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Sample records for chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic

  1. Expression of cysLT1 and cysLT2 Receptor in Chronic Hyperplastic Eosinophilic Sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) from sinus tissues and abundant sinus eosinophils are characteristic features of chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic sinusitis (CHS). CysLTs exert their action through G-protein-coupled receptors named cysLTs receptor type I (cysLT1R) and type II (cysLT2R). These expressions of cysLT receptors in the sinus mucosa have yet to be clarified and the relationship between eosinophilia and the expression of these receptors remains obscure. We compared the expressions of cysLT1R and cysLT2R in the sinus mucosa in patients with CHS, non-eosinophilic chronic sinusitis (NECS), and control sinus tissues; and analyzed the correlation between the expression of CysLTRs and the presence of sinus eosinophils by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. A significantly higher percentage of eosinophils expressing cysLT2R protein was observed in patients with CHS compared with NECS and controls. In addition, cysLT2R mRNA expression in CHS was significantly higher than in NECS and controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between cysLT2R mRNA expression and the number of infiltrated eosinophils. In contrast, the cysLT1R mRNA expression did not differ significantly among these groups. The effect of cysLTs on sinus eosinophils may be mediated through the cysLT2R in patients with CHS. These results may suggest the therapeutic benefit of cysLT2R antagonists in CHS

  2. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

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    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  3. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

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    Cordier Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than lymphocyte counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage. ICEP is a rare disorder of unknown cause. Its exact prevalence remains unknown. ICEP may affect every age group but is rare in childhood. It is twice as frequent in women as in men. One third to one half of the ICEP patients have a history of asthma. The mainstay of treatment of ICEP is systemic corticosteroids. Response to oral corticosteroid therapy is dramatic and has led to the consideration of corticosteroid challenge as a diagnostic test for ICEP. Nevertheless, relapses or development of severe asthma are frequent when tapering or withdrawing treatment. Long-term oral corticosteroid therapy is necessary in up to half of the patients.

  4. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Material and Methods: A double helical CT was performed in 6 patients referred to our center because of a chest X-ray with pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical presentation was cough, fever and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Patients' age ranged from 25 to 55 years; 4 were women and 2 were men, one of the latter had a history of bronchial asthma. All patients received treatment with corticosteroids, with remission of the clinical and radiological parameters. Three patients underwent a control CT. Results: Findings consisted in focal parenchymal alterations, with areas of pulmonary consolidation and areas of 'ground glass' appearance; both patterns coexisted in certain areas. In 3 cases the lesions extended from the apices to the pulmonary bases, with predominance of the upper and middle fields. In 1 patient, there was frank predominance in the left hemi thorax. In another patient, who had a history of asthma, there were signs of pulmonary hyperinflation, with diffuse thickening of the bronchial walls, added to the previously mentioned findings, which involved the entire lung. In the mediastinum, 1 patient had lymph nodes larger than 1 cm, 3 had lymph nodes that were not enlarged but were more numerous than usual, and in the remaining patients no lymph nodes were found. The control CT's showed almost total resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: The combination of eosinophilia and characteristic pulmonary infiltrates with a likely clinical presentation, associated with an optimal response to treatment with corticosteroids allows to make a reliable diagnosis and avoids the need for a pulmonary biopsy. (author)

  5. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a paediatric case

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    Tassinari, Davide; Di Silverio Carulli, Chiara; Visciotti, Francesca; Petrucci, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare disorder in children, characterised by respiratory and systemic symptoms, with a generally good prognosis. A 11-year-old asthmatic girl was admitted to our clinic with a 3-month history of progressive cough, dyspnoea, weight loss and asthenia. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates to the x-ray, multiple nodules with a surrounding ground-glass halo and peripheral predominance to the chest CT suggested the diagnosi...

  6. Chronic eosinophilic pancreatitis and ulcerative colitis in a horse.

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    Breider, M A; Kiely, R G; Edwards, J F

    1985-04-15

    A generalized debilitating disease in a horse was believed to be related to hypersensitivity to migrating strongyle larvae. The clinical signs included weight loss, diarrhea, and ulcers on all 4 coronary bands. The mare's condition deteriorated rapidly, so the mare was euthanatized and necropsied. The major histopathologic findings were chronic multifocal eosinophilic pancreatitis, hepatic portal fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and chronic ulcerative eosinophilic colitis. This case was similar to previously reported cases of chronic eosinophilic gastroenteritis in horses. Although the etiologic agent was not evident, the distribution and character of the lesions were consistent with a hypersensitivity response to migrating parasitic larvae, most probably Strongylus equinus. PMID:3997643

  7. Chronic rhinitis: Effects of local corticosteroids on eosinophils

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    Ursulović Dejan D.; Janošević Ljiljana B.; Janošević Slobodanka B.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical manifestation of chronic rhinitis is due to local release of mediators from inflammatory cells. Eosinophil leukocytes are important in pathogenesis of nasal hypersensitivity as well as nasal hyperreactivity [1,2]. The aim of the study was to follow-up the effect of local corticosteroid treatment on a number of eosinophils in nasal secretion of patients with chronic rhinitis. The study was prospective and controlled. A total number of 88 subjects was included in the study. Patients wi...

  8. Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice and serum eosinophil cationic protein levels in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer

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    Yucel Ustundag

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori is one of the main causes of gastroduodenal diseases, such as chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. It has been shown that eosinophils increase in the stomach in H. pylori infection. Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP is a cytotoxic molecule secreted by the activated eosinophils. However, there are no sufficient data about the role of ECP in H. pylori infection and its effect on ulcer development. In this study we investigated the gastric eosinophilic infiltration, gastric juice and serum ECP levels in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer associated with H. pylori.

  9. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

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    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

  10. Unusual Presentation of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia with “Reversed Halo Sign”: A Case Report

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    Gholamnejad, Mahdia; Rezaie, Nader

    2014-01-01

    The reversed halo sign (RHS) may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), but is rarely associated with other diseases. Herein, we present a case of a 21-year-old woman with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of RHS. This is an unusual and rare presentation of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  11. Unusual Presentation of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia with “Reversed Halo Sign”: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reversed halo sign (RHS) may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), but is rarely associated with other diseases. Herein, we present a case of a 21-year-old woman with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of RHS. This is an unusual and rare presentation of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

  12. Categorization and Clinicopathological Features of Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Eosinophilic Mucin in a Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Hak-Jun; Lee, Jin-Woo; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Min; Rha, Ki-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with eosinophilic mucin is relatively rare in Korea. We categorized CRS patients with characteristic eosinophilic mucin into several groups and compared the groups based on their clinicopathological features. Methods In total, 52 CRS patients with eosinophilic mucin were enrolled. Based on the presence or absence of an allergy (A) to a fungus or fungal element (F) in the mucin, the patients were divided into four groups: allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (...

  13. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10–40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a...

  14. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10-40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  15. Preventive maintenance of hyperplastic endometrial processes

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    Шешукова, Н. А.; Макаров, И. О.; Овсянникова, Т. В.

    2012-01-01

    The relative risk of development of hyperplastic endometrial process at patients with chronic endometritis in 4,5 times more, than at patients without chronic endometritis that testifies to sufficient force of communication between studied factor and proves influence of chronic inflammatory process of a uterus on endometrial pathology development. This data proves to be true results of morphological research – frequency of combination hyperplastic endometrial process and chronic endometritis ...

  16. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia involving with mediastinal lymph nodes: radiologic study of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an uncommon disorder in our setting. Chest x-ray is essential to diagnosis. To date, we have found only three reported cases in which mediastinal lymph nodes were involved. We present three additional cases with standard thoracic study. (Author)

  17. Communicating hydrocephalus following eosinophilic meningitis is pathogenic for chronic Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia.

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    Alexander Storch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian Republic. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Viliuiski river basin in the Republic of Sakha in 2000 and to the capital Yakutsk in 2006. The severity of the core clinical picture with predominant sensory ataxia, gait apraxia, lower limb spasticity, cognitive impairment and bladder dysfunction correlated with the degree of MRI findings showing enlargement of inner ventricular spaces as in communicating hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies revealed transient eosinophilia during the preceding acute meningitis-like phase, but no ongoing inflammatory process in the CSF. We found immune reactions against Toxocara canis in the majority of chronic VE patients but rarely in controls (P = 0.025; Fisher's exact test. Histological analysis of subacute to subchronic VE brain samples showed eosinophilic infiltrations with no signs of persistent Toxocara canis infection. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our data showed that pressure by the communicating hydrocephalus as a mechanical factor is the major pathogenic mechanism in chronic VE, most likely triggered by eosinophilic meningitis. There are no signs for an ongoing inflammatory process in chronic VE. The past eosinophilic reaction in VE might be caused by Toxocara ssp. infection and might therefore represent the first hint for an initial cause leading to the development of chronic VE. Our data provide a framework for future studies and potential therapeutic interventions for this enigmatic epidemic neurological disease potentially spreading in Sakha Republic.

  18. The pathogenesis of chronic eosinophilic esophagitis in SHARPIN-deficient mice.

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    Chien, Syu-Jhe; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; HogenEsch, Harm; Sundberg, John P

    2015-12-01

    Increased numbers of eosinophils in the esophagus are common in several esophageal and systemic diseases, and a prominent feature of eosinophilic esophagitis. Mouse models can provide insight into the mechanisms of eosinophil infiltration and their pathogenic role. SHARPIN-deficient cpdm mice develop a chronic proliferative dermatitis and an esophagitis characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and the accumulation of eosinophils in the serosa, submucosa, lamina propria and epithelium of the esophagus. We conducted a detailed investigation of the pathogenesis of the esophagitis by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression as the mice aged from 4 to 10 weeks. The thickness of the esophageal epithelium and the number of eosinophils in the esophagus both increased with age. There were scattered apoptotic epithelial cells in mice at 6-10 weeks of age that reacted with antibodies to activated caspase 3 and caspase 9. The expression of CCL11 (eotaxin-1), IL4, IL13 and TSLP was increased in cpdm mice compared with wild type (WT) mice, and there was no change in the expression of CCL24 (eotaxin-2), IL5 and IL33. The expression of chitinase-like 3 and 4 (YM1 and YM2) proteins, markers of type 2 inflammation, was greatly increased in cpdm mice, and this was replicated in vitro by incubation of WT esophagus in the presence of IL4 and IL13. Immunohistochemistry showed that these proteins were localized in esophageal epithelial cells. The severity of the esophagitis was not affected by crossing SHARPIN-deficient mice with lymphocyte-deficient Rag1 null mice indicating that the inflammation is independent of B and T lymphocytes. PMID:26321245

  19. Complication of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia in an elderly patient with Sjögren syndrome.

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    Waseda, Koichi; Hagiya, Hideharu; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Kosuke; Tsuzuki, Takao; Hasegawa, Kou; Nada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eri; Murakami, Kazutoshi; Kondo, Eisei; Otsuka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    An 81-year-old Japanese male with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) developed a low-grade fever and productive cough which were refractory to antibiotic therapy. Based on the high level of eosinophils observed in his bronchial alveolar lavage, he was diagnosed with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) and successfully treated by oral prednisolone. Interstitial lung diseases associated with pSS (pSS-ILDs) usually present as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia or usual interstitial pneumonia; therefore, the present case is extremely unique in that the patient's condition was complicated with CEP. A diagnosis of advanced gallbladder cancer was made in the patient's clinical course, suggesting the advisability of a whole-body workup in cases of pSS, especially in elderly patients. PMID:25899635

  20. KRONİK HİPERPLASTÎK PULPİTİS (PULPA POLİPİ) - Bir Olgu Nedeni İle CHRONIC HYPERPLASTIC PULPITIS (PULP POLYP) -A Case Report-

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    Ulukapı, Işın; Stich, Herrmann

    2012-01-01

    ÖZETKronik hipcrpiasük pulpitis (pulpa polipi) kronikBu çalışmada bir pulpa polipi plgusu histolojik olarak incelenmiştir.Anahtar sözcükler: Kronik pulpa hastalıkları, kronik hiperplastik pulpitis, pulpa polipi.ABTRACTChronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp) is a quite uncommon form of chronic pulp disease. It occurs almost exclusively in children and young adults and involves teeth with large open carious lesions. The hyperplastic tissue is basically granulation tissue and inflammatory cel...

  1. Elevated expression of CC Chemokine ligand 23 in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

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    Poposki, Julie A.; Uzzaman, Ashraf; Nagarkar, Deepti R.; Chustz, Regina T.; Peters, Anju T.; Suh, Lydia A.; Carter, Roderick; Norton, James; Harris, Kathleen E.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Tan, Bruce K.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Conley, David B.; Kern, Robert C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kato, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic disease characterized by local inflammation of the sinonasal tissues. The pathogenesis of CRS remains controversial but it has been associated with the accumulation of various immune and inflammatory cells in sinus tissue. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of chemokine CCL23, known to bind to CCR1 and recruit monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in patients with CRS. Methods We collected nasal tissue from patients with CRS and control subjects. We assayed mRNA for CCL23 by using real-time PCR and measured CCL23 protein by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results CCL23 mRNA was significantly elevated in nasal polyps from patients with polypoid CRS (CRSwNP) (p<0.05) compared to inferior turbinate and uncinate tissue from patients with CRS or control subjects. CCL23 protein was also elevated in nasal polyps, although these levels were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed CCL23 expression in mucosal epithelial cells and inflammatory cells, but accumulation of CCL23 positive inflammatory cells occurred only in nasal polyps. Immunofluorescence data showed CCL23 co-localization with ECP positive eosinophils. The concentration of CCL23 in nasal polyps positively correlated with the concentration of ECP, suggesting that eosinophils are major CCL23 producing cells in nasal polyps. Finally, we found that CCL23 protein was significantly elevated in nasal polyps from patients with CRSwNP with aspirin sensitivity. Conclusion Overproduction of CCL23 in nasal polyps may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic CRSwNP via the recruitment of CCR1 positive inflammatory cells including monocytes and macrophages, and the amplification of local inflammation. PMID:21497884

  2. Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

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    Bancil, Aaron S; Hewett, Rhys; Hayat, Jamal O; Poullis, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the oesophagus, characterized by symptoms of dysphagia or food bolus obstruction. Diagnosis is supported by typical histological findings. This article covers pertinent aspects of the disease, pathogenic explanations and treatment options. PMID:27388380

  3. A Rare Complication of Hyperplastic Gastric Polyp

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    Suresh Kumar Nayudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps are incidentally diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are known to cause gastric outlet obstruction and chronic blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, hyperplastic gastric polyp presenting as acute severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been two cases of hyperplastic gastric polyps presenting as acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the medical literature. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman who was admitted to our hospital with symptomatic anemia and sepsis. The patient developed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during her hospital stay. She underwent emergent endoscopy, but bleeding could not be controlled. She underwent emergent laparotomy and wedge resection to control the bleeding. Biopsy of surgical specimen was reported as hyperplastic gastric polyp. We recommend that physicians should be aware of this rare serious complication of hyperplastic gastric polyps as endoscopic polypectomy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in preventing future complications including bleeding.

