is needed and will have co-benefits for other noncommunicable diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. COMIS -- an international multizone air-flow and contaminant transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.


    A number of interzonal models have been developed to calculate air flows and pollutant transport mechanisms in both single and multizone buildings. A recent development in multizone air-flow modeling, the COMIS model, has a number of capabilities that go beyond previous models, much as COMIS can be used as either a stand-alone air-flow model with input and output features or as an infiltration module for thermal building simulation programs. COMIS was designed during a 12 month workshop at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in 1988-89. In 1990, the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems program created a working group on multizone air-flow modeling, which continued work on COMIS. The group`s objectives were to study physical phenomena causing air flow and pollutant (e.g., moisture) transport in multizone buildings, develop numerical modules to be integrated in the previously designed multizone air flow modeling system, and evaluate the computer code. The working group supported by nine nations, officially finished in late 1997 with the release of IISiBat/COMIS 3.0, which contains the documented simulation program COMIS, the user interface IISiBat, and reports describing the evaluation exercise.

  16. Culiseta subochrea as a bioindicator of metal contamination in Shadegan International Wetland, Iran (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Nasirian, Hassan; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Taghi Sadeghi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nazmara, Shahrokh


    The quantity of some trace metals of mosquito larvae in Shadegan International Wetland from Iran was evaluated. Water, waterbed sediment, and mosquito larvae samplings were carried out from an urban site in the east of the wetland, using standard methods in December 2011. The identified Culiseta subochrea (Edwards) and Aedes caspius s.l. (Pallas) larvae, water, and waterbed sediment samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Zn trace metals using standard preparation and isolation procedure. Result showed that the waterbed sediment and Cu. subochrea larvae are polluted with all trace metals investigated except As and Hg. The trace metals bioaccumulated in the Cu. subochrea larvae range from 31.78 at the lowest level for Cr to 3822.7 at the highest level for Cd. In a conclusion, this is the first report confirmed that Cu. subochrea likely used as a bioindicator to trace metal pollution in marine ecosystems in the world, especially wetlands. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Determining risk factors for internalizing problem behavior: the Screening Instrument for Adolescents of Parents with Chronic Medical Condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Oort, F.J.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.


    A large body of evidence suggests that the risk for adjustment difficulties in children of parents with a chronic medical condition (CMC) depend on a number of demographic, illness-related, child adaptational, and family characteristics. In particular, internalizing problems are common in children

  18. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kimura

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001 and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001. We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003. In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  19. Drain Insertion in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: An International Survey of Practice. (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Kamenova, Maria; Lutz, Katharina; Guzman, Raphael; Fandino, Javier; Mariani, Luigi


    To investigate whether, after the publication of grade I evidence that it reduces recurrence rates, the practice of drain insertion after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematoma has changed. Further, we aimed to document various practice modalities concerning the insertion of a drain adopted by neurosurgeons internationally. We administered a survey to neurosurgeons worldwide with questions relating to the surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma, with an emphasis on their practices concerning the use of a drain. The preferred surgical technique was burr-hole drainage (89%). Most surgeons prefer to place a drain (80%), whereas in 56% of the cases the reason for not placing a drain was brain expansion after evacuation. Subdural drains are placed by 50% and subperiosteal drains by 27% of the responders, whereas 23% place primarily a subdural drain if possible and otherwise a subperiosteal drain. Three quarters of the responders leave the drain for 48 hours and give prophylactic antibiotic treatment, mostly a single-shot dose intraoperatively (70%). Routine postoperative computed tomography is done by 59% mostly within 24-48 hours after surgery (94%). Adjunct treatment to surgery rarely is used (4%). The publication of grade I evidence in favor of drain use influenced positively this practice worldwide. Some surgeons are still reluctant to insert a drain, especially when the subdural space is narrow after drainage of the hematoma. The insertion of a subperiosteal drain could be a good alternative solution. However, its outcome and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic pancreatitis: An international draft consensus proposal for a new mechanistic definition. (United States)

    Whitcomb, David C; Frulloni, Luca; Garg, Pramod; Greer, Julia B; Schneider, Alexander; Yadav, Dhiraj; Shimosegawa, Tooru


    A definition of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is needed for diagnosis and distinguishing CP from other disorders. Previous definitions focused on morphology. Advances in epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, modeling and other disciplines provide new insights into pathogenesis of CP, and allow CP to be better defined. Expert physician-scientists from the United States, India, Europe and Japan reviewed medical and scientific literature and clinical experiences. Competing views and approaches were debated until a new consensus definition was reached. CP has been defined as 'a continuing inflammatory disease of the pancreas, characterized by irreversible morphological change, and typically causing pain and/or permanent loss of function'. Focusing on abnormal morphology makes early diagnosis challenging and excludes inflammation without fibrosis, atrophy, endocrine and exocrine dysfunction, pain syndromes and metaplasia. A new mechanistic definition is proposed--'Chronic pancreatitis is a pathologic fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathologic responses to parenchymal injury or stress.' In addition, "Common features of established and advanced CP include pancreatic atrophy, fibrosis, pain syndromes, duct distortion and strictures, calcifications, pancreatic exocrine dysfunction, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction and dysplasia." This definition recognizes the complex nature of CP, separates risk factors from disease activity markers and disease endpoints, and allows for a rational approach to early diagnosis, classification and prognosis. Initial agreement on a mechanistic definition of CP has been reached. This definition should be debated in rebuttals and endorsements, among experts and pancreatic societies until international consensus is reached. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes: A report from the chronic pelvic pain working group of the international continence society. (United States)

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M; Drake, Marcus J; Frawley, Helena; Nordling, Jørgen; Hanno, Philip; Fraser, Matthew O; Homma, Yukio; Garrido, Gustavo; Gomes, Mario J; Elneil, Sohier; van de Merwe, Joop P; Lin, Alex T L; Tomoe, Hikaru


    Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by chronic pelvic pain syndromes. The standard aims to facilitate research, enhance therapy development and support healthcare delivery, for healthcare providers, and patients. This document looks at the whole person and all the domains (organ systems) in a systematic way. A dedicated working group (WG) was instituted by the ICS Standardisation Steering Committee according to published procedures. The WG extracted information from existing relevant guidelines, consensus documents, and scientific publications. Medline and other databases were searched in relation to each chronic pelvic pain domain from 1980 to 2014. Existing ICS Standards for terminology were utilized where appropriate to ensure transparency, accessibility, flexibility, and evolution. Consensus was based on majority agreement. The multidisciplinary CPPS Standard reports updated consensus terminology in nine domains; lower urinary tract, female genital, male genital, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurological aspects, psychological aspects, sexual aspects, and comorbidities. Each is described in terms of symptoms, signs and further evaluation. The document presents preferred terms and definitions for symptoms, signs, and evaluation (diagnostic work-up) of female and male patients with chronic pelvic pain syndromes, serving as a platform for ongoing development in this field. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:984-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Treatment of chronic anal fissure: Botulinum toxin (Dysport versus lateral internal anal sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgari M


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Botulinum toxin (Dysport is a powerful semi-biological toxin. It has proved to be a remarkable therapeutic agent for treatment of benign anal disorders. Different results have been achieved from injection of botulinum toxin in order to treatment of anal fissure since 1993. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin injection in the treatment of chronic anal fissure Comparing with lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (LIS."n"nMethods: 36 patients entered into two groups, Dysport injection and Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy, randomly. Dysport group were treated by injection of 50 units of botulinum toxin, 25 units of drugs in each side, and LIS was done in surgery group by open method in left side. Pain, recovery and incontinency were compared between two groups during six months of follow up."n"nResults: Based on this study, treatment of anal fissure does not affected by age and gender. Regarding to location of fissure, there was no difference between two different genders. Mean of age and ratio of gender were similar in both groups. The severity of pain in surgery group was lower than Dysport group six months after treatment (0.4±0.7 and 3.2±2.6 respectively, p<0.001. Recovery

  3. International breast cancer and nutrition: a model for research, training and policy in diet, epigenetics, and chronic disease prevention. (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Teegarden, Dorothy; Welch, Ailsa; Hwalla, Nahla; Lelièvre, Sophie


    This article summarizes presentations from the International Breast Cancer and Nutrition workshop held during the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA, on 28 April 2014. An international collaboration was described among teams from low-, middle-, and high-income countries addressing environmental factors, especially diet, and epigenetic interactions that affect the risk of chronic disease. Speakers addressed opportunities and challenges involved in this type of international collaboration, assessing diet and nutritional status across a wide range of cultures, and research tools and discoveries from this group.

  4. Prognostic discrimination based on the EUTOS long-term survival score within the International Registry for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millot, Frédéric; Guilhot, Joëlle; Suttorp, Meinolf


    The EUTOS Long-Term Survival score was tested in 350 children with chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase treated with imatinib and registered in the International Registry for Childhood Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. With a median follow up of 3 years (range, 1 month to 6 years) progression ...

  5. International guidelines for prevention and management of post-operative chronic pain following inguinal hernia surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfieri, S; Amid, P K; Campanelli, G


    To provide uniform terminology and definition of post-herniorrhaphy groin chronic pain. To give guidelines to the scientific community concerning the prevention and the treatment of chronic groin and testicular pain....


    The mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, is a common estuarine teleost inhabiting tidal marshes of the eastern United States. We previoiusly reported on high prevalences of hepatic and extra-hepatic neoplasms in populations of this species from chemically contaminated environments ...

  7. International guidelines for prevention and management of post-operative chronic pain following inguinal hernia surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfieri, S; Amid, P K; Campanelli, G


    To provide uniform terminology and definition of post-herniorrhaphy groin chronic pain. To give guidelines to the scientific community concerning the prevention and the treatment of chronic groin and testicular pain.......To provide uniform terminology and definition of post-herniorrhaphy groin chronic pain. To give guidelines to the scientific community concerning the prevention and the treatment of chronic groin and testicular pain....

  8. Adaptation of soil microbial community structure and function to chronic metal contamination at an abandoned Pb-Zn mine. (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Lanzén, Anders; Blanco, Fernando; Urich, Tim; Garbisu, Carlos


    Toxicity of metals released from mine tailings may cause severe damage to ecosystems. A diversity of microorganisms, however, have successfully adapted to such sites. In this study, our objective was to advance the understanding of the indigenous microbial communities of mining-impacted soils. To this end, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to study a heavily metal-contaminated site along a metal concentration gradient (up to 3220 000 and 97 000 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively) resulting from previous mining. Metal concentration, soil pH and amount of clay were the most important factors determining the structure of soil microbial communities. Interestingly, evenness of the microbial communities, but not its richness, increased with contamination level. Taxa with high metabolic plasticity like Ktedonobacteria and Chloroflexi were found with higher relative abundance in more contaminated samples. However, several taxa belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria followed opposite trends in relation to metal pollution. Besides, functional transcripts related to transposition or transfer of genetic material and membrane transport, potentially involved in metal resistance mechanisms, had a higher expression in more contaminated samples. Our results provide an insight into microbial communities in long-term metal-contaminated environments and how they contrast to nearby sites with lower contamination. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Chronic toxicity of contaminated sediments on reproduction and histopathology of the crustacean Gammarus fossarum and relationship with the chemical contamination and in vitro effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurova, Edita; Hilscherova, Klara; Sidlova-Stepankova, Tereza; Blaha, Ludek [Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Rottenburg (Germany); Jungmann, Dirk [Inst. of Hydrobiology, Dresden Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Giesy, John P. [Dept. of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Biology and Chemistry Dept., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of the Environment, Nanjing Univ. (China)


    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the sediment contaminants and the occurrence of intersex in situ. Two of the studied sediments were from polluted sites with increased occurrence of intersex crustaceans (Lake Pilnok, black coal mining area in the Czech Republic, inhabited by the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus population with 18% of intersex; creek Lockwitzbach in Germany with Gammarus fossarum population with about 7% of intersex). Materials and methods Sediments were studied by a combined approach that included (1) determination of concentrations of metals and traditionally analyzed organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) examination of the in vitro potencies to activate aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), and androgen receptor-mediated responses; and (3) in vivo whole sediment exposures during a 12-week reproduction toxicity study with benthic amphipod G. fossarum. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine. (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru


    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  11. Trace element storage capacity of sediments in dead Posidonia oceanica mat from a chronically contaminated marine ecosystem. (United States)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Mazzola, Antonio; Cundy, Andrew B; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice


    Posidonia oceanica mat is considered a long-term bioindicator of contamination. Storage and sequestration of trace elements and organic carbon (Corg ) were assessed in dead P. oceanica mat and bare sediments from a highly polluted coastal marine area (Augusta Bay, central Mediterranean). Sediment elemental composition and sources of organic matter have been altered since the 1950s. Dead P. oceanica mat displayed a greater ability to bury and store trace elements and Corg than nearby bare sediments, acting as a long-term contaminant sink over the past 120 yr. Trace elements, probably associated with the mineral fraction, were stabilized and trapped despite die-off of the overlying P. oceanica meadow. Mat deposits registered historic contamination phases well, confirming their role as natural archives for recording trace element trends in marine coastal environments. This sediment typology is enriched with seagrass-derived refractory organic matter, which acts mainly as a diluent of trace elements. Bare sediments showed evidence of inwash of contaminated sediments via reworking; more rapid and irregular sediment accumulation; and, because of the high proportions of labile organic matter, a greater capacity to store trace elements. Through different processes, both sediment typologies represent a repository for chemicals and may pose a risk to the marine ecosystem as a secondary source of contaminants in the case of sediment dredging or erosion. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:49-58. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. The whole body counting experience on the internal contamination of radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters whole body. NalTl ( 8 x 4″), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2012 to December 2016, approximately 3800 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  13. Immunological and physiological effects of chronic exposure of Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites (United States)

    Segre, M.; Arena, S.M.; Greeley, E.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Graham, D.A.; French, J.B.


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems. Limited data are available on their effects on the immune system of wildlife species. Previously, we found that 4 and 6-week-old white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. Here, we examined the effect of transplacental lactational and postnatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites, on various physiological parameters of 22-week-old white-footed mice. Liver weight and liver somatic index of PCB treated animals were significantly higher, the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower and EROD and BROD enzyme activity was significantly higher compared to control values. The number of thymocytes of the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher proliferative response to the mitogen Con A. These alterations were correlated with the PCBs body burdens. Some toxic effects of chronic exposure to PCBs, at levels comparable to exposure found in contaminated sites in the USA, are still evident in adult P. leucopus.

  14. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador (United States)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.


    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  15. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael


    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  16. Iron deficiency across chronic inflammatory conditions: International expert opinion on definition, diagnosis, and management (United States)

    Comin‐Colet, Josep; de Francisco, Angel; Dignass, Axel; Doehner, Wolfram; S. P. Lam, Carolyn; Macdougall, Iain C.; Rogler, Gerhard; Camaschella, Clara; Kadir, Rezan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Spahn, Donat R.; Taher, Ali T.; Musallam, Khaled M.


    Abstract Iron deficiency, even in the absence of anemia, can be debilitating, and exacerbate any underlying chronic disease, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is frequently concomitant with chronic inflammatory disease; however, iron deficiency treatment is often overlooked, partially due to the heterogeneity among clinical practice guidelines. In the absence of consistent guidance across chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease and inflammatory bowel disease, we provide practical recommendations for iron deficiency to treating physicians: definition, diagnosis, and disease‐specific diagnostic algorithms. These recommendations should facilitate appropriate diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. PMID:28612425


    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  18. Validation of a chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity model for Hyalella azteca exposed to field-contaminated periphyton and lake water. (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George


    A model previously developed in the laboratory to predict chronic bioaccumulation and toxicity of cadmium to Hyalella azteca from a diet of periphyton was validated by comparing predictions with measurements of Cd in two exposure scenarios: laboratory-cultured H. azteca exposed for 28 d to field-contaminated water and periphyton, and Cd measured in field-collected H. azteca. In both exposure scenarios, model predictions of bioaccumulation were shown to be robust; however, effects on Cd bioaccumulation from complexation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inhibition of Cd bioaccumulation by Ca²⁺ must be incorporated into the model to permit its wider application. The model predicted that 80 to 84% of Cd in H. azteca came from periphyton when H. azteca were chronically exposed to dissolved Cd in lake water at 2.63 to 3.01 nmol/L and periphyton at 1,880 to 2,630 nmol/g ash-free dry mass. Dietary Cd contributed markedly to the model-predicted decrease in 28-d survival to 74% at environmental Cd concentrations in food and water. In reality, survival decreased to 10%. The lower than predicted survival likely was due to the higher nutritional quality of periphyton used to develop the model in the laboratory compared with the field-collected periphyton. Overall, this research demonstrated that Cd in a periphyton diet at environmental concentrations can contribute to chronic toxicity in H. azteca. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included.

  20. Surface and internalized Escherichia coli O157:H7 on field-grown spinach and lettuce treated with spray-contaminated irrigation water. (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Diaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Phatak, Sharad C; Silvoy, John J; Davey, Lindsey; Payton, Alison S; Liao, Jean; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael P


    Numerous field studies have revealed that irrigation water can contaminate the surface of plants; however, the occurrence of pathogen internalization is unclear. This study was conducted to determine the sites of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and its survival when the bacteria were applied through spray irrigation water to either field-grown spinach or lettuce. To differentiate internalized and surface populations, leaves were treated with a surface disinfectant wash before the tissue was ground for analysis of E. coli O157:H7 by direct plate count or enrichment culture. Irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) CFU/ml was applied to spinach 48 and 69 days after transplantation of seedlings into fields. E. coli O157:H7 was initially detected after application on the surface of plants dosed at 10(4) CFU/ml (4 of 20 samples) and both on the surface (17 of 20 samples) and internally (5 of 20 samples) of plants dosed at 10(6) CFU/ml. Seven days postspraying, all spinach leaves tested negative for surface or internal contamination. In a subsequent study, irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(8) CFU/ml was sprayed onto either the abaxial (lower) or adaxial (upper) side of leaves of field-grown lettuce under sunny or shaded conditions. E. coli O157:H7 was detectable on the leaf surface 27 days postspraying, but survival was higher on leaves sprayed on the abaxial side than on leaves sprayed on the adaxial side. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce leaves also occurred with greater persistence in leaves sprayed on the abaxial side (up to 14 days) than in leaves sprayed on the adaxial side (2 days).

  1. Lotic ecosystem response to chronic metal contamination assessed by the resazurin-resorufin smart tracer with data assimilation by the Markov chain Monte Carlo method (United States)

    Stanaway, D. J.; Flores, A. N.; Haggerty, R.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.


    Concurrent assessment of biogeochemical and solute transport data (i.e. advection, dispersion, transient storage) within lotic systems remains a challenge in eco-hydrological research. Recently, the Resazurin-Resorufin Smart Tracer System (RRST) was proposed as a mechanism to measure microbial activity at the sediment-water interface [Haggerty et al., 2008, 2009] associating metabolic and hydrologic processes and allowing for the reach scale extrapolation of biotic function in the context of a dynamic physical environment. This study presents a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) data assimilation technique to solve the inverse model of the Raz Rru Advection Dispersion Equation (RRADE). The RRADE is a suite of dependent 1-D reactive ADEs, associated through the microbially mediated reduction of Raz to Rru (k12). This reduction is proportional to DO consumption (R^2=0.928). MCMC is a suite of algorithms that solve Bayes theorem to condition uncertain model states and parameters on imperfect observations. Here, the RRST is employed to quantify the effect of chronic metal exposure on hyporheic microbial metabolism along a 100+ year old metal contamination gradient in the Clark Fork River (CF). We hypothesized that 1) the energetic cost of metal tolerance limits heterotrophic microbial respiration in communities evolved in chronic metal contaminated environments, with respiration inhibition directly correlated to degree of contamination (observational experiment) and 2) when experiencing acute metal stress, respiration rate inhibition of metal tolerant communities is less than that of naïve communities (manipulative experiment). To test these hypotheses, 4 replicate columns containing sediment collected from differently contaminated CF reaches and reference sites were fed a solution of RRST, NaCl, and cadmium (manipulative experiment only) within 24 hrs post collection. Column effluent was collected and measured for Raz, Rru, and EC to determine the Raz Rru breakthrough

  2. Dressing-related pain in patients with chronic wounds: an international patient perspective. (United States)

    Price, Patricia E; Fagervik-Morton, Hilde; Mudge, Elizabeth J; Beele, Hilde; Ruiz, Jose Contreras; Nystrøm, Theis Huldt; Lindholm, Christina; Maume, Sylvie; Melby-Østergaard, Britta; Peter, Yolanda; Romanelli, Marco; Seppänen, Salla; Serena, Thomas E; Sibbald, Gary; Soriano, Jose Verdú; White, Wendy; Wollina, Uwe; Woo, Kevin Y; Wyndham-White, Carolyn; Harding, Keith G


    This cross-sectional international survey assessed patients' perceptions of their wound pain. A total of 2018 patients (57% female) from 15 different countries with a mean age of 68.6 years (SD = 15.4) participated. The wounds were categorised into ten different types with a mean wound duration of 19.6 months (SD = 51.8). For 2018 patients, 3361 dressings/compression systems were being used, with antimicrobials being reported most frequently (n= 605). Frequency of wound-related pain was reported as 32.2%, 'never' or 'rarely', 31.1%, 'quite often' and 36.6%, 'most' or 'all of the time', with venous and arterial ulcers associated with more frequent pain (P= 0.002). All patients reported that 'the wound itself' was the most painful location (n= 1840). When asked if they experienced dressing-related pain, 286 (14.7%) replied 'most of the time' and 334 (17.2%) reported pain 'all of the time'; venous, mixed and arterial ulcers were associated with more frequent pain at dressing change (P VAS) (0-100) giving a mean score of 44.5 (SD = 30.5, n= 1981). Of the 1141 who reported that they generally took pain relief, 21% indicated that they did not feel it was effective. Patients were asked to rate six symptoms associated with living with a chronic wound; 'pain' was given the highest mean score of 3.1 (n= 1898). In terms of different types of daily activities, 'overdoing things' was associated with the highest mean score (mean = 2.6, n= 1916). During the stages of the dressing change procedure; 'touching/handling the wound' was given the highest mean score of 2.9, followed by cleansing and dressing removal (n= 1944). One thousand four hundred and eighty-five (80.15%) patients responded that they liked to be actively involved in their dressing changes, 1141 (58.15%) responded that they were concerned about the long-term side-effects of medication, 790 (40.3%) of patient indicated that the pain at dressing change was the worst part of living with a wound. This study adds

  3. Iron deficiency across chronic inflammatory conditions: International expert opinion on definition, diagnosis, and management. (United States)

    Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Comin-Colet, Josep; de Francisco, Angel; Dignass, Axel; Doehner, Wolfram; S P Lam, Carolyn; Macdougall, Iain C; Rogler, Gerhard; Camaschella, Clara; Kadir, Rezan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Spahn, Donat R; Taher, Ali T; Musallam, Khaled M


    Iron deficiency, even in the absence of anemia, can be debilitating, and exacerbate any underlying chronic disease, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is frequently concomitant with chronic inflammatory disease; however, iron deficiency treatment is often overlooked, partially due to the heterogeneity among clinical practice guidelines. In the absence of consistent guidance across chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease and inflammatory bowel disease, we provide practical recommendations for iron deficiency to treating physicians: definition, diagnosis, and disease-specific diagnostic algorithms. These recommendations should facilitate appropriate diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. US screening of international travelers for radioactive contamination after the Japanese nuclear plant disaster in March 2011. (United States)

    Wilson, Todd; Chang, Arthur; Berro, Andre; Still, Aaron; Brown, Clive; Demma, Andrew; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Martin, Colleen; Salame-Alfie, Adela; Fisher-Tyler, Frieda; Smith, Lee; Grady-Erickson, Onalee; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Brunette, Gary; Ansari, Armin; McAdam, David; Marano, Nina


    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in Japan, resulting in radionuclide release. In response, US officials augmented existing radiological screening at its ports of entry (POEs) to detect and decontaminate travelers contaminated with radioactive materials. During March 12 to 16, radiation screening protocols detected 3 travelers from Japan with external radioactive material contamination at 2 air POEs. Beginning March 23, federal officials collaborated with state and local public health and radiation control authorities to enhance screening and decontamination protocols at POEs. Approximately 543 000 (99%) travelers arriving directly from Japan at 25 US airports were screened for radiation contamination from March 17 to April 30, and no traveler was detected with contamination sufficient to require a large-scale public health response. The response highlighted synergistic collaboration across government levels and leveraged screening methods already in place at POEs, leading to rapid protocol implementation. Policy development, planning, training, and exercising response protocols and the establishment of federal authority to compel decontamination of travelers are needed for future radiological responses. Comparison of resource-intensive screening costs with the public health yield should guide policy decisions, given the historically low frequency of contaminated travelers arriving during radiological disasters.

  5. Social assistance needs of children with chronic health conditions: a comparative study of international and South african eligibility assessment instruments. (United States)

    Berry, Lizette; Smit, Andre de V


    The efficacy of the current instrument to assess the social assistance needs of children with chronic health conditions in South Africa is questioned. To develop an improved assessment instrument for South African use, this instrument was pitted against two international social assistance assessment instruments, the United Kingdom (UK) Disability Living Allowance (DLA) and the Australian Child Disability Assessment Tool (CDAT). A purposive sample of 18 children representing six types of disability and chronic illnesses was selected, and all three assessment instruments were used to assess the needs of these children. A juxtaposition of the outcomes of the assessment instruments revealed significant differences. The South African instrument deemed the majority (56%) of the sample ineligible for assistance. On the contrary, significant majorities were deemed eligible for assistance in terms of the U.K. (94%) and Australian (89%) instruments. The study recommended that a holistic approach to need assessment be adopted in the design of a more appropriate assessment instrument for South African use.

  6. Effects of plant maturity and growth media bacterial inoculum level on the surface contamination and internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in growing spinach leaves. (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Beaulieu, John C; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ge, Beilei


    The incidence of foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the United States. Particularly noteworthy was the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with prepackaged baby spinach. This study aimed to determine whether E. coli O157:H7 would be present in the aerial leaf tissue of a growing spinach plant when introduced at various plant maturities and different inoculum levels in a greenhouse setting. Spinach seeds of a commercial variety were sown in 8-in. (20.32-cm) pots. After seed germination, two levels (10(3) and 10(7) CFU/ml) of an E. coli O157:H7 green fluorescent protein-expressing strain were introduced into the plant growth media weekly for a total of five times. Inoculated spinach plants were examined weekly for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 on leaves and in surrounding growth media. Among 120 spinach plant samples examined for internal leaf contamination, only one yielded a positive result. Surface leaf contamination occurred occasionally and clustered between 3 and 5 weeks of age, but not among leaves younger than 3 weeks of age. On the other hand, when inoculated at the 10(7) CFU/ml level, the E. coli O157:H7 green fluorescent protein strain survived the entire cultivation period, although with gradually reduced levels. The experiments demonstrated that internalization of E. coli O157:H7 of growing spinach plant leaves under greenhouse conditions was a rare event, but surface contamination did occur, primarily when the plants reached 3 weeks of age. The study provided important data to further assess the association between spinach age and potential contamination of E. coli O157:H7.

  7. Erratum: Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from danish slaughter cattle (Veterinary Medicine International)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola


    A tabulation error appeared in Table 1. The fecal contamination data for Age <2 years and >2 years were incorrectly recorded into the table. Whereas the numbers in the table were transposed incorrectly, the actual statistical analyses remain correct.The revised table is reproduced below....

  8. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Sediments of Anzali International Wetland, Northern Iran Based on Type Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ganjali


    Full Text Available Background: The most important factors and problems threatening the Anzali Wetland are the contaminant load and sediments entering the wetland, as well as lack of an integrated management plan for this wetland. The main objectives of the current research were to explore whether there are significant differences in concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Pb in surface sediments among different sites (based on type region development of the Anzali Wetland, Northern Iran. Methods: Through a field study, samples were collected from 10 stations based on the type of regional development and contaminant source inputs of Anzali Wetland in 2015. Using a hot-block digester, the sediment samples were digested with a 4:1 combination of nitric acid (HNO3 and perchloric acid (HCLO4 for one hour at 40 °C, followed by 3 h at 140 °C. Afterwards, samples were filtered with Whatman 42, filter paper and the filtrate was kept in polyethylene containers at 4 °C, until analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results: Mean ± SD levels of metals in the sediments of different stations were 26.7 ± 3.49 (lead, 4.36 ± 0.47 (cadmium, and 88.44 ± 10.06 (zinc μg g-1 dw. There was a significant difference between the stations of the wetland (P < 0.05. This difference could be due to the variations in the input of contaminant sources into the Anzali Wetland. Conclusions: The areas, affected by urban and industrial developments, had the highest level of contamination while the agricultural and less-developed areas had the lowest level of contamination, and therefore, protective plans must be implemented in developed areas in order to lower the level of heavy metals.

  9. Adding insult to injury: neural sensitivity to social exclusion is associated with internalizing symptoms in chronically peer-victimized girls. (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Davis, Megan M; Telzer, Eva H


    Despite evidence documenting activation of the social pain network in response to social rejection and its link to temporary distress, far less is known regarding its role in pervasive emotional difficulties. Moreover, research has not considered the intersection between neural activation to experimentally induced social exclusion and naturally occurring social adversity. This study examined an integrated social pain model of internalizing symptoms, which posits that (i) neural sensitivity in the social pain network is associated with internalizing symptoms, (ii) this linkage is more robust in youth with than without a history of social adversity, and (iii) heightened avoidance motivation serves as one pathway linking neural sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 47 adolescent girls (M age = 15.46 years, SD = .35) with well-characterized histories of peer victimization were exposed to social exclusion. Whole-brain analyses revealed that activation to exclusion in the social pain network was associated with internalizing symptoms. As anticipated, this linkage was stronger in chronically victimized than non-victimized girls and was partially accounted for by avoidance motivation. This research indicates the importance of integrating neural, social and psychological systems of development in efforts to elucidate risk for internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Outcome and management of pregnancies in severe chronic neutropenia patients by the European Branch of the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry (United States)

    Zeidler, Cornelia; Grote, Ulrike A.H.; Nickel, Anna; Brand, Beate; Carlsson, Göran; Cortesão, Emília; Dufour, Carlo; Duhem, Caroline; Notheis, Gundula; Papadaki, Helen A.; Tamary, Hannah; Tjønnfjord, Geir E.; Tucci, Fabio; Van Droogenbroeck, Jan; Vermylen, Christiane; Voglova, Jaroslava; Xicoy, Blanca; Welte, Karl


    Long-term granulocyte-colony stimulating factor treatment has been shown to be safe and effective in severe chronic neutropenia patients. However, data on its use during pregnancy are limited. To address this issue, we analyzed all pregnancies reported to the European branch of the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry since 1994. A total of 38 pregnancies in 21 women with chronic neutropenia (16 pregnancies in 10 women with congenital, 10 in 6 women with cyclic, 12 in 5 women with idiopathic neutropenia) were reported. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was administered throughout pregnancy in 16 women and for at least one trimester in a further 5 women. No major differences were seen between treated and untreated women with respect to pregnancy outcome, newborn complications and infections. In addition, we evaluated the genetic transmission of known or suspected genetic defects in 16 mothers having 22 newborns as well as in 8 men fathering 15 children. As a proof of inheritance, neutropenia was passed on to the newborn in 58% from female and in 62% from male patients with ELANE mutations, but also to some newborns from parents with unknown gene mutation. Based on our results, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapy has been shown to be safe for mothers throughout pregnancies and for newborns without any signs of teratogenicity. With an increasing number of adult patients, genetic counseling prior to conception and supportive care of mothers during pregnancy are crucial. The acceptance of having affected children may reflect the high quality of life obtained due to this treatment. PMID:24997149

  11. Innovations in the nursing care of the chronically ill: a literature review from an international perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, D.; Francke, A.; Hutten, J.B.F.; Zee, J. van der; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.