  4. Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway and Eosinophilic Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis/ Nasal Polyposis. Potential Role of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

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    Pérez Novo, C

    2006-01-01

    linked to inflammation. Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 receptor expression was increased in chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyp subjects in contrast to EP1 and EP3, which were down regulated in the polyp group, suggesting a distinctive role of these receptors in the pathophysiology of nasal polyposis. Finally, based on our previous findings and parallel work of our group, we studied the influence of S. aureus enterotoxins in the regulation of both eosinophilic inflammatory and eicosanoid pathway...

  5. Autoradiographic investigation of proliferative processes of the gastric mucosa of patients suffering from chronic atrophic gastritis, hyperplastic mucous polypi or ulcus ventriculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of pathological changes of the gastric mucosa such as ulcers hyperplastic polypi and intestinal metaplasias are accompanied with an increased 3H-thymidine incorporation into the mucosa. This disorder of the regulation of DNA synthesis is important as to the diagnosis of stomach cancer, but it is unsuitable as screening test in early recognition

  6. Eosinophilic Disorders

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    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... eosinophils. High number of eosinophils The most common causes of a high number of eosinophils (called eosinophilia ...

  7. Clinical Features of Eosinophilic Bronchitis

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    Joo, Jae Hak; Park, Sang Joon; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, June Hyuk; Kim, Do Jin; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2002-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is usually associated with airway hyper-responsiveness in bronchial asthma. However, there is a small group of patients which has the eosinophilic inflammation in the bronchial tree with normal spirometry and no evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness, which was named eosinophilic bronchitis. The objectives of this study are 1) to investigate the incidence of eosinophilic bronchitis in the chronic cough syndrome and 2) to evaluate the clinica...

  8. Prophylactic colectomy for hyperplastic polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doran, D

    2011-03-01

    Hyperplastic polyposis (HP) is important to recognise as it increases the risk of adenomata which may develop dysplastic change or frank adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with HP.

  9. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia involving with mediastinal lymph nodes: radiologic study of three cases. Neumonia eosinofila cronica asociada a adenopatias mediastinicas: estudio radiologico de tres casos

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    Calvo Garcia, A.; Gordillo Gutierrez, I.; Guembe Urtiaga, P. (Hospital Gregorio Maraon, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an uncommon disorder in our setting. Chest x-ray is essential to diagnosis. To date, we have found only three reported cases in which mediastinal lymph nodes were involved. We present three additional cases with standard thoracic study. (Author)

  10. [Eosinophilic esophagitis].

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    Couto, Mariana; Rodrigues, Susana; Piedade, Susana; Gaspar, Ângela; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Macedo, Guilherme

    2011-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by significant and isolated infiltration of the esophageal mucosa by eosinophils, associated with clinical symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, affecting children and adults. It is an increasingly frequent cause of symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease but refractory to anti-acid therapeutic. It is commonly associated with food allergies or other atopic diseases. Since there are no symptoms, signs, serological biomarkers or endoscopic findings pathognomonic of EE, the diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion; moreover, due to its chronic relapsing nature the potential to cause major esophageal structural changes, its early recognition and close cooperation between gastroenterologists and immunoallergologists is essential for the timely institution of appropriate therapy. The treatment is based on two main strategies: diet and / or pharmacotherapy, depending on the co-existence of sensitization to food allergens. It is our aim to review this issue, considering recent guidelines, as well as propose a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. PMID:22863504

  11. The identification of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in prednisone-dependent eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma

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    Nair Parameswaran; Ochkur Sergei I; Protheroe Cheryl; Simms Elizabeth; Lee Nancy A; Lee James J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This case reports the unique association of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with eosinophilic bronchitis, asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis and some features of lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome, describes a diagnostic protocol for patients with asthma and persistent eosinophilic bronchitis, and suggests that the use of a novel EPX-mAb provides a reliable method to identify eosinophilic inflammation.

  12. Sinusitis with eosinophilic otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eosinophilic otitis media is an intractable inflammation of the middle ear combined with bronchial asthma. According to a national epidemiological investigation on eosinophilic otitis media, it is assumed that eosinophilic otitis media are combined with sinusitis in about 74% of their cases. On the other hand, organizational images of eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic sinusitis are similar, and steroid therapy is effective together, and it is thought that they are involved in the idea of one airway one disease, but the details of sinusitis combined with the eosinophilic otitis media are unidentified. Therefore, we examined the kinds of the sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. We diagnosed 18 cases (male: 2 cases, female: 16 cases) (average age: 54.6 years old) as eosinophilic otitis media according to the diagnostic criteria. And, by the CT views of a paranasal sinus, blood tests, existence of the nasal polyp, etc, we investigated the kinds of sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. It turned out that bronchial asthma was combined with eosinophilic otitis media in 17 of 18 cases (airway hypersensitivity did sthenia of one case, but the asthma did not yet developed), and 6 cases were combined with aspirin induced asthma (AIA), and 3 cases were combined with Churg-Strauss syndromes (CSS). 10 case (55.6%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. And 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with chronic sinusitis, 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were not combined with sinusitis. We concluded that eosinophilic otitis media was not always combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. The idea of one airway one disease was not applied to this examination. (author)

  13. Management guidelines of eosinophilic esophagitis in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, A; Koletzko, S; Heuschkel, R;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. With few exceptions, 15 eosinophils per high-power field (p...

  14. Hyperplastic polyposis associated with two asynchronous colon cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaya Kurobe; Kuniko Abe; Naoe Kinoshita; Masanobu Anami; Hirotaka Tokai; Yoshinori Ryu; Chun Yang Wen; Takashi Kanematsu; Tomayoshi Hayashi

    2007-01-01

    We report a patient with hyperplastic polyposis who had two asynchronous colon cancers, a combined adenoma-hyperplastic polyp, a serrated adenoma, and tubular adenomas. Hyperplastic polyposis is thought to be a precancerous lesion; and adenocarcinoma arises from hyperplastic polyposis through the hyperplastic polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Most polyps in patients with hyperplastic polyposis present as blandlooking hyperplastic polyps, which are regarded as nonneoplastic lesions; however, the risk of malignancy should not be underestimated. In patients with multiple hyperplastic polyps, hyperplastic polyposis should be identified and followed up carefully in order to detect malignant transformation in the early stage.

  15. Eosinophilic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  16. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  17. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: an "emerging disease"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Hervieu, Valérie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a recently identified disease. The histological examination of esophageal biopsies is essential for its diagnosis, which is made with steadily increasing frequency. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an anatomoclinical entity, involving both children and adults, characterized by a dense and isolated infiltration of the esophageal mucosa by eosinophils, revealed by clinical symptoms of upper digestive tract origin and resistant to anti-acid treatment with IPP at high doses. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently interpreted as an allergic disease, even though its pathogenesis remains unclear. The disease has a chronic course with persistent or relapsing symptoms, present with symptoms similar to those of gastro-esophageal reflux or with dysphagia. Endoscopic examination shows the presence of characteristic, but not pathognomonic, lesions (stenoses, strictures, circular rings, reduction of calibre, white specks, granularity of the mucosa). The histological diagnosis requires multiple biopsies taken all along the esophagus. The main sign is the presence of a dense eosinophilic infiltrate of the mucosa: a peak density of more than 15 eosinophils in at least one x400 field is the minimal criteria required for diagnosis. Associated lesions correspond to tissue damage and repair secondary to eosinophil activation (basal hyperplasia, microabscesses, fibrosis of the lamina propria). The treatment is based on dietary measures (allergen exclusion) and on the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, mainly corticoids. In conclusion, eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging disease, important to identify, since it requires a specific treatment, different from that of reflux esophagitis. PMID:18554551

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand R Gupte; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition,it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modi f icat ions, topical cor t icosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination.

  19. Oral Immune Defense against Chronic Hyperplastic Candidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Musrati, Ahmed S Ali

    2008-01-01

    Candida yeast species are widespread opportunistic microbes, which are usually innocent opportunists unless the systemic or local defense system of the host becomes compromised. When they adhere on a fertile substrate such as moist and warm, protein-rich human mucosal membrane or biomaterial surface, they become activated and start to grow pseudo and real hyphae. Their growth is intricately guided by their ability to detect surface defects (providing secure hiding , thigmotropism) and nutrie...

  20. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskjær; Husby, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    , oral steroids, inhaled (swallowed) steroids, and leucotriene receptor antagonists. Detailed information on the eosinophilic inflammatory processes in the oesophageal mucosa was initially obtained from animal models, in particular with regard to the role of interleukin-5 and the chemokine eotaxin-1 in...

  1. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: a rare cause of dysphagia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billot, D; Pernin, M; Pillot, C; Bredin, C; Hoeffler, P; Graffin, B; Rey, P

    2010-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is an unrecognized and emerging entity. Its incidence increases with allergic disorders. A 29-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of intermittent and paroxysmal dysphagia. The triad including allergy, young age, and impaction of foreign bodies, combined with a chronic dysphagia is almost pathognomonic of eosinophilic esophagitis. Endoscopic esophageal features can be diverse, so systematic esophageal biopsies are required. Diagnosis is established with the demonstration of an eosinophilic infiltrate with a cell count exceeding 15 eosinophils per high power field (×400). First line therapy includes swallowed topical corticosteroids and removal of an allergic cause, when it could be identified. PMID:20605659

  2. Eosinophil count - absolute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  3. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Health Information > Condition Information Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of ... of Programs and Services Doctors Who Treat Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Rohit K. Katial Rafeul Alam Joshua J. ...

  4. Hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of unilateral hyperplastic mandibular condyles for some useful preliminary diagnostic recommendations. Clinical records, radiographs and histologic diagnoses of 35 cases with asymmetric mandibular condyles due to apparent unilateral condylar hyperplasia were evaluated retrospectively. Among 35 cases, 28 were true hyperplastic conditions of condyles whereas the remaining 7 were unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side. 17 of the 28 hyperplastic condyles showed a mass or irregular radiographic shadow with histologic diagnosis including osteochondroma and osteoma. Only 5 of these cases showed facial asymmetry. 2 out of ths 17 cases showed hyperplastic round shaped irregular condyles consistent with ankylosis and their histologic diagnoses were osteochondromas. 11 of the 28 cases showed smooth enlargement of condylar head with elongation of the neck causing facial asymmetry, but histologic diagnoses were not available because the surgical operation conserved the condyles. The hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles include not only true hyperplasia, osteochondroma, osteoma, and ankylosis, but also unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side.

  5. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Girolamo Pelaia; Alessandro Vatrella; Maria Teresa Busceti; Luca Gallelli; Cecilia Calabrese; Rosa Terracciano; Rosario Maselli

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes un...

  6. FIP1L1-PDGFRα alone or with other genetic abnormalities reveals disease progression in chronic eosinophilic leukemia but good response to imatinib

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin-na; CHEN Sai-juan; PAN Qin; FU Jian-fei; SHI Jing-yi; JIN Jie; LI Jun-ming; HU Jiong; ZHAO Wei-li; CHEN Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Background The FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) and is a direct therapeutic target of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate.Methods In 24 hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) patients, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nested PCR and sequence analysis, we investigated the frequency of FIPIL1-PDGFRα and other abnormalities of tyrosine kinase family genes like PDGFRα, PDGFRβ, C-KIT, FGFR1, ABL and FLT3 as well as gene mutation "hotspots", like MPL515 and JAK2V617F, frequently involved in myeloproliferative diseases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to confirm the 4q12 deletion.Results The FIPILI-PDGFRα fusion transcript was found in 8 (33%) of 24 patients with HES, corresponding to the chromosome 4q12 deletion identified by FISH. The FIP1L1-PDGFRα-associated patients diagnosed with CEL, frequently had hepatosplenomegaly, eosinophil-related tissue damage, anemia, thrombocytopenia, myelofibrosis and a short overall survival time. Nevertheless, imatinib mesylate induced rapid and complete hematological responses in treated FIP1L1-PDGFRα cases, followed by molecular remission and reversal of myelofibrosis. FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion could co-exist with other mutations of tyrosine kinase family genes, like FLT3 or PDGFRβ. We also demonstrated that the SNPs of PDGFRβ were associated with selective splicing of exon 19 in case 20.Conclusions Correlating the CEL genotype with phenotype, FIPIL 1-PDGFRα emerges as a relatively homogeneous clinicobiological entity that co-exists with other abnormalities of tyrosine kinase family genes. It reflects the disease progression and there is a good response to imatinib. Detection of the FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion gene is valid for both CEL diagnosis and therapy surveillance.

  7. A single weekly dose of imatinib is sufficient to induce and maintain remission of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia in FIP1L1-PDGFRA-expressing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Grzegorz; Stella-Hołowiecka, Beata; Majewski, Mirosław; Całbecka, Małgorzata; Gajkowska, Jolanta; Klimkiewicz, Ryszard; Moskwa, Andrzej; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Lewandowska, Monika; Hołowiecki, Jerzy

    2008-04-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is defined as chronic, unexplained hypereosinophilia with organ involvement. A subset of HES patients presents an interstitial deletion in chromosome 4q12, which leads to the expression of an imatinib-responsive fusion gene, FIP1L1-PDGFRA. These patients are diagnosed as chronic eosinophilic leukaemia (CEL). We treated seven CEL and HES patients, six of which expressed FIP1L1-PDGFRA, with imatinib using initial daily doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg. In a remission maintenance phase, the patients were treated with imatinib once weekly. All imatinib-treated patients achieved a complete haematological remission (CHR), and five of the six patients with FIP1L1-PDGFRA expression exhibited molecular remission. The decreased imatinib doses were as follows: 200 mg/week in three patients, 100 mg/week in two patients and 100 mg/d in the remaining two patients. For remission maintenance, imatinib doses were set at 100 mg/week in five patients and 200 mg/week in two patients. At a median follow-up of 30 months all patients remained in CHR and FIP1L1-PDGFRA expression was undetectable in five of the six FIP1L1-PDGFRA-expressing patients. These data suggest that a single weekly dose of imatinib is sufficient to maintain remission in FIP1L1-PDGFRA- positive CEL patients. PMID:18307562

  8. Eosinophil ETosis and DNA Traps: a New Look at Eosinophilic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Honda, Kohei; Hirokawa, Makoto; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2016-07-01

    The traditional paradigm of eosinophils as end-stage damaging cells has mainly relied on their release of cytotoxic proteins. Cytokine-induced cell survival and secretion of granular contents from tissue-dwelling eosinophil are thought to be important mechanisms for eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, although the occurrence of cytolysis and its products (i.e., free extracellular granules) has been observed in affected lesions. Recent evidence indicates that activated eosinophils can exhibit a non-apoptotic cell death pathway, namely extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) that mediates the eosinophil cytolytic degranulation. Here, we discuss the current concept of eosinophil ETosis which provides a new look at eosinophilic inflammation. Lessons from eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis revealed that ETosis-derived DNA traps, composed of stable web-like chromatin, contribute to the properties of highly viscous eosinophilic mucin and impairments in its clearance. Intact granules entrapped in DNA traps are causing long-lasting inflammation but also might have immunoregulatory roles. Eosinophils possess a way to have post-postmortem impacts on innate immunity, local immune response, sterile inflammation, and tissue damage. PMID:27393701

  9. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway Mediates Fip1-like1-platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α-induced Cell Infiltration and Activation: Possible Molecular Mechanism for the Malignant Phenotype of Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fip1-like1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α fusion gene (F/P is responsible for 14-60% cases of hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES, also known as F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (F/P(+ CEL. The major pathogenesis of F/P(+ CEL is known to involve migration and activation of mast cells and eosinophils, leading to severe multi-organ dysfunction, but the mechanism was still unclear. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and serine-threonine protein kinase Akt have been reported to be targets of F/P in the F/P-promoted cell proliferation. They are extensively involved in the migration and adhesion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and also control cell invasion in some leukemias. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in eosinophil/neutrophil activation and infiltration; its possible role in regulating F/P induced cytotoxicity and upregulation of A4-integrin in eosinophils, and inducing eosinophil activation through controlling F/P-induced Nuclear factor-kB activity. Akt was recently shown to be stimulated by F/P, synergistically with stem cell factor, resulting in the induction of MCs migration and excessive activation. PI3K/Akt pathway is also a principal mediator of interleukin-5 (IL-5-induced signal transduction promoting eosinophil trafficking and degranulation, whereas IL-5 is a necessary cytokine for F/P-mediated CEL development. We, therefore, propose the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt pathway might be vital downstream of F/P to induce target cell activation and tissue infiltration, resulting in the malignant phenotype seen in F/P(+ CEL.

  10. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Shironjit; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common condition and a major cause of mortality. COPD is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction. The physiological abnormalities observed in COPD are due to a combination of emphysema and obliteration of the small airways in association with airway inflammation. The predominant cells involved in this inflammatory response are CD8+ lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. Although eosinophilic airway inflammation is usually considered a f...

  11. Eosinophil: central mediator of allergic asthma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hua-hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, reversible airway obstruction, airway remodelling and mucus hypersecretion. It has been widely recognized that the infiltration of the lung with increased number of eosinophils is a hallmark of this disease.1

  12. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  13. Eosinophilic granuloma of temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease which can affect the temporal bone. Also known as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, the lesion is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of Langerhans cells. Although initially silent, the disease may erode the mastoid cortex, destroy the tegmen, and extend into the cranial vault, as well as erode the semicircular canals or cochlea. These lesions almost always become infected and can be confused with chronic otomastoiditis. Equally important, temporal bone involvement may represent only one manifestation of a multifocal disease. This report describes a case of 40-year-old male with eosinophilic granuloma involving the right temporal bone extending into midbrain region causing focal compression and displacement of part of the temporal lobe.

  14. Acute Gastric Bleeding Due to Giant Hyperplastic Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Aksel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps account for the majority of benign gastric polyps. The vast majority of these lesions are small, asymptomatic and found incidentally on radiologic or endoscopic examination. Giant hyperplastic gastric polyps are uncommon and most of them are asymptomatic. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman who admitted because of acute gastric bleeding. The gastrin levels were within normal ranges. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed 12 cm pedunculated and multiple lobulated hyperplastic polyps arising from antrum with signs of diffuse oozing. The patient is treated by subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-Y gastrojejunostomy. Histological examination showed the presence of ulcers and regeneration findings with the contemporary occurrence of hyperplastic polyp. Giant hyperplastic gastric polyp should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs and Eosinophils (Eos with Host Mast Cells (MCs and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Khatami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance. Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host and recruited immune cells: (a, acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs, IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b, intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs, tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c, chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mfs, increased (irregular size B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth and/or thinning (necrosis and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  16. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mϕs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth) and/or thinning (necrosis) and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  17. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, Mahin [Inflammation and Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute (Ret), the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mϕs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth) and/or thinning (necrosis) and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  18. T1 value of hyperplastic and hypoplastic bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the bone marrow of 18 patients (11 normal control, 4 aplastic anemia, 2 chronic myelocytic leukemia, 1 polycythemia vera) were discussed. MR imager had 0.15T registive system. Sagittal section of the body was obtained with inversion recovery (TR1,000, 1,600/TI 350, 450/TE 13, 40 msec) and saturation recovery (TR 1,000, 2,000/TE 13,40 msec) sequences. T1 relaxation time was calculated from those images. T1 value of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone marrow which contains red marrow even in elderly patients was measured. The results were as follows: 1) T1 values of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and polycythemia vera were longer than that of normal. 2) T1 values of four aplastic anemia were all shorter than normal. CML and polycythemia vera can be called myeloproliferative disease and their bone marrows are hyperplastic, which may explain elongated T1. The bone marrow of aplasticanemia is hypoplastic and shows fatty change which may have decreased T1. Our results suggest T1 value of bone marrow is useful to evaluate hematological disorders. (author)

  19. [Angiostrongylosis or eosinophilic meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, Patrice; Dumazedier, Déborah; Dahane, Naïma

    2010-04-20

    Eosinophilic meningitis, or angiostrongyliasis, is a common disease in Asia, in the Caribbean and in the Pacific islands. It is caused by a rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Infection occurs by consumption of raw or undercooked snails. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological criteria, clinical manifestations, elevated count of eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid and serological tests. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. PMID:20465114

  20. Comparative molecular pathology of sporadic hyperplastic polyps and neoplastic lesions from the same individual

    OpenAIRE

    Zauber, P; Sabbath-Solitare, M; Marotta, S; Zauber, A.; T. Bishop

    2004-01-01

    Aim: The biology of colorectal hyperplastic polyps is of considerable relevance, because recent evidence suggests that under certain circumstances hyperplastic polyps may be precursors of neoplasms. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the clinical and molecular characteristics of hyperplastic polyps and neoplastic lesions removed from patients without the hyperplastic polyposis syndrome.

  1. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Nobuyuki

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  2. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  3. [Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, D; Carabelli, A; Bertani, E; Portaluppi, F; Novi, C; Gianotti, R; Gelmetti, C

    1990-09-01

    The Authors report a case of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome). The patient was a 61 year old woman, diabetic, with a cardio-respiratory insufficiency and a maniaco-depressive psycosis. She presented, on the upper arms and trunk, a cutaneous eruption of erythematous-urticarial plaques, that histopathologically were characterized by a dermic leukocyte population, with a prevalence of eosinophils, distributed in the perivascular site. Laboratory tests revealed eosinophilia and circulating immune complexes. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is discussed as is the possible role of immune complexes in eosinophilic cellulitis. PMID:2079351

  4. Ultrasonographic Feature of Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andina Hu; Miner Yuan; Fang Liu; Yu Yang; Xiaoyan Ding; Xiaoqing Pei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To observe the ultrasonographic features of patients with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). Methods: Thirty-two subjects (34 eyes) diagnosed with PH-PV were evaluated by ultrasonography. Results:.The ultrasonography demonstrated a retrolental mass extending from the optic disc to the posterior lens capsule, manifested as band,.regular triangle,.or inverted triangle shapes..The band-shaped echo was characterized as a linear band extended from the optic disc to the posterior lens cap-sule..The regular triangle-shaped echo was manifested as a membranous septum with a wide base extended from the optic disc to the posterior lens capsule, and the anterior part became narrower..The inverted triangle echo was characterized as a membranous septum with a narrow base extended from the optic disc to the posterior lens capsule,.and the anterior part become wider. Conclusion:.Ultrasonography is noninvasive and safe,.and can offer real-time display of intraocular structures. This is es-pecially important in individuals who are uncooperative or un-suitable for fundus examination due to media opacity. Com-bined with clinical feature, ultrasonography provides vital evi-dence for the diagnosis of PHPV..Thought observing ultra-sonographic feature, clinicians could evaluate the size, posi-tion and severity of lesions in PHPV patients,.and which would be helpful to determine the surgical approach and clini-cal prognosis.

  5. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that primarily affects premature infants. PHPV results from failure of regression of the embryogenic primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature, and proliferation of connective tissue. Three types of PHPV may be found: anterior, posterior and a combination of anterior and posterior. The clinical findings include leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) and microphthalmic eye. This anomaly is usually unilateral and unassociated with other systemic findings. The differential diagnosis between PHPV and other ocular diseases may be difficult due to similar features such as leukocoria, detached retina, retinal folds and cataract. Other diseases with similar features include retinoblastoma, isolated congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity and pseudo gliomas or leukocorias. Direct visualization of the remnants of the fetal hyaloid vascular system offers the best evidence of PHPV. However, diagnosis using the ophthalmoscope is sometimes impossible because of opaque tissues. In this circumstance an indirect visualization by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be useful. These imaging methods provide valuable information for the differentiation from other diseases, particularly retinoblastoma. The authors present a review of the literature and an iconographic study of the imaging findings in patients with PHPV. (author)

  6. Eosinophilic activation in cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, D. Y.; Götz, M.; Eichler, I; Urbanek, R

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The neutrophil is a potent contributor to pulmonary destruction in cystic fibrosis. Since eosinophils also possess destructive potential the involvement of eosinophils in cystic fibrosis has been investigated. METHODS--Eosinophil numbers and levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a marker of eosinophil activation, were determined in the serum of 42 patients with cystic fibrosis and in the sputum of 10 of them. To determine neutrophil activation levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO...

  7. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity. PMID:26690368

  8. Dyspnea and Wheezing after Adenosine Injection in a Patient with Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser Lim; Marie Christine Aubry; Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba

    2009-01-01

    A 58-year-old nonsmoker female was referred for evaluation of chronic cough of 13 months duration. After an initial work-up, the patient was diagnosed to have chronic cough due to eosinophilic bronchitis. The diagnostic work-up for eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchial biopsy is discussed. Eosinophilic bronchitis is differentiated from asthma. In addition, the patient developed dyspnea, flushing, and wheezing after the administration of adenosine during a cardiac stress test in spite of a neg...

  9. 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Astegiano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease.

  10. Radiation therapy of hyperplastic heterotopic ossifications in osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare hereditary disease of connective tissue with a genetic defect in collagen synthesis. In osteogenesis imperfecta hyperplastic heterotopic ossification can be induced by hyperplastic callus formation caused by trauma or operation. Heterotopic ossifications can be found in numerous benign diseases. The successful use of low dose radiotherapy in the treatment of heterotopic ossifications in well-known from the literature. Patients and Methods: We treated two children (a 13-year old girl and a ten-year old boy) with heterotopic ossifications of the lower extremities in osteogenesis imperfecta type IV (Lobstein) with a low dose irradiation (10x1 Gy, respectively 6x1 Gy) under megavoltage conditions. Results: After radiotherapy the children were painfree and the hyperplastic callus was considerably reduced. The previously immobilized patients could partly be mobilized. Thereby it could be contributed to the rehabilitation of the patients. New hyperplastic callus formation was not observed in the irradiated areas so far. Conclusion: Analogous to the successful radiation of heterotopic ossifications in other benign diseases radiation therapy seems to be a successful treatment of hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. Despite the late risks of radiotherapy radiation treatment of benign diseases in children might be indicated. (orig.)

  11. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hariman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α.

  12. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariman, Richard; Patel, Payal; Strouse, Jennifer; Collins, Michael P.; Rosenthal, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α. PMID:27293946

  13. Recent discoveries and emerging therapeutics in eosinophilic esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Aakash; Cheng, Edaire

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease culminating in severe eosinophilic inflammation and dysfunction of the esophagus. This chronic disorder of the esophagus causes significant morbidity, poor quality of life, and complications involving fibrosis and esophageal remodeling. Overlapping features between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pose great challenges to differentiating the two conditions, although the two disorders are not mutually exclusive. Recent...

  14. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  15. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  16. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Evison

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  17. Equine eosinophilic enterocolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kostiuk, D

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year-old Morgan stallion was presented with a 9-week history of diarrhea. Biopsy of nodules in the rectal mucosa yielded a diagnosis of eosinophilic enterocolitis. Treatment with steroids was instituted and the feces firmed within 2 days. Continued treatment with oral prednisone kept the feces at a normal consistency for 4 months.

  18. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  19. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  20. Cellular mechanisms underlying eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Calabrese, Cecilia; Terracciano, Rosa; Maselli, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes underlying immune responses mediated by T helper (Th)2 cell-derived cytokines, whilst neutrophilic asthma is mostly dependent on Th17 cell-induced mechanisms. These immune-inflammatory profiles develop as a consequence of a functional impairment of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes, which promotes the activation of dendritic cells directing the differentiation of distinct Th cell subsets. The recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying asthmatic inflammation are contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, potentially suitable for the implementation of future improvements in antiasthma pharmacologic treatments. PMID:25878402

  1. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Pelaia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes underlying immune responses mediated by T helper (Th2 cell-derived cytokines, whilst neutrophilic asthma is mostly dependent on Th17 cell-induced mechanisms. These immune-inflammatory profiles develop as a consequence of a functional impairment of T regulatory (Treg lymphocytes, which promotes the activation of dendritic cells directing the differentiation of distinct Th cell subsets. The recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying asthmatic inflammation are contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, potentially suitable for the implementation of future improvements in antiasthma pharmacologic treatments.

  2. Undifferentiated spleen colonies: an attempt to induce differentiation into eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repeated injections of casein caused a 4-fold increase in the overall number of colonies in the spleens of sublethally irradiated, polycythemic mice. Chronic (12 injections) casein treatment considerably increased the number of eosinophil and of undifferentiated colonies, but not that of granuloid ones. A reduction in number and size of eosinophil colonies took place between the sixth and the ninth day after irradiation. No such reduction occurred with undifferentiated colonies. Stimulation with casein for only 3 (consecutive) days before irradiation caused a similar increase in eosinophil colonies, only a moderate increase in undifferentiated ones and a very marked increase in granuloid colonies. Evidence for a change of undifferentiated colonies into eosinophil ones under conditions of eosinopoiesis was looked for, but not detected. No correlation was found between the amyloid-inducing capacity of caseins and their eosinopoietic potency

  3. Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Bochner, Bruce S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is clearly related to airway or blood eosinophilia, and asthmatics with significant eosinophilia are at higher risk for more severe disease. Eosinophils actively contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammatory cascades through the production and release of diverse chemokines, cytokines, lipid mediators and other growth factors. Eosinophils may persist in the blood and airways despite guidelines-based treatment. This review details eosinophil effector mechanisms, surface markers, and clinical outcomes associated with eosinophilia and asthma severity. There is interest in the potential of eosinophils or their products to predict treatment response with biotherapeutics and their usefulness as biomarkers. This is important as monoclonal antibodies are targeting cytokines and eosinophils in different lung environments for treating severe asthma. Identifying disease state-specific eosinophil biomarkers would help to refine these strategies and choose likely responders to biotherapeutics. PMID:27386041

  4. Upregulation of Phosphodiesterase type 5 in the Hyperplastic Prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Wenhao Zhang; Ning Zang; Yaoming Jiang; Ping Chen; Xinghuan Wang; Xinhua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common in the aging male. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) for treating LUTS/BPH with/without ED. However, the influence of BPH on prostatic PDE5 expression has never been studied. A testosterone-induced rat model of BPH was developed and human hyperplastic prostate specimens were harvested during cysto...