    This literature review focuses on substitution-related innovations in the nursing care of chronic patients in six western industrialized countries. Differences between primary and secondary care-orientated countries in the kind of innovations implemented are discussed. Health care systems are

  12. Facilitating internal cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation with ibutilide--predictors of atrial defibrillation-threshold decrease. (United States)

    Efremidis, Michalis; Sideris, Antonis; Batra, Ravinder; Manolatos, Dimitrios; Xidonas, Sotirios; Kardara, Dimitra; Ekonomou, Dimitrios; Evagelou, Dimitrios; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kardaras, Fotios


    Internal atrial cardioversion has been successfully used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The object of this study was to depict the effect of ibutilide on sinus rhythm restoration and internal atrial defibrillation threshold in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Twenty-four patients (14 men and 10 women, mean age 63.16+/-8.55 years) with chronic atrial fibrillation were cardioverted using a single-lead system. The distal coil of the defibrillator catheter was placed in the coronary sinus and the proximal coil at the junction of the superior vena cava and the high right atrium. Synchronized biphasic shocks were applied using a step-up protocol from 1 to 30 joules until sinus rhythm was restored. In all patients with successful cardioversion, atrial fibrillation was reinduced and second cardioversion was attempted after intravenous administration of 1 mg ibutilide. Successful internal cardioversion was achieved in 22 (91.6%) and 23 (95.83%) patients before and after ibutilide administration, respectively. The amount of energy given was reduced from 13.89+/-11.44 to 8.28+/-9.64 joules (p=0.0001). Variables associated with the reduction of the defibrillation threshold after ibutilide administration were: duration of the last episode of atrial fibrillation (p=0.008), time since the first episode of atrial fibrillation (p=0.002), body mass index (p=0.01), ejection fraction (p=0.025), male gender (p=0.001), and diameter of the left atrium (p=0.028). Internal atrial defibrillation after ibutilide administration is a safe and effective method for sinus rhythm restoration, with concurrent significant reduction of the atrial defibrillation threshold.

  13. sup 137 Cs and sup 134 Cs human internal contamination in Italy following the 1986 Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarroni, G.; Melandri, C.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy)); Rampa, E. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))


    A synthesis of the data concerning the distribution and behaviour over time until September 1989 of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs human contamination derived from the accident to Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986, is presented. The controls have been performed by means of two intercalibrated whole-body counters on healthy adult male and female volunteers living in different Italian regions. The main topics investigated are: the behaviour over time of the contamination in Bologna and Rome; geographic distribution in Italy in September 1987; the statistical distribution of data; the variability of the individual activity in relation to the mean activity of homogeneous groups; the intersex differences; and the effect of the element's biokinetic uncertainties on the committed effective dose equivalent evaluation. Trends are also found, mainly useful where extended contamination involves too large a fraction of the population for individual control of all the subjects concerned, thus requiring the identification of small groups of individuals representative of large population groups. (author).

  14. The Bobath Concept in Walking Activity in Chronic Stroke Measured Through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. (United States)

    Benito García, Miguel; Atín Arratibel, María Ángeles; Terradillos Azpiroz, Maria Estíbaliz


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation programme based on the Bobath concept in order to improve walking activity in patients with chronic stroke and to show the usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for gathering functioning information. This study is a repeated measures study. The setting of this study is an outpatient neurological rehabilitation centre based on a multidisciplinary approach. Twenty-four participants suffering from chronic stroke (>1 year and a half and Bobath concept principles with three weekly individual physiotherapy sessions of 45 min each over a 6-month period was the intervention for this study. The measures used were Modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile, 10-m walk test, 6-min walk test, muscle strength testing and subsequent codification of these results into ICF qualifiers. The results of the study showed significant improvement in activities of walking long distances, on different surfaces and around obstacles. There was no significant improvement in the activity of walking short distances or for muscle power functions. A rehabilitation programme based on the Bobath Concept improved walking activities in people with chronic stroke. For this intervention, the use of the ICF qualifiers was sensitive in perceiving post-treatment changes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahid M. Salih


    Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  16. Prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease seen in internal medicine. (United States)

    Bureo, Juan Carlos; Arévalo, Jose Carlos; Antón, Joaquín; Adrados, Gaspar; Jiménez Morales, Jose Luis; Robles, Nicolás Roberto


    Despite the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the elderly population, few data are available on the frequency of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the Spanish population affected by this problem. We undertook a study on this issue in patients attending the internal medicine departments in our area. An observational, cross-sectional survey performed at internal medicine departments on 415 patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. Clinical history and risk factors were collected using a standardized protocol. Serum creatinine, phosphate, calcium, intact parathormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-vitD) levels were measured in all patients. Among stage 3 patients, 62.9% had PTH levels ≥70pg/mL and 32.7% levels ≥110pg/mL. Median PTH level in stage 4 patients was 120pg/mL (p <0.001), and 77.9% of these patients had PTH ≥70pg/mL (p <0.001) and 54.1% ≥110pg/mL (p=0.015). Adequate 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol levels were found in only 7.2% of stage 3 patients and 4.1% of stage 4 patients. Only 7.2% of stage 3 patients had hyperphosphatemia, as compared to 25.4% of stage 4 patients (p <0.001). Hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease which is not associated to detectable changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels. It is therefore advisable to measure PTH levels in all patients with decreased glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine; Qualificazione di un sistema di rilevazione trasportabile per misure dirette di contaminazione interna di radioiodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for {sup 131}I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported. [Italian] Il presente lavoro consiste nella qualificazione di un sistema di rivelazione per misure dirette di contaminazione interna da radioiodio in tiroide, progettato per essere maneggevole, di semplice e rapido impiego e trasportabile sul luogo dove e' richiesta la misura. Il sistema e' stato studiato per la realizzazione di programmi di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio che, richiedendo frequenze di controllo elevate (quindicinali per lo {sup 131}I), sono estremamente impegnativi ed onerosi, soprattutto se i controlli vengono effettuati in centri di misura esterni. Dopo la determinazione dei parametri della calibrazione in energia ed efficienza, la minima attivita' rivelabile, l'affidabilita' del sistema nel tempo e le condizioni operative ottimali da adottare in sede di misura, viene verificata la piena affidabilita' del sistema in un programma di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio.

  18. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ojeda

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104, musculoskeletal pain (99 and fibromyalgia (51. The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs, Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001; HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001 and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001; MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001; and the physical (0.49, p < .001 and mental components (0.55, p < .001 of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  19. Living with chronic illness scale: international validation of a new self-report measure in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leire; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Rodriguez-Violante, Mayela; Castrillo, Juan Carlos Martínez; Arillo, Víctor Campos; Garretto, Nélida Susana; Arakaki, Tomoko; Dueñas, Marcos Serrano; Álvarez, Mario; Ibáñez, Ivonne Pedroso; Carvajal, Ana; Martínez-Martín, Pablo


    Understanding how a person lives with a chronic illness, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), is necessary to provide individualized care and professionals role in person-centered care at clinical and community levels is paramount. The present study was aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of the Living with Chronic Illness-PD Scale (EC-PC) in a wide Spanish-speaking population with PD. International cross-sectional study with retest was carried out with 324 patients from four Latin American countries and Spain. Feasibility, acceptability, scaling assumptions, reliability, precision, and construct validity were tested. The study included 324 patients, with age (mean±s.d.) 66.67±10.68 years. None of the EC-PC items had missing values and all acceptability parameters fulfilled the standard criteria. Around two-third of the items (61.54%) met scaling assumptions standards. Concerning internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha values were 0.68-0.88; item-total correlation was >0.30, except for two items; item homogeneity index was >0.30, and inter-item correlation values 0.14-0.76. Intraclass correlation coefficient for EC-PC stability was 0.76 and standard error of measurement (s.e.m.) for precision was 8.60 (for a EC-PC s.d.=18.57). EC-PC presented strong correlation with social support (rS=0.61) and moderate correlation with life satisfaction (rS=0.46). Weak and negligible correlations were found with the other scales. Internal validity correlations ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. EC-PC total scores were significantly different for each severity level based on Hoehn and Yahr and Clinical Impression of Severity Index, but not for Patient Global Impression of Severity. The EC-PC has satisfactory acceptability, reliability, precision, and validity to evaluate living with PD.

  20. International patterns of childhood chronic myeloid leukemia: comparisons between the United States and resource-restricted nations. (United States)

    Sadak, Karim Thomas; Fultz, Kara; Mendizabal, Adam; Reaman, Gregory; Garcia-Gonzalez, Pat; Levine, Paul H


    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare disease in children and represents approximately 2% of all childhood leukemia. This results in difficulty creating large cohorts of patients for pediatric CML research. The Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP) is a patient-access program sponsored by Novartis Oncology and administered by The Max Foundation (MAX) that provides imatinib free of charge to patients in resource-restricted countries who are not able to afford this treatment. GIPAP highlights a cohort of children (n = 3,188) with CML that provides novel insight into international trends in diagnosis, treatment, and survival. These trends can be compared to outcomes in developed nations to crudely assess the impact of an extended access program for CML treatment such as GIPAP. Overall survival values for children treated for CML within the GIPAP (89%) suggest that imatinib is very effective in middle and low-income countries. This may allow for increased international awareness within the scientific community to consider possible reasons for the differences in overall survival in pediatric CML within the United States versus other nations with fewer resources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Safety and effectiveness of an internal pelvic myofascial trigger point wand for urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney; Wise, David; Sawyer, Timothy; Nathanson, Brian H


    Pelvic muscle tenderness occurs often in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome; symptoms frequently can be reduced with pelvic myofascial physical therapy. This open-label pilot study evaluated the safety of a personal wand that enables patient's self-treatment of internal myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor and its effect in reducing pelvic muscle tenderness. A specially designed curved wand served as an extended finger to locate and release painful internal myofascial trigger points; an integrated algometer monitors and guides appropriate applied point pressure. Patients used the wand several times weekly after education and careful supervision. Evaluations for adverse events and assessments of pain sensitivity were conducted at 1 and 6 months after commencing use. One hundred and thirteen of the enrolled 157 patients completed 6 months of wand use-106 men and 7 women; 44 patients withdrew before study completion but none for adverse events. Median age was 41 years and 93% were male. Baseline median sensitivity visual analog scale score (1 to 10, 10=most sensitive) was 7.5 and decreased significantly at 6 months to 4 (Ppain. No serious adverse events occurred. A multimodal protocol using an internal pelvic therapeutic wand seems to be a safe, viable treatment option in select refractory patients with pelvic pain.

  2. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report. Occurrence and effects of chronic, low-level oil contamination in a population of sooty terns (Sterna fuscata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, M.J.


    Records from 45,219 Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata) captured for banding and examined for presence of oil on plumage were assessed for occurrence and effects of chronic, low-level oil contamination. Occurrence of oiled plumage averaged 2.6% for all years between 1962 and 1977, and ranged from 0.2% to 12.0% within years. Incidence of oiling increased significantly from the 1960's to the 1970's, and was far higher in 1970 than any other year. Oil was most frequently found on posterior, ventral plumage suggesting contact is made when Sooty Terns dip to the sea surface when foraging. A paired comparison shows that return rates were not significantly different between birds with and without detectable oil on plumage. Weights of oiled birds did not differ from controls, and no demonstrable effect of oiling on nesting was found. Sooty Terns are less susceptible to oil pollution than most other seabirds. Food is caught at or above the surface by contact dipping, and landing on the water is rare. (The report contains nothing about radioecology).

  3. A pilot study of low-moderate drinking water arsenic contamination and chronic diseases among reproductive age women in Timiş County, Romania. (United States)

    Butts, Celeste D; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Anastasiu, Doru; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gurzau, Eugen S


    We conducted a pilot study of associations between drinking water contaminated by inorganic arsenic (iAs), mostly <10 μg/L, and self-reported chronic diseases in 297 pregnant women. Adjusted for confounding variables, we identified a positive association between iAs and heart disease (OR = 1.63, 95%CI 0.81-3.04, p = 0.094), which was stronger for women living at their current residence ≥ 10 years (OR = 2.47, 95%CI 0.87-10.43, p = 0.058). Confounder-adjusted associations were also suggested for iAs with kidney disease (OR = 1.32, 95%CI 0.77-2.21, p = 0.265) and with high blood pressure (OR = 1.36, 95%CI 0.68-2.39, p = 0.300). A post hoc power analysis indicated the need for a larger study with more statistical power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Geochemical and isotopic evidences from groundwater and surface water for understanding of natural contamination in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) endemic zones in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Edirisinghe, E A N V; Manthrithilake, H; Pitawala, H M T G A; Dharmagunawardhane, H A; Wijayawardane, R L


    Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is the main health issue in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Despite many studies carried out, causative factors have not been identified yet clearly. According to the multidisciplinary researches carried out so far, potable water is considered as the main causative factor for CKDu. Hence, the present study was carried out with combined isotopic and chemical methods to understand possible relationships between groundwater; the main drinking water source, and CKDu in four endemic areas in the dry zone. Different water sources were evaluated isotopically ( 2 H, 3 H and 18 O) and chemically from 2013 to 2015. Results revealed that prevalence of CKDu is significantly low with the groundwater replenished by surface water inputs. It is significantly high with the groundwater stagnated as well as groundwater recharged from regional flow paths. Thus, the origin, recharge mechanism and flow pattern of groundwater, as well as geological conditions which would be responsible for natural contamination of groundwater appear as the main causative factors for CKDu. Therefore, detailed investigations should be made in order to identify the element(s) in groundwater contributing to CKDu. The study recommends providing drinking water to the affected zones using water sources associated with surface waters.

  5. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study. (United States)

    Salih, Abdulwahid M


    Anal fissure are defined as a tear in the skin of the anal canal distal to dentate line. Although still there are controversies about the exact management, lateral sphincterotomy is promising. The aim of this series is to present the outcome of lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter in term of patient satisfaction and complication. A prospective single cohort study, 190 patients, who were undergone lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter from 2010 to 2014, were analyzed. The operation was performed as a day case procedure. The median duration of follow up was 5 years (ranging from 3 to 6). The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Descriptive statistic was used to describe findings. Forty three males (22.6%) and 147 females (77.4%) with a mean ± SD of age of 31.19 ± 7.78 years. Constipation was reported in 152 (80%) patients, bleeding in 131 (68.6%) cases, and pain in 142 (74.7%) patients. The median duration of the disease was 20 months (ranging from 1 to 30 months). Post-operatively, patient satisfaction was high (98.4%) with only 3 cases (1.6%) of recurrence. Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  6. Venous compression syndrome of internal jugular veins prevalence in patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency. (United States)

    Mandolesi, Sandro; Niglio, Tarcisio; Orsini, Augusto; De Sio, Simone; d'Alessandro, Alessandro; Mandolesi, Dimitri; Fedele, Francesco; d'Alessandro, Aldo


    Analysis of the incidence of Venous Compression Syndrome (VCS) with full block of the flow of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency. We included 769 patients with MS and CCSVI (299 males, 470 females) and 210 controls without ms and ccsvi (92 males, 118 females). each subject was investigated by echo-color-doppler (ecd). morphological and hemodynamic ecd data were recorded by a computerized mem-net maps of epidemiological national observatory on ccsvi and they were analyzed by mem-net clinical analysis programs. VCS of IJVs occurs in 240 subjects affected by CCSVI and MS (31% of total) and in 12 controls (6% of total). The differences between the two groups are statistical significant (X² = 36.64, pCerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency, Multiple Sclerosis, Venous Compression Syndrome.

  7. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for fibrosis evaluation in patients with chronic hepatitis C: An international multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Bota, Simona, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus, E-mail: [Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Sirli, Roxana, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Tanaka, Hironori, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Iijima, Hiroko, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Badea, Radu, E-mail: [3rd Medical Clinic, University of Medicine, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Lupsor, Monica, E-mail: [3rd Medical Clinic, University of Medicine, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen, E-mail: [2nd Medical Clinic and Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Petrisor, Ana, E-mail: [2nd Medical Clinic and Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Saito, Hidetsugu, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Ebinuma, Hirotoshi, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Friedrich-Rust, Mireen, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Sarrazin, Christoph, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); and others


    Aim: The aim of this international multicenter study was to evaluate the reliability of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography for predicting fibrosis severity, in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients and methods: We compared ARFI to liver biopsy (LB) in 914 patients (10 centers, 5 countries) with chronic hepatitis C. In each patient LB (evaluated according to the METAVIR score) and ARFI measurements were performed (median of 5–10 valid measurements, expressed in meters/second – m/s). In 400 from the 914 patients, transient elastography (TE) was also performed (median of 6–10 valid measurements, expressed in kiloPascals – kPa). Results: Valid ARFI measurements were obtained in 911 (99.6%) of 914 cases. On LB 61 cases (6.7%) had F0, 241 (26.4%) had F1, 202 (22.1%) had F2, 187 (20.4%) had F3, and 223 (24.4%) had F4 fibrosis. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.654) was found between ARFI measurements and fibrosis (p < 0.0001). The predictive values of ARFI for various stages of fibrosis were: F ≥ 1 – cut-off > 1.19 m/s (AUROC = 0.779), F ≥ 2 – cut-off > 1.33 m/s (AUROC = 0.792), F ≥ 3 – cut-off > 1.43 m/s (AUROC = 0.829), F = 4 – cut-off > 1.55 m/s (AUROC = 0.842). The correlation with histological fibrosis was not significantly different for TE in comparison with ARFI elastography: r = 0.728 vs. 0.689, p = 0.28. TE was better than ARFI for predicting the presence of liver cirrhosis (p = 0.01) and fibrosis (F ≥ 1, METAVIR) (p = 0.01). Conclusion: ARFI elastography is a reliable method for predicting fibrosis severity in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  8. Main internal dose forming factors for inhabitants of contaminated regions at current phase of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident (Kyiv region as an example). (United States)

    Vasylenko, V V; Nechaev, S Yu; Tsigankov, M Ya; Ratia, G G; Berkovskyy, V B; Pikta, V O; Shpachenko, D I; Zadorozhna, G M; Mishhenko, L P


    Objective of this work is revealing of main dose forming factors of internal doses for inhabitants of contaminated regions of Kyiv region relying on the results of integral dosimetric monitoring. Three villages have been chosen for the investigation. They are: Raghivka, Zelena Poliana (Poliske district), Karpylivka (Ivankiv district). Twice a year, in May and in October those villages' residents were inspected for content of incorporated 137Cs. They were measured by direct method at the place of residence with the help of whole body counters (WBC). The principal food samples were collected for detection of 90Sr and 137Сs content. Those villages' inhabitants were interviewed about food consumption levels. Mathematical, dosimetric and radio chemical methods were used in this workResults and conclusions. The estimation of internal doses due to intake of 137Cs by ingestion of milk and potatoes are in the range 0.3-34% of doses estimated on the base of WBC data. The contribution to the dose of internal expo sure from intake of 137Cs with the milk consumption is no more than two times higher than the contribution of pota toes consumption in the case of equal consumption levels of these products. Contributions to the dose of internal exposure from intake of 90Sr with milk and potatoes consumptions are approximately similar. Consumption of mush rooms and other wild nature products by inhabitants from the inspected settlements is the main forming factor of internal dose due to 137Cs intake. V. V. Vasylenko, S. Yu. Nechaev, M. Ya. Tsigankov, G. G. Ratia, V. B. Berkovskyy, V. О. Pikta, D. I. Shpachenko, G. M. Zadorozhna, L.P. Mishhenko.

  9. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine; Developpement d'un outil dosimetrique personnalise pour la radioprotection en contamination interne et la radiotherapie vectorisee en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S


    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  10. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict (United States)


    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  11. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente


    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  12. Correlation Between Tear Film Osmolarity and the Disease Score of the International Chronic Ocular Graft-Versus-Host-Disease Consensus Group in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients. (United States)

    Schargus, Marc; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Tobias; Menrath, Julia; Grigoleit, Götz U; Geerling, Gerd


    To evaluate tear film osmolarity (TFO) as a diagnostic tool for detecting chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to assess its correlation with the new international chronic ocular GVHD score. A group of 204 consecutive patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at University Hospital Wuerzburg in Germany received an ophthalmologic examination after transplantation. TFO was measured and the chronic ocular GVHD score was calculated based on the Schirmer test, corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival injection, Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, and presence of systemic GVHD. A total of 172 patients showed no chronic ocular GVHD. Of the remaining 32 patients using the international chronic ocular GVHD score, 21 were classified as "probably" and 11 as "definite" chronic ocular GVHD. TFO was positively correlated with the new chronic ocular GVHD score (P < 0.01, r = 0.35). TFO differed significantly between patients with no ocular GVHD (300 ± 16.5 mOsm/L) and definite ocular GVHD (337 ± 36 mOsm/L)-a receiver operating characteristic analysis showed high discrimination capability (area under the curve: 0.91 ± 0.04) and suggested a threshold level of the TFO value of 312 mOsm/L yielding a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 82%. TFO can be used for detecting chronic ocular GVHD with high sensitivity and specificity as a noninvasive objective test in addition to traditional dry eye tests. It correlates positively with the diagnostic criteria of a recently established international consensus score for diagnosing the disease.

  13. Living with chronic illness scale: international validation of a new self-report measure in Parkinson’s disease (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leire; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Rodriguez-Violante, Mayela; Castrillo, Juan Carlos Martínez; Arillo, Víctor Campos; Garretto, Nélida Susana; Arakaki, Tomoko; Dueñas, Marcos Serrano; Álvarez, Mario; Ibáñez, Ivonne Pedroso; Carvajal, Ana; Martínez-Martín, Pablo


    Understanding how a person lives with a chronic illness, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), is necessary to provide individualized care and professionals role in person-centered care at clinical and community levels is paramount. The present study was aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of the Living with Chronic Illness-PD Scale (EC-PC) in a wide Spanish-speaking population with PD. International cross-sectional study with retest was carried out with 324 patients from four Latin American countries and Spain. Feasibility, acceptability, scaling assumptions, reliability, precision, and construct validity were tested. The study included 324 patients, with age (mean±s.d.) 66.67±10.68 years. None of the EC-PC items had missing values and all acceptability parameters fulfilled the standard criteria. Around two-third of the items (61.54%) met scaling assumptions standards. Concerning internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha values were 0.68–0.88; item-total correlation was >0.30, except for two items; item homogeneity index was >0.30, and inter-item correlation values 0.14–0.76. Intraclass correlation coefficient for EC-PC stability was 0.76 and standard error of measurement (s.e.m.) for precision was 8.60 (for a EC-PC s.d.=18.57). EC-PC presented strong correlation with social support (rS=0.61) and moderate correlation with life satisfaction (rS=0.46). Weak and negligible correlations were found with the other scales. Internal validity correlations ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. EC-PC total scores were significantly different for each severity level based on Hoehn and Yahr and Clinical Impression of Severity Index, but not for Patient Global Impression of Severity. The EC-PC has satisfactory acceptability, reliability, precision, and validity to evaluate living with PD. PMID:28725703

  14. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Rimi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuukou; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru


    Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). "Sansai" (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3%) samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0%) samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7%) registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit). The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y), at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015). Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura") and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai"). Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside) culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.

  15. Evaluation of the immunological and hematological effects of chronic exposure of adult Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites (United States)

    Arena, S.R.; Segre, M.; French, J.B.


    Polychlorinated biphenyls are known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems; however, limited data is available on their effects on the immune system of wild species. Previous work by our lab found that 4 and 6-week old white-footed mice (Perornyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. The present study examines various immunological parameters of 22-week old white footed mice born from dams chronically exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites. Females were fed diets containing either Aroclor 1254 in corn oil or corn off only, for 3 months, then bred; pups were maintained on the same diets as their mothers. At 22 weeks of age, 31 of the young Peromyscus were analyzed. Body and organ weights were taken and immune function was evaluated by assessing blood profiles, cellularity of thymus and spleen, antibody response to the antigen DNP-KLH, and the in vitro proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen Conconavalin A (Con A). Liver weights and liver to body weight ratios in the treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls, while the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower. In addition, the number of thymocytes in the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher degree of proliferation to Con A. Taken together, these results and those obtained from our previous study, indicate that monitoring of vulnerable immunological parameters in white-footed mice may be a useful indicator of exposure.

  16. Impact of global economic disparities on practices and outcomes of chronic peritoneal dialysis in children: insights from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Franz; Borzych-Duzalka, Dagmara; Azocar, Marta; Munarriz, Reyner Loza; Sever, Lale; Aksu, Nejat; Barbosa, Lorena Sànchez; Galan, Yajaira Silva; Xu, Hong; Coccia, Paula A.; Szabo, Attila; Wong, William; Salim, Rosana; Vidal, Enrico; Pottoore, Stephen; Warady, Bradley A.; Alconcher, L.; Sojo, E.; Coccia, P. A.; Suarez, A.; Valles, P. G.; Salim, R.; Salta, S. A.; van Hoeck, K.; Koch, V.; Feber, J.; Geary, D. A.; White, C.; Valenzuela, M.; Villagra, J.; Cano, F.; Contreras, M. A.; Vogel, A.; Zambrano, P.; Berrocal, P.; Tse, K. C.; Xu, H.; Vondrak, K.; Rönnholm, K.; Harambat, J.; Ranchin, B.; Roussey, G.; Ulinski, T.; Fischbach, M.; Büscher, R.; Kemper, M.; Pape, L.; Schaefer, F.; Borzych, D.; Misselwitz, J.; Klaus, G.; Haffner, D.; Papachristou, F.; Szabo, A.; Bagga, A.; Kanitkar, M.; Verrina, E.; Edefonti, A.; Vidal, E.; Leozappa, G.; Landau, D.; Paik, K. H.; Aoun, B.; Sahpazova, E.; Sànchez Barbosa, L.; Wong, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Silva, Y.; Loza Munarriz, R.; Drozdz, D.; Lipka, M.; Ziolkowska, H.; Sczepanska, M.; Brumariu, O.; Kari, J.; Yap, H. K.; Ariceta, G.; Santos, F.; Besbas, N.; Bakkaloglu, S.; Bilge, I.; Serdaroglu, E.; Bal, A.; Rees, L.; Watson, A. R.; Grünberg, J.; Greenbaum, L.; Neu, A.; Askenazi, D.; Ferris, M.; Patel, H.; Al-Akash, S.; Pottoore, S.; Dharnidharka, V.; Bunchman, T.; Chua, A.; Warady, B. A.; McAfee, N.; Zaritsky, J.; Ha, I. S.


    BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, AND METHODS: The number of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) is increasing rapidly on a global scale. We analyzed the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) registry, a global database active in 33 countries spanning a wide range in gross

  17. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study. (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of chronic hepatitis C in French departments of internal medicine and infectious diseases. (United States)

    Cacoub, P.; Goderel, I.; Morlat, P.; Sene, D.; Myers, R. P.; Alric, L.; Loustaud-Ratti, V.; Melin, P.; Limal, N.; Ouzan, D.; Perronne, C.; Carrat, F.


    This prospective, multicentre study was conducted during 2-30 April 2001 in the internal medicine/infectious diseases services in France and included data from 1858 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, half of whom were HIV co-infected. The aims were to outline the type of pre-therapeutic evaluation of HCV infection performed (HCV RNA, genotype, liver biopsy); determine the proportion and characteristics of patients receiving antiviral treatment; and determine if any changes in these parameters had occurred between 1995 and 2001. Patients whom had a complete pre-therapeutic evaluation (39%, 709/1834) and received antiviral treatment (38%, 690/1830) were more likely to have abnormal liver biochemistry, cirrhosis and cryoglobulinaemia (P < 0.001). Injecting drug users and HIV-co-infected patients were less likely to have a complete pre-therapeutic evaluation or receive antiviral treatment (P < 0.001). A complete pre-therapeutic evaluation was more often performed in 2001 than in 1995 (39% vs. 6%, P < 0.001), including qualitative HCV RNA testing (91% vs. 68%, P < 0.001), genotyping (59% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and a liver biopsy (60% vs. 29%, P < 0.001). The frequency of anti-HCV treatment approximately doubled between 1995 and 2001 (20% vs. 38%, P < 0001). Although adherence to consensus recommendations regarding pre-therapeutic evaluation is not ideal, a substantial improvement has occurred since 1995. Nevertheless, means of increasing the availability of antiviral therapies, particularly for patients with HIV co-infection or injecting drug use, require further study. PMID:15816156

  19. Clinical and manometric evaluation of women with chronic anal fissure before and after internal subcutaneous lateral sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques e Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and manometric parameters of chronic anal fissure females undergoing lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS. METHODS: A total of eight women with chronic anal fissure who underwent LIS were included in this study. The preoperative assessment was performed one week before surgery and included general and anorectal examination, anorectal manometry, and Jorge Wexner questionnaire. The post operative follow up was made every 15 days until complete healing. Jorge Wexner questionnaires and anorectal manometry were repeated at 1 month and 3 months after the surgery. Time to healing, manometric changes and complications were assessed. RESULTS: All patients had preoperative increased anal resting pressure. The resting pressures and anal canal length were significantly decreased 3 months after surgery. Patients' complaints of itching and bleeding were also reduced. Fissures healed in 7 patients and median healing time was 45 days. No complications were observed due to the procedure. One patient had transient incontinence to flatus. CONCLUSION: Lateral internal sphincterotomy provided clinical improvement and reduced resting pressure of the internal anal sphincter in women with chronic anal fissure.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução clínica e manométrica de mulheres com fissura anal crônica submetidas à esfincterotomia lateral interna subcutânea. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com oito pacientes. A avaliação inicial foi realizada por meio de questionários, exame físico e manometria anorretal na semana anterior ao procedimento cirúrgico. Durante o período pós-operatório, as pacientes foram avaliadas clinicamente a cada 15 dias, até a cicatrização completa. Os questionários e a manometria anorretal foram repetidos 1 mês e 3 meses após a operação. Foi avaliado o tempo para cicatrização da fissura, as alterações manométricas e as complicações decorrentes do procedimento. RESULTADOS: Todas as pacientes

  20. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade (United States)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette


    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  1. Proposal of a model for occupational monitoring of iodine-131 internal contamination in nuclear medicine service workers; Proposta de um modelo para monitoracao ocupacional da contaminacao interna por iodo-131 em trabalhadores de servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Marcos Vinicius Sales


    The daily manipulation of iodine solution in nuclear medicine centers for diagnostic and treatment purposes involves significant risks of internal contamination of the staff. In the event of a suspected accidental contamination or when the Radiological Protection Program includes routine individual monitoring of internal contamination, it is necessary to implement internal dose estimation through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. However, due to the Brazilian continental dimensions, this type of monitoring became unfeasible if all measurements have to be performed at the institutes of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Thus, if the nuclear medicine services become able to conduct the monitoring of their own employees, this capacitation would be of great significance. The methodology proposed in this work consists in a simple and inexpensive protocol for auto-monitoring the internal contamination by {sup 131} I, using just the instrumental resources already available at the nuclear medicine services. The IRD's neck-thyroid phantom was used as a standard for performance comparison with other phantoms available in the market. A protocol for performing in vivo and in vitro measurements by the nuclear medicine services was established. It was also evaluated the applicability of the individual monitoring techniques by comparing the detection limits with the derived limits associated to the annual dose limits for workers. (author)

  2. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand. (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Harvey, Richard H; Wise, David; Nevin Smith, J; Nathanson, Brian H; Sawyer, Tim


    This study documents the voluntary reduction in medication use in patients with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome utilizing a protocol of pelvic floor myofascial trigger point release with an FDA approved internal trigger point wand and paradoxical relaxation therapy. Self-referred patients were enrolled in a 6-day training clinic from October, 2008 to May, 2011 and followed the protocol for 6 months. Medication usage and symptom scores on a 1-10 scale (10 = most severe) were collected at baseline, and 1 and 6 months. All changes in medication use were at the patient's discretion. Changes in medication use were assessed by McNemar's test in both complete case and modified intention to treat (mITT) analyses. 374 out of 396 patients met inclusion criteria; 79.7 % were male, median age of 43 years and median symptom duration of 5 years. In the complete case analysis, the percent of patients using medications at baseline was 63.6 %. After 6 months of treatment the percentage was 40.1 %, a 36.9 % reduction (p < 0.001). In the mITT analysis, there was a 22.7 % overall reduction from baseline (p < 0.001). Medication cessation at 6 months was significantly associated with a reduction in total symptoms (p = 0.03).