  5. Spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Eun Young; Nam, Sang Yu; Choi, Hye Young; Hong, Min Ji [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Spontaneous breast infarction is a very rare complication of fibroadenoma of the breast. We present an interesting case of a 33-year-old woman with spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue related to pregnancy and lactation. Mammography showed an oval, circumscribed, fat-containing mass with microcalcifications. Ultrasonography revealed an oval, circumscribed mass with echogenic dots. Color Doppler imaging revealed presence of minimal vascularity at the periphery of the mass.

  6. Multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Ulkem [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara (Turkey); Baykul, Timucin [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Suleyman Demirel University Faculty of Dentistry, Isparta (Turkey); Yildirim, Benay [Dept. of Oral Pathology, Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Derya; Bozdemir, Esin [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Suleyman Demirel University Faculty of Dentistry, Isparta (Turkey); Karaduman, Ayse [Atlas Dent Dental Health Center, Aydin (Turkey)

    2013-12-15

    This report describes a 31-year-old female patient with six impacted teeth. The crowns of the impacted teeth were surrounded with cyst-like lesions with a mixed internal structure and well-defined cortical borders. Microscopic examination of the specimen obtained from the follicle of the left mandibular third molar tooth revealed loose to moderately dense collagenous connective tissue with abundant calcified material and sparse epithelial islands. A diagnosis of multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles was made.

  7. Multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a 31-year-old female patient with six impacted teeth. The crowns of the impacted teeth were surrounded with cyst-like lesions with a mixed internal structure and well-defined cortical borders. Microscopic examination of the specimen obtained from the follicle of the left mandibular third molar tooth revealed loose to moderately dense collagenous connective tissue with abundant calcified material and sparse epithelial islands. A diagnosis of multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles was made.

  8. A case of an unexplained eosinophilic myocarditis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshen, T P; Chalkley, M; Stauthammer, C

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old spayed female Munsterlander was evaluated for a chronic low grade fever and a two month history of exercise intolerance. On physical examination, tachycardia and a grade II/VI right systolic heart murmur were detected. Echocardiography revealed marked thickening of the atrial and ventricular walls with mixed echogenicity and concentric hypertrophy of the left and right ventricles and equivocal systolic dysfunction. Serum cardiac troponin I level was markedly elevated. Endomyocardial biopsy was attempted; however, the patient arrested during the procedure and resuscitation was unsuccessful. Post-mortem examination revealed severe, chronic atrial and ventricular eosinophilic myocarditis associated with marked interstitial fibrosis. Serological testing, histopathology and immunohistochemistry staining did not reveal an underlying infectious agent or neoplasm. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary eosinophilic myocarditis in the absence of a peripheral eosinophilia and multi-organ eosinophilic inflammation in a dog. PMID:27170173

  9. An improved method to visualize eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C A; Glaessgen, A

    2006-01-01

    We previously found in Giemsa-stained colorectal sections from IBD patients that eosinophilic granulocytes turned fluorescent when excited with indirect fluorescent light, while other inflammatory cells were non-fluorescent. We now studied with that method, the frequency of eosinophilic granulocytes in sections from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE). Cell counting was done in consecutive sections stained with Giemsa stain using indirect fluorescence light (G-IFL setting) and with hematoxylin-eosin using transmitted light (HE-TL setting) in 5 cases of EE and in 10 consecutive cases of reflux esophagitis (RE) grade 2. In EE 45.0 eosinophils/case (range 39-51) were recorded with the G-IFL setting but only 33.4 eosinophils/case (range 28-39) with the HE-TL setting (p cell counting is not necessary. PMID:17091778

  10. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  11. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  12. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  13. 64 Effect of Formoterol on Eosinophil Trans-Basement Migration Induced by Interleukin-8-Stimulated Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    KAWASHIMA, Akiko; Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are often increased in the airways of either chronic severe disease or acute exacerbation of asthma. Neutrophils migrated in response to interleukin-8 (IL-8) may lead eosinophils to accumulate in the airways of asthma and possibly aggravate this disease. In this study, we investigated whether formoterol modify the trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils stimulated with neutrophils and IL-8. Methods Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral...

  14. Diagnostic approach to eosinophilic oesophagitis: Pearls and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) has first been described a little over 20 years ago. EoE has been defined by a panel of international experts as a "chronic, immune/antigen-mediated, oesophageal disease, characterized clinically by symptoms related to oesophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation". A value of ≥ 15 eosinophils has been defined as histologic diagnostic cutoff. Other conditions associated with oesophageal eosinophilia, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia, or Crohn's disease should be excluded before EoE can be diagnosed. This review highlights the latest insights regarding the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of EoE. PMID:26552777

  15. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier Ozlem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor Helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.

  16. Epithelial cell identity in hyperplastic precursors of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danila Coradini; Patrizia Boracchi; Saro Oriana; Elia Biganzoli; Federico Ambrogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:In the adult human breast, hyperplastic enlarged lobular unit (HELU) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) are two common abnormalities that frequently coexist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For this reason, they have been proposed as the early steps in a biological continuum toward breast cancer. Methods:We investigated in silico the expression of 369 genes experimentally recognized as involved in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell identity and mammary gland remodeling, in HELUs or ADHs with respect to the corresponding patient-matched normal tissue. Results:Despite the common luminal origin, HELUs and ADHs proved to be characterized by distinct gene profiles that overlap for 5 genes only. While HELUs were associated with the overexpression of progesterone receptor (PGR), ADHs were characterized by the overexpression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) coupled with the overexpression of some proliferation-associated genes. Conclusions:This unexpected finding contradicts the notion that in differentiated luminal cells the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is dissociated from cell proliferation and suggests that the establishing of an ER-dependent signaling is able to sustain cell proliferation in an autocrine manner as an early event in tumor initiation. Although clinical evidence indicates that only a fraction of HELUs and ADHs evolve to invasive cancer, present findings warn that exposure to synthetic progestins, frequently administered as hormone-replacement therapy, and estrogens, when abnormally produced by adipose cells and persistently present in the stroma surrounding the mammary gland, may cause these hyperplastic lesions.

  17. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EoE commonly have other allergic diseases such as rhinitis, asthma, and/or eczema. Certain families may have ... swallowed from an asthma inhaler or mixture to control inflammation and suppress the eosinophils. Systemic corticosteroids such ...

  18. Eosinofilia reacional, leucemia eosinofílica crônica e síndrome hipereosinofílica idiopática Reactive eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari Chauffaille

    2010-01-01

    conditions described as eosinophilia. Now these conditions are better understood due to the evolution of cellular and molecular biology. This knowledge has helped to characterize distinct disorders involving myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Hence, eosinophilia is categorized as reactive, clonal or idiopathic. With the introduction of anti-tyrosine kinase (imatinib mesylate therapy, which is effective for the FIP1L1/PDGFRa rearrangement, there is a possibility to control or cure chronic eosinophilic leukemia. For this reason, precise and fast diagnosis is necessary for ideal therapeutic decisions before organic lesions that are irreversible, such as heart injury, become established. The aim of this manuscript is to review eosinophilia and offer an update on diagnostic and therapeutic investigations.

  19. Long-term risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, and hyperplastic polyps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, John A; Erichsen, Rune; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    Long-term risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, and hyperplastic polyps......Long-term risk of colorectal cancer in patients with sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, and hyperplastic polyps...

  20. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric hyperplastic polyposis in Cowden's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajime Isomoto; Hisashi Furusu; Ken Ohnita; Yusuke Takehara; Chun-Yang Wen; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman with complaints of hematochezia was diagnosed as having Cowden's disease (CD), an autosomal dominant condition characterized by multiple hamartomas, since facial papules and gingival papillomas were identified. On endoscopy, multiple hyperplastic polyps were seen in the rectum and left-side colon. There were also esophageal glycogenic acanthosis and hyperplastic polyposis in the antrum accompanied by Helicobacter pylorirelated gastritis. Although gastric hyperplastic polyposis had by no means regressed with unsuccessful first-line eradication therapy for H pylori, following cure of the infection with salvage therapy consisting of rabeprazole,amoxicillin and metronidazole, the polyposis lesions almost disappeared. Follow-up gastroscopy 2 and 3 years after cessation of the second-line eradication therapy revealed almost complete regression of the polyposis lesions with no evidence of H pylori infection. We recommend eradication treatment for CD patients with gastric hyperplastic polyps and the infection, as the occurrence of gastric carcinoma among hyperplastic polyps has been described.

  1. T1 value of hyperplastic and hypoplastic bone marrow. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Sae; Yoshida, Hideo; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Yashiro, Naofumi; Iio, Masahiro; Takaku, Fumimaro

    1985-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the bone marrow of 18 patients (11 normal control, 4 aplastic anemia, 2 chronic myelocytic leukemia, 1 polycythemia vera) were discussed. MR imager had 0.15T registive system. Sagittal section of the body was obtained with inversion recovery (TR1,000, 1,600/TI 350, 450/TE 13, 40 msec) and saturation recovery (TR 1,000, 2,000/TE 13,40 msec) sequences. T1 relaxation time was calculated from those images. T1 value of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone marrow which contains red marrow even in elderly patients was measured. T1 values of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and polycythemia vera were longer than that of normal. T1 values of four aplastic anemia were all shorter than normal. CML and polycythemia vera can be called myeloproliferative disease and their bone marrows are hyperplastic, which may explain elongated T1. The bone marrow of aplasticanemia is hypoplastic and shows fatty change which may have decreased T1. Our results suggest T1 value of bone marrow is useful to evaluate hematological disorders. (author).

  2. Eosinophilic otitis media: a new middle ear disease entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yukiko

    2008-11-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is intractable otitis media characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellow effusion containing eosinophils. It occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma and is resistant to conventional treatments for otitis media. Here we discuss the clinical features, pathogenesis, and management of EOM. EOM predominantly affects women and presents most often in patients in their 50s. The clinical features of the middle ear in EOM are roughly divided into the otitis media with effusion type and chronic otitis media type. The latter is further divided into two subtypes: simple perforation and granulation tissue formation. EOM is often complicated by rhinosinusitis (eosinophilic sinusitis). High-tone loss is more frequently found and more severe in EOM patients than in chronic otitis media control patients, and EOM patients sometimes become deaf suddenly. Systemic or topical steroid administration is the most effective treatment for patients with EOM. The instillation of triamcinolone acetonide, a suspension of steroids, into the middle ear is very effective for controlling eosinophilic inflammation. It is very important to explain to patients with EOM that the disease may last for a long period and that progressive and sudden hearing loss may occur. PMID:18940145

  3. Human eosinophil innate response to Alternaria fungus through protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. An association between eosinophilic inflammation and infection or colonization by fungi has also been long recognized. However, the mechanisms underlying how eosinophils are activated and how they release proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators such as major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin remain largely unknown. We used a fungus, i.e. Alternaria, as a model microbe relevant to human asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune recognition of ubiquitous environmental allergens. Human eosinophils are activated by live Alternaria alternata organisms, release their granule proteins, and kill the fungi. Eosinophils, but not neutrophils, respond to secreted products from A. alternata. We found that eosinophils are equipped with innate cellular activation machinery that responds to an extracellular aspartate protease secreted by Alternaria. Aspartate protease activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 probably involves a novel mechanism different from that for serine protease activation of PAR-2. Thus, human eosinophils may recognize certain danger signals or virulence factors produced by fungi and provoke inflammatory responses against these organisms. Dysregulation of such an innate immune mechanism may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain human inflammatory diseases, including asthma and CRS. PMID:21646807

  4. Otras enfermedades obstructivas: bisinosis, bronquitis crónica y EPOC de origen laboral y bronquitis eosinofílica Other obstructive diseases: byssinosis, chronic bronchitis and occupational COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Michel De la Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Además del asma ocupacional y las enfermedades derivadas de la inhalación aguda, otras enfermedades obstructivas también reconocen un origen laboral. Aunque en la actualidad la bisinosis es una enfermedad rara en España, describimos las características de la misma por su interés histórico dentro de las enfermedades respiratorias de origen laboral y porque todavía sigue vigente en los países en vías de desarrollo. La bronquitis crónica también puede estar relacionada con la exposición laboral a polvos y humos, con frecuencia denominada "bronquitis industrial". La relación ocupacional de la EPOC ha sido más controvertida a lo largo de la historia, pero en la actualidad esta relación está aceptada; describimos la evidencia actual que sustenta esta relación. En último lugar, describimos la bronquitis eosinofílica sin asma, entidad descrita por primera vez en 1989 y que en ocasiones también puede tener un origen laboral, compartiendo agentes etiológicos con el asma ocupacional.Besides occupational asthma and diseases derived from acute inhalation, other obstructive diseases also have an occupational origin. Although at present byssinosis is a rare disease in Spain, we describe its characteristics because of its historical interest amongst occupational respiratory diseases and because it is still relevant in developing countries. Chronic bronchitis can also be related to exposure at work to dust and smoke, and is often referred to as "industrial bronchitis". Historically, the relation of CPOD to occupation has been subject to controversy, but nowadays this relationship is accepted; we describe the present evidence supporting this relationship. Finally, we describe eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma, an entity that was described for the first time in 1989 and that can sometimes have an occupational origin, sharing aetiological agents with occupational asthma.

  5. Hyperplastic Polyps Are Innocuous Lesions in Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancers

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    D. Speake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To compare methylation profiles, protein expression, and microsatellite instability (MSI of sporadic, HNPCC, and familial hyperplastic polyps (HPs. Methods. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP and pyrosequencing assessed p16, MGMT, hMLH-1, MINT 1, and MINT 31 methylation. IHC (Immunohistochemistry assessed Ki67, CK20, hMLH-1, hMSH-2, and hMSH-6 protein expression. MSI analysis was performed on those polyps with adequate DNA remaining. Results. 124 HPs were identified 78 sporadic, 21 HNPCC, 25 familial, and the HNPCC group demonstrated no significant differences in overall methylation (P=.186 Chi2. The familial group demonstrated significantly less over all methylation levels (P=.004 Chi2. Conclusions. HPs that occur in HNPCC have no more worrying features at a molecular level than those patients with HPs in a sporadic setting.

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra; D’Alessandro; Dario; Esposito; Marcella; Pesce; Rosario; Cuomo; Giovanni; Domenico; De; Palma; Giovanni; Sarnelli

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis(Eo E) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and refluxlike symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with Eo E is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of Eo E, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of Eo E in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the firstline therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, Eo E is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on Eo E pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments.

  7. Relationship between the Balance of Hypertrophic/Hyperplastic Adipose Tissue Expansion and the Metabolic Profile in a High Glucocorticoids Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiría, María Guillermina; Alzamendi, Ana; Moreno, Griselda; Portales, Andrea; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is the result of two processes: hyperplasia and hypertrophy; and both, directly or indirectly, depend on the adipogenic potential of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs). Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a potent stimulatory effect on terminal adipogenesis; while their effects on early stages of adipogenesis are largely unknown. In the present work, we study, in a model of high GC levels, the adipogenic potential of APCs from retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) and its relationship with RPAT mass expansion. We employed a model of hyper-adiposity (30- and 60-day-old rats) due to high endogenous GC levels induced by neonatal treatment with l-monosodium glutamate (MSG). We found that the RPAT APCs from 30-day-old MSG rats showed an increased adipogenic capacity, depending on the APCs' competency, but not in their number. Analyses of RPAT adipocyte diameter revealed an increase in cell size, regardless of the rat age, indicating the prevalence of a hypertrophic process. Moreover, functional RPAT alterations worsened in 60-day-old rats, suggesting that the hyperplastic AT expansion found in 30-day-old animals might have a protective role. We conclude that GCs chronic excess affects APCs' adipogenic capacity, modifying their competency. This change would modulate the hyperplastic/hypertrophic balance determining healthy or unhealthy RPAT expansion and, therefore, its functionality. PMID:27384583

  8. Relationship between the Balance of Hypertrophic/Hyperplastic Adipose Tissue Expansion and the Metabolic Profile in a High Glucocorticoids Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guillermina Zubiría

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT expansion is the result of two processes: hyperplasia and hypertrophy; and both, directly or indirectly, depend on the adipogenic potential of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs. Glucocorticoids (GCs have a potent stimulatory effect on terminal adipogenesis; while their effects on early stages of adipogenesis are largely unknown. In the present work, we study, in a model of high GC levels, the adipogenic potential of APCs from retroperitoneal AT (RPAT and its relationship with RPAT mass expansion. We employed a model of hyper-adiposity (30- and 60-day-old rats due to high endogenous GC levels induced by neonatal treatment with l-monosodium glutamate (MSG. We found that the RPAT APCs from 30-day-old MSG rats showed an increased adipogenic capacity, depending on the APCs’ competency, but not in their number. Analyses of RPAT adipocyte diameter revealed an increase in cell size, regardless of the rat age, indicating the prevalence of a hypertrophic process. Moreover, functional RPAT alterations worsened in 60-day-old rats, suggesting that the hyperplastic AT expansion found in 30-day-old animals might have a protective role. We conclude that GCs chronic excess affects APCs’ adipogenic capacity, modifying their competency. This change would modulate the hyperplastic/hypertrophic balance determining healthy or unhealthy RPAT expansion and, therefore, its functionality.

  9. Atypical presentations of eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulin Ergun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disease that may mimic and overlap with other sclerosing disorders such as morphea and lichen sclerosus. Herein, we report four patients (two men and two women, aged 16-64 yeas with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was overlap with both morphea and lichen sclerosus in 2 patients and with morphoea alone in 1 patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for diagnosis in three patients and for assessing treatment response in one patient. Eosinophilic fasciitis may co-exist with morhoea and lichen sclerosus. In view of the overlapping clinical and histopathological features of these disorders, MRI may be helful in delineating the conditions by detecting involvement of fascia.

  10. Eosinophil-Mediated Cholinergic Nerve Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Durcan, Niamh; Costello, Richard W; McLean, W. Graham; Blusztajn, Jan; Madziar, Beata; Fenech, Anthony G; Hall, Ian P; Gleich, Gerard J.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophils are observed to localize to cholinergic nerves in a variety of inflammatory conditions such as asthma, rhinitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and inflammatory bowel disease, where they are also responsible for the induction of cell signaling.Wehypothesized that a consequence of eosinophil localization to cholinergic nerves would involve a neural remodeling process. Eosinophil co-culture with cholinergic IMR32 cells led to increased expression of the M2 muscar...

  11. Eosinophilic Gastritis Presenting as Tissue Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Yong Min; Jang, Jin Seok; Han, Seung Hee; Kang, Sang Hyun; Kim, Woo Jae; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is very rare disorder that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of any definite causes of eosinophilia. It is associated with various clinical gastrointestinal manifestations, and depends on the involved layer and site. We report a case of eosinophilic gastritis presenting with severe necrosis. The symptoms disappeared immediately after beginning steroid treatment, and the eosinophil count decreased to the refe...

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Jay A; Chehade, Mirna

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease that can present with a constellation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in conjunction with significant infiltration of the esophageal tissue with eosinophils. Clinical and histologic resolution of the disease can be seen with dietary restriction therapies and systemic and topical corticosteroids. Because most patients have an atopic background and the disease seems to have an underlying T-helper type 2 pathogenesis, allergists and gastroenterologists need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of this disease. In this review, clinical characteristics, endoscopic and histologic findings, and available therapy options are discussed. PMID:22244233

  13. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EoE evaluation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Food Allergies Adverse immune responses to food are the main cause of EoE ... empiric elimination diets for eosinophilic esophagitis in adults » Eosinophilic Esophagitis in black children: An overlooked ... Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , ...

  14. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montiel-Jarquín Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopahologic studies.The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in Wodd J Gastroenterol 2007 luly;13 (27):3760-3762,about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies,which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  15. Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis Following Diagnostic Curettage

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    Desai SR

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis appears after injury from a preoperative diagnostic procedure. It is an unusual and distinctive inflammatory uterine disease process, in response to eosinophil chemotactic substances. We report this case of a 55-year-old lady who developed severe eosinophilic endometritis following a diagnostic curettage

  16. Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis Following Diagnostic Curettage

    OpenAIRE

    Desai SR; Shweta A. Shinagare

    2010-01-01

    Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis appears after injury from a preoperative diagnostic procedure. It is an unusual and distinctive inflammatory uterine disease process, in response to eosinophil chemotactic substances. We report this case of a 55-year-old lady who developed severe eosinophilic endometritis following a diagnostic curettage.

  17. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Sastre; Victoria del Pozo

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, ...

  18. Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus f...

  19. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Antibiotics against Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a chronic intractable pruritic dermatosis. Although indomethacin is generally effective against EPF and considered as a first-line therapy, quite a few patients with indomethacin still suffer from the symptoms. Among other therapeutic options, some antibiotics have been reported to be effective; however, there has been no epidemiological description regarding oral antibiotics use in patients with EPF. In this study, we investigated the frequency of ...

  20. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunie Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI, a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  1. Nasal Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis with Orbital Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Moghimi, Mansour; Sharouny, Hadi; Behniafard, Nasim

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is an extremely rare, chronic, benign, idiopathic disorder that mostly affects the upper respiratory tract, particularly the nasal cavity, and features progressive submucosal perivascular fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of EAF with orbital involvement have been reported. We report a case of sinonasal EAF with orbital extension that presented with left nasolacrimal duct obstruction. A 35-year-old man presented with left epiphora, proptosis, anterolateral globe displacement and nasal obstruction. Endoscopic sinus examination showed a firm, gritty, creamy, yellow, fibrous, adherent mass of maxillary sinus. Diagnosis was established with histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of the lesion. Although EAF is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of upper airway tract, particularly the nasal cavity. Biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and treatment planning. Resecting of the involved tissues completely is essential for prevention of recurrence. PMID:25601283

  2. Murine eosinophil differentiation factor. An eosinophil-specific colony- stimulating factor with activity for human cells

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A purified murine lymphokine, eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF), was found to be a selective stimulus for the clonal proliferation and differentiation of murine eosinophil progenitor cells, establishing it as the murine eosinophil colony-stimulating factor (Eo-CSF). EDF was also active on human eosinophil progenitors and mature blood eosinophils, but had no effect on neutrophil or macrophage precursor cells, nor on blood neutrophils. In culture of human bone marrow cells, EDF stimulated...

  3. Ultrasound in the detection of focal and segmental hyperplastic cholecystoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the sonographic (US) patterns of hyperplastic cholecystoses observed from January 1983 to April 1987 - 39 cases of focal extention and 12 of segmental extension - and confirm the higher sensibility of US versus oral cholecystography. Sonography (SG) allows a straight visualization of the gallbladder wall and its lesions, both in case of limited thickening of the wall (focal cholecystosis) and in case of more extensive thickening (segmental cholecystosis). To cholecystographic findings of focal lesions, SG gives additional information, adding a fundamental diagnostic element: the lack of acoustic shadowing distal to the nodular masses. Nonetheless, SG dose not allow a discrimination between focal cholesterolosis and adenomyomatosis, except for particular cases, such as multiple nodular masses, and coexistence with parietal deposit of cholesterol. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of focal cholecystoses includes some neoplasms of the gallbladder, and gallstones stuck to the wall, with no acoustic shadowing. In segmental cholecystoses, the direct evaluation of the entity and extension of the wall thickening remains a fundamental diagnostic element, even though such a morphologic detail is often integrated by the functional relieve of hypercontractility of the gallbladder wall after a fatty meal (both oral cholecystography and SG demonstrate it)

  4. Oral pyogenic granuloma: one reactive hyperplastic lesion of the gingiva

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    Suryakanta Narendra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term pyogenic granuloma refers to a disorder of the skin, oral mucosa and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma like growth often resulting from local irritation and trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma. Different terminologies are used for this lesion by different investigators like, benign vascular tumor of pregnancy, granuloma pediculatum benignum, granuloma pyogenicum, Crocker and hartzells disease. This lesion even if looks like a tumor, is non neoplastic in nature and present itself in various clinical and histological forms. Lack of association of pyogenic etiopathogenesis does not justify the use of terminology of pyogenic granuloma. In this article we are presenting a case series of pyogenic granuloma in different locations giving an insight into their myriad of etiologies and presenting the review of literature for its inclusion as one classified hyperplastic lesion of oral cavity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3863-3868

  5. Aspirin attenuates the anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline via inhibition of cAMP production in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kim, You-sun; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong-Sic; Yoon, Chang Min; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline is commonly used to treat severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by non-eosinophilic inflammation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most widely used medications worldwide, but up to 20% of patients with asthma experience aggravated respiratory symptoms after taking ASA. Here we evaluated the adverse effect of ASA on the therapeutic effect of theophylline in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma. A non-eosinophilic asthma mouse model was ...

  6. The glucocorticoid RU24858 does not distinguish between transrepression and transactivation in primary human eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianzhi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids are used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis is considered to be one of the main mechanisms behind the anti-asthmatic effect of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid binding to its receptor (GR can have a dual effect on gene transcription. Activated GR can activate transcription (transactivation, or by interacting with other transcription factors such as NF-κB suppress transcription (transrepression. RU24858 has been reported to transrepress but to have little or no transactivation capability in other cell types. The dissociated properties of RU24858 have not been previously studied in non-malignant human cells. As the eosinophils have a very short lifetime and many of the modern molecular biological methods cannot be used, a "dissociated steroid" would be a valuable tool to evaluate the mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in human eosinophils. The aim of this study was to elucidate the ability of RU24858 to activate and repress gene expression in human eosinophils in order to see whether it is a dissociated steroid in human eosinophils. Methods Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated under sterile conditions and cultured in the presence and/or absence RU24858. For comparison, dexamethasone and mometasone were used. We measured chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. Apoptosis was measured by DNA fragmentation and confirmed by morphological analysis. Results RU24858 (1 μM increased CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression on eosinophils to a similar extent as mometasone (1 μM and dexamethasone (1 μM. Like dexamethasone and mometasone, RU24858 did suppress IL-8 and MCP-1 production in eosinophils. RU24858 also increased spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis to a similar degree as dexamethasone and mometasone, but unlike dexamethasone and mometasone it did not reverse IL-5- or GM

  7. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-10-31

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings. PMID:22750539

  8. MR findings of eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR findings for the three phases of eosinophilic granuloma, as defined by Mirra's conventional radiographic criteria. Eighteen lesions in 14 patients with proven eosinophilic granuloma were retrospectively analyzed. Among this total, three vertebral lesions were excluded, and the remaining is were classified as early, middle, or late phase on the basis of Mirra's radiographic criteria. For each phase, we compared MR findings with regard to signal intensity, homogeneity, contrast enhancement, perilesional marrow edema, and soft tissue change. For the three vertebral lesions excluded because the application of radiographic criteria was difficult, MR findings for paravertebral soft tissue reaction and degree of cord compression were compared. Of the fifteen cases classified, eight were early phase, five were mid phase, and two were late phase. During each phase, all lesions except one, as seen on T1-weighted images(T1WI), showed iso-signal intensity. On T2WI, all lesions showed high signal intensity. Contrast study demonstrated marked contrast enhancement. Thus, no remarkable differences were found in the signal intensity degree of contrast enhancement of each phase. With regard to heterogeneity, this was demonstrated in most early phase lesions, reflecting necrosis and hemorrhage of those lesions. Soft tissue swelling was more severe during the early phase than the mid or late phase, but marrow edema was similar in each of the three phase. One of three patients with vertebraplana showed para-vertebral soft tissue swelling and cord compression, but this was not seen in the two other cases. For evalvating the extent of eosinophilic granuloma and its relationship with surrounding structures, MRI was superior to conventional radiography. During the early phase of the disease, lesions showed greater inhomogeneity and more aggressive soft tissue reaction than during the mid and late phase.The use of MRI for the evalvation of eosinophilic granuloma can help

  9. [Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

    2005-04-01

    We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions. PMID:15830305

  10. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  11. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  12. Severe Aplastic Anemia Associated With Eosinophilic Fasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    de Masson, Adèle; Bouaziz, Jean-David; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Benhamou, Ygal; Moluçon-Chabrot, Cécile; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Laquerrière, Annie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Michonneau, David; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Rybojad, Michel; Bonnotte, Bernard; Jardin, Fabrice; Lévesque, Hervé; Bagot, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman disease) is a rare sclerodermiform syndrome that, in most cases, resolves spontaneously or after corticosteroid therapy. It has been associated with hematologic disorders, such as aplastic anemia. The clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated aplastic anemia have been poorly described. We report the cases of 4 patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated severe aplastic anemia. For 3 ...