  3. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en

  4. Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M


    BACKGROUND: Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a \\'mixed\\' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. OBJECTIVES: We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. METHODS: Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. RESULTS: Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p < 0.0001). There was a correlation between venous and arterial pH (r = 0.5347, p < 0.0001). The regression equation to predict arterial pH was: arterial pH = 4.2289 + 0.43113 . venous pH. There were no clinically significant differences in arterial PO associated with analysis delay. A statistically significant decline in pH was detected at 30 min in patients with COPD exacerbation (p = 0.0042) and 90 min in controls (p < 0.0001). A clinically significant decline in pH emerged at 73 min in patients with COPD exacerbation and 87 min in controls. Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded.

  5. Use of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, coding in identifying chronic hepatitis B virus infection in health system data: implications for national surveillance. (United States)

    Mahajan, Reena; Moorman, Anne C; Liu, Stephen J; Rupp, Loralee; Klevens, R Monina


    With increasing use electronic health records (EHR) in the USA, we looked at the predictive values of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) coding system for surveillance of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The chronic HBV cohort from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study was created based on electronic health records (EHR) of adult patients who accessed services from 2006 to 2008 from four healthcare systems in the USA. Using the gold standard of abstractor review to confirm HBV cases, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using one qualifying ICD-9 code versus using two qualifying ICD-9 codes separated by 6 months or greater. Of 1 652 055 adult patients, 2202 (0.1%) were confirmed as having chronic HBV. Use of one ICD-9 code had a sensitivity of 83.9%, positive predictive value of 61.0%, and specificity and negative predictive values greater than 99%. Use of two hepatitis B-specific ICD-9 codes resulted in a sensitivity of 58.4% and a positive predictive value of 89.9%. Use of one or two hepatitis B ICD-9 codes can identify cases with chronic HBV infection with varying sensitivity and positive predictive values. As the USA increases the use of EHR, surveillance using ICD-9 codes may be reliable to determine the burden of chronic HBV infection and would be useful to improve reporting by state and local health departments.

  6. [Effects of chronic uranium internal exposure on mortality: results of a pilot study among French nuclear workers]. (United States)

    Guseva Canu, I; Zhivin, S; Garsi, J-P; Caër-Lorho, S; Samson, E; Collomb, P; Acker, A; Laurier, D


    This article presents the mortality data compiled among a cohort of workers at risk of internal uranium exposure and discusses the extent to which this exposure might differentiate them from other nuclear workers. The cohort consisted of 2897 Areva-NC-Pierrelatte plant workers, followed from 1st January 1968 through 31st December 2006 (79,892 person-years). Mortality was compared with that of the French population, by calculating Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). External radiation exposure was reconstructed using external dosimetry archives. Internal uranium exposure was assessed using a plant-specific job-exposure-matrix, considering six types of uranium compounds according to their nature (natural and reprocessed uranium [RPU] and solubility [fast-F, moderate-M, and slow-S]). Exposure-effect analyses were performed for causes of death known to be related to external radiation exposure (all cancers and circulatory system diseases) and cancer of uranium target-organs (lung and hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, HLT). A significant deficit of mortality from all causes (SMR=0.58; CI95% [0.53-0.63]), all cancers (SMR=0.72; CI95% [0.63-0.82]) and smoking related cancers was observed. Non-significant 30%-higher increase of mortality was observed for cancer of pleura (SMR=2.32; CI95 % [0.75-5.41]), rectum and HLT, notably non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR=1.38; CI95 % [0.63-2.61]) and chronic lymphoid leukemia (SMR=2.36; CI95% [0.64-6.03]). No exposure-effect relationship was found with external radiation cumulative dose. A significant exposure-effect relationship was observed for slowly soluble uranium, particularly RPU, which was associated with an increase in mortality risk reaching 8 to 16% per unit of cumulative exposure score and 10 to 15% per year of exposure duration. The Areva-NC-Pierrelatte workers cohort presents a non-significant over-mortality from HLT cancers, notably of lymphoid origin, unrelated to external radiation

  7. Anal advancement flap versus lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure- a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sahebally, Shaheel Mohammad; Walsh, Stewart Redmond; Mahmood, Waqas; Aherne, Thomas Michael; Joyce, Myles Richard


    Chronic anal fissures (CAF) are common and associated with reduced quality of life. Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is frequently carried out but carries a significant risk of anal incontinence. Anal advancement flap (AAF) has been advocated as an alternative, 'sphincter-preserving' procedure. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of both techniques in the treatment of CAF. The online databases of PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to January 2017. All studies that investigated and reported outcomes of LIS and AAF for treatment of CAF were included. The primary outcome measure was anal incontinence while secondary outcomes included unhealed fissure and wound complication rates. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effect size estimates. Four studies (2 randomized controlled trials and 2 retrospective studies) describing 300 patients (150 LIS, 150 AAF) fulfilled our inclusion criteria. There was significant clinical heterogeneity among the trials. On random effects analysis, AAF was associated with a significantly lower rate of anal incontinence compared to LIS (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.36, p = .002). However, there were no statistically significant differences in unhealed fissure (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 0.25 to 19.33, p = .47) or wound complication rates (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.50 to 4.99 p = .51) between AAF and LIS. AAF is associated with less incontinence, but similar wound complications as well as a similar rate of unhealed fissures compared to LIS. However, further well-executed, multi-centre randomized trials are required to provide stronger evidence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Dietary trends and management of hyperphosphatemia among patients with chronic kidney disease: an international survey of renal care professionals. (United States)

    Fouque, Denis; Cruz Casal, Maria; Lindley, Elizabeth; Rogers, Susan; Pancířová, Jitka; Kernc, Jennifer; Copley, J Brian


    The objective of this study was to review the opinions and experiences of renal care professionals to examine dietary trends among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and problems associated with the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. This was an online survey comprising open and closed questions requesting information on patient dietary trends and the clinical management of hyperphosphatemia. The study was conducted in 4 European countries (the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Participants were 84 renal care professionals. This was an online survey. Responder-reported experiences and perceptions of patient dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management were assessed. Most survey responders (56%) observed an increase in the consumption of processed convenience food, 48% noticed an increase in the consumption of foods rich in phosphorus-containing additives, and 60% believed that there has been a trend of increasing patient awareness of the phosphorus content of food. Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were most likely to experience difficulties in following advice on dietary phosphorus restriction (38% of responders estimated that 25-50% of their patients experienced difficulties, and 29% estimated that 51-75% experienced difficulties). Maintaining protein intake and restricting dietary phosphorus were perceived as being equally important by at least half of responders for predialysis patients (56%) and for those undergoing peritoneal dialysis and HD (54% and 50%, respectively). There were international variations in dietary trends and hyperphosphatemia management. Although most responders have observed a trend of increasing awareness of the phosphorus content of food among patients with CKD, the survey results indicate that many patients continue to experience difficulties when attempting to restrict dietary phosphorus. The survey responses reflect the global trend of increasing consumption of processed convenience foods and

  9. Development of a Facile and High-Throughput Bioluminescence Assay Using Vibrio fischeri to Determine the Chronic Toxicity of Contaminated Samples. (United States)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Westlund, Paul; Isazadeh, Siavash; Neamatallah, Sarah; Yargeau, Viviane


    Chronic toxicity testing using the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, has recently been demonstrated to be a suitable bioassay for water quality monitoring. The toxicity evaluation is typically based on determining the EC50 at specific time points which may lead to overlooking the dynamic nature of luminescence response and limits information regarding the possible mechanisms of action of target compounds. This study investigated various approaches (standard, integral, and luminescence rate inhibition) to evaluate the chronic toxicity of three target compounds (atrazine, trimethoprim, and acetamiprid) using a 96-well plate based method. The chronic toxicity assay and the methods used for EC50 calculation provided in this work resulted in a high-throughput method of chronic toxicity testing and indicated lower EC50 than the values provided by the standard short term methods, indicating higher toxicity. This study emphasizes the need for additional chronic toxicity testing to further evaluate the toxicity of compounds or unknown samples.

  10. [A retrospective study on the incidence of chronic renal failure in the Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology at University Hospital of Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar)]. (United States)

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Ranivoharisoa, Eliane Mikkelsen; Dodo, Mihary; Razafimandimby, Evanirina; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck


    Chronic renal failure is a global public health problem. In developed countries, this disease occurs mainly in the elderly, but in Africa it rather affects active young subjects. This disease need for expensive treatments in a low income country, because of its costs. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of new cases of chronic renal failure in Madagascar. This is a retrospective, descriptive study of 239 patients with chronic renal failure over a 3 year period, starting from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009, in the Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology at University Hospital of Antananarivo. The incidence was 8.51% among patients hospitalized in the Department. The average age of patients was 45.4 years with extremes of 16 and 82 years and a sex ratio 1,46. The main antecedent was arterial hypertension (59.8%). Chronic renal failure was terminal in 75.31% of the cases (n=180). The causes of chronic renal failure were dominated by chronic glomerulonephritis (40.1%), nephroangiosclerosis (35.5%). Hemodialysis was performed in 3 patients (1.26%), no patient was scheduled for a renal transplantation. Mortality rate in the Department was 28.87%. Chronic renal failure is a debilitating disease with a dreadful prognosis which affects young patients in Madagascar. Its treatment remains inaccessible to the majority of patients. The focus must be mainly on prevention, especially on early effective management of infections, arterial hypertension and diabetes to reduce its negative impacts on the community and public health. The project on renal transplantation: living donor, effective and less expensive treatment compared to hemodialysis could also be a good solution for these Malagasy young subjects.

  11. Randomized clinical trial of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation versus lateral internal sphincterotomy for treatment of chronic anal fissure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youssef, Tamer; Youssef, Mohamed; Thabet, Waleed; Lotfy, Ahmed; Shaat, Reham; Abd-Elrazek, Eman; Farid, Mohamed


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation in treatment of patients with chronic anal fissure and to compare it with the...

  12. Critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis - surface water transport for nonradioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuo-Fu


    The health risks for an individual exposed to contaminants released from SRS outfalls from 1989 to 1995 were estimated. The exposure pathways studied are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion of contaminated fish and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming. The estimated incremental risks for an individual developing cancer vary from 3.E-06 to 1.0E-05. The estimated total exposure chronic noncancer hazard indices vary from 6.E-02 to 1.E-01. The critical contaminants were ranked based on their cancer risks and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard quotients. For cancer risks, the critical contaminants released from SRS outfalls are arsenic, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene. For chronic noncarcinogenic risks, the critical contaminants released from srs outfalls are cadmium, arsenic, silver, chromium, mercury, selenium, nitrate, manganese, zinc, nickel, uranium, barium, copper, tetrachloroethylene, cyanide, and phenol. The critical pathways in decreasing risk order are ingestion of contaminated fish, ingestion of drinking water and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming.

  13. Evaluation of the internal and external responsiveness of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) tool for assessing acute and chronic wounds. (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Chin, Weng Yee; Wan, Eric Y F; Lam, Cindy L K


    To examine the internal and external responsiveness of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) tool for assessing the healing progress in acute and chronic wounds. It is important to establish the responsiveness of instruments used in conducting wound care assessments to ensure that they are able to capture changes in wound healing accurately over time. Prospective longitudinal observational study. The key study instrument was the PUSH tool. Internal responsiveness was assessed using paired t-testing and effect size statistics. External responsiveness was assessed using multiple linear regression. All new patients with at least one eligible acute or chronic wound, enrolled in the Nurse and Allied Health Clinic-Wound Care programme between 1 December 2012 - 31 March 2013 were included for analysis (N = 541). Overall, the PUSH tool was able to detect statistically significant changes in wound healing between baseline and discharge. The effect size statistics were large. The internal responsiveness of the PUSH tool was confirmed in patients with a variety of different wound types including venous ulcers, pressure ulcers, neuropathic ulcers, burns and scalds, skin tears, surgical wounds and traumatic wounds. After controlling for age, gender and wound type, subjects in the 'wound improved but not healed' group had a smaller change in PUSH scores than those in the 'wound healed' group. Subjects in the 'wound static or worsened' group had the smallest change in PUSH scores. The external responsiveness was confirmed. The internal and external responsiveness of the PUSH tool confirmed that it can be used to track the healing progress of both acute and chronic wounds. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Internal contamination monitoring through measurements in vivo at whole body contamination unity of IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na Unidade de Contador de Corpo Inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna


    The present work approaches the internal contamination monitoring capacity through measurements performed at the Whole-body Counter Unity of the in-vivo monitoring laboratory (LABMIV) of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, present thr main parameters related to the monitoring techniques developed, and the the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of photon emitter radionuclides with energy in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  15. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil (United States)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  16. COPD uncovered : an international survey on the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] on a working age population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Monica J.; Upton, Jane; Taylor-Fishwick, Judith; Buist, Sonia A.; Jenkins, Christine; Hutton, John; Barnes, Neil; Van der Molen, Thys; Walsh, John W.; Jones, Paul; Walker, Samantha


    Background: Approximately 210 million people are estimated to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] worldwide. The burden of disease is known to be high, though less is known about those of a younger age. The aim of this study was to investigate the wider personal, economic and societal

  17. The Dutch lymphedema guidelines based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and the chronic care model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damstra, R.J.; Halk, A.B.; Born, Y.; Butter, E.S.F.A.; Dorst, E.B.L. van; Everdingen, J.J. van; Feenstra, C.; Gielink, P.D.; Heide-Schoon, G.; Hendrickx, A.; Hidding, J.T.; Storm van Leeuwen, J.B.; Nijland, S.; Oskam, E.; Paulusma, I.; Russell, N.; Rutgers-van Wijlen, K.; Sissingh, I.; Strobbe, L.J.A.; Verhoeff-Braat, C.J.A.; Verwaard, R.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Voesten, H.G.J.M.; Hartog, A.; Urget, M.C.


    Lymphedema is a chronic and progressive condition due to an imbalance between lymphatic filtration and transport capacity. A relative overload of fluid is caused by lymphatic impairment (afterload impairment); an absolute overload is caused by increased filtration (preload raised). Lymphedema can

  18. In vivo effects of a chronic contamination by uranium or cesium 137 on the pharmaceutical metabolism, of the vitamin D and cholesterol; Effets in vivo d'une contamination chronique par l'uranium ou le cesium 137 sur le metabolisme du medicament, de la vitamine D et du cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, M


    In conclusion, an animal model, miming the chronic contamination of the populations exposed to the uranium, was used for the first time to show that the chronic ingestion of a weak dose of depleted uranium can affect the level of active vitamin D without modifying the mineral homeostasis. This study shows that this radionuclide can lead molecular modifications of the CYPs and the nuclear receivers involved in the metabolism of the vitamin D not only at the level of the liver and kidney but also at the level of the independent metabolism in the brain. The deficiency in vitamin D can provoke osseous diseases such as the rickets at the child and the osteomalacia at the adult. The three categories of population the most exposed to this deficiency are the infants, the pregnant women and the old persons. Strong prevalence of the vitamin D deficiency associated with a chronic exposure to uranium could lead to osseous disorders. To verify this hypothesis, it will be necessary secondly to realize this study on individuals animal models predisposed to the rickets or to the osteomalacia. (N.C.)

  19. Chronic insomnia, quality-of-life, and utility scores: comparison with good sleepers in a cross-sectional international survey. (United States)

    Léger, Damien; Morin, Charles M; Uchiyama, Makoto; Hakimi, Zalmaï; Cure, Sandrine; Walsh, James K


    Chronic insomnia has a recognized impact on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) but data on utility scores across countries are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess health related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility scores in individuals from three different countries (USA, France, and Japan), comparing sufferers of chronic insomnia to good sleepers. A cross-sectional survey (SLEEPI-i) of 4067 persons in the US (n=1298; 478 good sleepers and 820 patients with insomnia), France (n=1858; 998 good sleepers and 860 patients with insomnia) and Japan (n=911; 506 good sleepers and 405 patients with insomnia). Enrollment and data collection using consumer panels were web-based in the US and France, and gathered via a postal survey in Japan. People with chronic insomnia (>6 months) were selected based on Insomnia Severity Index scores (ISI). Severity of insomnia was assessed using the ISI score and HRQoL was assessed using the self-administered Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. Utility scores were derived using the algorithm developed by Brazier et al. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. In all countries, people with chronic insomnia (40% treated) reported lower SF-36 scores in each of eight domains compared with good sleepers (Pgood sleepers (mean scores 0.63 versus 0.72 in the US, 0.57 versus 0.67 in France, and 0.67 versus 0.77 in Japan, P<.0001). This survey suggests that chronic insomnia is associated with significant impairment of HRQoL and decreased utilities across the different geographical regions studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The health profile and chronic diseases comorbidities of US-bound Iraqi refugees screened by the International Organization for Migration in Jordan: 2007-2009. (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Naoum, Marwan; Odeh, Nedal; Han, Pauline; Coleman, Margaret; Burke, Heather


    More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007-September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥ 15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.

  1. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: An international on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de K.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Messens, W.; Heyndrickx, M.; Tuyttens, F.; Sonck, B.; Zoons, J.; Herman, L.


    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished

  2. Revision of the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification for lupus nephritis: clarification of definitions, and modified National Institutes of Health activity and chronicity indices. (United States)

    Bajema, Ingeborg M; Wilhelmus, Suzanne; Alpers, Charles E; Bruijn, Jan A; Colvin, Robert B; Cook, H Terence; D'Agati, Vivette D; Ferrario, Franco; Haas, Mark; Jennette, J Charles; Joh, Kensuke; Nast, Cynthia C; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Rijnink, Emilie C; Roberts, Ian S D; Seshan, Surya V; Sethi, Sanjeev; Fogo, Agnes B


    We present a consensus report pertaining to the improved clarity of definitions and classification of glomerular lesions in lupus nephritis that derived from a meeting of 18 members of an international nephropathology working group in Leiden, Netherlands, in 2016. Here we report detailed recommendations on issues for which we can propose adjustments based on existing evidence and current consensus opinion (phase 1). New definitions are provided for mesangial hypercellularity and for cellular, fibrocellular, and fibrous crescents. The term "endocapillary proliferation" is eliminated and the definition of endocapillary hypercellularity considered in some detail. We also eliminate the class IV-S and IV-G subdivisions of class IV lupus nephritis. The active and chronic designations for class III/IV lesions are replaced by a proposal for activity and chronicity indices that should be applied to all classes. In the activity index, we include fibrinoid necrosis as a specific descriptor. We also make recommendations on issues for which there are limited data at present and that can best be addressed in future studies (phase 2). We propose to proceed to these investigations, with clinicopathologic studies and tests of interobserver reproducibility to evaluate the applications of the proposed definitions and to classify lupus nephritis lesions. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The CONFINE (Comorbidities and Outcome iN patients with chronic heart Failure: a study in INternal mEdicine units study: a new epidemiologic observational study on heart failure in the internal medicine departments in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Biagi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The burden of heart failure (HF is enormous and its prevalence increases sharply with age. It has been estimated that heart failure affects up to 3% of the general population and 10% of the elderly. It contributes to hospital admission for most of them, mainly elder adults (admitted in internal medicine units with more than one comorbidity, cognitive disorders, impairment and so on. Despite the increasing prevalence of heart failure, its exact incidence and prevalence remain largely unknown and probably underestimated due to a lack of accurate epidemiological data and difficulties associated with comorbidities and correct diagnosis: over 40% of recurrent hospitalization causes, either cardiac or extracardiac, cannot be determined due to the lack of data. AIM OF THE STUDY The objective of this study estimated the prevalence and the primary care burden associated with comorbidities in internal medicine units. METHOD The design: a longitudinal multicentric observational study using spot analysis three data sheets were filled in during the hospital stay according to three crucial moments: enrolment (“the index day”, admission and discharge. Will be analyzed the following primary outcomes: total and cardiovascular mortality, intensive unit care admission, recurrent cardiovascular disorders, length of stay, hospital readmission, changes in activities of daily living, need for care. Second outcomes: clinical, therapeutic, instrumental and laboratory changes during the admission process. Deep analysis of the following comorbidities will be also taken into account: acute and chronic kidney failure, anaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, muscle loss, nutritional status, cirrhosis of the liver, neoplasms, blood cell disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases. Further evalutation items: cognitive impairment, self-sufficiency and perception of quality life.

  4. Equal Improvement in Men and Women in the Treatment of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Using a Multi-modal Protocol with an Internal Myofascial Trigger Point Wand. (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Wise, David; Sawyer, Tim; Nathanson, Brian H; Nevin Smith, J


    Both men and women require treatment for urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), which includes interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, pelvic floor dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. However, it is unknown if men and women respond differently to a protocol that includes specific physical therapy self-treatment using an internal trigger point wand and training in paradoxical relaxation. We performed a retrospective analysis by gender in a single arm, open label, single center clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a protocol for the treatment of UCPPS from October, 2008 to May, 2011. 314 adult men (79.9 %) and 79 (20.1 %) women met inclusion criteria. The median duration of symptoms was 60 months. The protocol required an initial 6-day clinic for training followed by a 6-month self-treatment period. The treatment included self-administered pelvic floor trigger point release with an internal trigger point device for physical therapy along with paradoxical relaxation training. Notable gender differences in prior treatments were observed. Men had a lower median [Interquartile Range] NIH-CPSI score at baseline than women (27 [21, 31] vs. 29 [22, 33], p = 0.04). Using a 1-10 scale with 10 = Most Severe, the median reduction in trigger point sensitivity was 3 units for both men and women after 6 months therapy (p = 0.74). A modified Intention to Treat analysis and a multivariate regression analysis found similar results. We conclude that men and women have similar, significant reductions in trigger point sensitivity with this protocol.

  5. The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Airport Related Noise on Blood Pressure (A Case Study of area nearby Ahmad Yani International Airport, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Afnita


    Full Text Available The chronic exposure of airport related noise can lead to decreased quality of health and is a risk faktor of disease. Noise can stimulate physiological response to cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure. The increase in blood pressure can be used as indicator of disturbance of the cardiovascular system. Ahmad Yani Airport is an international airport with a high mobility, thus people living near, are susceptible and have a risk for decreased quality health. Thus, the purposes of this study was to determine the effects of chronic noise exposure of airport related noise on the blood pressure. The study was an observational analytic cross-sectional study. This research was conducted in the area near Ahmad Yani Airport in Semarang, which is located on Perumahan Cakarawala (± 1000m and Perumahan Semarang Indah (± 5000m. Total of 60 respondents were randomly included in the study. Noise is measured with a Sound Level Meter (SLM Extech Type 70 335 with Leq measurement method (Equivalent Continous Noise Level for 24 hours (Lsm. The preliminary questionnaire was distributed to fulfill the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. The blood pressures were evaluated using the mercury Spygmomanometer, before and after exposure (flight activity. Data were analyzed with dependent t test. Noise measurements indicated that the Perumahan Cakrawala II had ahigh noise exposure above the noise level standards (NAB of 69 dBA (Lsm > NAB 55dBA, while the Perumahan Semarang Indah has noise exposure at 51 dBA below the NAB. The results indicated that the chronic noise exposure of flight activity had significant effect on blood pressure (p = 0.00. The increase in blood pressure among Perumahan Cakrawala II respondents was higher (systolic: by 83.3%, diastolic: by 59.9% compared to Perumahan Semarang Indah (systolic: by 69.9%, diastolic : by 49,9%. In conclusion, exposure to chronic noise due to flight activity significantly affected blood pressure.

  6. Radiotoxicological analyses of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Research Centre of Saluggia, Radiation Protection Institute, Saluggia, VC (Italy)


    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of {sup 239{sup +}}{sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium.

  7. Building a secure internal attachment: an intra-relational approach to ego strengthening and emotional processing with chronically traumatized clients. (United States)

    Lamagna, Jerry; Gleiser, Kari A


    In this paper, we introduce Intra-Relational AEDP (I-R) as an attachment-based experiential approach to trauma treatment. Integrating Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP) (Fosha, 2000a,b, 2002, 2003) with ego-state methodology, intra-relational interventions specifically seeks to help clients by (1) fostering capacities for self-regulation through shared states of affective resonance between therapist, client, and dissociated self-states; (2) facilitating authentic, open internal dialogue between self-states which can alter engrained patterns of intra-psychic conflict and self-punishment; (3) developing abilities for self-reflection and emotional processing by co-mingling previously disowned affect and emotional memories with here and now experience; and (4) attending to positive affects evoked through experiences of transformation, self-compassion, and self-affirmation. Drawing from object relations and attachment theory, intra-relational interventions places particular emphasis on internal attachment relationships formed through interactions between the client's subjective selves (internal subjects) and reflective selves (internal objects). Through visual imagery, internal dialogue, and explicit relational techniques, intra-relational interventions aims to develop this subjective-reflective dyad's capacity for reciprocal attunement, resonance, and responsiveness. Such clinical strategies aim to foster healing and psychological integration between the client and heretofore disavowed aspects of self.

  8. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)


    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  9. Results of measuring internal Ca absorption and Ca kinetics with /sup 47/Ca in patients suffering from chronically recurrent urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L.; Esther, G.; Serfling, D.; Bast, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)


    47 patients with chronically recurrent calcium lithiasis (with between 3 and over 100 stone episodes) and an average age of 43.2 years have been examined. The Ca absorption lay between 42.7% and 90.0% of the dose, the average was 59.3% with a standard deviation of +- 12.9. This is higher than in persons with healthy kidneys. The Ca absorption is significantly lower in patients with renal insufficiency. Studies on Ca kinetics revealed turnover rates and pool sizes within the normal range.

  10. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation; Ueber den aerztlichen Umgang mit Hochrisikopersonen. Erfahrungen bei Personen mit chronischer interner Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)


    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.) [German] Die aerztliche Fuehrung von Personen, die noch nicht erkrankt sind, aber ein deutlich hoeheres Risiko fuer bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen aufgrund exogener oder endogener Ursachen haben, stellt den Arzt und speziell den diagnostischen Radiologen vor neue Herausforderungen. Dem Beitrag zugrunde liegen die Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung und Beratung so genannter Thorotrastpatienten, d. h. Personen, die nach lange zurueckliegender (vor 1950) intravasaler Injektion eines weltweit eingesetzten Roentgenkontrastmittels zeitlebens einer Alphastrahlung v. a. der Leber (bis 0,4 Gy/a), der Milz (1,2 Gy/a) und des Knochenmarks (0,1 Gy/a) ausgesetzt waren. Fuer die Thorotrastpatienten und die Aerzte stand im Vordergrund die Sorge der Entstehung primaerer, maligner Lebertumoren, die bei mehr als 20% der Betroffenen und damit im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe 100-fach haeufiger auftraten. Die allgemeinen aerztlichen und speziell radiologischen Erfahrungen sind grundsaetzlicher Art und lassen

  11. Water Contamination (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  12. Groundwater Contamination (United States)

    ... Payment Methods Shipping & Handling Donate Potential Threats to Groundwater The Basics What is Groundwater The Hydrologic Cycle ... Quick Facts Read The Aquifer Get Our Newsletters Groundwater Contamination Over 50% of the United States population ...

  13. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)


    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  14. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used to describe multidisciplinary clinical assessments of people with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. (United States)

    Bagraith, Karl S; Strong, Jenny


    The objective of this study was to determine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an associated core set are adequate to describe multidisciplinary clinical assessments of patients with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The multidisciplinary assessment (medical, psychiatry, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology) of a patient with chronic low back pain (LBP) was audio-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively examined. Concepts were extracted by two raters using a meaning condensation procedure and linked to the ICF. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the adequacy of the ICF and selection of categories contained in the comprehensive LBP core set. Overall, 1,228 concepts were extracted from the 5 h of assessment data. This included 1,056 (86.0 %) concepts that could be linked to the ICF, 366 (34.7 %) of which were designated as personal factors. Eighty different second-level ICF categories were represented in the multidisciplinary assessment. This included 48 of the 78 (61.5 %) comprehensive LBP core set categories and 32 non-core set categories. In addition, 32 of the 80 assessed categories were considered by three or more disciplines during their assessment. The ICF was found to adequately cover the concepts extracted from this patient's assessment. This study demonstrates that clinical assessments of chronic musculoskeletal conditions can be mapped to the overall ICF framework by applying the ICF linking rules. However, it also questions the content validity and clinical utility of the current comprehensive LBP core set and highlights the need for further research prior to widespread application of the tool in clinical practice.