  13. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and hepatic dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Zhou; Jin-Ming Chen; Qin Du

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal disorder with eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal wall and various gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders that are associated with peripheral eosinophilia.We report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, which had features of the predominant subserosal type presenting with ascites and hepatic dysfunction, and which responded to a course of low-dose steroid.

  14. Eosinophil Apoptosis and Clearance in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Garry M

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is an increasingly common respiratory condition characterized by reversible airway obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation with a clear unmet need for more effective therapy. Eosinophilic asthma is a phenotype of the condition that features increased blood or sputum eosinophils whose numbers correlate with disease severity. Several lines of evidence are now emerging, which implicate increased persistence of eosinophils in the lungs of patients with asthma as...

  15. Roles of integrin activation in eosinophil function and the eosinophilic inflammation of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Barthel, Steven R; Johansson, Mats W.; McNamee, Dawn M.; Deane F Mosher

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Integrins are highly versatile cellular receptors that regulate extravasation of eosinophils from the postcapillary segment of the bronchial circulation to the airway wall and airspace. Such movement into the asthmatic lung is described as a sequential, multistep paradigm, whereby integrins on circulating eosinophils become activated, eosinophils tether in flow and roll on bronchial endothelial cells, integrins on rolling eosino...

  16. Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 7 year-old male presented with recurrent fever, cough and respiratory distress for over last 2 years. Based on extremely high eosinophil count, high Immunoglobulin E, increase in eosinophilic precursors in bone marrow, and positive antigen test for Wuchereria bancrofti, a diagnosis of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction was made. Complete recovery was achieved with Diethylcarbamazine for 3 weeks. We are reporting this case as the first case of Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia with eosinophilic leukemoid reaction in a child.

  17. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine H4 receptor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved. PMID:25760088

  18. Extrathyroidal Implantation of Thyroid Hyperplastic/neoplastic Cells after Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xi; Xie-qun Xu; Tao Hong; Bing-lu Li; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a case of the implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic tissue after endoscopic thyroidectomy and discuss this complication in aspects of prevalence, pathogenesis, protection, and therapies. Methods A systematic search of literature from the PubMed database was conducted for identifying eligible studies on implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells after endoscopic thyroid surgery. Results Overall, 5 reported cases on patients suffering from endoscopic thyroid surgery with implantation of thyroid hyperplastic or neoplastic cells were included in the systematic review. Conclusions Unskilled surgeons, rough intraoperative surgical treatment, scarification or rupture of tumor, contamination of instruments, chimney effect, aerosolization of tumor cells may be associated with the implantation after endoscopic thyroidectomy. To minimize the risk of such complication, we should be more meticulous and strict the endoscopic surgery indications.

  19. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  20. Eosinophils in hereditary and inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Thomas; Fuchss, Johann; Schneider, Ilka; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Hanisch, Frank

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether eosinophilic myositis is a specific histopathological feature of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A). Number and location of eosinophils in skeletal muscle biopsies (n=100) was analysed by Giemsa and modified hematoxylin/eosin staining in patients with genetically confirmed myopathies (LGMD2A, LGMD2B, LGMD2L, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, dystrophinopathy), histologically confirmed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (neurogenic control), and normal controls. The number of eosinophils/mm² was significantly higher in LGMD2A, PM, DM, and sIBM compared to controls but not significantly higher than other myopathies. A large overlap in the number of eosinophils/mm2 between all groups was seen. In all disease groups eosinophils were mainly found endomysially (46- 88%) and intra- and perivascularly (4-37%). There was no correlation between the numbers of eosinophils/mm² and (i) age at biopsy and (ii) the duration of the disease. The extent of myopathic, fibrotic, and inflammatory changes did not differ in samples with high and low eosinophil count. Eosinophils seem to represent an unspecific histological finding in hereditary and inflammatory myopathies, but also amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24803842

  1. Hyperplastic polyps of the colon and rectum - reclassification, BRAF and KRAS status in index polyps and subsequent colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Huma Gul Rehana; Høgdall, Estrid; Linnemann, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Hyperplastic polyps (HP) of the colon and rectum were previously considered benign. Newer studies have suggested that colorectal HP are different entities. The aim of this study was to reclassify lesions from a 5-year period previously classified as colorectal HP into traditional hyperplastic pol...

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis: trials and tribulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katrina J; Heine, Ralf G

    2011-08-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognized form of pan-esophagitis, which is characterized by the presence of at least 15 eosinophils per high power field on esophageal histology. EE is closely associated with atopic disorders and occurs predominantly in male patients. Young children are more likely to be sensitized to food allergens whilst aeroallergen sensitization predominates in older children and adults--a pattern reminiscent of the "atopic march". EE presents with a diverse range of gastrointestinal symptoms, including regurgitation, vomiting, feeding difficulties or refusal in infancy, in addition to dysphagia and food bolus impaction in older children and adults. The diagnosis may also be ascertained incidentally in patients undergoing gastroscopy for other suspected gastrointestinal conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or celiac disease. Complications mainly relate to subepithelial remodeling and fibrosis which may result in dysmotility, dysphagia and esophageal strictures. The proportion of EE patients at risk of these complications is unknown due to a paucity of data on the natural history of EE. There are only few randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of treatment modalities for EE, which currently either involve food allergen elimination or use of swallowed aerosolized corticosteroids. This article aims to discuss the complex issues of the diagnosis and long-term management that confront clinicians who care for children with EE. PMID:21415771

  3. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  4. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. PMID:26291602

  5. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting in an adolescent with isolated colonic involvement.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.; Lichtman, S; Lentz, J.; Stringer, D; Sherman, P

    1986-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis most commonly involves the stomach and proximal small intestine with eosinophilic inflammation of either the mucosa, submucosa or serosa. The patient reported here had isolated eosinophilic colitis. The initial presentation with iron deficiency anaemia owing to occult gastrointestinal blood loss emphasises the need to evaluate the entire gastrointestinal tract in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  6. Eosinophilic Enteritis Confined to an Ileostomy Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette U. Laxa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition that can manifest anywhere from esophagus to rectum. Its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, malignancy, food allergy, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug sensitivity. We present the case of a 41-year-old male diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy formation utilizing Seprafilm®, who later developed eosinophilic enteritis of the loop ileostomy site. This is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis and its possible link to the use of bioabsorbable adhesion barriers.

  7. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction. PMID:25623943

  8. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  9. Sarcocystis fayeri-Induced Granulomatous and Eosinophilic Myositis in 2 Related Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, H R; Sula, M M; Starkey, L A; Panciera, R J; Johnson, E M; Snider, T A; Holbrook, T C

    2015-11-01

    This report describes 2 genetically related paint mares, case Nos. 1 and 2, presented to the Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for chronic weight loss and abnormal gait, respectively. Notable findings in both cases included marked persistent eosinophilia and multiple intramuscular lateral thoracic masses. Histologic examination of masses revealed eosinophilic, centrally necrotic granulomas and marked eosinophilic myositis. Granulomas in case No. 1 also contained intralesional Sarcocystis sp material, and adjacent muscle fibers contained intact protozoal cysts. Case No. 1 developed severe refractory muscle pain and recurrent esophageal dysphagia. At necropsy, disseminated, grossly visible granulomas were present throughout all examined striated muscles. Nested polymerase chain reaction of the 18S rRNA gene revealed >99% homology with Sarcocystis fayeri. Sarcocystis spp are apicomplexan protozoa that infect striated muscle of many omnivorous species, typically without inciting clinical disease. Sarcocystosis should be considered a rare cause of granulomatous eosinophilic myositis and choke in horses. PMID:25957356

  10. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:15492606

  11. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gioffredi, Andrea; Maritati, Federica; Oliva, Elena; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, defined as an eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplo...

  12. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  13. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  14. Eosinophils in hereditary and inflammatory myopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Thomas; FUCHSS, JOHANN; Schneider, Ilka; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Hanisch, Frank

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether eosinophilic myositis is a specific histopathological feature of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A). Number and location of eosinophils in skeletal muscle biopsies (n=100) was analysed by Giemsa and modified hematoxylin/eosin staining in patients with genetically confirmed myopathies (LGMD2A, LGMD2B, LGMD2L, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, dystrophinopathy), histologically confirmed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (sporadic inclusion body myositis (s...

  15. Eosinophilic Pancreatitis Diagnosed With Endoscopic Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Kakodkar, Samir; Omar, Hina; Cabrera, Julio; Chi, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pancreatitis (EP) is a rare clinical entity, and few cases have been reported. It usually presents on imaging as a pancreatic mass leading to common bile duct obstruction and jaundice. Since it can mimic a malignancy, eosinophilic pancreatitis is often diagnosed after “false positive” pancreatic resections. To our knowledge, we report the only known case of EP in which the diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration and core biopsy of the pancreas during EUS, sparing the patient...

  16. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  17. Adult eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypereosinophilic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritJs (EGE) in the adult is a distinctive pathologically-based disorder characterized by an eosinophil-predominant mucosal inflammatory process. Most often, the disorder is detected during endoscopic investigation for abdominal pain or diarrhea. Other causes of gastric and intestinal mucosal eosinophilia require exclusion, including parasitic infections and drug-induced causes. Occasionally, the muscle wall or serosal surface may be involved. EGE appears to be more readily recognized, in large part, due to an evolution in the imaging methods used to evaluate abdominal pain and diarrhea, in particular, endoscopic imaging and mucosal biopsies. Definition of EGE, however, may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not well standardized. Also, the eosinophilic inflammatory process may be either patchy or diffuse and the detection of the eosinophilic infiltrates may vary depending on the method of biopsy fixation. Treatment has traditionally focused on resolution of symptoms, and, in some instances, eosinophil quantification in pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsies. Future evaluation and treatment of EGE may depend on precise serological biomarkers to aid in definition of the long-term natural history of the disorder and its response to pharmacological or biological forms of therapy.

  18. Ouabain-induced increases in resting tone of human hyperplastic prostate following repeated noradrenaline and electrical field stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Guh, J. H.; Ko, F. N.; Chueh, S. C.; Lai, M.K.; Teng, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of ouabain on contractions to repeated noradrenaline stimulation and electrical field stimulation of human hyperplastic prostate was examined. Ouabain (1 microM) did not induce contractile response per se but progressively increased the resting tone (i.e., the tone between one noradrenaline stimulation, or electrical field stimulation, and the following) of human hyperplastic prostate. 2. The increased tone by ouabain following repeated noradrenaline stimulations or electrical f...

  19. Effect of drug treatment on hyperplastic gastric polyps infected with Helicobacter pylori: A randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ji; Zi-Wei Wang; Jian-Wen Ning; Qun-Yan Wang; Jian-Yong Chen; You-Ming Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of drug treatment on hyperplastic gastric polyps infected with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori).METHODS: Forty-eight patients with hyperplastic gastric polyps (3-10 mm in diameter) infected with H pylori were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 24) which received proton-pump inhibitor (omeprazole or lansoprazole), clarithromycin, bismuth citrate and tinidazole, and a control group (n = 24) which received protective agent of gastric mucosa (tepretone) . Patients underwent endoscopy and H pylori examination regularly before enrollment and 1-12 mo after treatment.RESULTS: Twenty-two patients in the treatment group and 21 in the control group completed the entire test protocol. In the treatment group, polyps disappeared 1-12 mo (average, 6.5 ± 1.1 mo) after the treatment in 15 of 22 patients (68.2%) and H pylori infection was eradicated in 19 of the 22 patients (86.4%). However, 12 months after the study, no change in polyps or H pylori status was seen in any controls (bp < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Most hyperplastic gastric polyps disappear after eradication of H pylori.

  20. Some general remarks on hyperplasticity modelling and its extension to partially saturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoqin; Wong, Henry; Fabbri, Antonin; Bui, Tuan Anh; Limam, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The essential ideas and equations of classic plasticity and hyperplasticity are successively recalled and compared, in order to highlight their differences and complementarities. The former is based on the mathematical framework proposed by Hill (The mathematical theory of plasticity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1950), whereas the latter is founded on the orthogonality hypothesis of Ziegler (An introduction to thermomechanics. Elsevier, North-Holland, 1983). The main drawback of classic plasticity is the possibility of violating the second principle of thermodynamics, while the relative ease to conjecture the yield function in order to approach experimental results is its main advantage. By opposition, the a priori satisfaction of thermodynamic principles constitutes the chief advantage of hyperplasticity theory. Noteworthy is also the fact that this latter approach allows a finer energy partition; in particular, the existence of frozen energy emerges as a natural consequence from its theoretical formulation. On the other hand, the relative difficulty to conjecture an efficient dissipation function to produce accurate predictions is its main drawback. The two theories are thus better viewed as two complementary approaches. Following this comparative study, a methodology to extend the hyperplasticity approach initially developed for dry or saturated materials to the case of partially saturated materials, accounting for interface energies and suction effects, is developed. A particular example based on the yield function of modified Cam-Clay model is then presented. It is shown that the approach developed leads to a model consistent with other existing works.

  1. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  2. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM. PMID:26546407

  3. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  4. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sastre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, respiratory system appears to be unique in that PGE2 has beneficial effects. We described that the difference in airway function observed in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma could be due to differences in PGE2 production. PGE2 present in induced sputum supernatant from NAEB patients decreases BSMC proliferation, probably due to simultaneous stimulation of EP2 and EP4 receptors with inhibitory activity. This protective effect of PGE2 may not only be the result of a direct action exerted on airway smooth-muscle proliferation but may also be attributable to the other anti-inflammatory actions.

  5. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5α receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor α) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments. PMID:25900924

  6. SOCS3 silencing attenuates eosinophil functions in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Ma Paz; Cañas, Jose A; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

  7. SOCS3 Silencing Attenuates Eosinophil Functions in Asthma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Paz Zafra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3. In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process.

  8. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk in a...... subgroup of 203 COPD individuals with clinical COPD, defined as participants with ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1 < 70% of predicted value and ≥ 1 moderate or severe exacerbation in the year prior to baseline. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During a median of 3.3 years of follow-up (range 0.03-8.1), 1,439 severe and...

  9. Immunopathology of chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a heterogeneous disease characterized by local inflammation of the upper airways and sinuses which persists for at least 12 weeks. CRS can be divided into two phenotypes dependent on the presence of nasal polyps (NPs; CRS with NPs (CRSwNP and CRS without NPs (CRSsNP. Immunological patterns in the two diseases are known to be different. Inflammation in CRSsNP is rarely investigated and limited studies show that CRSsNP is characterized by type 1 inflammation. Inflammation in CRSwNP is well investigated and CRSwNP in Western countries shows type 2 inflammation and eosinophilia in NPs. In contrast, mixed inflammatory patterns are found in CRSwNP in Asia and the ratio of eosinophilic NPs and non-eosinophilic NPs is almost 50:50 in these countries. Inflammation in eosinophilic NPs is mainly controlled by type 2 cytokines, IL-5 and IL-13, which can be produced from several immune cells including Th2 cells, mast cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s that are all elevated in eosinophilic NPs. IL-5 strongly induces eosinophilia. IL-13 activates macrophages, B cells and epithelial cells to induce recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells, IgE mediated reactions and remodeling. Epithelial derived cytokines, TSLP, IL-33 and IL-1 can directly and indirectly control type 2 cytokine production from these cells in eosinophilic NPs. Recent clinical trials showed the beneficial effect on eosinophilic NPs and/or asthma by monoclonal antibodies against IL-5, IL-4Rα, IgE and TSLP suggesting that they can be therapeutic targets for eosinophilic CRSwNP.

  10. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal ...

  11. Eosinophilic pleural effusion complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Austin N; Kuhlmann, Erica; Kuzniar, Tomasz J

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is primarily a disease of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, who typically present with bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, and expectoration of mucus plugs. We report a case of a young man with a history of asthma who presented with cough, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have lobar atelectasis and an eosinophilic, empyematous pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy and sputum cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, and testing confirmed strong allergic response to this mold, all consistent with a diagnosis of ABPA. This novel and unique presentation of ABPA expands on the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusions. PMID:21311176

  12. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci

    OpenAIRE

    Sleiman, Patrick MA; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J; Furuta, Glenn T.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which have been previously associated with both atopic and autoimmune disease, and two EoE-specific loci, ANKRD27 that regulates the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes to epidermal melanocytes and CAPN14, th...

  13. Case report 542: Eosinophilic granuloma of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case is presented of a solitary lesion of eosinophilic granuloma in a 33-year-old white woman. The lesion was quite small and cortically based. It contained a small sequestrum involving the medial surface of the femur just below the lesser trochanter. CT studies were very helpful in delineating the lesion. A radionuclide bone scan showed uptake at the site of the lesion. A biopsy specimen demonstrated the typical lesional tissue of eosinophilic granuloma. Of interest was a mild leucocytosis with a slightly elevated ESR. There were findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease on chest roentgenograms. (orig./GDG)

  14. Role of P G E 2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre, Beatriz; del Pozo, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, ...

  15. ROLE OF SERUM EOSINOPHILIC CATIONIC PROTEIN AND TRYPTASE IN MYELOPROLIFERATIVE AND LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Komarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A role of intracellular proteins of eosinophils and mast cells remains unclear in the patients with hematological neoplasia. There is a substantial evidence that eosinophils possess some common mechanisms of cooperation with mast cells. Therapeutic interventions into key events controlling eosinophil migration may be a leading factor in treatment of hypereosinophylic states in onco-hematological disorders. Due to unknown functions of eosinophils in majority of eosinophilia-associated diseases, it would be useful to establish an algorithm of accurate diagnostics in the patients with eosinophilia, in order to choose more effective treatment in future.We studied serum levels of secretable eosinophil and mast cells proteins in oncohematological patients with increased eosinophil counts. The aim of our study was to test a significance of quantitative assay for tryptase and ECP in the patients with myelo- and lymphoproliferative diseases. The study group included thirty-eight patients with oncohematological diseases, accompanied by a marked eosinophilia (> 0.4 x 109/L. Eighteen patients with bronchial asthma (BA, and eight cases of solid tumors comprised a reference group for polyclonal eosinophilia. The levels of ECP and tryptase were measured in blood serum using a commercial fluoroimmunoenzyme assay («Pharmacia», Uppsala, Sweden. Total ECP levels were markedly increased in general group with hematological malignancies (p < 0.03, , and in cases of chronic GvHD (p < 0.03, and in a sub-group with lymphoproliferative disorders (р = 0.007 as compared to the group of non-hematological diseases.Serum levels of tryptase were significantly increased in the patients with chronic GvHD after allo-HSCT and lymphoproliferative diseases, as compared to the group of patients with solid tumors (р = 0.03, as well in GvHD compared with lymphoproliferative disorders (р < 0.05.A direct correlation was found between serum ECP levels and absolute

  16. Eosinophils in the lung – modulating apoptosis and efferocytosis in airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Felton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the key role of the lung in efficient transfer of oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide, a controlled inflammatory response is essential for restoration of tissue homeostasis following airway exposure to bacterial pathogens or environmental toxins. Unregulated or prolonged inflammatory responses in the lungs can lead to tissue damage, disrupting normal tissue architecture and consequently compromising efficient gaseous exchange. Failure to resolve inflammation underlies the development and/or progression of a number of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma. Eosinophils, granulocytic cells of the innate immune system, are primarily involved in defence against parasitic infections. However, the propagation of the allergic inflammatory response in chronic asthma is thought to involve excessive recruitment and impaired apoptosis of eosinophils together with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis. In terms of therapeutic approaches for treatment of asthma, the widespread use of glucocorticoids is associated with a number of adverse health consequences after long-term use, while some patients suffer from steroid-resistant disease. A new approach for therapeutic intervention would be to promote the resolution of inflammation via modulation of eosinophil apoptosis and the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. This review focuses on the mechanisms underpinning eosinophil-mediated lung damage, currently available treatments and therapeutic targets that might in future be harnessed to facilitate inflammation resolution by the manipulation of cell survival and clearance pathways.

  17. Eosinophils in the lung - modulating apoptosis and efferocytosis in airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Jennifer M; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Dransfield, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the key role of the lung in efficient transfer of oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide, a controlled inflammatory response is essential for restoration of tissue homeostasis following airway exposure to bacterial pathogens or environmental toxins. Unregulated or prolonged inflammatory responses in the lungs can lead to tissue damage, disrupting normal tissue architecture, and consequently compromising efficient gaseous exchange. Failure to resolve inflammation underlies the development and/or progression of a number of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma. Eosinophils, granulocytic cells of the innate immune system, are primarily involved in defense against parasitic infections. However, the propagation of the allergic inflammatory response in chronic asthma is thought to involve excessive recruitment and impaired apoptosis of eosinophils together with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis). In terms of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of asthma, the widespread use of glucocorticoids is associated with a number of adverse health consequences after long-term use, while some patients suffer from steroid-resistant disease. A new approach for therapeutic intervention would be to promote the resolution of inflammation via modulation of eosinophil apoptosis and the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. This review focuses on the mechanisms underpinning eosinophil-mediated lung damage, currently available treatments and therapeutic targets that might in future be harnessed to facilitate inflammation resolution by the manipulation of cell survival and clearance pathways. PMID:25071763

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis: asthma of the esophagus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amindra S; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is rapidly emerging as a distinct disease entity in both pediatric and adult gastroenterology. The typical clinical presentation includes solid food dysphagia in young men who have an atopic predisposition. Food impaction necessitating endoscopic intervention is common. EE should be suspected, in particular, in patients with unexplained dysphagia or those with no response to antacid or anti-acid secretory therapy. Careful endoscopic and radiographic examinations reveal furrows, corrugations, rings, whitish plaques, fragile crêpe paper-like appearance, and a small-caliber esophagus. Mucosal erosion in the distal esophagus, characteristic to reflux esophagitis, is absent in EE. Marked eosinophil infiltration in the esophageal epithelia (>20 eosinophils per high-power field) is the diagnostic hallmark. Food antigens and aeroallergens may play a role in the pathogenesis of EE. The mechanisms may be dependent or independent of immunoglobulin E. Elimination diets, systemic and topical corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and, most recently, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody have been used to treat EE. EE likely represents another example of eosinophil-associated inflammation of epithelia at the interface between external and internal milieu, similar to bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. This review summarizes recent progress in the diagnosis and management of EE and discusses future research directions. PMID:15224275

  19. Bacterial DNA delays human eosinophil apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Hasala, Hannele; Sareila, Outi; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial DNA delays human eosinophil apoptosis correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +358 3 3551 6687; fax: +358 3 3551 8082. (Ilmarinen, Pinja) (Ilmarinen, Pinja) The Immunopharmacology Research Group--> , Medical School--> , University of Tampere and Research Unit--> , Tampere University Hospital--> , Tampere--> - FINLAND (Ilmarinen, Pinja) The Immunopharmacology ...

  20. Gastric hyperplastic polyps coexisting with early gastric cancers, adenoma and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, K; Lewandowska, M; Białek, A; Ławniczak, M; Urasińska, E

    2016-03-01

    Gastric hyperplastic polyps (GHP) constitute up to 93% of all benign epithelial polyps of the stomach. The average probability of malignant transformation in GHP is 0.6-22% in large series. The aim of the study was to present the coexistence of GHP with early gastric cancer (EGC), gastric adenoma (GA), neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NH) and well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET G1). Three cases were studied to reveal clinical data and morphological changes and to assess the relationship between GHP and accompanying gastric neoplastic lesions. PMID:27179272

  1. Mammalian hyperplastic discs homolog EDD regulates microRNA-mediated gene silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Hong; Meng, Shuxia; Lu, Yanyan; Trombly, Melanie I.; Chen, Jian; Lin, Chengyi; Turk, Anita; Wang, Xiaozhong

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression through translation repression and mRNA destabilization. However, the molecular mechanisms of miRNA silencing are still not well defined. Using a genetic screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, we identify mammalian hyperplastic discs protein EDD, a known E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a key component of the miRNA silencing pathway. ES cells deficient for EDD are defective in miRNA function and exhibit growth defects. We demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin li...

  2. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGioffredi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  3. Production of monoclonal antibodies reactive with ovine eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Els NT

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence implicating eosinophils in host defence against parasites as well as allergic disease pathologies. However, a lack of reagents such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific for eosinophils has made it difficult to confirm the functional role of eosinophils in such disease conditions. Using an established mammary model of allergic inflammation in sheep, large numbers of inflammatory cells enriched for eosinophils were collected from parasite-stimulated mammary glands and used for the generation of mAbs against ovine eosinophils. Results A panel of mAbs was raised against ovine eosinophils of which two were shown to be highly specific for eosinophils. The reactivity of mAbs 3.252 and 1.2 identified eosinophils from various cell and tissue preparations with no detectable reactivity on cells of myeloid or lymphoid lineage, tissue mast cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells or other connective tissues. Two other mAbs generated in this study (mAbs 4.4 and 4.10 were found to have reactivity for both eosinophils and neutrophils. Conclusion This study describes the production of new reagents to identify eosinophils (as well as granulocytes in sheep that will be useful in studying the role of eosinophils in disease pathologies in parasite and allergy models.

  4. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C.; Klion, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides. PMID:25003763

  5. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P.; McMillan, Sarah J.; Colbert, Jeff D.; Lawrence, Rachel A.; Watts, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a “cytoprotectant” that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. Video Abstract PMID:27067058

  6. Cyclophilin D regulates necrosis, but not apoptosis, of murine eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Hogan, Simon P; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Zimmermann, Nives

    2016-04-15

    Eosinophil degranulation and clusters of free extracellular granules are frequently observed in diverse diseases, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Whether these intact granules are released by necrosis or a biochemically mediated cytolysis remains unknown. Recently, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase located within the mitochondrial matrix, cyclophilin D (PPIF), was shown to regulate necrotic, but not apoptotic, cell death in vitro in fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Whether cyclophilin D regulates necrosis in hematopoietic cells such as eosinophils remains unknown. We used PPIF-deficient (Ppif(-/-)) mice to test whether cyclophilin D is required for regulating eosinophil necrosis. PPIF deficiency did not affect eosinophil development or maturation at baseline. After in vitro ionomycin or H2O2 treatment, Ppif(-/-) eosinophils were significantly protected from Ca(2+) overload- or oxidative stress-induced necrosis. Additionally, Ppif(-/-) eosinophils demonstrated significantly decreased necrosis, but not apoptosis, in response to Siglec-F cross-linking, a stimulus associated with eosinophil-mediated processes in vitro and in vivo. When treated with apoptosis inducers, Ppif(+/+) and Ppif(-/-) eosinophils exhibited no significant difference in apoptosis or secondary necrosis. Finally, in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model, although levels of colitogenic cytokines and eosinophil-selective chemokines were comparable between Ppif(+/+) and Ppif(-/-) mice, the latter exhibited decreased clinical outcomes. This correlated with significantly reduced eosinophil cytolysis in the colon. Collectively, our present studies demonstrate that murine eosinophil necrosis is regulated in vitro and in vivo by cyclophilin D, at least in part, thus providing new insight into the mechanism of eosinophil necrosis and release of free extracellular granules in eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:26893161

  7. IL-5 Up-regulates the Expression of TGF-β1 in Human Blood Eosinophils in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yabing; LIU Bin; WANG Lu; LI Rong; ZHU Min; CHEN Dong; CHEN Shi

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of IL-5 on the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, eosinophils were incubated in the presence of the same concentrations of IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ, different concentrations of IL-5 in vitro and changes of eosinophil viability were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Non-cytokine was employed as a negative control. 16 h after the cultivation, supernatants and cells were assayed by using TGF-β1 specific ELISA and RT-PCR. The mRNA expression and protein expresssion of TGF-β1 in eosinophils stimulated with different cytokines was observed.The expression of TGF-β1 protein in eosinophils was increased significantly by IL-4 (433.67±9.86vs 228.9±2.87) and IL-5 (403. 72±7.60 vs 228.9±2.87, P<0.05), while decreased by IFNγ (178.47±2.60 vs 228.9±2.87). At the same time, the results demonstrated that the basal level of TGF expression was enhanced by IL5 in all samples (P<0.05). The expression of TGF β1 mRNA was 1.42, 1. 70, 1. 76-folds higher than that of the non-stimulated controls. It is concluded that IL-5 can up-regulate the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, which might have effect in eosinophil-associated chronic rejection.

  8. Severe hemophilia in a girl infant with mosaic Turner syndrome and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mahdi; Bazrafshan, Asghar; Moghadam, Mohamad; Karimi, Mehran

    2016-04-01

    A 6-month-old girl was referred by an ophthalmologist because of postoperative bleeding. She was scheduled for operation because of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Workups were done and prolonged partial thromboplastin time with normal platelet count, normal bleeding time, and prothrombin time were detected. There was negative family history of bleeding tendency in both maternal and paternal family, so at the first step, Factor XI assay was requested which was normal. Then, von Willebrand factor and factor VIII were assayed which was 127% and less than 1%, respectively. Severe factor VIII deficiency was not suspected in a girl unless in siblings of a hemophilic patient who gets married with her carrier cousin. Chromosomal study and genetic testing were requested and mosaic Turner syndrome (45 XO) with ring X (p22, 2q13) along with inversion 22 (hemizygote) was detected. Abdominal and pelvic sonography showed absence of both ovaries with presence of infantile uterus. Maternal genetic study was in favor of carrier of hemophilia (heterozygote inversion 22). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of association of Turner syndrome with severe hemophilia A and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. PMID:26484646

  9. The assessment of angiogenesis and fibroblastic stromagenesis in hyperplastic and pre-invasive breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louvrou Niki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the changes of the neoplastic microenvironment during the different morphological alterations of hyperplastic and pre-invasive breast lesions. Methods 78 in situ ductal carcinomas of all degrees of differentiation, 22 atypical ductal hyperplasias, 25 in situ lobular carcinomas, 18 atypical lobular hyperplasias, 32 ductal epithelial hyperplasias of usual type and 8 flat atypias were immunohistochemically investigated for the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, smooth muscle actin (SMA and CD34, while microvessel density (MVD was counted using the anti-CD31 antibody. Results VEGF expression was strongly correlated with MVD in all hyperplastic and pre-invasive breast lesions (p Conclusion Angiogenesis is observed before any significant fibroblastic stromagenesis in pre-invasive breast lesions. A composite phenotype characterized by VEGF positive epithelial cells and SMA positive/CD34 negative stromal cells, is identified mostly in intermediate and high grade DCIS. These findings might imply for new therapeutic strategies using both anti-angiogenic factors and factors selectively targeting tumor stroma in order to prevent the progression of DCIS to invasive carcinoma.