  15. Packed with Salmonella--investigation of an international outbreak of Salmonella Senftenberg infection linked to contamination of prepacked basil in 2007. (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Elson, Richard; Little, Christine L; Yip, Hopi; Fisher, Ian; Yishai, Ruth; Anis, Emilia; Valinsky, Lea; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Patel, Nehal; Mather, Henry; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Nielsen, Eva M; Ethelberg, Steen; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Hampton, Michael D; Peters, Tansy; Threlfall, John


    Salmonella Senftenberg is uncommon in the United Kingdom. In January-June 2007, the Health Protection Agency reported on 55 primary human cases of Salmonella Senftenberg in England and Wales. In May 2007, fresh basil sold in the United Kingdom was found to be contaminated with Salmonella Senftenberg. We launched an investigation to elucidate the cause of this outbreak. Isolates were examined using plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the outbreak strain (SSFTXB.0014) was identified. We enquired via Enter-net whether other countries had isolated the outbreak strain, analyzed samples of fresh herbs from U.K. retailers, and interviewed patients on food history. Thirty-two patient-cases were referred to this outbreak in England and Wales. Onsets of illness occurred between 5 March and 6 June 2007. Fifty-six percent of patient-cases were females and 90% adults (>20 years old); three were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella infection. Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States reported on 19 cases of Salmonella Senftenberg infection presenting with the outbreak strain since January 2007. Eight samples of prepacked fresh basil imported from Israel tested positive with the same strain. A minority of patients could recall the consumption of basil before illness, and some reported consumption of products where basil was a likely ingredient. Environmental investigations in Israel did not identify the contamination source. Microbiological evidence suggested an association between contamination of fresh basil and the cases of Salmonella Senftenberg infection, leading to withdrawal of basil from all potentially affected batches from the U.K. market.

  16. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses. (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M


    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  17. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J., E-mail: [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Krasnec, Michelle, E-mail: [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Takeshita, Ryan, E-mail: [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Ryan, Caitlin N., E-mail: [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Griffitt, Kimberly J., E-mail: [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lay, Claire, E-mail: [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Bayha, Keith M., E-mail: [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Hawkins, William E., E-mail: [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lipton, Ian, E-mail: [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Morris, Jeffrey, E-mail: [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); and others


    Highlights: • Juvenile southern flounder were exposed to sediment mixed with different amount of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill. • The exposure was performed for 32 days, with growth and survival assessed throughout. • After the termination of the experiment, the survivors were examined at multiple endpoints, including histopathology and microbiome analysis. • The results indicated that the flounder were adversely affected at each endpoint examined. • Growth and survival were significantly reduced. • Histopathology found effects on gills and livers of exposed fish. • The microbiomes of the exposed fish were significantly altered by the exposure to sediment-associated oil in both gills and intestines. - Abstract: Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04–395 mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8 mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8 mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation

  18. Fukushima simulation experiment: assessing the effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal 137Cs radiation exposure on litter size, sex ratio, and biokinetics in mice. (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Todo, Takeshi


    To investigate the transgenerational effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, 18 generations of mice were maintained in a radioisotope facility, with free access to drinking water containing (137)CsCl (0 and 100 Bq/ml). The (137)Cs distribution in the organs of the mice was measured after long-term ad libitum intake of the (137)CsCl water. The litter size and the sex ratio of the group ingesting the (137)Cs water were compared with those of the control group, for all 18 generations of mice. No significant difference was noted in the litter size or the sex ratio between the mice in the control group and those in the group ingesting the (137)Cs water. The fixed internal exposure doses were ∼160 Bq/g and 80 Bq/g in the muscles and other organs, respectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. International development of an EORTC questionnaire for assessing health-related quality of life in chronic myeloid leukemia patients: the EORTC QLQ-CML24. (United States)

    Efficace, Fabio; Baccarani, Michele; Breccia, Massimo; Saussele, Susanne; Abel, Gregory; Caocci, Giovanni; Guilhot, Francois; Cocks, Kim; Naeem, Adel; Sprangers, Mirjam; Oerlemans, Simone; Chie, Weichu; Castagnetti, Fausto; Bombaci, Felice; Sharf, Giora; Cardoni, Annarita; Noens, Lucien; Pallua, Stephan; Salvucci, Marzia; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Rosti, Gianantonio; Mandelli, Franco


    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a key aspect for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The aim of this study was to develop a disease-specific HRQOL questionnaire for patients with CML to supplement the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-QLQ C30. The process followed a predefined and systematic stepwise iterative process as defined by the EORTC guidelines for questionnaire development. The process was divided into 3 phases: (1) generation of relevant HRQOL issues, (2) operationalization of the HRQOL issues into a set of items, and (3) pretesting the questionnaire for relevance and acceptability. Descriptive statistics and psychometric analyses were also performed. Overall, 655 CML patients were enrolled in 10 countries including the USA and countries in Europe and Asia. Interviews with health-care professionals experienced in CML (n = 59) were also conducted. Results from the interviews, clinical experiences, and statistical analyses were used to develop the EORTC QLQ-CML24. The final module consists of 24 items assessing the following aspects: symptom burden, impact on daily life and on worry/mood, body image problems, and satisfaction with care and with social life. Internal consistency, assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients, ranged from 0.73 to 0.83 for the proposed scales. The EORTC QLQ-CML24 is an internationally developed HRQOL questionnaire for CML patients, and its implementation in clinical research and practice can provide important information to facilitate clinical decision-making.

  20. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria


    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  1. Chronic and acute anemia and extracranial internal carotid stenosis are risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia. (United States)

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Hau, Isabelle; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne


    Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients with SCA at risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P = .004). Furthermore, we show that AAE rate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P = .031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P = .023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan. (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi


    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  3. Chronic pancreatitis (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova


    Full Text Available In the paper, we use the data on the content of caesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and in Bryansk region adult inhabitant’s body, on their food ration and its changes during the first years after the Chernobyl accident, and on the measures to protect the population from internal exposure. We calculate dynamics of 137Cs intake in the body and its contents therein, while maintaining a traditional diet and while replacing food products for radiationfree ones. The results show that the actual 137Cs content in the body is usually below the one calculated on the basis of the food ration. It was found out that individual 137Cs contents in the body correlate with the rate of meat, dairy and natural food products consumption and with factors of protection from internal exposure. The efficiency of the protective measures to reduce the intake and the content of caesium radionuclides in the body of inhabitants, as well as the average effective dose in the first years after the accident has been quantitatively assessed.

  5. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: Representativeness of the Monitoring Results in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura


    Full Text Available Following Japan’s 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, voluntary participation, rather than mandatory, was adopted as the default scenario for individual radiation monitoring. We evaluated the representativeness of the internal monitoring results from voluntary participants in Minamisoma City, which is located 10–40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Of approximately 70,000 individuals who were residing in Minamisoma City before the incident, a total of 19,263 residents (aged ≥21 years participated in the monitoring from 1 October 2011 to 31 March 2015. Based on regression projection techniques with the available data obtained from the voluntary participants, the modeled probabilities of radiocesium (Cs detection in October 2011 for Cs-137 and Cs-134 were 66.9% and 52.9%, respectively, which declined dramatically within a year following the incident. The rate of decline had stagnated since mid-2012, and the probability was close to zero after mid-2014. Sufficient agreement between the modeled probabilities of Cs detection (for the whole population versus the measured Cs levels (for voluntary participants was observed, except for Cs-134 in October 2011, indicating that the voluntary monitoring participant group was a good representative sample. Our findings affirmed the clinical importance of voluntary-based monitoring as a screening and dose-assessment tool in a post-nuclear incident. Our study informs societal decision-making regarding the long-term maintenance of the monitoring program under the current low exposure levels.

  6. Mental contamination: The effects of religiosity. (United States)

    Bilekli, Ilgun; Inozu, Mujgan


    Mental contamination, which occurs in the absence of contact with a contaminant, has a moral element. Previous studies evoked feelings of mental contamination via listening to a scenario, which described a non-consensual kiss. Since mental contamination has a moral element, we tested the effects of the level of religiosity on feelings of mental contamination and related variables in an experimental design. Female undergraduates of high religiosity (n = 48) and low religiosity (n = 44) were randomly assigned to listen to one of two audio recordings involving a consensual or non-consensual kiss from a man described as moral. Mental contamination feelings were evoked successfully in both groups. Effects of scenario condition and religiosity level were seen in mental contamination and related negative feelings. Participants who imagined a non-consensual kiss reported greatest feelings of mental contamination, and internal and external negative feelings. More importantly, high religiosity resulted in greater feelings of mental contamination, internal negative feelings, as well as urges to wash and actual washing behaviors. The current study was conducted on non-clinical Muslim females. This limits the generalization of the findings to the wider population. Mental contamination and related feelings can be seen in different forms at different levels of religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program. (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin


    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  8. Changes in the incidence, pattern of presentation and clinical outcome of early chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients using the 2008 International Workshop on CLL guidelines. (United States)

    Molica, Stefano; Giannarelli, Diana; Mirabelli, Rosanna; Levato, Luciano; Gentile, Massimo; Lentini, Mirella; Morabito, Fortunato


    Before 2008, diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) relied on 1996 National Cancer Institute Working Group criteria which required an absolute lymphocyte count of 5.0 × 10(9)/l or higher. The up-dated 2008 International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) guidelines recommend using the B-cell count as a basis for the diagnosis of CLL and indicate a B-cell threshold of 5.0 × 10(9)/l. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of these changes on the pattern of presentation and clinical outcome of early CLL. For this purpose we analysed 414 patients with previously untreated, Binet stage A CLL diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2010 and registered prospectively at a national database. After patients were reclassified according to updated 2008 IWCLL guidelines, 130 Rai stage 0 CLL patients were reclassifed as clinical monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, resulting in a 31.4% decrease (from 414 to 284) in the diagnosis of early stage CLL. Moreover, a shift towards a more advanced Rai clinical stage under 2008 IWCLL criteria was observed. Finally, the estimated 3-year time to first treatment decreased from 77.2 to 69.9% according to whether 1996 National Cancer Institute Working Group criteria or 2008 IWCLL criteria were used. In conclusion, the 2008 IWCLL guidelines modify the distribution of Rai stage at diagnosis and shorten the time to first treatment in early CLL patients. We expect that these changes might be considered in the interpretation of epidemiologic studies in CLL and in designing clinical trials of early therapeutic intervention in patients with asymptomatic CLL.

  9. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  10. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Kanwal


    Full Text Available Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In Pakistan, bacterial contaminants are reported extensively followed by viral and protozoa contaminants. The health issues associated with bacterial population includes dysentery, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea etc.; and usually includes faecal and total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. The cases related to viral contamination are lesser but chronic and evidenced the presence of HCV, HAV, HEV viruses causing hepatitis, and other hepatic disorders. Lastly, the health impacts associated with protozoans are least reported; and a number of diseases such as giardia, cryptosporidium and toxoplasma have been linked with this class of contaminants. The current review compiles information of these biological contaminants along with their health issues in Pakistan. Moreover, potential sources and fate of microbial contaminants are also discussed.

  11. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey


    Mahmoud Bahmani; Majid Gholami-Ahangaran; Fereidoun Ghotbian; Hassan Hassanzadazar; Seyed Ahmad Karamati; Reza Sepahvand; Ayoub Darabi


    Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily ...

  12. The classification of chronic daily headache in French children and adolescents: A comparison between the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and Silberstein-Lipton criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Cuvellier


    Full Text Available Jean-Christophe Cuvellier1, Frédéric Couttenier2, Stéphane Auvin1, Louis Vallée11Department of Child Neurology, Pediatric Clinic, University Hospital, Lille, France; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Pediatric Clinic, University Hospital, Lille, FranceAbstract: Few data are available on the applicability of both the criteria proposed by Silberstein and Lipton (S-L and the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (ICHD-II in the classification of children and adolescents with chronic daily headache (CDH. The International Headache Society recently added revised criteria (ICHD-IIR for chronic migraine to its Appendix. We retrospectively reviewed all charts of 34 children and adolescents (<17 years with primary CDH presenting to the outpatient clinic of the Universitary Department of Neuropediatrics of Lille between February 2004 and February 2006 and tried to classify their CDH according to both S-L criteria and the recently published ICHD-IIR. Thirty-two children (94% and 33 children (97% could respectively be successfully classified into one subtype of CDH according to the S-L classification and the ICHD-IIR. Transformed migraine was the most common diagnosis (61.8%, followed by new daily-persistent headache (20.6% when the S-L criteria were used. Twenty-three children and adolescents (67.6% could be classified under one of the migraine categories according to the ICHD-IIR classification. We think that both S-L and ICHD-II classifications, when used with detailed headache histories and diaries, are adequate to classify chronic daily headache in children and adolescents.Keywords: chronic daily headache, classification, children, adolescents

  13. Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate: a prospective international cohort study. (United States)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Michael; Fux, Christoph A; Reiss, Peter; Moranne, Olivier; Morlat, Philippe; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Kirk, Ole; Ryom, Lene


    Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between duration of exposure to antiretrovirals and the development of chronic kidney disease in people with initially normal renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In this prospective international cohort study, HIV-positive adult participants (aged ≥16 years) from the D:A:D study (based in Europe, the USA, and Australia) with first eGFR greater than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) were followed from baseline (first eGFR measurement after Jan 1, 2004) until the occurrence of one of the following: chronic kidney disease; last eGFR measurement; Feb 1, 2014; or final visit plus 6 months (whichever occurred first). Chronic kidney disease was defined as confirmed (>3 months apart) eGFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2). The primary outcome was the occurrence of chronic kidney disease. Poisson regression was used to estimate the incidence rate of chronic kidney disease associated with cumulative exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, or abacavir. Between Jan 1, 2004, and July 26, 2013, 23,905 eligible individuals from the D:A:D study were included. Participants had a median baseline eGFR of 110 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) (IQR 100-125), a median age of 39 years (33-45), and median CD4 cell count of 441 cells per mm(3) (294-628). During a median follow-up of 7·2 years (IQR 5·1-8·9), 285 (1%) of 23,905 people developed chronic kidney disease (incidence 1·76 per 1000 person-years of follow-up [95% CI 1·56-1·97]). After adjustment, we recorded a significant increase in chronic kidney disease associated with each additional year of exposure to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

  14. Eels:Contaminant cocktails pinpointing environmental contamination


    Belpaire, Claude; Goemans, Geert


    There is growing concern that insufficient somatic and health conditions of silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla) emigrating from European waters to oceanic spawning areas might be a key causative factor in the decline of the stock. One factor that could contribute to deterioration in the status of eels is high contaminant accumulation in their body. Contaminants may affect lipid metabolism and result in lower energy stores. A high body burden of contaminants and low energy stores might be...

  15. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Quanlu [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)


    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  16. A systematic review of the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury. Results of the International Collaboration on MTBI Prognosis (ICoMP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, Allison; Cancelliere, Carol; Hincapié, Cesar A


    Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment (CCI), following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Data sources: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001–2012), using a previously published search strategy and pre...

  17. The DYSlipidemia International Study (DYSIS-Egypt: A report on the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in Egyptian patients on chronic statin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El Etriby


    Conclusions: Despite chronic statin treatment, two-thirds of patients in the DYSIS-Egypt study had elevated LDL–C levels. A dual strategy, comprising modification of lifestyle factors together with novel treatment options, appears to be necessary to combat the rise in cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality.

  18. International development of an EORTC questionnaire for assessing health-related quality of life in chronic myeloid leukemia patients : The EORTC QLQ-CML24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efficace, Fabio; Baccarani, Michele; Breccia, Massimo; Saussele, Susanne; Abel, Gregory; Caocci, Giovanni; Guilhot, Francois; Cocks, Kim; Naeem, Adel; Sprangers, Mirjam; Oerlemans, Simone; Chie, Weichu; Castagnetti, Fausto; Bombaci, Felice; Sharf, Giora; Cardoni, Annarita; Noens, Lucien; Pallua, Stephan; Salvucci, Marzia; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Rosti, Gianantonio; Mandelli, Franco

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a key aspect for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The aim of this study was to develop a disease-specific HRQOL questionnaire for patients with CML to supplement the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-QLQ

  19. Chronic Diarrhea (United States)

    ... can infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... may represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  20. Short communication: patterns of chronic and acute diseases after natural disasters - a study from the International Committee of the Red Cross field hospital in Banda Aceh after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; van Panhuis, Willem Gijsbert; Lagoutte, Joel


    To assess the pattern of diseases in a natural disaster, which are not necessarily a direct consequence of the event but can impact on the way health assistance is to be provided. Cross-sectional, record-based study in the International Committee of the Red Cross field hospital in Aceh, Indonesia, established immediately after the tsunami in 2004. Patients who presented to hospital from January 15 to 31, and whose diagnoses were available, were included in the study. One thousand one hundred and eighty-eight residents of Aceh participated. 43.5% of the diagnoses was chronic diseases. The odds of chronic vs. acute diseases increased by 16.4% per day up to January 23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.8-25.6%] and decreased thereafter by 13.1% (95% CI: 6.6-19.1%) per day. The odds of acute diseases were 34% lower among females than males (95% CI: 16-49%) and 4.3 times higher among children than the rest of the population (95% CI: 2.4-7.6). There were relatively few trauma cases among females and children. Medical teams providing relief after acute disasters should be prepared to provide healthcare for chronic diseases too. A delay in the presentation of many acute conditions has implications for long-term health consequences of disasters, such as disability.

  1. Center for Contaminated Sediments (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  2. Contaminated Sites in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...



  4. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from {sup 131}I in the 'nuclear medicine services'; Respuesta de monitores de contaminacion superficial para el control de la exposicion interna a {sup 131}I en servicios de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez, E-mail: [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German, E-mail: [Fundacion Escuela de Medina Nuclear (FUESMEN), Mendoza (Argentina)


    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide {sup 131}I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to {sup 131}I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of {sup 131}I and {sup 133}Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for {sup 131}I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of {sup 131}I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of {sup 131}I.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: chronic granulomatous disease (United States)

    ... All About the Immune System Orphanet: Chronic granulomatous disease US Immunodeficiency Network Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (5 links) CGD Society Immune Deficiency Foundation: Chronic Granulomatous Disease and Other Phagocytic Cell Disorders International Patient Organisation ...

  6. Early maternal age at first birth is associated with chronic diseases and poor physical performance in older age: cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study. (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; de Albuquerque Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício; Alvarado, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria


    Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as ≤18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery≤8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N=1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17-2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth>18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life-long.

  7. [Diagnosis and therapy of chronic urticaria-what is expected from the revision and update of the international guidelines? A report of the public consensus conference "URTICARIA 2012"]. (United States)

    Maurer, M; Magerl, M; Metz, M; Zuberbier, T


    In November 2012, the 4th International Consensus Meeting on Urticaria ("URTICARIA 2012") took place in Berlin with more than 300 participants. The international and the German guidelines for the definition, classification, diagnosis and management of urticaria are currently being developed based on this meeting. At the time of publication of this article, the guidelines are in the final process of international coordination. The previous international guidelines were updated based on prepared questions as well as a systematic review of the literature by an expert panel. The individual aspects were then discussed with all participants and decided upon, based on the Delphi method with general discussion and open poll. Here, at least a 75 % agreement was required. The new consensus modifies the previous international guidelines on classification and diagnosis and especially on therapy. The treatment algorithm has been changed to a three step approach. The first step is a second generation H1 antihistamine in standard dosage. The second step is increasing the dose up to 4 times the standard dose. In the third step, additional treatment with omalizumab, cyclosporine A or montelukast is recommended as well as possibly systemic corticosteroids for a maximum of 7-10 days. H2 antihistamines and dapsone, which were included in the previous guideline as standard therapies, are no longer recommended for use by the updated and revised guidelines.

  8. Chronic Arsenic poisoning. (United States)

    Ahsan, Tasnim; Zehra, Kaneez; Munshi, Alia; Ahsan, Samiah


    Chronic Arsenic Toxicity may have varied clinical presentations ranging from non-cancerous manifestations to malignancy of skin and different internal organs. Dermal lesions such as hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis, predominantly over palms and soles are diagnostic of Chronic Arsenicosis. We report two cases from a family living in Sukkur who presented with classical skin lesions described in Chronic Arsenicosis. The urine, nail and hair samples of these patients contained markedly elevated levels of arsenic. Also the water samples from their household and the neighbouring households were found to have alarming levels of inorganic Arsenic.

  9. Controversies in Veterinary Nephrology: Renal Diets Are Indicated for Cats with International Renal Interest Society Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2 to 4: The Pro View. (United States)

    Polzin, David J; Churchill, Julie A


    Renal diets have been the mainstay of therapy for cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many decades. Clinical trials in cats with CKD have shown them to be effective in improving survival, reducing uremic crises, and improving serum urea nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations. It has shown that, when food intake is adequate, renal diets can maintain body weight and body condition scores for up to 2 years. Although some have questioned whether renal diets provide adequate protein and have advocated feeding higher-protein diets to cats with CKD, there is currently no convincing evidence in support of this proposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of environmental series to study the sensitivity of vegetable contamination to chronic releases S.E.N.S.I.B. project; Utilisation de series de mesures environnementales pour etudier la sensibilite de la contamination vegetale aux rejets chroniques Projet S.E.N.S.I.B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, B.; Mercat-Rommens, C


    This study consists in the assessment of three radioecological parameters involved in the phenomenological modeling of the plant contamination (interception capacity of the vegetables, root transfer and effective period in soils). The aim is to obtain information about these parameters (If possible regionalized information): range and probability distribution. This study is based on various data sets available, in particular, from long records of radioactivity measurements carried out in France over the period 1960-1980 on leafy vegetables (related to the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons). The plant contamination equation is fitted from various data sets. As a whole, the different cases studied highlight a bad goodness of fit. Thus, even if the majority of the estimated values for modeling parameters are consistent with literature, they cannot be used to propose regionalized value for ecological parameters. (N.C.)

  11. First Siena International Conference on Animal Models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Certosa di Pontignano, University of Siena, Italy, September 30-October 2, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hele David


    Full Text Available Abstract The meeting proved of great interest to those developing an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking, evidenced by deterioration in lung function. Lung function is only rarely assessed in animal models. A cigarette smoke driven pathology should provide the best in vivo model for COPD. However, as lesions produced this way take 8–12 months to develop other strategies have to be employed. Emphysematous lesions were also achieved by treatment with elastase, lipopolysaccharide, ozone and other inducers. Several studies described treatments that have shown activity in these models. Transgenic models were discussed, as was the importance of species and strain selection.

  12. Catalyst Substrates Remove Contaminants, Produce Fuel (United States)


    A spacecraft is the ultimate tight building. We don t want any leaks, and there is very little fresh air coming in, says Jay Perry, an aerospace engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center. As a result, there is a huge potential for a buildup of contaminants from a host of sources. Inside a spacecraft, contaminants can be introduced from the materials that make spacecraft components, electronics boxes, or activities by the crew such as food preparation or cleaning. Humans also generate contaminants by breathing and through the body s natural metabolic processes. As part of the sophisticated Environmental Control and Life Support System on the International Space Station (ISS), a trace contaminant control system removes carbon dioxide and other impurities from the cabin atmosphere. To maintain healthy levels, the system uses adsorbent media to filter chemical contaminant molecules and a high-temperature catalytic oxidizer to change the chemical structure of the contaminants to something more benign, usually carbon dioxide and water. In the 1990s, while researching air quality control technology for extended spaceflight travel, Perry and others at Marshall were looking for a regenerable process for the continuous removal of carbon dioxide and trace chemical contaminants on long-duration manned space flights. At the time, the existing technology used on U.S. spacecraft could only be used once, which meant that a spacecraft had to carry additional spare parts for use in case the first one was depleted, or the spacecraft would have to return to Earth to exchange the components.

  13. First data on three bivalve species exposed to an intra-harbour polymetallic contamination (La Rochelle, France). (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Churlaud, Carine; Guillot, Benoit; Martin, Elie; Stenger, Pierre-Louis; Huet, Valérie; Fontanaud, Angélique; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène


    Evaluating diffuse sediment contamination in the environment is a major concern with the aim of reaching a good chemical and ecological state of the littoral zone. In this study the risks of chronic chemical contamination and consequences in the bivalves Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus sp. and Mimachlamys varia were evaluated in coastal environments. The objective here was to understand the anthropological phenomena that affect the functioning of the marina of La Rochelle (semi-closed environment). Harbours seeking ecomanagement accreditations (such as the international reference ISO 14001) constitute zones of interest to implement biomonitoring studies. The biological effects of chemical pollution in the Marina of La Rochelle were studied to develop a multi-biomarker biomonitoring approach on specific marine species of this site. Moreover, a genetic (DNA barcoding) approach was applied to validate the species identity of collected bivalves. Of the three species tested the scallop, M. varia, was the most sensitive to metal exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Cardwell, Allison S; Adams, William J; Gensemer, Robert W; Nordheim, Eirik; Santore, Robert C; Ryan, Adam C; Stubblefield, William A


    The chemistry, bioavailability, and toxicity of aluminum (Al) in the aquatic environment is complex and affected by a wide-range of water quality characteristics (pH, hardness, dissolved organic carbon). Data gaps in Al ecotoxicology exist for pH ranges representative of natural surface waters (pH 6-8). To address these gaps, a series of chronic toxicity tests were performed at pH 6 with eight freshwater species, including two fish (Pimephales promelas and Danio rerio); an oligochaete (Aeolosoma sp.); a rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus); a snail (Lymnaea stagnalis); an amphipod (Hyalella azteca); a midge (Chironomus riparius); and an aquatic plant (Lemna minor). The 10% effect concentrations (EC10s as µg total Al/L) ranged from 98 for D. rerio to 2,175 for L. minor. From these data and additional published data, species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were developed to derive concentrations protective of 95% of tested species (i.e., HC5-50). A generic HC5-50 (not adjusted for bioavailability) of 74.4 µg total Al/L was estimated using the SSD. An Al specific biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to develop SSDs normalized for bioavailability based upon site-specific water quality characteristics. Normalized HC5-50s ranged from 93.7 to 534 µg total Al/L for waters representing a range of European ecoregions, while a chronic HC5 calculated using USEPA aquatic life criteria methods (i.e., a Continuous Criterion Concentration [CCC]) was 125 µg total Al/L when normalized to Lake Superior water in the US. HC5-50 and CCC values for site-specific waters other than those presented here can be obtained using the Al BLM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of chronic venous disease in patients seen in primary care in Spain: results of the international study Vein Consult Program. (United States)

    Escudero Rodríguez, José-Román; Fernández Quesada, Fidel; Bellmunt Montoya, Sergi


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics and management of chronic venous disease (CVD) in patients seen at primary care clinics This cross-sectional study was carried-out in Spain by 999 primary care physicians. They recruited 20 consecutive patients who were attending their clinics for any reason except for a medical emergency. The following Information was collected: demographic data, CVD risk factors, physical examination, clinical characteristics of the CVD and how it was managed. 19,800 patients were included, predominantly women (63%), with a mean age of 53.7 ± 20 years. The prevalence of CVD (CEAP categories C1 to C6) was 48.5% (95% CI, 47.8 to 49.2), significantly higher in women (58.5%; 95% CI, 57.6 to 59.4) than in men (32.1%; 95% CI, 31.0 to 33.1). The greater the age the higher the prevalence and the more advanced the CVD. Ninety-nine percent of the patients required some form of treatment, with a greater proportion among women (72% vs. 39%, P<.0001). Sclerotherapy, endothermal ablation or surgery was required by 4% of the patients. Referral to the specialist was considered for 7% of the patients. Chronic venous disease is highly prevalent among patients seen at primary care clinics in Spain, especially in women and elderly patients. Referral to a specialist and/or the use of the more invasive treatment procedures is uncommon. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. JPL Contamination Control Engineering (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian


    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  17. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater (United States)

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.


    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  18. External Contamination Environment at ISS Included: Selected Results from Payloads Contamination Mapping Delivery 3 Package (United States)

    Olsen, Randy; Huang, Alvin; Steagall, Courtney; Kohl, Nathaniel; Koontz, Steve; Worthy, Erica


    The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  19. Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta , through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, studies on fish contamination are critical for the acceptance of fish food locally and in international markets. Objective: To evaluate and compare the microbiological quality of R. argentea at the fish landing sites and local retail markets in Homa Bay County. Design: Purposive, cross-sectional study. Setting: Fish ...

  20. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John


    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  1. Selected case from the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Series: Mitochondrial myopathy presenting with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO): a case report. (United States)

    Bisceglia, Michele; Crociani, Paola; Fogli, Danilo; Centola, Antonio; Galliani, Carlos A; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea


    A 43-year-old female patient diagnosed with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) because of mitochondrial myopathy documented by muscle biopsy is presented. The chief complaints were represented by blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia. The muscle biopsy was evaluated by histology, using the appropriate histochemical and histoenzimological stains. Ragged red fibers with Gomori trichrome stain were seen, which showed cytochrome c oxydase deficiency and abnormal succinate dehydrogenase staining in around 20% of muscle fibres. Electron microscopy was also performed which demonstrated abnormal, hyperplastic, pleomorphic, and hypertrophic mitochondria, characterized by paracrystalline inclusions arranged in parallel rows ("parking-lot" inclusions), consisting of rectangular arrays of mitochondrial membranes in a linear or grid-like pattern. In conclusion, mitochondrial myopathy was definitely diagnosed. Although molecular analysis, which was subsequently carried out, failed to reveal mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or in selected nuclear genes, the pathologic diagnosis was not changed. The differential diagnosis of CPEO with other forms of ocular myopathies as well as the possible association of CPEO with systemic syndromes is discussed. Ophtalmologists and medical internists should always suspect CPEO when dealing with patients affected by ocular myopathy, either in its pure form or in association with other myopathic or systemic signs.

  2. Prevention and treatment of protein energy wasting in chronic kidney disease patients: a consensus statement by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. (United States)

    Ikizler, T Alp; Cano, Noel J; Franch, Harold; Fouque, Denis; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Stenvinkel, Peter; TerWee, Pieter; Teta, Daniel; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Wanner, Christoph


    Protein energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, especially in individuals receiving maintenance dialysis therapy. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of CKD patients requiring a combination of therapeutic maneuvers to prevent or reverse protein and energy depletion. These include optimizing dietary nutrient intake, appropriate treatment of metabolic disturbances such as metabolic acidosis, systemic inflammation, and hormonal deficiencies, and prescribing optimized dialytic regimens. In patients where oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is shown to be effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. In clinical practice, the advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic strategies such as anabolic steroids, growth hormone, and exercise, in combination with nutritional supplementation or alone, have been shown to improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. Appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and newer anabolic agents are emerging as novel therapies. While numerous epidemiological data suggest that an improvement in biomarkers of nutritional status is associated with improved survival, there are no large randomized clinical trials that have tested the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on mortality and morbidity.

  3. Potential contaminants in the food chain: identification, prevention and issue management. (United States)

    Scanlan, Francis P


    Contaminants are a vast subject area of food safety and quality. They are generally divided into chemical, microbiological and physical classes and are present in our food chain from raw materials to finished products. They are the subject of international and national legislation that has widened to cover more and more contaminant classes and food categories. In addition, consumers have become increasingly aware of and alarmed by their risks, whether rightly or not. What is the food industry doing to ensure the safety and quality of the products we feed our children? This is a valid question which this article attempts to address from an industrial viewpoint. Chemical food safety is considered a complex field where the risk perception of consumers is often the highest. The effects of chronic or acute exposure to chemical carcinogens may cause disease conditions long after exposure that can be permanently debilitating or even fatal. It is also a moving target, as knowledge about the toxicity and occurrence data of new chemical contaminants continues to be generated. Their identification, prevention and management are challenges to the food industry as a whole. A reminder of the known chemical hazards in the food chain will be presented with an emphasis on the use of early warning to identify potential new contaminants. Early warning is also a means of prevention, anticipating food safety concerns before they become issues to manage. Current best management practices including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points relating to the supply chain of baby foods and infant formulae will be developed. Finally, key lessons from a case study on recent contamination issues in baby food products will be presented.

  4. Chronic cholecystitis (United States)

    Acute cholecystitis is a painful condition that leads to chronic cholecystitis. It is not clear whether chronic cholecystitis causes any symptoms. Symptoms of acute cholecystis can include: Sharp, cramping, or dull pain ...

  5. Chronic Sinusitis (United States)

    ... weeks, despite treatment attempts. Also known as chronic rhinosinusitis, this condition interferes with drainage and causes mucus ... Regular exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke Complications Chronic sinusitis complications include: Meningitis. This infection causes ...

  6. Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... over. There are two types: acute pain and chronic pain. Acute pain lets you know that you may ... have problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain may last for weeks, ...

  7. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.


    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  8. Analysis of moonshine for contaminants. (United States)

    Holstege, Christopher P; Ferguson, Jeffrey D; Wolf, Carl E; Baer, Alexander B; Poklis, Alphonse


    In the past, some moonshine products contained potentially toxic contaminants. Although moonshine production continues in the United States, no studies have analyzed the content of moonshine since the early 1960s. We hypothesize that moonshine continues to contain potentially toxic concentrations of contaminants. Forty-eight samples of illicitly distilled moonshine were obtained from law enforcement agencies. An independent laboratory, blinded to both the moonshine source and a control sample of ethanol, conducted the analysis. Lead content was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry with a graphite tube atomizer. Alcohol content, including ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, methanol, and ethylene glycol, was determined using gas liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Ethanol content ranged from 10.5% to 66.0% with a mean value of 41.2%. Lead was found in measurable quantities in 43 of 48 samples with values ranging from 5 to 599 parts per billion (ppb) with a mean value of 80.7 ppb. A total of 29 of 48 (60%) of samples contained lead concentrations above or equal to the EPA water guideline of 15 ppb. Methanol was found in only one sample at a concentration of 0.11%. No samples contained detectable concentrations of acetone, isopropanol, or ethylene glycol. Many moonshine samples contain detectable concentrations of lead. Extrapolations based on the described moonshine lead content suggest that chronic consumers of moonshine may develop elevated lead concentrations. Physicians should consider lead toxicity in the differential diagnosis when evaluating patients consuming moonshine.

  9. Linking quality-of-life measures using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version in chronic health conditions: the example of young people with hemophilia. (United States)

    Krasuska, Marta; Riva, Silvia; Fava, Leonardo; von Mackensen, Sylvia; Bullinger, Monika


    This study aimed to measure the health and functioning of children with hemophilia in Europe using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) as a frame of reference and items from health-related quality-of-life instruments as a measurement tool within a European data set. Based on the results of linkage of items from the hemophilia-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire for children and adolescents to ICF/ICF-CY, the categories most relevant for the description of health and functioning of children with hemophilia were identified for each domain of the ICF/ICF-CY. Using data from the European Study of Clinical, Health, Economic, and Quality-of-Life Outcomes of Hemophilia treatment on 446 children, the frequency of impairments in body structures and body functions, restrictions in activities and participation, and barriers in contextual factors were calculated. In general, the frequency of impairments, restrictions, and barriers was low in the studied population of children with hemophilia. However, the level of restriction as well as barriers was higher than the level of impairments. Older children, children receiving on-demand treatment, and children with severe hemophilia tended to have more problems compared with younger children, children receiving prophylaxis treatment, and children with mild to moderate hemophilia. Using items from quality-of-life instruments with the ICF-CY as a frame of reference proved to be a useful approach for the assessment of health and functioning in children with hemophilia.

  10. Robust and enduring atorvastatin-mediated memory recovery following the 4-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in middle-aged rats. (United States)

    Zaghi, Gislene Gonçalves Dias; Godinho, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Emilene Dias Fiuza; Ribeiro, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin; Previdelli, Isolde Santos; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto


    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common condition associated with the development and/or worsening of age-related dementia.We previously reported persistent memory loss and neurodegeneration after CCH in middle-aged rats. Statin-mediated neuroprotection has been reported after acute cerebral ischemia. Unknown, however, is whether statins can alleviate the outcome of CCH. The present study investigated whether atorvastatin attenuates the cognitive and neurohistological outcome of CCH. Rats (12–15 months old) were trained in a non-food-rewarded radial maze, and then subjected to CCH. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 42 days or 15 days, beginning 5 h after the first occlusion stage. Retrograde memory performance was assessed at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days of CCH, and expressed by “latency,” “number of reference memory errors” and “number of working memory errors.” Neurodegeneration was then examined at the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Compared to sham, CCH caused profound and persistent memory loss in the vehicle-treated groups, as indicated by increased latency (91.2% to 107.3%) and number of errors (123.5% to 2508.2%), effects from which the animals did not spontaneously recover across time. This CCH-induced retrograde amnesia was completely prevented by atorvastatin (latency: −4.3% to 3.3%; reference/working errors: −2.5% to 45.7%), regardless of the treatment duration. This effect was sustained during the entire behavioral testing period (5 weeks), even after discontinuing treatment. This robust and sustained memory-protective effect of atorvastatin occurred in the absence of neuronal rescue (39.58% to 56.45% cell loss). We suggest that atorvastatin may be promising for the treatment of cognitive sequelae associated with CCH.

  11. Contaminated water treatment (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)


    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  12. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva


    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  13. Lumbar internal disc derangement in patients with chronic low back pain: diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings as compared with provoked discography as the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ahn, Yong [Wooridul spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Puchon Daesung Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings with provoked discography used as the standard for painful lumbar disc derangement. Two hundred patients (412 discs), (age rang: 21-77 year), with chronic low back pain underwent MRI and provoked discography. We evaluated the MRI T2-WI findings such as disc degeneration, high-Intensity zones and endplate abnormalities. Subsequently, provocative discography was independently performed with using MR imaging, and a painful disc was defined when moderate to severe and concordant pain was provoked. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MRI findings with using provoked discography as the standard. 400 discs showed abnormal findings such as disc degeneration, HIZ and endplate abnormalities on the T2-WI images. 12 discs showed normal finding. HIZ or endplate abnormalities were always combined with disc degeneration. The prevalence of each findings were disc degeneration (400 discs: 97.1%), HIZ (111 discs: 26.9%), type I endplate abnormalities (34 discs: 8.3%), type II endplate abnormalities (75 discs: 18.2%), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (2 discs: 0.5%) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (7 discs: 1.7%). The disc degeneration showed high sensitivity (99.5%) and low specificity (5.0%), so only the NPV (91.7%) was significant, and not the PPV (47.8%). Each findings of HIZ (sensitivity, 36.5%, specificity, 81.4%; PPV, 63.18%; NPV, 59.5%), type I endplate abnormalities (11.0%, 94.1%, 61.8% and 54.8%, respectively), type II endplate abnormalities (19.8%, 83.2%, 50.7% and 54.3%, respectively), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (0.5%, 99.6%, 50.0% and 53.4%, respectively) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (26.0%, 99.1%, 71.4% and 53.8%, respectively) show high specificity, but low

  14. Final results of EFC6663: a multicenter, international, phase 2 study of alvocidib for patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Lanasa, Mark C; Andritsos, Leslie; Brown, Jennifer R; Gabrilove, Janice; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ghia, Paolo; Larson, Richard A; Kipps, Thomas J; Leblond, Veronique; Milligan, Donald W; Janssens, Ann; Johnson, Amy J; Heerema, Nyla A; Bühler, Andreas; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Devin, Jeanne; Hallek, Michael; Byrd, John C; Grever, Michael R


    Early phase studies of alvocidib showed activity in relapsed CLL including patients with high risk genomic features and those refractory to fludarabine. A multi-center, international, phase II study of alvocidib in fludarabine refractory CLL was undertaken to validate these early results. Patients with fludarabine refractory CLL or prolymphocytic leukemia arising from CLL were treated with single agent alvocidib. The primary outcome measure was overall response rate, with secondary outcomes including survival, toxicity, and response duration. One hundred and sixty five patients were enrolled and 159 patients were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median number of prior therapies was 4, and 96% of patients were fludarabine refractory. The investigator-assessed overall response rate was 25%; the majority of responses were partial. Response rates were lower among patients with del(17p) (14%), but equivalent in patients with del(11q) or bulky lymphadenopathy. Median progression free and overall survival were 7.6 and 14.6 months, respectively. Tumor lysis occurred in 39 patients (25%), and 13 received hemodialysis. Diarrhea, fatigue, and hematologic toxicities were common. Alvocidib has clinical activity in patients with advanced, fludarabine refractory CLL. Future studies should focus on discovery of biomarkers of clinical response and tumor lysis, and enhanced supportive care measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Greatest International ANtiinfective Trial (GIANT with moxifloxacin in the treatment of acute exacerbation of  chronic bronchitis: subanalysis of Chinese data of a global, multicenter, noninterventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Feng


    Full Text Available Yulin Feng1, Faguang Jin2, Shuang Mu3, Hong Shen4, Xiaohong Yang5, Yuling Wang6, Zhenshan Wang7, Yingjun Kong8, Zuke Xiao9, Qiming Feng101Respiratory Department, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China; 2Respiratory Department, Tang Du Hospital, China; 3Respiratory Department, Peking University People’s Hospital, China; 4Emergency Department, The General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army, China; 5Respiratory Department, Xinjiang People’s Hospital, China; 6Respiratory Department, Shi Jiazhuang First Hospital, China; 7Respiratory Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, China; 8Respiratory Department, The First Clinical College of Harbin Medical University, China; 9Respiratory Department, The Jiangxi Provincial People’s Hospital, China; 10Emergency Department, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, ChinaBackground and objective: A single infective acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB has a sustained effect on health status. Although a number of clinical investigations have demonstrated the efficacy of antibiotics in AECB, increased bacterial resistance has caused concern about the efficacy of currently available antibiotic therapies. This subanalysis of a global noninterventional study aimed to evaluate the impact of AECB on the patient and the community and the effectiveness and safety of a treatment with moxifloxacin (MXF tablets in daily life clinical practice in China.Methods: This prospective, noninterventional, noncontrolled, multicenter observational study, which started in China in April 2004 and ended in February 2007, was part of the global GIANT study. Patients with a diagnosis of mild to severe AECB were treated with MXF tablets 400 mg for a period at the physician’s discretion. The observation period for each patient covered a complete treatment period with MXF. For each patient, the physician documented data at an initial visit (baseline and at least one follow-up visit

  16. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  17. Multi-Canister overpack internal HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, K.E.


    The rationale for locating a filter assembly inside each Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rather than include the filter in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process piping system was to eliminate the potential for contamination to the operators, processing equipment, and the MCO. The internal HEPA filters provide essential protection to facility workers from alpha contamination, both external skin contamination and potential internal depositions. Filters installed in the CVD process piping cannot mitigate potential contamination when breaking the process piping connections. Experience with K-Basin material has shown that even an extremely small release can result in personnel contamination and costly schedule disruptions to perform equipment and facility decontamination. Incorporating the filter function internal to the MCO rather than external is consistent with ALARA requirements of 10 CFR 835. Based on the above, the SNF Project position is to retain the internal HEPA filters in the MCO design.

  18. Acid-base balance, serum electrolytes and need for non-invasive ventilation in patients with hypercapnic acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to an internal medicine ward. (United States)

    Schiavo, Alfonso; Renis, Maurizio; Polverino, Mario; Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Polverino, Francesca


    Hypoventilation produces or worsens respiratory acidosis in patients with hypercapnia due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In these patients acid-base and hydroelectrolite balance are closely related. Aim of the present study was to evaluate acid-base and hydroelectrolite alterations in these subjects and the effect of non-invasive ventilation and pharmacological treatment. We retrospectively analysed 110 patients consecutively admitted to the Internal Medicine ward of Cava de' Tirreni Hospital for acute exacerbation of hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On admission all patients received oxygen with a Venturi mask to maintain arterial oxygen saturation at least >90 %, and received appropriate pharmacological treatment. Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) was started when, despite optimal therapy, patients had severe dyspnea, increased work of breathing and respiratory acidosis. Based on Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) data, we divided the 110 patients in 3 groups: A = 51 patients with compensated respiratory acidosis; B = 36 patients with respiratory acidosis + metabolic alkalosis; and C = 23 patients with respiratory acidosis + metabolic acidosis. 55 patients received only conventional therapy and 55 had conventional therapy plus NIV. The use of NIV support was lower in the patients belonging to group B than in those belonging to group A and C (25 %, vs 47 % and 96 % respectively; p < 0.01). A statistically significant association was found between pCO2 values and serum chloride concentrations both in the entire cohort and in the three separate groups. Our study shows that in hypercapnic respiratory acidosis due to AECOPD, differently from previous studies, the metabolic alkalosis is not a negative prognostic factor neither determines greater NIV support need, whereas the metabolic acidosis in addition to respiratory acidosis is an unfavourable element, since it determines an increased need

  19. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  20. Contaminant Candidate List 2 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  1. Contaminant Candidate List 1 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  2. Superfund: Contaminated Sediments (United States)

    Contaminated sediments are a significant environmental problem and contribute to the over 3,200 fish consumption advisories nationwide. The Superfund program cleans up sediment sites that present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment.

  3. Contaminant Candidate List 3 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  4. International Dimension of research collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pankowska, P.K.P.; McGrath- Hoareau, C.; Horvath, V.; Baruch, B.; Gunashekar, S.; Culbertson, S.; Chataway, J.


    Grand challenges, such as global warming or chronic and infectious diseases, are increasingly global and complex. Solving these challenges often requires international research collaboration. The European Commission is playing an increasing role in supporting research and innovation through Horizon

  5. Does modifying personal responsibility moderate the mental contamination effect? (United States)

    Kennedy, Tinisha S; Simonds, Laura M


    Mental contamination is the psychological sense of internal dirtiness that arises in the absence of physical contact with a perceived contaminant. Mental contamination can be evoked through imagining perpetrating a moral transgression. This study experimentally evoked mental contamination by asking men to imagine perpetrating a non-consensual kiss. It explored whether reducing sense of personal responsibility for the kiss moderated the mental contamination effect. Male students (N = 60) imagined giving either a consensual or non-consensual kiss. Personal responsibility for the kiss was manipulated in one of two non-consensual kiss conditions by way of the inclusion of social influence information. Feelings of mental contamination were assessed by self-report and through a behavioural index. Mental contamination was successfully induced in the two non-consensual kiss conditions. There was evidence to support the hypothesis that reducing personal responsibility might moderate specific components of mental contamination (shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse). The effect of responsibility modification was evident in the self-report measures, but not in the behavioural index. The sample comprised male university students which limits generalizability of the findings. The behavioural assessment of mental contamination was limited to a proxy measure. Imagined moral violations are associated with increases in indices of mental contamination. Further research should investigate whether feelings of shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse are particularly responsive to responsibility modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.


    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  7. Surgical wound infection in clean-contaminated and contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical wound (site) infection is the commonest complication following laparotomy for clean-contaminated and contaminated abdominal operations. Good surgical technique and perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in clean-contaminated and contaminated abdominal operations contribute to the low rate of ...

  8. [Chronic wasting disease guidelines for the National Elk Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum provides the Regional Refuge Biologist some guidelines on transport of elk to or from chronic wasting disease (CWD) contaminated sites, and...

  9. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory


    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  10. A baseline study on inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Inorganic chemicals and microorganisms are common in human environments and at high levels poisoning from the chronic effects have occasionally occurred. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether the levels of inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants in boreholes and open wells ...

  11. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base (United States)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)


    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  12. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H


    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years...

  13. Unwanted sexual experiences and cognitive appraisals that evoke mental contamination. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryotaro; Kobori, Osamu; Shimizu, Eiji


    Mental contamination is a psychological sense of contamination that involves an internal, emotional feeling of dirtiness that may be evoked by unwanted thoughts and images, such as sexual assaults. This study aimed to investigate which types of unwanted sexual experiences evoke the strongest mental contamination, and to test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisals of an unwanted sexual experience predict indices of mental contamination (i.e. feeling of dirtiness, urge to wash, internal negative emotions, and external negative emotions). 148 female participants were asked to recall their most distressing unwanted sexual experiences. Indices of mental contamination and cognitive appraisals of the experience were then assessed. Our findings indicated that individuals recalling experiences related to rape felt more intense feelings of dirtiness than individuals recalling other types of unwanted sexual experience, such as verbal sexual assault, visual sexual assault, and forcible touching/frottage. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that a cognitive appraisal of perceived violation predicted all of the indices of mental contamination after controlling anxiety, depression, and fear of contact contamination. The present study demonstrated that an individual is at greatest risk of mental contamination if she has experienced rape/attempted rape, and if she makes a cognitive appraisal of violation regarding the incident.

  14. Chronic pancreatitis. (United States)

    Yang, Dennis; Forsmark, Chris E


    Summarize key clinical advances in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2016. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains elusive. Recent studies suggest that endoscopic ultrasound may be less accurate than previously thought and new MRI techniques may be helpful. Genetic predisposition may independently affect the clinical course of chronic pancreatitis and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking may have a greater negative impact on chronic pancreatitis than previously thought and moderate alcohol consumption may be protective. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the treatment of type 3 diabetes and nutritional deficiencies in chronic pancreatitis. Although endoscopic therapy remains a reasonable first-line option in treating chronic pancreatitis and its complications, early surgical intervention may be indicated for pain in select patients. Newer endoscopic ultrasound and MRI techniques are being evaluated to help with the early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Both genetic predisposition and cigarette smoking are increasingly recognized as having a major impact in the course of the disease and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic therapy is well tolerated and effective for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis and its complications although an early surgical approach for pain may be associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  15. Is metal contamination responsible for increasing aneuploidy levels in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum?

    KAUST Repository

    Piló, D.


    The present study assessed the metal genotoxicity potential at chromosome-level in the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum collected along different areas of the Tagus estuary. Higher levels of aneuploidy on gill cells were detected at the most sediment contaminated area both in May (31.7%) and October (36.0%) when compared to a less contaminated area over the same periods (20.3% and 29.0% respectively). Interestingly, metal bioaccumulation in gills was higher in the specimens collected at the least contaminated area with the exception of Pb. Indeed, the multivariate analysis revealed a stronger relation between aneuploidy and sediment contamination than between aneuploidy and the bioaccumulation of the metals. The temporal and spatial inconsistency found for the bioaccumulation of metals in R. philippinarum and the positive correlation between sediment contamination and aneuploidy at the most contaminated area suggest that these chromosome-level effects might be due to chronic metal contamination occurring in the Tagus estuary, rather than a direct result of the temporal variation of bioavailable contaminants. The vertical transmission phenomenon of bivalve aneuploidy levels may then be perpetuating those levels on clams from the most contaminated area. The present results shed light about the effect of metal toxicity at the chromosome-level in species inhabiting chronic contaminated areas and highlight the use of aneuploidy as an effective tool to identify persistent contamination in worldwide transitional waters.

  16. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.


    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  17. Vasomotor (perennial chronic) conjunctivitis. (United States)

    Bielory, Leonard


    To increase the awareness of nonimmunoglobulin E-mediated conjunctival disorders similar to those recognized to affect other organs that are targets in immunoglobulin E-mediated disorders. Such conditions may include 'vasomotor' instability, that is vasomotor conjunctivitis, which leads to a more common perennial chronic conjunctivitis. These conditions are not commonly included in the differential diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis. Although there have not been specific recent findings regarding the eye, it appears that evidence for such disorders in the rhinitis literature suggests that they can be involved in more than 25% of chronic conjunctivitis cases. The extrapolation of such conditions to the conjunctival surface clearly reflects these syndromes which have clearly been underappreciated and underdiagnosed. A significant amount of work remains to be performed to understand perennial chronic conjunctivitis (vasomotor conjunctivitis or nonallergic noninfectious conjunctivitis) as well as other forms of chronic conjunctivitis that can mimic or exist in a comorbid state with ocular allergy. These disorders need to be better defined, categorized and classified to determine the best treatment modalities. Management guidelines and parameters of chronic noninfectious conjunctivitis need to be set on a national and international basis that will advance clinically applicable research results, pharmaceutical development and relief for patients.

  18. Mechanisms in Chronic Multisymptom Illnesses (United States)


    by altering the abil- ity of the receptor to bind to G- proteins , whereas other agonists also downregulate and internalize these receptors (Whistler...Introduction Chronic functional pain ( CFP ) syndromes are associated with abnormal brain responses to experimental noxious stimuli1,2, chronic pain patients4, we hypothesized that resting DMN activity in CFP patients would be abnormal and associated with spontaneous clinical pain

  19. Contamination Analysis Tools (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos


    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  20. Contaminate Control Device (United States)

    Howe, Robert H. (Inventor); Flynn, Kenneth P. (Inventor); Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)


    A contaminate control device for filtering contaminates from a gas such as air is provided. The device includes a housing having a first inlet and a first outlet. An axial flow filter is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the axial flow filter has a second inlet and a second outlet. A second filter disposed about the axial flow filter and is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the second filter having a third inlet on an inner diameter and a third outlet disposed on an outer diameter. A flow restrictor is fluidly coupled between the second inlet and the first inlet.

  1. Dose estimate for effective internal contamination in the occupationally exposed workers(OEW) that handling open sources for thyroid therapy using {sup 131} I (3779); Estimacion de la dosis efectiva por contaminacion interna en los trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos (TOE) que manipulan fuentes abiertas para el tratamiento de tiroides con {sup 131}I (3779)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuna, J.A.; Carrizales, L.I., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dantas, B.M., E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Handling of a variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine has led a significant risk of internal exposure of workers. {sup 131}I stands out among the radionuclides of frequent use due its wide application in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. The increasing radionuclide use for medical purposes and treatment of diseases creates a need for capable methodologies of controlling the internal contamination of work. Currently, in Venezuela, there are about 17 Nuclear Medicine Services between public and private, of which 5 are operating; however, individual monitoring is still limited in the control of internal exposure. This work presents the development of bioassay techniques 'in vivo', in order to quantify the incorporation of {sup 131}I used in Nuclear Medicine. It also presents the research results of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in handling of therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I . The 'in vivo' detection system was calibrated with the thyroid simulator developed at the Institute of Radiologic Protection and Dosimetry (IRD, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) and which also has the UTN-IVIC (Caracas - Venezuela). The results showed that the bioassay method developed in this work has sufficient sensitivity for its use in routine intake survey of workers in Nuclear Medicine. Between the two workers controlled in this study, both had measurable results in terms of incorporation. Therefore, it is important to keep control of it and also gives us the possibility to evaluate the incorporations in suspected accident. The highest estimate of the effective dose was 1,28x10{sup -5} Sv by inhalation and 1,27x10{sup -5} Sv by ingestion.

  2. [New aspects of safety assessment and food contamination with antibiotics of tetracycline group in the light of harmonization of hygienic standards in Russia and Customs Union with the international standards]. (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A


    To address the issue of harmonization of Russian MRLs for tetracycline in food and on the basis of the tasks of preserving the value of hygienic standard for the more restrictive level than similar standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in this survey we analyzed the evidences of the negative effects of subingibitory amounts of these antibiotics (lying below the MIC for clinically relevant microorganisms). The inadequacy of the microbiological JECFA ADI and the necessity of using of methodology of analyzing the effects of biological active substances in small doses for assessing the risk of food contamination of tetracycline subingibitory concentrations were demonstrated. Current scientific information on the functions of antibiotics as signaling molecules in the microbial world and the role of tetracycline as a leading factor in the regulation of transcription in microorganisms and activation of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes transferred to the family of conjugative transposons Tn916-Tn1545 also was reviewed in paper. Evidence-based data regarding the basic contribution of subingibitory concentrations of tetracycline in the spread of worst transmissible type of antibiotic resistance and the formation of new pathogens, associated with it, are represented. To reduce the risk of direct adverse effects on microbial ecosystem in the human body and its habitat, and to minimize the indirect risk of new infections, the necessity of saving the current Russian level residues of tetracycline (food, regulated in Russian Federation, below 0.1 MIC for clinically significant microorganisms which aren't capable to initiation of the above described negative changes.

  3. Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... have shown that there are higher levels of endorphins in cerebrospinal fluid following acupuncture. Investigators are studying the effect of stress on the experience of chronic pain. Chemists are synthesizing new analgesics and discovering painkilling ...

  4. Chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, Marco J.


    In the past 20 years, endoscopic ultrasonography has been added to the already large armamentarium of diagnostic tests for chronic pancreatitis. This article discusses its potential and possible limitations

  5. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa


    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  6. The Contaminant Cobweb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell


    into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  7. Mercury contamination extraction (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY


    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  8. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan


    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  9. Integrating Individual-Based Indices of Contaminant Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Rowe


    Full Text Available Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element�contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR. These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modifications to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of

  10. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica


    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  11. Chronic Pelvic Pain (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Chronic Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  12. Regenerable Contaminant Removal System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regenerable Contaminant Removal System (RCRS) is an innovative method to remove sulfur and halide compounds from contaminated gas streams to part-per-billion...

  13. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  14. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle


    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; as part of testing, we'll need to develop an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible tool that can withstand the pressure and temperature extremes of space, as well as collect, separate, and store multiple samples; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  15. Incidence of central venous catheter hub contamination. (United States)

    Holroyd, Julie L; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rice, Mark J; Rand, Kenneth H; Fahy, Brenda G


    To investigate microorganisms causing central venous catheter contamination and how this contamination differs across different catheter metrics. After obtaining IRB approval and informed consent, 830 cultures were prospectively obtained from 45 ICU patients with central venous catheter or peripherally inserted central catheter. Bacterial colonies were identified by mass spectrometry. Bacterial contamination of central catheter hubs occurred 44% of the time in this study in the ICU setting. Coagulase-positive staphylococci cultures had higher median (±interquartile range) CFUs (12±232) versus coagulase-negative (3±10) and other bacteria (1±3; Pcentral venous pressure monitoring connections (25.8% vs. 7.1% without). Internal jugular sites (10.0% vs. 2.7% femoral, 6.2% PICC, P=0.031) and medial lumens of triple lumen catheters (11.9% vs. 5.6% distal, 7.0% proximal, P=0.049) had increased incidence of higher bacteria loads (>15 CFUs). This study found a high incidence of central access catheter hub bacterial contamination, which correlated with positive blood cultures in 2 of 3 total bacteremia cases identified in the 45 patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of using of mineral and organic toxin absorbents on broiler performance and internal organs weight in experimental aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Heidarpour


    Full Text Available Introduction The occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds is a problem of major concern in all over the world. Profitability of poultry production can be greatly affected due to the frequency of feed contamination and the detrimental effects of these toxins on the performance. Aflatoxins, a group of closely related and biologically active mycotoxins, are produced by strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They commonly occur as natural contaminant of poultry feeds. Domestic animal species such as chickens, ducks, cattle and turkeys consuming sublethal doses of aflatoxins for several days developed a toxic syndrome in which liver damage was the most significant change. The biological effects of aflatoxins could be categorized into two groups, long term and short term effects. Long term effects included chronic toxicity, cancer, birth defects and genetic alterations. Aflatoxins affected all poultry species, although they generally take relatively high levels to cause mortality, low levels can be detrimental if continually fed. Material and Methods This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of mineral, organic toxin absorbents, humic acid and yeast cell wall on performance and internal organs weight of broilers in experimental aflatoxicosis. This study was conducted in a completely randomize design with 432 Ross-308 broilers with 9 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 broilers in each replicate. Treatments included diet without aflatoxin, 2: diet contaminated with aflatoxin, 3: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.20 Humic acid, 4: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.40 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.60 Humic acid, 5: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 6: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 0.80 Humic acid, 7: diet contaminated with aflatoxin and supplemented with 1.00 Humic acid, 8: diet

  17. Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R.; Farag, Aïda M.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Clements, William H.; Smith, James R.; Ulrich, Cheryl P.; Woods, Richard


    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems.

  18. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der


    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  19. Ionic contamination detection (United States)

    Benkovich, M. G.


    The effectiveness of Meter A and B for detecting ionic contamination was evaluated and compared on the following types of samples: (1) copper panels; (2) printed wiring boards with through-hold components (IC's); (3) printed wiring boards with surface-mounted components; and (4) mixed-technology printed wiring boards (both through-hole and surface-mount components). The extraction efficiency of the two meters was calculated.

  20. Chronic migraine--classification, characteristics and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J


    According to the revised 2nd Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, primary headaches can be categorized as chronic or episodic; chronic migraine is defined as headaches in the absence of medication overuse, occurring on =15 days per month for =3 months, of which...... that conventional preventive therapy for episodic migraine may also be useful. This Review discusses the evolution of our understanding of chronic migraine, including its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and treatment options....

  1. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James


    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  2. [Chronic diarrhea]. (United States)

    Stelzer, Teresa; Heuss, Ludwig Theodor


    Defined by lasting more than four weeks - is a common but often challenging clinical scenario. It is important to be aware that diarrhoea means different things to different patients. The evaluation of chronic diarrhoea depends on taking an excellent history and careful physical examination as well as planning investigations thoughtfully. Functional diarrhea ist the most common cause of chronic diarrhea in the developed countries and motility disorders are more common than inflammatory, osmotic or secretory causes. In some cases categorizing patients by their stool characteristics can be helpful in directing further evaluation.

  3. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras; Monitoreo de la contaminacion interna de personal ocupacionalmente expuesto en servicios de medicina nuclear mediante el uso de gamma camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E. [Catedra de Radioquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dantas, B.M. [Laboratorio de Medidas In vivo, Instituto da Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  4. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD


    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  5. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S.S. [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)


    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  6. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  7. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L


    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  8. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  9. Chronic gastritis. (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid


    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  10. Management of hidradenitis suppurativa wounds with an internal vacuum-assisted closure device. (United States)

    Chen, Y Erin; Gerstle, Theodore; Verma, Kapil; Treiser, Matthew D; Kimball, Alexandra B; Orgill, Dennis P


    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, debilitating disease that is difficult to treat. Once medical management fails, wide local excision offers the best chance for cure. However, the resultant wound often proves too large or contaminated for immediate closure. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of hidradenitis cases managed surgically between 2005 and 2010. Data collected included patient characteristics, management method, and outcomes. Approximately half of the patients received internal vacuum-assisted closure therapy using the vacuum-assisted closure system and delayed closure and half of the patients received immediate primary closure at the time of their excision. Delayed closure consisted of closing the majority of the wound in a linear fashion following internal vacuum-assisted closure while accepting healing by means of secondary intention for small wound areas. Patients managed with internal vacuum-assisted closure had wounds on average four times larger in area than patients managed without internal vacuum-assisted closure. In both groups, all wounds were eventually closed primarily. Healing times averaged 2.2 months with internal vacuum-assisted closure and 2.7 months without. At an average follow-up time of 2.3 months, all patients with internal vacuum-assisted closure had no recurrence of their local disease. Severe hidradenitis presents a treatment challenge, as surgical excisions are often complicated by difficult closures and unsatisfactory recurrence rates. This study demonstrates that wide local excision with reasonable outcomes can be achieved using accelerated delayed primary closure. This method uses internal vacuum-assisted closure as a bridge between excision and delayed primary closure, facilitating closure without recurrence in large, heavily contaminated wounds. Therapeutic, III.

  11. Role of raptors in contaminant research (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.


    This chapter reviews the history of and approaches used in studies focused on the effects of contaminants on raptors and raptor populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) in Laurel, MD. Worldwide raptor declines following World War II were unprecedented and resulted in a sequence of major efforts at Patuxent to understand their cause(s). The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) were the species of most concern in North America. Laboratory and field studies at Patuxent complemented each other and yielded timely results of national and international importance, including some findings published in the journals “Science” and “Nature.” Concern about contaminant effects on wildlife populations came to the forefront during the years immediately following World War II. This concern was worldwide and not limited to one taxonomic group or to personnel and investigations at Patuxent. Contaminant studies of raptors were only part of the story, but this review, with minor exceptions, is limited to raptor studies and the role Patuxent played in this research. Indeed, many important nonraptor contaminant studies done at Patuxent, as well as raptor studies conducted elsewhere, are not mentioned here. For other reviews of contaminant-wildlife issues in the 1950s and 1960s, the reader is referred to “Silent Spring” by Rachel Carson (1962), “Pesticides and the Living Landscape” by Robert Rudd (1964), and “Return of the Peregrine: A North American Saga of Tenacity and Teamwork” by Tom Cade and Bill Burnham (Cade and Burnham, 2003).

  12. [Sterilization of phacoemulsification and vitrectomy instruments. Contamination and evaluation]. (United States)

    Minõ de Kaspar, H; Grasbon, T; Kampik, A


    Contamination of automated surgical equipment is widely disregarded as a potential source of perioperative infection. We investigated the possibility of contamination of the aspiration fluid by the vacuum control manifold (VCM). The normal, unsterile internal VCM was compared with a modified external VCM that was regularly disinfected. We investigated 37 aspiration fluid specimens from routine cataract and vitrectomy operations performed with automated evacuation systems. There were 25 specimens from three automated evacuation systems equipped with an internal VCM (experimental groups) and 12 specimens from one system equipped with a modified external VCM (control group). No hygiene procedures were used with the hidden internal VCM, but the modified external VCM was regularly rinsed and filled with 70% isopropanol overnight. Specimens were collected under sterile conditions, centrifuged, cultured for bacterial growth on blood agar and MacConkey agar for 24-48 h at 37 degrees C, and analyzed microbiologically. Aspiration fluids of irrigation/aspiration systems used for intraocular surgery were found to be severely contaminated with bacteria originating from the VCM. In all aspiration fluid specimens from internal VCM systems, 2(+)-4+ bacterial growth was found. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (17), Comamonas acidovorans (8), and Agrobacterium radiobacter (13) were found most frequently. All specimens from the modified external VCM system remained sterile. There was a significant difference with regard to the frequency of contamination of the aspiration fluid between experimental and control groups (P = 0.0001, chi 2). We found that the aspiration fluid of common phaco- and vitrectomy systems was strongly contaminated by bacteria originating from the internal VCM. The technical modification of an external VCM allows easy disinfection and prevents contamination of the aspiration fluid.

  13. Chronic prostatitis. (United States)

    Batstone, G Richard D; Doble, Andrew; Batstone, D


    This review covers recent developments in the classification, epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis (NIH classification types II, IIIa/IIIb and IV prostatitis) in the period of review (2001-2002). Recent studies highlight some of the problems with the 1995 NIH classification. Epidemiological studies have confirmed that "prostatitis" is common, with a prevalence of 10-15%. Associations of prostatitis include benign prostatic hyperplasia, sexually transmitted disease, lower urinary tract symptoms, stress, and reduced sunlight exposure. Elevated levels of cytokines in the seminal plasma and prostatic secretions have been detected in men with chronic prostatitis compared with normal individuals, suggesting an active inflammatory process in the male genital tract. This inflammatory reaction may be mediated by an adaptive immune response directed against a genital tract antigen(s) (autoimmunity). Increased levels of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA in the prostates of men with chronic prostatitis compared with controls are compatible with the notion that a bacterial inflammatory event initiates an auto-immune process; however, the role of bacteria in the continuation of symptoms is unknown. The aetiology of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is still not certain, although an auto-immune process is favoured. Further research is required to determine the putative auto-antigen, the immune responses of patients, the role of bacteria in the inflammatory process, and the patients' pain response to genitourinary insults. As yet no diagnostic tests (other than to eliminate other pathology) and few treatments for chronic prostatitis can be recommended on the basis of scientific evidence.

  14. Biofuel on contaminated land (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas


    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  15. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.


    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  16. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater (United States)


    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  17. About Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ... Learn about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage ...

  18. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children (United States)

    ... Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...

  19. Chronic Beryllium Disease (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a disease ...

  20. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (United States)

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia Overview Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is an uncommon type of cancer of the blood cells. The term "chronic" in chronic myelogenous leukemia indicates that this cancer ...

  1. Meeting the needs of contamination control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, R.L.; Novels, M.D. (Pendar Technical Associates Ltd., Bridgwater (UK))


    A new modular structure for containing contamination during maintenance and repair operations on radioactive power plant components is described. The structure is formed from a matrix of 1m long steel reinforced PVC extrusions. These are connected together to form squares; thus an enclosure can be anything from a 1m cube upwards. The enclosure is completed by fitting 1m square panels of 4mm thick plastic sheet where they fit against rubber seals. An air extraction system can be fitted if reduced internal pressure is required.

  2. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.


    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  3. Xenocryst assimilation and formation of peritectic crystals during magma contamination: An experimental study


    Erdmann, Saskia; Scaillet, Bruno; Kellett, D.A.


    International audience; Contamination of magmas by country rocks may contribute xenoliths and xenocrysts to the magma, but also melt and peritectic crystals that form through incongruent melting or dissolution of the original contaminants. Identifying contaminant-derived peritectic crystals and former melt components in igneous rocks is particularly challenging, but also particularly important, because their assimilation significantly affects melt composition and magma temperature. To facilit...

  4. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines For Selected Contaminants. Volume 3 (United States)


    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS)a multinational effort began in 1999. In its present configuration, the ISS is expected to carry a crew of three to six astronauts for up to 180 days (d). Because the space station is a closed and complex environment, some contamination of its internal atmosphere and water system is unavoidable. Several hundred chemical contaminants are likely to be found in the closed-loop atmosphere and recycled water of the ISS. To protect space crews from contaminants in potable and hygiene water, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance on how to develop water exposure guidelines and subsequently review NASA's development of the exposure guidelines for specific chemicals.

  5. The differential relationship between mental contamination and the core dimensions of contact contamination fear. (United States)

    Melli, Gabriele; Bulli, Francesco; Carraresi, Claudia; Tarantino, Federica; Gelli, Simona; Poli, Andrea


    Two types of contamination fear are recognized: contact and mental contamination. Contact contamination appears to be motivated both by harm avoidance and disgust avoidance. This study aimed to examine the relationships between disgust propensity, mental contamination and contact contamination while differentiating between harm avoidance and disgust avoidance in contact contamination. 169 OCD patients completed a set of questionnaires assessing mental contamination, contact contamination, disgust propensity, OCD, anxiety and depression. 1) Contact contamination based on disgust avoidance was more strongly associated with mental contamination and disgust propensity than contact contamination based on harm avoidance; 2) mental contamination significantly predicted contact contamination based on disgust avoidance, while it did not predict contact contamination based on harm avoidance; 3) mental contamination had a significant mediational role in the relationship between disgust propensity and contact contamination motivated by disgust avoidance. Mental contamination plays a role in contact contamination fear when disgust is primarily experienced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Recovery from Contaminated Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Moskalík


    Full Text Available This study focuses on thermal gasification methods of contaminated biomass in an atmospheric fluidized bed, especially biomass contaminated by undesirable substances in its primary use. For the experiments, chipboard waste was chosen as a representative sample of contaminated biomass. In the experiments, samples of gas and tar were taken for a better description of the process of gasifying chipboard waste. Gas and tar samples also provide information about the properties of the gas that is produced.

  7. Comparison of procedures for estimating microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    situ protein degradations of grass hay and molassed sugarbeet pulp were performed in the rumen of sheep. Three methods, namely labelling with 35S, measuring cytosine as an internal microbial marker and dissolving contaminating microbes in neutral detergent solution were compared with the aim of choosing the ...

  8. mercury contamination in domestic ducks in geita, northwest tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mercury in the Livers of Tropical. Dolphins. Anal. Lett. 41(9): 1691 –. 1699. Kinabo C and Lyimo E 2002 Preliminary studies of mercury contamination in various food crops cultivated at Mgusu. Artisanal Mining Village in Geita,. Tanzania. Proceedings, International. Workshop on Health and Environmental. Effects of Mercury.

  9. Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum, Naser A


    .... The book offers an evaluation of the known plant species for their different roles in phytotechnological applications in relation to remediation of varied environmental contaminants and also explores...

  10. Chemical contaminants in the Wadden Sea: Sources, transport, fate and effects (United States)

    Laane, R. W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. D.; Gandrass, J.; Vorkamp, K.; Köhler, A.; Larsen, M. M.; Strand, J.


    The Wadden Sea receives contaminants from various sources and via various transport routes. The contaminants described in this overview are various metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) and various organic contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-HCH)). In addition, information is presented about other and emerging contaminants such as antifouling biocides (e.g. TBT and Irgarol), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). Special attention is given to biogeochemical processes that contribute to the mobilization of contaminants in the surface sediments of the Wadden Sea. Finally, the effects on organisms of contaminants are reviewed and discussed. The main source of contaminants in the Wadden Sea are the rivers Rhine (via de Dutch coastal zone), Elbe and Weser. The Wadden Sea is not a sink for contaminants and adsorbed contaminants are transported from east to west. The surface sediments of the Wadden Sea are an important source for contaminants to the water above. The input and concentration of most contaminants have significantly decreased in water, sediments, organisms (e.g., mussel, flounder and bird eggs) in various parts of the Wadden Sea in the last three decades. Remarkably, the Cd concentration in mussels is increasing the last decades. In recent decades, the effects of contaminants on organisms (e.g., flounder, seal) have fallen markedly. Most of the affected populations have recovered, except for TBT induced effects in snails. Little is known about the concentration and effects of most emerging contaminants and the complex environmental mixtures of contaminants. It is recommended to install an international coordinated monitoring programme for contaminants and their effects in the whole Wadden Sea and to identify the chemical contaminants that really cause the effect.

  11. Sutured and open clean-contaminated and contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whether to close or leave open an abdominal incision wound depends on the degree of wound contamination at the end of operation. The aim of this study was to compare the complication rates between delayed primary closure and primarily closed laparotomy wounds for clean-contaminated and ...

  12. Genetics of radionuclide-contaminated mosquitofish populations and homology between Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Bickham, J.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences; Elbl, T. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology; Shugart, L.R. [L.R. Shugart and Associates, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chesser, R.K. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.


    The effects of radionuclide contamination on genetic structure of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations from the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) were investigated to develop methods of assessing ecological risk of chronic exposures to xenobiotics. Fish from two contaminated and two reference sites were examined by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, which revealed that the frequency of three markers was greater in the contaminated than the reference sites and that the frequency of two markers was greater in reference than in the contaminated sites. A previous study examined populations of western mosquitofish (G. affinis) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and found that certain RAPD markers were present in radionuclide-contaminated ORNL populations at a higher frequency than in reference populations. The contaminant-indicative markers observed in the SRS populations were the same size and amplified by the same polymerase chain reaction primers used in the ORNL study. Southern blot analysis revealed that the SRS G. holbrooki contaminant-indicative markers were homologous to the ORNL G. affinis contaminant-indicative markers. The observation that two species show similar patterns of band frequency shifts at two separate localities is consistent with the hypothesis that these DNA markers may originate from genetic elements that provide a selective advantage in contaminated habitats. Thus, the methodology used in these studies may prove to be useful to indicate population-level effects of environmental contamination.

  13. How can we quantify impacts of contaminants in marine ecosystems? The ICON project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, K.; Burgeot, T.; Martínez-Gómez, C.; Lang, T.; Robinson, C.D.; Svavarsson, J.; Thain, J.E.; Vethaak, A.D.; Gubbins, M.J.


    An international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring (ICON) was organised to test a framework on integrated environmental assessment and simultaneously assess the status of selected European marine areas. Biota and sediment were sampled in selected estuarine, inshore and offshore

  14. Space hardware microbial contamination (United States)

    Baker, A.; Kern, R.; Mancinelli, R.; Venkateswaren, K.; Wainwright, N.

    Planetary Protection (PP) requirements imposed on unmanned planetary missions require that the spacecraft undergo rigorous bioload reduction prior to launch. The ability to quantitate bioburden on such spacecraft is dependent on developing new analytical methodologies that can be used to identify and trace biological contamination on flight hardware. The focus of new method development is to move forward and to augment the current spore analysis method which was first used on Viking. The ultimate goal of the new techniques is not to increase the cleanliness requirement currently levied on various missions, b ut instead to better understand the nature of the bioburden through the use of well-characterized standard methods. Subsequently an array of standard techniques is needed to provide various analytical methodologies that can be used to access bioburden, depending upon mission specifications. This poster will provide information on two workshops that have been held to review the status of the development of new quantitative techniques for determining the bioload on spacecraft at the time of launch. The purpose of the workshops was to review and revise NASA Standard Operation Procedure NPG:5340.1C "Microbiological Examination of Space Hardware and Associated Environments" to incorporate improvements in the procedure and to reflect current field practices. I addition the paneln reviewed the status of new analytical methods currently under study for planetary protection applications, defining expected research that would bring the individual methods to a point where they can be drafted for submittal to the NASA standard procedure process. The poster will highlight changes to current standard procedures as well as review the status of new methods currently being studied. Methods included Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Epifluorescence Techniques, Live/Dead Cell Analysis, Capillary Electrophoresis of Amino Acids and Ionic Contaminants, High Sensitivity Assay for

  15. Emerging Mycotoxins: Beyond Traditionally Determined Food Contaminants. (United States)

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Novak, Barbara; Nagl, Veronika; Berthiller, Franz


    Modern analytical techniques can determine a multitude of fungal metabolites contaminating food and feed. In addition to known mycotoxins, for which maximum levels in food are enforced, also currently unregulated, so-called "emerging mycotoxins" were shown to occur frequently in agricultural products. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the relevance of selected emerging mycotoxins to food and feed safety. Acute and chronic toxicity as well as occurrence data are presented for enniatins, beauvericin, moniliformin, fusaproliferin, fusaric acid, culmorin, butenolide, sterigmatocystin, emodin, mycophenolic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tenuazonic acid. By far not all of the detected compounds are toxicologically relevant at their naturally occurring levels and are therefore of little or no health concern to consumers. Still, gaps in knowledge have been identified for several compounds. These gaps should be closed by the scientific community in the coming years to allow a proper risk assessment.

  16. Genetics in chronic venous disease. (United States)

    Grant, Yasmin; Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun


    Chronic venous disease is highly prevalent in the Western world, with varicose veins being the most common form of clinical manifestation. With recent developments in sequencing technology, clinicians and geneticists alike are embarking on a journey to identify and unravel the genetic candidates of chronic venous disease. There is now currently substantial evidence to suggest the presence of genetic influences in the aetiology and pathology of venous disease. Despite this, the precise nature and profile of the genes involved in chronic venous disease remain a poorly understood entity. Moreover, it is strikingly apparent that the majority of venous genetic studies conducted over the past decade do not adhere to fundamental research principles. The emergence of high-throughput genotyping platforms permits a more systematic search for inherited components of venous disease. Pursuing a genome-wide frontier has the potential to reveal novel critical metabolic pathways and explain the genetic susceptibility of chronic venous disease. An expedited knowledge of the genetic factors in the aetiology of venous disease may translate into better prevention or treatment, which would benefit patients suffering from its clinical sequelae. Researchers should be urged to foster collaborative links and design a genome-wide case-control association study as an international consortium to provide a statistically robust paradigm in the field of chronic venous disease genetics. This will carry promise for clinically relevant progress and represent a first step towards better understanding of the genetics of chronic venous disease aetiology.

  17. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci


    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  18. Mining, contamination, and health in Ecuador | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 6, 2011 ... We are the children of miners. .... They tested the physical environment for the presence of mercury, lead, manganese, and cyanide; examined people for signs of over-exposure to heavy metals and cyanide; and undertook a survey to collect social, economic, and other data on the various ways people ...

  19. Search | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC - International ... Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an .

  20. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas. (United States)

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto


    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts.

  1. Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate: a prospective international cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocroft, A.; Lundgren, J.D.; Ross, M.; Fux, C.A.; Reiss, P.; Moranne, O.; Morlat, P.; Monforte, A.; Kirk, O.; Ryom, L.; Burger, D.M.


    BACKGROUND: Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between duration of

  2. Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate: a prospective international cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D.; Ross, Michael; Fux, Christoph A.; Reiss, Peter; Moranne, Olivier; Morlat, Philippe; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Kirk, Ole; Ryom, Lene; Steering, D.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Ryom, L.; Hatleberg, C. I.; Sabin, C. A.; Kamara, D.; Smith, C.; Phillips, A.; Mocroft, A.; Bojesen, A.; Grevsen, A. L.; Matthews, C.; Raben, D.; Lundgren, J. D.; Brandt, R. S.; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Hillebreght, M.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Pernot, E.; Mourabi, J.; Sundström, A.; Delforge, M.; Fontas, E.; Torres, F.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Kristensen, D.; Sjøl, A.; Meidahl, P.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Kirk, O.; Smit, C.; Ross, M.; Fux, C. A.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Kamara, D. A.; Weber, R.; Pradier, C.; Friis-Møller, N.; Kowalska, J.; Sabin, C.; Law, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Dabis, F.; Bruyand, M.; Bonnet, F.; Bower, M.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Donald, A.; Grulich, A.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; Wiersinga, W. J.; van der Valk, M.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W.; van Eden, J.; Henderiks, A.; van Hes, A. M. H.; Mutschelknauss, M.; Nobel, H. E.; Pijnappel, F. J. J.; Westerman, A. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Back, N. K. T.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Berkhout, B.; Cornelissen, M. T. E.; Schinkel, C. J.; Thomas, X. V.; de Ruyter Ziekenhuis, Admiraal; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Baas, S.; de Looff, L. Hage; Versteeg, D.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; Korsten-Vorstermans, E. M. H. M.; de Munnik, E. S.; Jansz, A. R.; Tjhie, J.; Wegdam, M. C. A.; Deiman, B.; Scharnhorst, V.; Kinderziekenhuis, Emma; van der Plas, A.; Weijsenfeld, A. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; Bax, H. I.; Hassing, R. J.; van der Feltz, M.; Bassant, N.; van Beek, J. E. A.; Vriesde, M.; van Zonneveld, L. M.; de Oude-Lubbers, A.; van den Berg-Cameron, H. J.; Bruinsma-Broekman, F. B.; de Groot, J.; de Man, de Zeeuw; Broekhoven-Kruijne, M. J.; Schutten, M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; van der Knaap, L. C.; Visser, E.; Branger, J.; Duijf-van de Ven, C. J. H. M.; Haag, Den; Schippers, E. F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; Brimicombe, R. W.; van IJperen, M.; van der Hut, G.; Franck, P. F. H.; van Eeden, A.; Brokking, W.; Groot, M.; Damen, M.; Kwa, I. S.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; van den Berg, J. F.; van Hulzen, A. G. W.; van der Bliek, G. L.; Bor, P. C. J.; Bloembergen, P.; Wolfhagen, M. J. H. M.; Ruijs, G. J. H. M.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; van Lelyveld, S. F. L.; Soetekouw, R.; Hulshoff, N.; van der Prijt, L. M. M.; Schoemaker, M.; Bermon, N.; van der Reijden, W. A.; Jansen, R.; Herpers, B. L.; Veenendaal, D.; Kroon, F. P.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Bauer, M. P.; Jolink, H.; Vollaard, A. M.; Dorama, W.; Moons, C.; Claas, E. C. J.; Kroes, A. C. M.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Kastelijns, M.; Smit, J. V.; Smit, E.; Bezemer, M.; van Niekerk, T.; Pontesilli, O.; Lowe, S. H.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Ackens, R. P.; Schippers, J.; Vergoossen, R.; Weijenberg Maes, B.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Loo, I. H.; Zuiderzee, M. C.; Weijer, S.; el Moussaoui, R.; Heitmuller, M.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Cohen Stuart, J. W. T.; Diederen, B. M. W.; Pronk, D.; van Truijen-Oud, F. A.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; van Hartingsveld, A.; Meerkerk, C.; Wildenbeest, G. S.; Mutsaers, J. A. E. M.; Jansen, C. L.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Dijkstra, K.; Faber, S.; Weel, J.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; van der Burgvan de Plas, M.; Heins, H.; Lucas, E.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Blok, W. L.; Schouten, W. E. M.; Bosma, A. S.; Brouwer, C. J.; Geerders, G. F.; Hoeksema, K.; Kleene, M. J.; van der Meché, I. B.; Toonen, A. J. M.; Wijnands, S.; van Ogtrop, M. L.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van Crevel, R.; Albers, M.; Bosch, M. E. W.; Grintjes-Huisman, K. J. T.; Zomer, B. J.; Stelma, F. F.; Burger, D.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Beest, G. Ter; van Bentum, P. H. M.; Langebeek, N.; Tiemessen, R.; Swanink, C. M. A.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Spelbrink, M.; Sulman, H.; Witte, E.; Peerbooms, P. G. H.; Mulder, J. W.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Lauw, F. N.; van Broekhuizen, M. C.; Paap, H.; Vlasblom, D. J.; Oudmaijer Sanders, E.; Smits, P. H. M.; Rosingh, A. W.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Geilings, J.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; de Kruijf-van de Wiel, B. A. F. M.; Kuipers, M.; Santegoets, R. M. W. J.; van der Ven, B.; Marcelis, J. H.; Buiting, A. G. M.; Kabel, P. J.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Sprenger, H. G.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Wilting, K. R.; Stienstra, Y.; de Groot-de Jonge, H.; van der Meulen, P. A.; de Weerd, D. A.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.; van Leer-Buter, C. C.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Mudrikova, T.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Barth, R. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van Elst-Laurijssen, D. H. M.; Laan, L. M.; van Oers-Hazelzet, E. E. B.; Patist, J.; Vervoort, S.; Nieuwenhuis, H. E.; Frauenfelder, R.; Schuurman, R.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Peters, E. J. G.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Bomers, M.; de Vocht, J.; Elsenburg, L. J. M.; Pettersson, A. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Ang, C. W.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Bont, L. J.; Nauta, N.; Bezemer, D. O.; van Sighem, A. I.; Hillebregt, M.; Kimmel, V.; Tong, Y.; Lascaris, B.; van den Boogaard, R.; Hoekstra, P.; de Lang, A.; Berkhout, M.; Grivell, S.; Jansen, A.; de Groot, L.; van den Akker, M.; Bergsma, D.; Lodewijk, C.; Meijering, R.; Peeck, B.; Raethke, M.; Ree, C.; Regtop, R.; Ruijs, Y.; Schoorl, M.; Tuijn, E.; Veenenberg, L.; Woudstra, T.; Bakker, Y.; de Jong, A.; Broekhoven, M.; Claessen, E.; Rademaker, M. J.; Munjishvili, L.; Kruijne, E.; Tuk, B.; Bouchet, S.; Breilh, D.; Chêne, G.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Gaborieau, V.; Lacoste, D.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Tchamgoué, S.; Fagard, C.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Richert, L.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; André, K.; Bernard, N.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chossat, I.; Courtault, C.; Dauchy, F. A.; de Witte, S.; Dondia, D.; Dupont, A.; Duffau, P.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Faure, I.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar-Joseph, M.; Imbert, Y.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Marie, J.; Mechain, M.; Meraud, J. P.; Monlun, E.; Ochoa, A.; Pillot-Debelleix, M.; Pistone, T.; Raymond, I.; Receveur, M. C.; Rispal, P.; Sorin, L.; Valette, C.; Vandenhende, M. A.; Vareil, M. O.; Viallard, J. F.; Wille, H.; Wirth, G.; Moreau, J. F.; Lafon, M. E.; Reigadas, S.; Trimoulet, P.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Crespel, I.; Decoin, M.; Delveaux, S.; Diarra, F.; D'Ivernois, C.; Hanappier, C.; Leleux, O.; Le Marec, F.; Lenaud, E.; Mourali, J.; Pougetoux, A.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Tsaranazy, A.; Valdes, A.; Conte, V.; Louis, I.; Palmer, G.; Sapparrart, V.; Touchard, D.; Petoumenos, K.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Watson, K.; Roth, N.; Nicholson, J.; Bloch, M.; Franic, T.; Baker, D.; Vale, R.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Calvo, G.; Mateu, S.; Domingo, P.; Sambeat, M. A.; Gatell, J.; del Cacho, E.; Cadafalch, J.; Fuster, M.; Codina, C.; Sirera, G.; Vaqué, A.; de Wit, S.; Clumeck, N.; Necsoi, C.; Gennotte, A. F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Payen, M. C.; Semaille, P.; van, Y.; Neaton, J.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Krum, E.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; Abrams, D. I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L. R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Pedersen, C.; Møller, N. F.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Aho, I.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J.-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Cotte, L.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Lourida, P.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Antinori, A.; Acinapura, R.; D'Offizi, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; Rozentale, B.; Uzdaviniene, V.; Matulionyte, R.; Staub, T.; Hemmer, R.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Gensing, M.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Rakhmanova, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Shunnar, A.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Laporte, J. M.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Falconer, K.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Ledergerber, B.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Schmid, P.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Baskakov, I.; Servitskiy, S.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Johnson, M. A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Lundgren, J.; Grarup, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Thiebaut, R.; Peters, L.; Fischer, A. H.; Grønborg Laut, K.; Larsen, J. F.; Podlekareva, D.; Grint, D.; Shepherd, L.; Schultze, A.; Morfeldt, L.; Thulin, G.; Åkerlund, B.; Koppel, K.; Karlsson, A.; Håkangård, C.; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, M.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; de Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Guida, M. G.; Onofrio, M.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; d'Avino, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Dollet, K.; Caissotti, C.; Dellamonica, P.; Bernard, E.; Cua, E.; de Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Dunais, B.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pillet, S.; Pugliese, P.; Risso, K.; Roger, P. M.; Aubert, V.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Dollenmaier, G.; Egger, M.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hoffmann, M.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kouyos, R.; Kovari, H.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Nicca, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rudin, C.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Yerly, S.


    Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between duration of exposure to

  3. International arbejdsdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders


    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  4. Field based plastic contamination sensing (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  5. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.


    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  6. Contamination and solid state welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bernice E.


    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  8. Internal granuloma with perforation – 2 case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Suciu


    Full Text Available Internal resorption was associated with long-term chronic inflammation of the pulp (chronic granulomatous pulpitis. When internal resorption is radiographically confirmed, endodontic treatment becomes a necessity. Vital teeth internal resorption appears radiographically as an oval enlargement of the pulp chamber and root canal with smooth, symmetrical outline. Internal granuloma is assumed to be an effect of the trauma, or pulp inflammation, the ailment is rare, asymptomatic and might progress rapidly, causing perforation.

  9. MARC International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Coward


    Full Text Available The cooperative development of the Library of Congress MARC II Profect and the British National Bibliography MARC II Project is described and presented as the forerunner of an international MARC network. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for a standard MARC record for international exchange and for acceptance of international standards of cataloging.

  10. Radioactive contamination in Arctic - present situation and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)


    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is probably the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In the last decade information has also been released concerning the nuclear situation which has caused concern in many countries. Due to such concerns, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched in 1991 and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. In 1996 IAEPS became part of the Arctic Council. AMAP presented one main report in 1997 and another in 1998. There are also several other national, bilateral and international programmes in existence which deal with this issue. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (au)

  11. Dredged Material Analysis Tools; Performance of Acute and Chronic Sediment Toxicity Methods (United States)


    1998) found more significant endpoint reductions in chronic than in acute tests using Corophium spp. to assess dredged material, stating that...J. Stronkhorst. 1998. Ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated dredged material with the marine amphipod Corophium volutator. Archives of

  12. Effects of Contamination Upon the Performance of X-Ray Telescopes (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oosterbroek, Tim


    Particulate and molecular contamination can each impact the performance of x-ray telescope systems. Furthermore, any changes in the level of contamination between on-ground calibration and in-space operation can compromise the validity of the calibration. Thus, it is important to understand the sensitivity of telescope performance, especially the net effective area and the wings of the point spread function to contamination. Here, we quantify this sensitivity and discuss the flow-down of science requirements to contamination-control requirements. As an example, we apply this methodology to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), currently under joint study by ESA, JAXA, and NASA.

  13. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N


    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  14. Effect of photoactivation on the reduction of composite resin contamination. (United States)

    Pauletti, Natalia A; Girotto, Luiza P S; Leite, Françoise H S; Mario, Débora N


    Composite resins are predominantly marketed in developing countries in tube form, and the contents of the tube may be used in numerous procedures for different patients. This represents a problem because of the risk of cross-contamination. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in vitro of the internal contents of composite resin tubes in the dental clinics of a higher-education institution, as well as the effect of photoactivation on the level of contamination. Twenty-five tubes containing composite resin were randomly chosen (by lottery). From each tube, two samples of approximately 2 mm of composite resin were removed, and then one sample, but not the other, was photoactivated. These samples were plated on Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI), Sabouraud and MacConkey agars, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Colony counting and Gram staining were performed for subsequent microscopic identification of fungi and bacteria. The non-photoactivated composite resin group presented significantly higher microbial contamination in relation to the photoactivated composite resin group. The photoactivation of camphorquinone present in composite resin produces reactive oxygen species, which might promote cell death of contaminant microorganisms. Thus, although the same tube of composite resin may be used for a number of different patients in the dental clinics of developing countries, the photoactivation process potentially reduces the risk of cross-contamination. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Molecular Identification of Fungal Contamination in Date Palm Tissue Cultures. (United States)

    Abass, Mohammed H


    Fungal contamination of in vitro cultures of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the major constraint to their initiation and maintenance. Different molecular approaches have been applied successfully to analyze both inter- and intraspecific variation among fungal species as well as determine their identity. This chapter describes step-by-step procedures of molecular identification of fungal contaminants by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) products of the most common fungal contaminants of date palm tissue culture. To begin with, samples of genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, and Penicillium were collected to isolate each fungal genus and extraction of genomic DNA. Polymerase chain reactions were accomplished by ITS primers (ITS1 and ITS4) for each fungal contaminant as well as for sequencing. Subsequently, they are analyzed by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search of ITS sequence to reveal the identity of each individual fungal contaminant species. The molecular identification herein is a rapid and reliable procedure to identify date palm fungal contaminants which is very important in their control and treatment.

  16. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......, or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...

  17. OSS-1/contamination monitor (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; McIntosh, R.


    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  18. Lake contamination models…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan C. Varekamp


    Full Text Available "The time to reach steady state in a perfectly mixed reservoir can be derived from the time that it takes for the term exp[-t/R] go to ≈ zero, which occurs if t = 6R, when 99.75% of Cssp has been reached (600 months in the case of the model lake." J.C. Varekamp. 2003. Lake contamination models for evolution towards steady state. J. Limnol., 62(Suppl.1: 67-72. The above sentence deserves critical consideration on the grounds of physical and experimental arguments. In an elementary physical system where a capacitor (C farad is fed a constant electromotive force (volt with some resistance (R ohm, the electrical charge (q coulomb varies over time as q = qmax (1-e-t/RC. Using this equation, we can determine the time necessary for the charge to attain some arbitrary fraction of its final value, say 0.9 qmax or 0.999 qmax. This choice is somewhat arbitrary and we must constrain it based on physical considerations.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    reduce the current urine culture contamination rate in National Hospital Abuja. Key Words: Urine, Contamination, National Hospital, Abuja. INTRODUCTION. Contamination of urine cultures results from poor collection technique and or prolonged time from collection to processing (1). Suprapubic aspiration and.

  20. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (United States)

    ... store Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Chronic kidney disease (CKD) > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney ... treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ...



  3. International Perspectives. (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla


    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  4. Environmental Contaminants Issues in Wyoming (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The environmental contaminants program at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Services Office in Cheyenne, Wyoming was initiated in May 1988. The goal of...

  5. Fire in a contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford


    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  6. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A


    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  7. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  8. Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum, Naser A


    "This book highlights the use of the natural-inherent traits of plants and associated bacteria and microbes to exclude, accumulate or metabolize toxic contaminants where they contribute significantly...

  9. [Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents]. (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Cuisset, J-M; Vallée, L


    Chronic daily headache (CDH) affects 2-4% of adolescent females and 0.8-2% of adolescent males. Chronic daily headache is diagnosed when headaches occur more than 4h/day, 15 headache days per month or more, over a period of 3 consecutive months, without an underlying pathology. It is manifested by severe intermittent, migraine-like headaches as well as by chronic baseline headaches. Both Silberstein-Lipton criteria and the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) can be used to classify chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Chronic daily headache is classified into four diagnostic categories: transformed (Silberstein-Lipton criteria)/chronic (ICHD) migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Children and adolescents with chronic daily headache frequently have sleep disturbance, pain at other sites, dizziness, medication-overuse headache, and a psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety and mood disorders). Chronic daily headache frequently results in school absence. Successful approaches to treatment include reassurance, education, use of preventative medication, avoidance of analgesics, and helping the child return to a functional daily routine and a regular school schedule.

  10. Human Forward Contamination Strategic Plan (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle


    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, humans will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations?

  11. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources (United States)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)


    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  12. Mycotoxin Contamination of Agricultural Products in the Southern United States and Approaches to Reducing it from Pre-harvest to Final Food Products (United States)

    Mycotoxins represent >300 fungal natural products. Some, notably aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenones, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins frequently contaminate cereal grains, causing acute and chronic illnesses in livestock and humans, including teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, endocrine disrup...

  13. International Environmental Law and Biochemistry: An Innovative Teaching Opportunity. (United States)

    Candlish, John


    Explores the ties between international environmental law and biochemistry with respect to genetically modified organisms, biodiversity, marine pollution, cancer biology, and pesticide contamination of food. Contains 30 references. (DDR)

  14. Chemical food contaminants; Chemische Lebensmittelkontaminanten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)


    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. (orig.)

  15. Chronic Meningitis. (United States)



    Treatment of chronic meningitis depends on the underlying cause. Once a specific cause has been established, appropriate targeted therapy is initiated. When the cause is unknown, a decision must be made whether to employ empiric therapy while the diagnostic evaluation is ongoing. This decision is based on three factors: 1) the clinical status of the patient; 2) the most likely cause based on demographic, historical, examination, and initial laboratory data; and 3) the risk-to-benefit ratio of the proposed treatment regimen. Initial efforts focus on deciding whether the meningitis is infectious or noninfectious. When a decision is made to start empiric therapy, antituberculous treatment is generally given for several weeks to judge therapeutic response. Patients who do not respond to antituberculous therapy are next treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for unusual bacterial pathogens such as Actinomyces (penicillin), the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (ceftriaxone), Brucella (doxycycline plus rifampin), or Francisella tularensis (streptomycin plus gentamicin). Antifungal therapy is generally reserved for patients who are at particular risk for mycotic infection (owing to underlying immunosuppression or an extraneural infection site). Finally, empiric glucocorticoids are generally reserved for patients with consistently negative culture results and a probable noninfectious cause.

  16. Chronic exposure of ecosystems and public to elements in trace contributions; L'exposition chronique des ecosystemes et du public aux elements en traces contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The needs in radiation protection come towards the question of chronic contaminations by trace elements or radioactive compounds. The chronicity induces to take into account a whole of redistribution mechanisms more important than the only ways of the most direct transfer. In the case of environment, that is going to become one of the way of public contamination is a target to protect, the important work is to link the contamination situation to eventual consequences on the ecosystems situation. (N.C.)0.

  17. The relationship between body organ doses and surface dosemeter readings resulting from an infinite area of contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleftherakis, A. [Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Rosen, R. [University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (Australia). School of Safety Science


    Complementary experimental and theoretical techniques were employed to investigate the relationship between radiation doses measured on the surface of the body with those received by internal body organs, for a person standing on an infinite surface uniformly contaminated with gamma emitting radioactive material. This relationship for the critical organs (bone marrow, gastro-intestinal tract and brain) can be used to assess the likely biological response of persons receiving acute or chronic whole body doses of radiation. The experimental technique involved the use of a rotating RANDO phantom which was irradiated with discrete {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co sources placed at successive distances up to 20 m. The experimental dose rates were then extrapolated to derive the equivalent dose rates from an infinite area of contamination. Doses were measured by TLD detectors placed on and inside the phantom. A commercially available Monte Carlo dosimetric computer code, DISDOS-INHOPHO, which incorporated a mathematical phantom, was selected for the theoretical treatment. Extensive modifications were made to the computer code to simulate ground contamination; to account for the transport of photons through air and soil; and to calculate doses delivered to surface dosemeters. The results from the experimental and theoretical work were expressed as organ-to-surface dose ratios and as organ-to-air dose ratios to permit their direct intercomparison. The average of the dose ratio relating the critical organ dose to a surface dosemeter reading had a value of 0.81. Similarly, the dose ratio value for the effective dose had a value of 0.83 7 refs., 1 tab.

  18. International skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Wittendorff, Jens


    De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret.......De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret....

  19. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  20. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali


    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  1. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas


    little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test......Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...

  2. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such as...

  3. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes. (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stalhberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Follett, Sarah A; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W


    Fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods are at risk for contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably Aspergillus fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes


    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stahlberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Follett, Sarah A.; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W.


    Fungal PCR-based diagnostic methods are at risk of contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably A. fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed.

  5. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 30, 2018 ... decontamination method prevented the decrease in µTBS when contamination occurred after light curing. Drying the blood contaminants and reapplying the adhesive may regain the dentin adhesion when contamination occurs before light curing. Alternatively, rinsing and drying contaminants followed by ...

  6. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants (United States)


    All research and development has a story behind it, says Jacqueline Quinn, environmental engineer at Kennedy Space Center. For Quinn, one such story begins with the Saturn 1B launch stand at Kennedy and ends with a unique solution to a challenging environmental problem. Used in a number of Apollo missions and during the Skylab program, the Saturn 1B launch stand was dismantled following the transition to the Space Shuttle Program and stored in an open field at Kennedy. Decades later, the Center s Environmental Program Office discovered evidence of chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the field s soil. The findings were puzzling since PCBs a toxin classified as a probable carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been banned in the United States since 1979. Before the ban, PCBs were commonly used in transformer oils that leached into the ground when the oils were changed out and dumped near transformer sites, but there were no electrical transformers near the dismantled stand. It soon became apparent that the source of the PCBs was the launch stand itself. Prior to the ban, PCBs were used extensively in paints to add elasticity and other desirable characteristics. The PCB-laden paint on the Saturn 1B launch stand was flaking off into the field s soil. Nobody knew there were PCBs in the paint, says Quinn, noting that the ingredient was not monitored carefully when it was in use in 1960s. In fact, she says, the U.S. EPA was not even established until 1970, a year after Neil Armstrong first set foot on the Moon. Nobody knew any better at the time, Quinn says, but today, we have the responsibility to return any natural environmental media to as close to pristine a condition as possible. Quinn, fellow engineer Kathleen Loftin, and other Kennedy colleagues already had experience developing unprecedented solutions for environmental contamination; the team invented the emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology to safely treat

  7. Ecological risk assessment for river sediments contaminated by creosote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorok, R.A.; Sampson, J.R.; Jacobson, M.A. (PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States)); Peek, D.C. (PTI Environmental Services, Lake Oswego, OR (United States))


    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for sediments of the lower Willamette River near a wood-treatment (creosote) facility. Both surface ad subsurface sediments near the facility are contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Limited contamination of sediments by dioxins/furans, chlorinated phenols, and arsenic was also observed. Sediment bioassays based on amphipod (Hyalella azteca) mortality and Microtox[reg sign] (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescence showed toxicity within approximately 300 ft of the shoreline, with a highly toxic area (i.e., possible acute lethal effects in sedentary benthic species) near a dock used for creosote off-loading. The relatively low concentrations of contaminants measured in crayfish muscle tissue and the absence of serious lesions in livers of large-scale sucker collected near the site suggest that excess risk to mobile species from chronic contamination is low. Cursory observations indicate that acute toxic effects on crayfish may be associated with creosote seeps. There is no evidence of adverse biological effects throughout most of the main channel of the river. Evaluation of sediment chemistry data for PAHs relative to available sediment-quality criteria proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency supports this conclusion.

  8. Flooding and arsenic contamination: Influences on ecosystem structure and function in an Appalachian headwater stream (United States)

    Noah R. Lottig; H. Maurice Valett; Madeline E. Schreiber; Jackson R. Webster


    We investigated the influence of flooding and chronic arsenic contamination on ecosystem structure and function in a headwater stream adjacent to an abandoned arsenic (As) mine using an upstream (reference) and downstream (mine-influenced) comparative reach approach. In this study, floods were addressed as a pulse disturbance, and the abandoned As mine was...

  9. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro


    Full Text Available This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for contaminated soils. Within Colombia, oil companies have been implementing the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in order to manage the waste coming from activities of oil drilling, refinement, transport and distribution.These practices must be considered viable for their ease of implementation, their low overhead costs, and for the benefits they provide towards environmental quality. Among the positive impacts that these practices have generated, it may consider the following: a solution for the problem of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, alternatives for the ultimate disposal of said waste without affecting ground, water or air resources, the low cost of the operation, and the technical experience of sustainable development which can continue to be implemented in companies dealing with dangerous waste.

  10. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls


    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  11. Medical management after contamination and incorporation of americium in occupational exposure. Medizinische Massnahmen nach Kontamination und Inkorporation von Americium bei beruflicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensicke, F.; Stopp, G.; Scheler, R.; Klucke, H.; Czarwinski, R.; Naumann, M.; Hoelzer, F.; Ott, R.; Schmidt, I. (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Strahlenschutzmedizin)


    In handling with an ampule of {sup 241}Am-nitrate solution one person received an contamination of the body surface, especially the face and the hairs, and an internal contamination of americium. The paper presents the results obtained in medical management to reduced the contamination of the skin and of the incorporated radionuclide. The radioactivity of the body surface could be reduced up to small local areas. After treatment with DTPA (Ditripentat) the internal exposure decrease about 83%. (orig.).

  12. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    We build a parsimonious international asset pricing model in which deviations of government bond yields from a fitted yield curve of a country measure the tightness of investors' capital constraints. We compute these measures at daily frequency for six major markets and use them to test the model......-predicted effect of funding conditions on asset prices internationally. Global illiquidity lowers the slope and increases the intercept of the international security market line. Local illiquidity helps explain the variation in alphas, Sharpe ratios, and the performance of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies...

  13. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y


    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  14. STR DNA typing of human cell lines: detection of intra- and interspecies cross-contamination. (United States)

    Dirks, Wilhelm G; Drexler, Hans G


    Inter- and intraspecies cross-contaminations (CCs) of human and animal cells represent a chronic problem in cell cultures leading to false data. Microsatellite loci in the human genome harboring short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers allow individualization of cell lines at the DNA level. Thus, fluorescence polymerase chain reaction amplification of STR loci D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, vWA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, and Amelogenin for gender determination is the gold standard for authentication of human cell lines and represents an international reference technique. The major cell banks of the USA, Germany, and Japan (ATCC, DSMZ, JCRB, and RIKEN, respectively) have built compatible STR databases to ensure the availability of STR reference profiles. Upon determination of an STR profile of a human cell line, the suspected identity can be proven by online verification of customer-made STR data sets on the homepage of the DSMZ institute. Furthermore, an additional tetraplex PCR has been established to detect mitochondrial DNA sequences of rodent cells within a human cell culture population. Since authentic cell lines are the main prerequisite for rational research and biotechnology, the next sections describe a rapid and reliable method available to students, technicians, and scientists for certifying identity and purity of human cell lines of interest.

  15. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.


    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  16. Contamination Effects on EUV Optics (United States)

    Tveekrem, J.


    During ground-based assembly and upon exposure to the space environment, optical surfaces accumulate both particles and molecular condensibles, inevitably resulting in degradation of optical instrument performance. Currently, this performance degradation (and the resulting end-of-life instrument performance) cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy using existing software tools. Optical design codes exist to calculate instrument performance, but these codes generally assume uncontaminated optical surfaces. Contamination models exist which predict approximate end-of-life contamination levels, but the optical effects of these contamination levels can not be quantified without detailed information about the optical constants and scattering properties of the contaminant. The problem is particularly pronounced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 300-1,200 A) and far (FUV, 1,200-2,000 A) regimes due to a lack of data and a lack of knowledge of the detailed physical and chemical processes involved. Yet it is in precisely these wavelength regimes that accurate predictions are most important, because EUV/FUV instruments are extremely sensitive to contamination.

  17. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators (United States)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Belczyński, Krzysztof; Stępień, Kazimierz; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Iłkiewicz, Krystian


    Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is an extremely low-mass member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. BEP mimics RR Lyrae-type pulsations but has different internal structure and evolution history. We present possible evolution channels to produce BEPs, and evaluate the contamination value, i.e. how many objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected BEPs. In this analysis we use population synthesis code StarTrack.

  18. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  19. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants. 141.51 Section 141.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... inorganic contaminants. (a) (b) MCLGs for the following contaminants are as indicated: Contaminant MCLG (mg...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-9 - Acid contaminated and explosive contaminated property. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Acid contaminated and explosive contaminated property. 101-42.1102-9 Section 101-42.1102-9 Public Contracts and Property... contaminated and explosive contaminated property. (a) Utilization requirements. (1) Acid contaminated or...

  1. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.


    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  2. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik


    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  3. Chemical contamination of material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    ) chemicals in paper and plastic materials, and furthermore discuss the likely impacts of chemical contamination on material recycling. The work is part of the new Danish initiative focusing on Integrated Resource Management and Recovery (IRMAR, grant no. 11‐116775). The outcomes of the work will provide......Material recycling represents a backbone of sustainable society in the context of circular economy. Ideally, materials are converted into products, used by the consumers, and discarded, just to be recycled and converted into newly manufactured products. Furthermore, materials may also contain...... chemicals, which would be re‐introduced into the loop once a product is recycled. Such chemicals may not be removed in the recycling process, persist, and contaminate the newly manufactured products. Chemical contamination could potentially put product consumers at unnecessary risk and jeopardize public...

  4. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus


    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...... is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly...

  5. Cross-Contamination of Fitting Parameters in Multidimensional Tunneling Treatments (United States)

    Ohashi, Nobukimi; Hougen, Jon T.


    In this talk we examine the two-dimensional tunneling formalism used previously to fit the hydrogen-transfer and internal-rotation splittings in the microwave spectrum of 2-methylmalonaldehyde in an effort to determine the origin of various counterintuitive results concerning the isotopic dependence of the internal-rotation splittings in that molecule. We find that the cause of the problem lies in a "parameter contamination" phenomenon, where some of the numerical magnitude of splitting parameters from modes with large tunneling splittings "leaks into" the parameters of modes with smaller tunneling splittings. We further find that such parameter contamination, which greatly complicates the determination of barrier heights from the least-squares-fitted splitting parameters, will be a general problem in spectral fits using the multi-dimensional tunneling formalism, since it arises from subtle mathematical features of the non-orthogonal framework functions used to set up the tunneling Hamiltonian. Transforming to a physically less intuitive orthonormal set of basis functions allows us to give an approximate numerical estimate of the contamination of tunneling parameters for 2-methylmalonaldehyde by combining a dominant tunneling path hypothesis with results recently given for the hydrogen-transfer-internal-rotation potential function for this molecule.

  6. The role of sublethal effects in evaluating earthworm responses to soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilborn, D.; Bollman, M.; Linder, G. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    Frequently, standard test methods rely upon relatively straightforward, easily interpreted endpoints to evaluate biological effects, like growth inhibition, gross morbidity or death. In soil contamination evaluations, for example, earthworm toxicity tests are routinely completed in order to consider adverse biological effects associated with exposures to soil samples in the laboratory or field. Here, the toxicity endpoint measured in the standard test using Eisenia foetida is death; however, if chronic effects are more appropriate to the questions being asked within a risk assessment context, then alternative test endpoints must be developed and standardized. Prior evaluations have relied upon sublethal endpoints, most frequently behavioral and morphological observations, for evaluating chronic effects associated with contaminant exposures. The authors applied these behavioral and morphological endpoints in analyzing potential chronic effects in earthworms exposed to heavy metal-contaminated soils in both the laboratory and field. In using a relatively standard set of these sublethal endpoints the authors found that these endpoints could be used to evaluate chronic effects associated with soil exposures, but that selection of the specific end-points had to be adequately standardized and that observer bias had to be adequately characterized in order for these measures of chronic effects to be unequivocally applied within an ecological risk assessment.

  7. Rapid vascular uptake of contrast during a retrograde urethro-cystogram in a cat with chronic lower urinary tract disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xander Huizing


    Full Text Available Case summary A 9-year male neutered domestic longhair cat was referred to our hospital for investigation of recurrent urinary tract obstruction. The clinical signs had started 12 months earlier and the cat had been catheterised on multiple occasions. Clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound of the abdomen was unremarkable but examination of the penis revealed it to be prolapsed and extremely erythematous and friable. A retrograde contrast urethrocystogram was performed, showing extravasation of the contrast medium and establishing the presence of partial leakage or a tear of the urethra. In subsequent radiographs, the contrast was seen being rapidly absorbed into the pelvic and systemic vasculature via the penile veins, internal and external pudendal veins, internal and external iliac veins, and, ultimately, the caudal vena cava. Later, the contrast medium was seen within the renal pelves. Retrograde urethrocystography revealed stenosis and irregularities of the caudal urethral mucosa consistent with strictures. A routine perineal urethrostomy was performed and the cat recovered well. Conclusions and relevance Rapid vascular absorption of extravasated contrast medium has not been reported before. In this case, the increased blood supply to the distal urethra and penis is likely secondary to (chronic inflammation, as demonstrated by the urethral strictures and the friable, oedematous nature of the penis. Whether the inflammation was caused by chronic obstruction or repeated iatrogenic trauma, or a combination of these factors, will remain debatable. Nonetheless, this case demonstrates that when a retrograde contrast urethrocystogram is considered, it is imperative that a contrast medium (or other intraurethral medication such as local anaesthesia is chosen that is safe for intravascular use. Equally, an absolute aseptic technique is essential considering the potential for contaminants to be absorbed quite rapidly into the systemic

  8. Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others


    The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

  9. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media]. (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D


    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Publications | Page 83 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 821 - 830 of 6372 ... ​In many rural and peri-urban areas around the world, water used for human consumption is being contaminated with human pathogens, heavy metals, and other dissolved compounds. Transforming the legacy of mass atrocities: Collecting evidence at the community level. The International Center ...

  11. Publications | Page 82 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 811 - 820 of 6375 ... ​In many rural and peri-urban areas around the world, water used for human consumption is being contaminated with human pathogens, heavy metals, and other dissolved compounds. Transforming the legacy of mass atrocities: Collecting evidence at the community level. The International Center ...

  12. Chronic pain in hemodialysis patients: Role of bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek A. Ghonemy

    a Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unit, Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt b Clinical Pathology Department, Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. Received 7 July 2015; revised 10 November 2015; accepted 10 December 2015. Available online 31 December 2015. KEYWORDS. Chronic pain;. Hemodialysis;.

  13. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. (United States)


    ... microbiological contaminants. MCLGs for the following contaminants are as indicated: Contaminant MCLG (1) Giardia lamblia zero (2) Viruses zero (3) Legionella zero (4) Total coliforms (including fecal coliforms and...

  14. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies. (United States)

    Kryukov, Kirill; Imanishi, Tadashi


    Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases.

  15. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Kryukov

    Full Text Available Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases.

  16. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M


    AIMS: Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected b...

  17. Stage effect of chronic kidney disease in erectile function. (United States)

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Ponciano, Viviane Campos; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Gomes, Caio Pereira; de Oliveira, Enio Chaves


    The study aims to assess the influence of the stage of chronic kidney disease and glomerular filtration rate on prevalence and degree of erectile dysfunction. This transversal study, conducted from May 2013 to December 2015, included patients with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, stages III/IV/V. Erectile dysfunction was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function. Data classically associated with erectile dysfunction were obtained by medical record review. Erectile dysfunction, degree of erectile dysfunction, and other main variables associated with erectile dysfunction were compared between patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment stages III versus IV/V using the Chi-square test. The relationship between score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction and glomerular filtration rate was established by Pearson correlation coefficient. Two hundred and forty five patients with chronic kidney disease in con-servative treatment participated of the study. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease in stages IV/V was greater than in stage III. Glomerular filtration rate positively correlated with score of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction. The study suggests that chronic kidney disease progression (glomerular filtration rate decrease and advance in chronic kidney disease stages) worsen erectile function. Hypothetically, diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction may be anticipated with the analysis of chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  18. Effect of Particle-size Distribution on Chemical Washing Experiment of Uranium Contaminated Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan Suk; Kim, Gye Nam; Shon, Dong Bin; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Kun Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Taken down of nuclear institution was radioactive contaminated concrete over 70% of whole waste. Advanced countries have realized the importance of waste processing. Nuclear institutions keep a lot of radioactive contaminated concrete in internal waste storage. Therefore radioactive contaminated concrete disport to whole waste and reduce for self-processing standard concentration may be disposed of inexpensive more than radioactive waste storage. This study uses mechanical and thermal technology for a uranium contaminated concrete process in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's radioactive waste storage. Mechanical and thermal technologies are divided based on particle size. Each particles-sized concrete analyzed for uranium contamination using an MCA instrument. A chemical washing experiment was carried out

  19. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...

  20. Biotreatment of explosive contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, C.F.; Guiot, S.R.; Manuel, M.F. [Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others


    The aim of this research was to develop a process which can be employed to remediate 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soils. The TNT and RDX degrading ability of microorganisms in municipal activated sludge and anaerobic sludge was evaluated, along with the toxicity of TNT and RDX to the microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Biotreatment of TNT and RDX contaminated soils was studied in bioslurry reactors. Microcosm tests were also conducted to see if TNT and RDX removal from the slurry reactor is attributed to a mineralization to CO{sub 2}, and to determine the synergetic or antagonistic effct (if any) of TNT and RDX on the mineralization. Both sludge types were found to be rich sources of RDX degrading organisms. The supplement of anaerobic sludge in bioslurry reactor enhances the biodegradation of TNT and RDX, and leads to complete removal of TNT and RDX from the contaminated soil. Bioslurry reactors may be a cost-effective approach to the on-site bioremediation of soils contaminated with high levels of epxlosives.

  1. System for detecting microbial contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, J.; Groenestijn, J.W.; Zegers, N.D.


    The present invention relates to a system for detecting microbial contamination of a liquid specimen comprising a device for concentrating micro-organisms from a liquid specimen, having (i) a hypobaric chamber, (ii) a filter housing comprising a liquid-permeable bed of an adsorbent material and

  2. Early contamination of European flounder (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, M.; Martinho, F.; Vernisseau, A.; Marchand, P.; Le Bizec, B.; van der Veer, H.W.; Cabral, H.N.; Ramos, F.; Pardal, M.A.


    Contamination levels and profiles of 7 polychlorinated-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were investigated in juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured in different nursery areas in the northeastern Atlantic coast

  3. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  4. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch


    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  5. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination (United States)

    Wells, Mark


    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

  7. Suture contamination in strabismus surgery. (United States)

    Eustis, H Sprague; Rhodes, Annette


    To document the contamination rate of sutures used in strabismus surgery and evaluate the reduction of contamination using antibiotic-coated and antiseptic/antibiotic-coated sutures. This was a prospective randomized analysis of suture contamination and potential prophylaxis measures after strabismus surgery. Muscle sutures (6-0 polyglactin) used in 302 consecutive cases of strabismus from October 2008 to May 2009 were collected and randomly assigned to three groups: (1) a control without pretreatment sutures (61); (2) antibiotic/steroid-coated sutures (200); and (3) antiseptic-soaked and antibiotic/steroid-coated sutures (141). The sutures were used under sterile conditions and then cut into pieces and transferred to blood agar plates, which were incubated for 48 hours and then checked for growth. Group 1 had bacterial growth in 17 of 61 (28%) sutures; group 2 had growth in 44 of 200 (22%) sutures; and group 3 had growth in 12 of 141 (9%) sutures. The reduction in bacterial growth using the antibiotic/antiseptic coating was significant (P = .006). One patient developed coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis endophthalmitis 1 week after surgery, which was promptly diagnosed and successfully treated. No complications from the antibiotic-coated or antiseptic-soaked sutures were noted. Although endophthalmitis after strabismus surgery is rare, estimated at 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 185,000, visual outcome is uniformly poor. The authors hypothesize that strabismus sutures can be contaminated via contact with the eyelashes and skin, providing a possible conduit for endophthalmitis. Bacterial contamination of strabismus sutures is high (28%) and can be reduced significantly if sutures are soaked in antiseptic before use. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Rickert, David A.


    Mercury has been well known as an environmental pollutant for several decades. As early as the 1950's it was established that emissions of mercury to the environment could have serious effects on human health. These early studies demonstrated that fish and other wildlife from various ecosystems commonly attain mercury levels of toxicological concern when directly affected by mercury-containing emissions from human-related activities. Human health concerns arise when fish and wildlife from these ecosystems are consumed by humans. During the past decade, a new trend has emerged with regard to mercury pollution. Investigations initiated in the late 1980's in the northern-tier states of the U.S., Canada, and Nordic countries found that fish, mainly from nutrient-poor lakes and often in very remote areas, commonly have high levels of mercury. More recent fish sampling surveys in other regions of the U.S. have shown widespread mercury contamination in streams, wet-lands, reservoirs, and lakes. To date, 33 states have issued fish consumption advisories because of mercury contamination. These continental to global scale occurrences of mercury contamination cannot be linked to individual emissions of mercury, but instead are due to widespread air pollution. When scientists measure mercury levels in air and surface water, however, the observed levels are extraordinarily low. In fact, scientists have to take extreme precautions to avoid direct contact with water samples or sample containers, to avert sample contamination (Fig 3). Herein lies an apparent discrepancy: Why do fish from some remote areas have elevated mercury concentrations, when contamination levels in the environment are so low?

  9. Comments on "Study of Bacterial Contamination of Mobile Phones and Stethoscopes in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi


    Full Text Available This letter is regarding the article by Daoudi et al. entitled "Study of bacterial contamination of mobile phones and stethoscopes in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" published in International Journal of Pediatrics DOI: 10.22038/IJP.2017.25504.2170 (1. The authors have evaluated the microbial contamination of mobile phones and stethoscopes used by medical and paramedical staff. They reported that 100% of mobile phones and stethoscopes studied by their team showed bacterial contamination. Based on their findings, Daoudi et al. suggested that medical staff should wash their hands with care and use hydro-alcoholic solutions after using mobile phones and stethoscopes.

  10. International Entomology (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  11. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness (United States)

    ... Home Goals Ending Chronic Homelessness Share Ending Chronic Homelessness Last updated on August 04, 2017 We can ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  12. Chronic Kidney Diseases (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print A ... pressure at a healthy level. continue Kinds of Kidney Diseases Like any complicated machine, not all kidneys work ...

  13. Diet - chronic kidney disease (United States)

    ... page: // Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating ...

  14. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) (United States)

    ... this page: // Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hashimoto Images Endocrine glands Thyroid enlargement - scintiscan Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) Thyroid gland References Amino N, Lazarus JH, ...

  15. Anemia of chronic disease (United States)

    ... Anemia of chronic disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many types of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is anemia that is found in people ...

  16. Chronic Diarrhea in Children (United States)

    ... Digestive System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Chronic Diarrhea in Children View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Chronic diarrhea is passing loose, watery stools three or more ...

  17. Chronic Daily Headaches (United States)

    ... chronic migraine or chronic tension-type headache Hemicrania continua These headaches: Affect only one side of your ... development of migraine-like symptoms In addition, hemicrania continua headaches are associated with at least one of ...

  18. Managing your chronic pain (United States)

    ... Managing your chronic back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Managing chronic pain means finding ways to make your back pain ...

  19. Chronic tophaceous gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D


    Full Text Available A rare case of chronic tophaceous gout, in a 27-year-old female on diuretics for chronic congestive cardiac failure with characteristic histopathological and radiological changes is reported.

  20. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union. (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio


    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  1. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal


    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  2. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm


    -specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0...

  3. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats. (United States)

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang


    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants.

  4. Contamination assessment in microbiological sampling of the Eyreville core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure (United States)

    Gronstal, A.L.; Voytek, M.A.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Von der, Heyde; Lowit, M.D.; Cockell, C.S.


    Knowledge of the deep subsurface biosphere is limited due to difficulties in recovering materials. Deep drilling projects provide access to the subsurface; however, contamination introduced during drilling poses a major obstacle in obtaining clean samples. To monitor contamination during the 2005 International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deep drilling of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, four methods were utilized. Fluorescent microspheres were used to mimic the ability of contaminant cells to enter samples through fractures in the core material during retrieval. Drilling mud was infused with a chemical tracer (Halon 1211) in order to monitor penetration of mud into cores. Pore water from samples was examined using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fl uorescence spectroscopy to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present at various depths. DOC signatures at depth were compared to signatures from drilling mud in order to identify potential contamination. Finally, microbial contaminants present in drilling mud were identified through 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) clone libraries and compared to species cultured from core samples. Together, these methods allowed us to categorize the recovered core samples according to the likelihood of contamination. Twenty-two of the 47 subcores that were retrieved were free of contamination by all the methods used and were subsequently used for microbiological culture and culture-independent analysis. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of both particulate and dissolved contaminants that could be applied to any environment with low biomass. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants. Volume 2 (United States)


    The International Space Station is a closed and complex environment, so some contamination of its internal atmosphere and water system is expected. To protect space crews from contaminants in potable and hygiene water, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance on how to develop water exposure guidelines and review NASA s development of the exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. NASA selects water contaminants for which spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) will be established; this involves identifying toxicity effects relevant to astronauts and calculating exposure concentrations on the basis of those end points. SWEGs are established for exposures of 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 days. This report is the second volume in the series, Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Chemicals. SWEG reports for acetone, alkylamines, ammonia, barium, cadmium, caprolactam, formate, formaldehyde, manganese, total organic carbon, and zinc are included in this report. The committee concludes that the SWEGs developed for these chemicals are scientifically valid based on the data reviewed by NASA and are consistent with the NRC (2000) report, Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines. SWEG reports for additional chemicals will be presented in a subsequent volume.

  6. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / COPD COPD Also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , Emphysema Leer en español What Is Also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic bronchitis; or emphysema. COPD, or chronic obstructive ...

  7. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for the...

  8. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  9. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan


    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  10. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level of non-fixed (removable) radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered for...

  11. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck area... the removable (non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits prescribed...

  12. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S. (eds.)


    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included. (HLW)

  13. Dispersion of Contaminants in Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    on the location of the contamination source and in practice also on the supplied air flow rate and the contaminant density. The results showed that it is important for the removal of contaminants in a room that the ventilation system is working in the same direction as the existing buoyancy forces....

  14. Sources and Practices Contributing to Soil Contamination (United States)

    A.S. Knox; A.P. Gamerdinger; D.C. Adriano; R.K. Kolka; D.I. Kaplan


    The term soil contamination can have different connotations because anthropogehic sources of contaminants have affected virtually every natural ecosystem in the world; a commonly held view is that contamination occurs when the soil composition deiiates from the normal composition (Adriano et al., 1997). Other specialists have defined soil pollution as the presence of...

  15. Meaning and Mental Contamination: Focus on Appraisals (United States)

    Elliott, Corinna M.; Radomsky, Adam S.


    Background: The recent expansion of interest in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fostered the description of mental contamination and a series of experiments designed to understand associated factors. This supports a cognitive approach to the understanding and treatment of contamination-related OCD--especially when the…

  16. Contamination of a toothbrush with antibacterial properties by oral microorganisms. (United States)

    Efstratiou, M; Papaioannou, W; Nakou, M; Ktenas, E; Vrotsos, I A; Panis, V


    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination and the survival rate of periodontopathic and cariogenic species on new toothbrushes with antibacterial properties (coated bristles with triclosan), after a single use in periodontitis patients. The decontamination effect of the use of toothpaste was also evaluated. Ten patients, who consulted the Department of Periodontology, for treatment of chronic periodontitis, were selected. In each patient four different toothbrushes were used. Two quadrants, randomly selected, were each brushed using a different antibacterial toothbrush. In one of these two quadrants toothpaste was used. The same happened with the remaining quadrants, only with regular toothbrushes. After brushing, the toothbrushes were rinsed and stored in room temperature and a dry environment. After 0, 4 and 24h, four tufts, from each toothbrush, were cut and processed for selective and non-selective culturing techniques, followed by identification and quantification of all species found. Immediately after brushing the toothbrushes harbored a significant number of microorganisms, with no statistically significant difference between the two types of brushes (regular and antibacterial). The reduction of microorganisms from 0 to 4h after brushing was statistically significant (ptoothpaste was used, brushes harbored significantly (ptoothpaste. The antibacterial toothbrush with triclosan coated tufts failed to limit the bacterial contamination. The toothpaste, on the other hand, significantly reduced the contamination of toothbrushes.

  17. Mouse DNA contamination in human tissue tested for XMRV. (United States)

    Robinson, Mark J; Erlwein, Otto W; Kaye, Steve; Weber, Jonathan; Cingoz, Oya; Patel, Anup; Walker, Marjorie M; Kim, Wun-Jae; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Coffin, John M; McClure, Myra O


    We used a PCR-based approach to study the prevalence of genetic sequences related to a gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus, XMRV, in human prostate cancer. This virus has been identified in the US in prostate cancer patients and in those with chronic fatigue syndrome. However, with the exception of two patients in Germany, XMRV has not been identified in prostate cancer tissue in Europe. Most putative associations of new or old human retroviruses with diseases have turned out to be due to contamination. We have looked for XMRV sequences in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded prostate tissues. To control for contamination, PCR assays to detect either mouse mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or intracisternal A particle (IAP) long terminal repeat DNA were run on all samples, owing to their very high copy number in mouse cells. In general agreement with the US prevalence, XMRV-like sequences were found in 4.8% of prostate cancers. However, these were also positive, as were 21.5% of XMRV-negative cases, for IAP sequences, and many, but not all were positive for mtDNA sequences. These results show that contamination with mouse DNA is widespread and detectable by the highly sensitive IAP assay, but not always with less sensitive assays, such as murine mtDNA PCR. This study highlights the ubiquitous presence of mouse DNA in laboratory specimens and offers a means of rigorous validation for future studies of murine retroviruses in human disease.

  18. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus


    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks.

  19. Metallic and Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Caylak


    Full Text Available Safe and good quality drinking water is very important for human health. Water provides some heavy metals, such as As, B, Cd, Cn, Cr, Cu, F, Cl, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Sn. These are undesirable substances dangerous to human health and cause chronic diseases and various cancers. Coliform bacteria are a commonly used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality of water. E. coli, total coliform and enterococci have been used as indicators of possible sewage contamination might pose a health risk. In this study, water samples were taken from thirty different waterworks in Cankiri, Turkey and metallic and microbial contaminants were investigated. In the drinking tap water samples have been found at concentrations exceeding the Turkish regulations (As and free Cl and the WHO guidelines (As and B. Our results also indicate that significant microbiological contaminations were found above the guidelines for drinking waters given by the WHO, because of the fact that in the distribution of water is not appropriate.


    CERN Multimedia


    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  1. Environmental contaminants in breast milk. (United States)

    Nickerson, Krista


    Toxic environmental contaminants can be transferred from mother to infant via breastfeeding. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a family of lipophilic stable chemicals that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue and create a lasting toxic body burden. Breastfeeding provides a significant source of exposure to POPs early in human life, the effects of which are unknown, and is the subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. This article reviews what is known about POPs in breast milk and their effect on infant development to inform clinicians about the issue, provide recommendations for practice, and promote environmental and public health policies that reduce human exposure to harmful pollutants.

  2. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  3. Satellite material contaminant optical properties (United States)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.


    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  4. Contaminated toothbrushes and their disinfection. (United States)

    Caudry, S D; Klitorinos, A; Chan, E C


    Twenty toothbrushes used by healthy subjects were screened for the presence of microorganisms. Microbes were dislodged from the brushes by vortexing, and an average of 4 x 10(3) CFU/mL were recovered from the suspending fluid. Bristles removed from the vortexed brushes still yielded confluent bacterial growth on brain-heart infusion agar medium. Virkon (one per cent), Listerine, Cepacol, Scope, and Plax were tested for their bactericidal effects on microorganisms sedimented from the suspending fluid, on toothbrush bristles and proxabrushes, and on various test species including Candida albicans, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. bovis, and Streptococcus mitis. Virkon and Listerine killed all the test species and virtually all the microorganisms on the toothbrush bristles and proxabrushes. Six volunteers tested the efficacy of a Listerine soaking regime to prevent the bacterial contamination of toothbrushes. Soaking the toothbrush head (bristles) in Listerine for 20 minutes after brushing was sufficient to eliminate bacterial contamination.

  5. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee


    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.


    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office


    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  7. International development of four EORTC disease-specific quality of life questionnaires for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, high- and low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. (United States)

    van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Oerlemans, Simone; Bredart, Anne; Kyriakou, Charalampia; Sztankay, Monika; Pallua, Stephan; Daniëls, Laurien; Creutzberg, Carien L; Cocks, Kim; Malak, Sandra; Caocci, Giovanni; Molica, Stefano; Chie, Weichu; Efficace, Fabio


    This paper describes the international, cross-cultural development of four disease-specific EORTC QoL questionnaires, to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30, for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), high- or low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HG/LG-NHL), and CLL. Questionnaire development was conducted according to guidelines from the EORTC Quality of Life Group. Phase I comprised generation of QoL issues relevant to patients. Phase II included operationalization and assessment of item relevance. In phase III, items were pretested in a cross-cultural sample. In Phase I, 75 issues were identified through focus groups and systematic literature searches. Interviews with 80 health-care professionals and 245 patients resulted in a provisional module of 38 items (phase II) representing items relevant for all or at least one of the four malignancies. In Phase III, this was tested in 337 patients from five European countries and resulted in a questionnaire with 27 items for HL (EORTC QLQ-HL27), 29 items for HG-NHL (EORTC QLQ-NHL-HG29), 20 items for LG-NHL (EORTC QLQ-NHL-LG20) and 17 items for CLL (EORTC QLQ-CLL17). This study provides four new EORTC modules for use in clinical research and routine practice in conjunction with the EORTC QLQ-C30 for assessing QoL in patients with lymphoma and CLL.

  8. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel


    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  9. Fungi contamination of drinking water. (United States)

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin


    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  10. Psychological aspects of personnel contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.L.


    This paper discusses some of the major emotional considerations involved in the treatment of people who have been contaminated with potentially hazardous materials. Although the principal focus is the treatment of people trained to work with these materials, an attempt is also made to extend these methods to people having little or no knowledge of such matters. Accidents always result in emotional trauma. When the accident involves radioactive or other potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic materials, there is a possibility of enhanced emotional stress due to the mystique surrounding these substances. Several psychological principles that have emerged from the treatment of radioactively-contaminated workers are: (1) provide pre-accident training for all radiation workers; (2) avoid secrets; (3) as rapidly as possible following a contamination accident, bring the worker into contact with others; (4) recognize the emotions of the family and the family's fears and trauma; and (5) do not desert the worker after decontamination has been completed. 1 ref.

  11. Toothbrush contamination in family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Contreras


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial contamination of toothbrushes in family members. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two healthy subjects were included in this descriptive study. Every individual was examined clinically and microbiologically using the CPITN index and collecting subgingival plaque samples. Each participant received a toothbrush for home use and after one month they returned it to the investigators. All toothbrushes were cultured to determine the presence of periodontopathic bacteria and enteric rods. Wilkoxon signed rank test and t student test (P d"0.05 were used to compare differences in the subgingival microbiota and toothbrush contamination and CPITN index among family members. Results: A high proportion of toothbrushes resulted highly contaminated with enteric rods (P d"0.001 compared to the subgingival environment where periodontopathic bacteria were more prevalent. The most frequent microorganisms found in toothbrushes used by parents and children for one month were Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae species (>50% and Fusobacterium spp (30%. Conclusions: High levels of enteric rods were commonly detected in toothbrushes used for 1 month among members of the families. These opportunistic organisms may have an important role in oral infections including gingivitis and periodontitis. Monthly replacement or disinfection of the toothbrush can reduce the risk of bacterial transmission/translocation and thus diminish the incidence of biofilm associated oral diseases.

  12. [Internal migration]. (United States)

    Borisovna, L


    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  13. Conceptualizing international education : From international student to international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madge, Clare; Raghuram, Parvati; Noxolo, Pat


    In a rapidly changing transnational eduscape, it is timely to consider how best to conceptualize international education. Here we argue for a conceptual relocation from international student to international study as a means to bridge the diverse literatures on international education. International

  14. Approaching chronic sinusitis. (United States)

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C


    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder.

  15. Perceptions about toothbrush contamination and disinfection among dental students in Bengaluru City: A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Sowmya, K R; Puranik, Manjunath P; James, Jesline Merly; Sabbarwal, Bhavna


    Toothbrushes are vital to remove dental biofilm and to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease. Repeated use of toothbrushes leads to contamination; hence, disinfection is essential in the maintenance of a brush. Current understanding and perception among dental students about toothbrush contamination and disinfection are essential. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions about toothbrush contamination and disinfection among postgraduates and interns in Bengaluru city. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaire among 400 postgraduates and interns from five dental colleges in Bengaluru. The statistics were computed with the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 software and Chi-square test was used. A P toothpaste. Only less than half of the participants, in both the groups practiced disinfection. There was a statistically significant difference in the perceptions about tooth brush contamination and disinfection among postgraduates and interns that might be attributed to their higher academic knowledge and clinical experience.

  16. Integrative medicine for chronic pain (United States)

    Saha, Felix J.; Brüning, Alexander; Barcelona, Cyrus; Büssing, Arndt; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav; Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger


    Abstract Introduction: Integrative medicine inpatient treatment has been shown to improve physical and mental health in patients with internal medicine conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient treatment in patients with chronic pain syndromes and the association of treatment success with patient-related process variables. Methods: Inpatients with chronic pain syndromes participating in a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient program were included. Patients’ pain intensity, pain disability, pain perception, quality of life, depression, and perceived stress were measured on admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge. Likewise process variables including ability and will to change, emotional/rational disease acceptance, mindfulness, life and health satisfaction, and easiness of life were assessed. Results: A total of 310 inpatients (91% female, mean age 50.7 ± 12.4 year, 26.5% low back pain, and 22.9% fibromyalgia) were included. Using mixed linear models, significant improvements in pain intensity, pain disability, pain perception, quality of life, depression, and perceived stress were found (all P medicine inpatient treatment can benefit patients with chronic pain conditions. Functional improvements are associated with improved ability to change and implementation, disease acceptance, and satisfaction. PMID:27399133

  17. Chronic Daily Headache - A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A


    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache (CDH generally refers to frequent headache occuring more than 15 days/month for over three months. Such headaches may be primary or secondary - the latter referring to headaches related to identifiable intra and extracranial vascular or other pathologies or systemic illnesses. The primary type may be subclassified as short and long lasting ones, depending upon whether the headache spells are more or less than four hours in duration. The present review would deal with the four major types of long lasting primary CDH which include Chronic migraine (CM, Chronic tension type headache (CTTH, New daily persistent headache (NDPH and Hemicrania continua (HC. The first part of the article would focus on the clinical pattern recognising features of these types. The relationship of medication overuse to CM would be critically evaluated. In the second part, the status of CDH in the recently proposed classification of headache disorders by the International Headache Society would be briefly evaluated. In the next section the clinical Profile or CDH in Indian patients would be highlighted based on available published data. Lastly, the pathophysiology of this vexing condition would be discussed specially in relation to CM and postulating on how it may evolve from episodic migraine.

  18. Opioids and the management of chronic severe pain in the elderly: consensus statement of an International Expert Panel with focus on the six clinically most often used World Health Organization Step III opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone). (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph; Böger, Rainer H; Budd, Keith; Dahan, Albert; Erdine, Serdar; Hans, Guy; Kress, Hans-Georg; Langford, Richard; Likar, Rudolf; Raffa, Robert B; Sacerdote, Paola


    SUMMARY OF CONSENSUS: 1. The use of opioids in cancer pain: The criteria for selecting analgesics for pain treatment in the elderly include, but are not limited to, overall efficacy, overall side-effect profile, onset of action, drug interactions, abuse potential, and practical issues, such as cost and availability of the drug, as well as the severity and type of pain (nociceptive, acute/chronic, etc.). At any given time, the order of choice in the decision-making process can change. This consensus is based on evidence-based literature (extended data are not included and chronic, extended-release opioids are not covered). There are various driving factors relating to prescribing medication, including availability of the compound and cost, which may, at times, be the main driving factor. The transdermal formulation of buprenorphine is available in most European countries, particularly those with high opioid usage, with the exception of France; however, the availability of the sublingual formulation of buprenorphine in Europe is limited, as it is marketed in only a few countries, including Germany and Belgium. The opioid patch is experimental at present in U.S.A. and the sublingual formulation has dispensing restrictions, therefore, its use is limited. It is evident that the population pyramid is upturned. Globally, there is going to be an older population that needs to be cared for in the future. This older population has expectations in life, in that a retiree is no longer an individual who decreases their lifestyle activities. The "baby-boomers" in their 60s and 70s are "baby zoomers"; they want to have a functional active lifestyle. They are willing to make trade-offs regarding treatment choices and understand that they may experience pain, providing that can have increased quality of life and functionality. Therefore, comorbidities--including cancer and noncancer pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and postherpetic neuralgia--and patient functional

  19. Fecal genotyping and contaminant analyses reveal variation in individual river otter exposure to localized persistent contaminants. (United States)

    Guertin, Daniel A; Harestad, Alton S; Ben-David, Merav; Drouillard, Ken G; Elliott, John E


    The present study investigated polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PHAH) concentrations in feces of known river otters (Lontra canadensis) along the coast of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Specifically, we combined microsatellite genotyping of DNA from feces for individual identification with fecal contaminant analyses to evaluate exposure of 23 wild otters to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Overall, feces collected from otters in urban/industrial Victoria Harbor had the greatest concentrations of nearly all compounds assessed. Fecal concentrations of OCPs and PBDEs were generally low throughout the region, whereas PCBs dominated in all locations. Re-sampling of known otters over space and time revealed that PCB exposure varied with movement and landscape use. Otters with the highest fecal PCB concentrations were those inhabiting the inner reaches of Victoria Harbor and adjacent Esquimalt Harbor, and those venturing into the harbor systems. Over 50% of samples collected from eight known otters in Victoria Harbor had total-PCB concentrations above the maximum allowable concentration as established for Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) feces, with a geometric mean value (10.6 mg/kg lipid wt) that exceeded the reproductive toxicity threshold (9 mg/kg lipid wt). Those results are consistent with our findings from 1998 and 2004, and indicate that the harbors of southern Vancouver Island, particularly Victoria Harbor, are a chronic source of PCB exposure for otters. The present study further demonstrates the suitability of using otter feces as a noninvasive/destructive biomonitoring tool in contaminant studies, particularly when sampling of the same individuals at the local population-level is desired. Copyright 2009 SETAC.

  20. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell


    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: · Be easy to apply · Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest · Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity · Not be hazardous in final applied form · Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to

  1. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik


    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...

  2. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters (United States)

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.


    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  3. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupton, Francis Stephen


    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  4. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters. (United States)

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S


    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. © 2013.

  5. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Singh


    Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North; assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

  6. Wautersia: The Contingency Water Container Bacterial Contamination Investigation (United States)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Labuda, Laura; Bruce, Rebekah


    The Orbiter delivers water to the International Space Station (ISS) in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) on each flight to the ISS. These CWCs are routinely sampled during each mission to verify the quality of the delivered water. Of the 5 samples returned on STS118/ 13A.1 in August 2007, two exhibited microbial growth exceeding potable water acceptability limits and historical data by orders of magnitude . The microbe was identified as Wautersia species and an investigation was launched to find the source of the contamination. Since then, samples collected on subsequent flights indicated additional CWCs had the same bacteria, as well as several on-orbit systems. An investigation was launched to try to find and address the source of the bacterial contamination. This paper will discuss how Wautersia was found, what Wautersia is, the investigation, and resolution.

  7. Adaptation and Impairment of DNA Repair Function in Pollen of Betula verrucosa and Seeds of Oenothera biennis from Differently Radionuclide-contaminated Sites of Chernobyl (United States)

    Boubriak, I. I.; Grodzinsky, D. M.; Polischuk, V. P.; Naumenko, V. D.; Gushcha, N. P.; Micheev, A. N.; McCready, S. J.; Osborne, D. J.


    Background and Aims The plants that have remained in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl since 1986 encapsulate the effects of radiation. Such plants are chronically exposed to radionuclides that they have accumulated internally as well as to α-, β- and γ-emitting radionuclides from external sources and from the soil. This radiation leads to genetic damage that can be countered by DNA repair systems. The objective of this study is to follow DNA repair and adaptation in haploid cells (birch pollen) and diploid cells (seed embryos of the evening primrose) from plants that have been growing in situ in different radionuclide fall-out sites in monitored regions surrounding the Chernobyl explosion of 1986. Methods Radionuclide levels in soil were detected using gamma-spectroscopy and radiochemistry. DNA repair assays included measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis, electrophoretic determination of single-strand DNA breaks and image analysis of rDNA repeats after repair intervals. Nucleosome levels were established using an ELISA kit. Key Results Birch pollen collected in 1987 failed to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis, but pollen at γ/β-emitter sites has now recovered this ability. At a site with high levels of combined α- and γ/β-emitters, pollen still exhibits hidden damage, as shown by reduced unscheduled DNA synthesis and failure to repair lesions in rDNA repeats properly. Evening primrose seed embryos generated on plants at the same γ/β-emitter sites now show an improved DNA repair capacity and ability to germinate under abiotic stresses (salinity and accelerated ageing). Again those from combined α- and γ/β-contaminated site do not show this improvement. Conclusions Chronic irradiation at γ/β-emitter sites has provided opportunities for plant cells (both pollen and embryo cells) to adapt to ionizing irradiation and other environmental stresses. This may be explained by facilitation of DNA repair function. PMID:17981881

  8. Evolutionary consequences of historical metal contamination for natural populations of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae). (United States)

    Pedrosa, João; Campos, Diana; Cocchiararo, Berardino; Nowak, Carsten; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos; L T Pestana, João


    Populations inhabiting metal-impacted freshwater systems located nearby industrial and urban areas may be under intense selection. The present study aims to address two fundamental microevolutionary aspects of metal contamination in the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen): Are populations inhabiting historically metal contaminated sites genetically adapted to metals? And, are populations from these sites genetically eroded? To answer these questions, C. riparius populations were sampled from three sites with well-known histories of metal contamination and three nearby-located references. Genetic adaptation to metals was investigated through acute and chronic exposures to cadmium (Cd), after rearing all populations for at least six generations under laboratory clean conditions. Genetic diversity was estimated based on the allelic variation of seven microsatellite markers. Results showed higher acute tolerance to Cd in populations originating from metal contaminated sites compared to their respective references and significant differences in two out of three pairwise comparisons. However, there was a mismatch between acute and chronic tolerance to Cd with results of the partial life-cycle tests suggesting fitness costs under control clean conditions in two metal-adapted populations. Despite no evidences of genetic erosion in populations sampled from metal contaminated sites, our results suggest genetically inherited tolerance to Cd in populations inhabiting historically contaminated sites. These findings lend support to the use of C. riparius as a model organism in evolutionary toxicology and highlight the importance of coupling measures of neutral genetic diversity with assessments of chemical tolerance of populations for a better understanding of contaminant-induced adaptation and evolutionary processes.

  9. Rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Rogers, H.B.; Beyrouty, C.A.; Reynolds, C.M. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Agronomy


    Rhizosphere microbial populations may increase bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals. A growth chamber study was conducted to evaluate rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated and non-contaminated soil. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina L.) were grown in soil containing a mixture of organic chemicals for 14 weeks. The equal millimolar mixture of hexadecane, (2,2-dimethylpropyl)benzene, cis-decahydronaphthalene (decalin), benzoic acid, phenanthrene, and pyrene was added at levels of 0 and 2000 mg/kg. Organic chemical degrader (OCD) populations were assessed by a Most-Probable-Number technique, and bacteria and fungi were enumerated by plate count methods. Different methods for expressing OCD rhizosphere populations were enumerated by plate count methods. Different methods for expressing OCD rhizosphere populations were investigated to determine the effect it had on interpretation of the results. At 9 weeks, the OCD numbers were significantly higher in rhizosphere and contaminated soils than in bulk and non-contaminated soils, respectively. Alfalfa rhizosphere OCD levels were 4 x 10{sup 7}/g for contaminated and 6 x 10{sup 6}/g for non-contaminated soils. Bluegrass rhizosphere OCD levels were 1 x 10{sup 7}/g and 1 x 10{sup 6}/g in contaminated and non-contaminated soils, respectively. Selective enrichment of OCD populations was observed in contaminated rhizosphere soil. Higher numbers of OCD in contaminated rhizospheres suggest potential stimulation of bioremediation around plant roots. 36 refs., 10 tabs.

  10. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus


    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...... contamination of the endoscope. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial the effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinse was evaluated. As a surrogate for the risk of intra-abdominal contamination during transgastric surgery, microbial contamination of the endoscope during upper endoscopy...... microbial contamination of the endoscope, but micro-organisms with abscess forming capabilities were still present. PPI treatment significantly increased CFU and should be discontinued before transgastric surgery....

  11. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...... forhold til tidligere politiske strategier for udvikling af den offentlige sektor er den meget omfattende og i nogle sammenhænge systematiske anvendelse af evalueringsmetoder, af refleksive kontrol og reguleringssystemer, det som Power (1997) sammenfattende betegner som 'the audit society'. Overgangen fra...

  12. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism: a challenge for diagnosis and prevention]. (United States)

    Marisa, Gaioli; González, Daniel E; Amoedo, Diego


    Arsenic (As) is a semimetal that is widely distributed in nature, in water and soil. In Argentine, the contamination of both waterways and groundwater represents the main environmental problem caused by this element. Chronic As poisoning is known as Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism (C.E.R.HA.). Long-term exposure to low concentrations of the element from the prenatal period onward results in the well-known symptoms of chronic As poisoning. CERHA develops progressively, compromising different organs and systems, most importantly the skin. One of the most important complications of CERHA is de development of neoplasias, mainly skin tumors. Childhood environmental health is a challenge in the new millennium and health care professionals play a fundamental role in the protection against environmental hazards such as chronic arsenic poisoning.

  13. Toxicity of a cadmium-contaminated diet to Hyalella azteca. (United States)

    Ball, Angela L; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George


    Four- and 10-week chronic toxicity tests were conducted using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca and Cd-contaminated Chlorella sp. as a food source. Chlorella sp. was cultured in various Cd concentrations, filtered from solution, rinsed, dried, and ground into food flakes for the H. azteca. Unlike Cd toxicity from water sources, growth was found to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than survival, with calculated 50 and 25% effect concentrations (EC50s and EC25s, respectively) of 5.43 and 2.82 nmol/g, respectively, for Cd measured in food. Based on the regression of Cd in Chlorella sp. against Cd in filtered culture medium, the EC50 and EC25 corresponded to dissolved Cd concentrations of 11.30 and 5.09 nmol/L, respectively. Little or no bioaccumulation of Cd was found in the tissues of H. azteca that were fed contaminated food. These results demonstrate an apparent toxicological effect (either direct or indirect) of Cd-contaminated Chlorella sp. to H. azteca that is not associated with Cd accumulation. Toxicity of Cd-contaminated Chlorella sp. differs from waterborne Cd toxicity both in terms of the most sensitive endpoint (growth vs survival) and the relationship between toxicity and bioaccumulation. Unlike Cd toxicity through water exposure, Cd bioaccumulation by H. azteca cannot, therefore, be used to infer toxicity of Cd in a diet of Chlorella sp. Although the concentration of Cd in the algal culture medium that ultimately reduced growth of H. azteca in the present study was higher than Cd in water, which caused mortality to H. azteca in water-only tests during previous studies, further research regarding the contribution of dietary Cd to overall Cd toxicity is needed to verify that water-quality guidelines and risk assessments based on water-only exposures are fully protective.

  14. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leaper


    Full Text Available Forced-air-warming (FAW is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25 in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower’s internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17 and rinsing (n=9 techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 mm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 mm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 mm that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site.

  15. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room? (United States)

    Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert; Leaper, David


    Forced-air-warming (FAW) is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25) in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower's internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17) and rinsing (n=9) techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 µm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 µm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 µm) that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site. PMID:21808690

  16. Tackling chronic migraine: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ


    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK; Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: In the last decade, several diagnostic criteria and definitions have been proposed for chronic migraine (CM. The third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders–3 beta, published in 2013, has revised CM diagnostic criteria. CM is defined as “headache occurring on 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months, which has the features of migraine headache on at least 8 days per month.” Patients who meet the criteria for CM and for medication-overuse headache should be given both diagnoses. Worldwide, CM prevalence ranges 1%–3%, and its incidence has been estimated to be 2.5% per year. CM is associated with disability and poor quality of life. Modifiable risk factors include (among others: migraine progression (defined as an increase in frequency and severity of migraine attacks; medication and caffeine overuse; obesity; stressful life events; and snoring. CM patients have a significantly higher frequency of some comorbid conditions, including chronic pain, psychiatric disorders, respiratory illness, and some vascular risk factors. Management includes identification and control of comorbidities and risk factors that predispose to CM; treatment and prevention for medication overuse; early treatment for migraine attacks; and an adequate preventive therapy for CM. Several randomized controlled clinical trials have shown the efficacy of topiramate, amitriptyline, onabotulinumtoxinA, and cognitive-behavioral therapy in CM. Keywords: chronic daily headache, chronic migraine, epidemiology, medication overuse headache, risk factors, treatment

  17. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  18. Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.


    The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Hanford contaminated sediment stabilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, L.E.; Key, K.T.; Higley, B.A.


    The major problems with radionuclide waste sites in the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford Reservation is the high degree of toxicity or Hazard Index (HI). Transport Factors (TF) are fortunately low but can increase with time and certainly with episodic events such as explosions or earthquakes. Two major tests involving surface affixation were sponsored by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, one by Dowell using M-166 and the other by Battelle-Northwest comparing many different surface affixants. The latex emulsion, M-166, appeared to be well suited for the Hanford desert type area. Of the many surface affixants tested by Battelle-Northwest, Coherex and Aerospray appeared to be the best. As an emergency precaution, 200 barrels of M-166 were purchased for surface affixation in case of a range fire. The subsurface affixants laboratory and field tests include organic polymers, asphalt emulsions, concrete, AM-9, and sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide grouts. The applications were second containment (or leak prevention) of subsurface waste tanks and piping, grouting water wells to prevent contamination leaking to the water table, and encompassing cribs, trenches, burial grounds, and other subsurface sediment contaminations. Organic polymers added strength to the soil, but penetration of the viscous liquid was not as deep as desired; it may be good for situations requiring only a few inches penetration, such as well grouting. The asphalt emulsion looked promising as an easily injected well grouting material and it may also be good for encompassing subsurface contaminated sediment plumes. The sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide affixant appeared best for second containment of waste tanks but may require the help of asphalt emulsion to ensure good coverage.

  20. Publications | Page 148 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Innovative policies and new technologies that reduce water waste are helping countries across the Middle East and North Africa deal with chronic water shortages. ... Fighting Eviction: Tribal Land Rights and Research-in-Action. A new book ... As the United Nations International Year of Water Cooperation gets underway,.