  10. IMMUNITY AND INFECTION IN WOMEN WITH HYPERPLASTIC STATES OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and ninety-nine patients with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system were examined, and 131 (66.16% of them were found to be infected with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma. The mean age of female patients was 42,7±1,35 years. Different infectious agents (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Mycoplasma hominis were identified in cervical canal of uterine cervix and surgical specimens (biopsy samples of excised myoma, adenomyosis or endometrial hyperplasia. The infected patients were found to have decreased monocytes and neutrophils in blood counts, lower phagocytic activity of monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased bactericidal activity of leukocytes. Other findings included lower CD20+, CD8+ and rFAS CD 95 lymphocytes. Assessment of cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes showed a decrease in both spontaneous and stimulated response (р < 0,001. A weakest spontaneous and stimulated response was found in CD3+/IL-4+ lymphocytes. Analysis of results obtained shows systemic immune disorders and impaired cytokine-synthesizing activity of CD3+ lymphocytes correlating with infection factors in the women with hyperplastic processes of reproductive system. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 223-228.

  11. Loss of Hes1 Differentiates Sessile Serrated Adenoma/polyp from Hyperplastic Polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min; Awadallah, Amad; Liu, Wendy; Zhou, Lan; Xin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/p) is a precancerous lesion, and its differential diagnosis from hyperplastic polyp (HP) could be challenging in certain circumstances based on morphology alone. Hes1 is a downstream target of Notch signaling pathway and plays an important role in intestinal development by regulating differentiation of enterocytes. In this study, we evaluated the expression patterns of Hes1 in SSA/p and hyperplastic polyp (HP), and determine whether Hes1 immunostaining can help differentiate between these two entities. Serrated polyps with cytological dysplasia (sessile serrated adenoma with cytological dysplasia, tubular adenoma, and traditional serrated adenoma) were also studied. Hes1 is ubiquitously expressed in the nuclei of normal colon epithelial cells. The complete loss or a very weak expression of Hes1 is observed in the majority of the SSA/p in the study (58/63, 92%) compared to the normal expression of Hes1 in HP (35/35,100%). In SSA/p with cytological dysplasia, dysplastic area demonstrated cytoplasmic and/or nuclear staining for Hes1. Tubular adenoma and traditional serrated adenoma showed variability of Hes1 staining within the polyp with a mixed positive and negative staining pattern. Our study suggests that loss of Hes1 could be used as a sensitive and specific marker to differentiate SSA/p from HP, which helps the diagnosis in morphologically challenging cases. PMID:26448192

  12. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis by hydrogen peroxide promotes the resolution of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A C; Alessandri, A L; Athayde, R M; Perez, D A; Vago, J P; Ávila, T V; Ferreira, T P T; de Arantes, A C S; Coutinho, D de Sá; Rachid, M A; Sousa, L P; Martins, M A; Menezes, G B; Rossi, A G; Teixeira, M M; Pinho, V

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are effector cells that have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. Defective removal of these cells likely leads to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the elimination of eosinophils from inflammatory sites. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for certain mediators and molecular pathways responsible for the survival and death of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. Reactive oxygen species have been described as proinflammatory mediators but their role in the resolution phase of inflammation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive oxygen species in the resolution of allergic inflammatory responses. An eosinophilic cell line (Eol-1) was treated with hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis was measured. Allergic inflammation was induced in ovalbumin sensitized and challenged mouse models and reactive oxygen species were administered at the peak of inflammatory cell infiltrate. Inflammatory cell numbers, cytokine and chemokine levels, mucus production, inflammatory cell apoptosis and peribronchiolar matrix deposition was quantified in the lungs. Resistance and elastance were measured at baseline and after aerosolized methacholine. Hydrogen peroxide accelerates resolution of airway inflammation by induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils and decrease remodeling, mucus deposition, inflammatory cytokine production and airway hyperreactivity. Moreover, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by apocynin or in gp91(phox-/-) mice prolonged the inflammatory response. Hydrogen peroxide induces Eol-1 apoptosis in vitro and enhances the resolution of inflammation and improves lung function in vivo by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils. PMID:25675292

  13. RNA Seq profiling reveals a novel expression pattern of TGF-β target genes in human blood eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhong-Jian; Hu, Jie; Esnault, Stephane; Dozmorov, Igor; Malter, James S

    2015-09-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of TGF-β signaling in multiple cell types, little is known about the direct target genes of this pathway in human eosinophils. These cells constitute the major inflammatory component present in the sputum and lung of active asthmatics and their numbers correlate well with disease severity. During the transition from acute to chronic asthma, TGF-β levels rise several fold in the lung which drives fibroblasts to produce extracellular matrix (ECM) and participate in airway and parenchymal remodeling. In this report, we use purified blood eosinophils from healthy donors and analyze baseline and TGF-β responsive genes by RNA Seq, and demonstrate that eosinophils (PBE) express 7981 protein-coding genes of which 178 genes are up-regulated and 199 genes are down-regulated by TGF-β. While 18 target genes have been previously associated with asthma and eosinophilic disorders, the vast majority have been implicated in cell death and survival, differentiation, and cellular function. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that 126 canonical pathways are activated by TGF-β including iNOS, TREM1, p53, IL-8 and IL-10 signaling. As TGF-β is an important cytokine for eosinophil function and survival, and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, our results represent a significant step toward the identification of novel TGF-β responsive genes and provide a potential therapeutic opportunity by selectively targeting relevant genes and pathways. PMID:26112417

  14. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yasukawa

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  15. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Torkel; Rosenzweig, Mary; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Kanters, Jørgen Kim; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced eosinophilic myocarditis is a life-threatening and frequently overlooked condition. The prevalence of myocarditis in clozapine-treated patients may be as high as 3 %. An association between olanzapine and myocarditis has not previously been described, but given the chemical...... fatal cases of eosinophilic myocarditis associated with the use of olanzapine. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year-old Caucasian man with known substance abuse and schizophrenia. He was found dead in his home. Olanzapine was prescribed at day -54, and dose at time of death was 40 mg/day. Post......-mortem toxicological examination demonstrated presence of olanzapine, morphine, venlafaxine and oxazepam. Syringes indicating substance abuse were found in his home. Case 2 was a 36-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with schizophrenia was found dead unexpectedly. There was no history of substance abuse. Current...

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis-endoscopic distinguishing findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Célia Caetano; Raquel Gon(c)alves; Carla Rolanda

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is the most frequent condition found in a group of gastrointestinal disorders called eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.The hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism is related to a hypersensitivity reaction.Gastroesophageal reflux disease-like complaints not ameliorated by acid blockade or occasional symptoms of dysphagia or food impaction are likely presentations of EE.Due to its unclear pathogenesis and unspecific symptoms,it is difficult to diagnose EE without a strong suspicion.Although histological criteria are necessary to diagnosis EE,there are some characteristic endoscopic features.We present the case of a healthy 55-year-old woman with dysphagia and several episodes of esophageal food impaction over the last six months.This case report stresses the most distinguishing endoscopic findings-mucosa rings,white exudative plaques and linear furrows-that can help in the prompt recognition of this condition.

  17. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Patrick MA; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which have been previously associated with both atopic and autoimmune disease, and two EoE-specific loci, ANKRD27 that regulates the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes to epidermal melanocytes and CAPN14, that encodes a calpain whose expression is highly enriched in the esophagus. The identification of five EoE loci, not only expands our etiological understanding of the disease but may also represent new therapeutic targets to treat the most debilitating aspect of EoE, esophageal inflammation and remodeling. PMID:25407941

  18. Mepolizumab: A Review in Eosinophilic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-08-01

    Mepolizumab (Nucala(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, a cytokine involved in the development, recruitment and activation of eosinophils (cellular mediators of airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and tissue remodelling). The drug is indicated as an add-on treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma, on the basis of its clinical benefit in this setting in the placebo-controlled DREAM, MENSA and SIRIUS trials. Based on the 52-week, phase II, DREAM study (which assessed varying intravenous mepolizumab dosages), intravenous mepolizumab 75 mg every 4 weeks (q4w) and the corresponding (recommended) subcutaneous dosage of 100 mg q4w were studied in the 32- and 24-week phase III MENSA and SIRIUS trials. In patients aged ≥12 years with severe eosinophilic asthma in the phase III studies, adding subcutaneous mepolizumab 100 mg q4w to current asthma therapy significantly reduced the rate of clinically relevant asthma exacerbations and, in those dependent on oral glucocorticoids (OCSs) for asthma control, enabled the daily OCS dose to be significantly reduced, relative to adding placebo. This mepolizumab regimen also significantly improved asthma control, health-related quality of life and (in one of the two studies) lung function, and had acceptable tolerability (with headache the most common adverse event). In the MENSA and SIRIUS extension, COSMOS, mepolizumab provided durable clinical benefit over up to 84 weeks' therapy with no new tolerability concerns. Thus, mepolizumab is a valuable add-on treatment option for adults and adolescents aged ≥12 years who have severe eosinophilic asthma despite optimized standard therapies. PMID:27311938

  19. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jen Chen; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih; Tsang-En Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinic features of eosinophilicgastroenteritis and to examine the diagnosis, treatment,long-term outcome of this disease.METHODS: Charts with a diagnosis of eosinophilicgastroenteritis from 1984 to 2002 at Mackay Memorial Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The diagnosis was established in 13 by histologic evaluation of endoscopic biopsy or operative specimen and in 2 by radiologic imaging and the presence of eosinophilic ascites.RESULTS: All the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 (80 %) had hypereosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count 1 008 to 31 360/cm3). The most common symptoms were abdominal pain and diarrhea. Five of the 15 patients had a history of allergy. Seven patients had involvement of the mucosa, 2 of muscularis, and 6 of subserosa. One with a history of seafood allergy was successfully treated with an elimination diet. Another patient improved spontaneously after fasted for several days. The remaining 13 patients were treated with oral prednisolone, 10 to 40 mg/day initially,which was then tapered. The symptoms in all the patients subsided within two weeks. Eleven of the 15 patients were followed up for more than 12 months (12 to 104 months,mean 48.7), of whom 5 had relapses after discontinuing steroids (13 episodes). Two of these patients required longterm maintenance oral prednisolone (5 to 10 mg/day).CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition of unclear etiology characterized by relapses and remissions. Short courses of corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, although some patients with relapsing disease require long-term low-dose steroids.

  20. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  1. MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma. We reviewed the MR imaging studies of nine patients [M:F=3:6, aged 6-35 (mean, 20.5) years] with pathologically proven eosinophilic granuloma in the calvaria. The findings were evaluated for involvement of the diploic space, changes in adjacent bone marrow, distinction of the transitional zone, pattern of bone destruction, signal intensity and contrast enhancement of the tumor, and contrast enhancement of the adjacent dura. All lesions involved the diploic space, showed no change in adjacent bone marrow, and had a distinct transitional zone. In most (8/9) cases there was asymmetric bony destruction. On T1-weighted images, signal intensities of the tumors varied, while on T2-weighted images, hyperintensity was observed in seven cases, isointensity in one, and hypointensity in one. After the administration of contrast material, enhancement was homogeneous in four cases and inhomogeneous in five. Enhancement of the adjacent dura was demonstrated in all nine cases. The characteristic MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma are variable signal intensity on T1WI, high signal intensity on T2WI, and marked contrast enhancement; in addition, there is a distinct transitional zone, asymmetrical bony destruction, and associated dural enhancement

  2. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  3. An Extremely Uncommon Case of Parasitic Infection Presenting as Eosinophilic Ascites in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Oncu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 24-year-old male patient admitted for recent ascites and splenomegaly of unknown origin. The patient was referred to our institution with complaints of diarrhea, epigastric pain, abdominal cramping and weight loss over the past three weeks. The acute onset presented with colicky abdominal pain and peritoneal effusion. History revealed reduced appetite and weight gain of 7 kg over the last one month. His past medical history and family history was negative. He had no history of alcohol abuse or viral hepatitis infection. Laboratory data revealed normal transaminases and bilirubin levels, and alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyltransferase were within normal range. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which showed free peritoneal fluid and normal abdominal viscera. Upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed a few days later revealed diffuse severe erythematous pangastritis and gastroduodenal gastric reflux. Duodenal biopsies showed chronic nonspecific duodenitis. Antrum and corpus biopsies showed chronic gastritis. The ascitic fluid was straw-colored and sterile with 80% eosinophils. Stool exam was negative for parasitic infection. Treatment with albendazole 400 mg twice daily for 5 days led to the disappearance of ascites and other signs and symptoms. Three months after albendazole treatment the eosinophilic cell count was normal. The final diagnosis was consistent with parasitic infection while the clinical, sonographic and histological findings suggested an eosinophilic ascites. We emphasize the importance of excluding parasitic infection in all patients with eosinophilic ascites. We chose an alternative way (albendazole treatment to resolve this clinical picture. With our alternative way for excluding this parasitic infection, we treated the patient and then found the cause.

  4. Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Andreev, Darja; Oeser, Katharina; Krljanac, Branislav; Hueber, Axel; Kleyer, Arnd; Voehringer, David; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Th2-eosinophil immune responses are well known for mediating host defence against helminths. Herein we describe a function of Th2-eosinophil responses in counteracting the development of arthritis. In two independent models of arthritis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to Th2 and eosinophil accumulation in the joints associated with robust inhibition of arthritis and protection from bone loss. Mechanistically, this protective effect is dependent on IL-4/IL-13-induced STAT6 pathway. Furthermore, we show that eosinophils play a central role in the modulation of arthritis probably through the increase of anti-inflammatory macrophages into arthritic joints. The presence of these pathways in human disease is confirmed by detection of GATA3-positive cells and eosinophils in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that eosinophils and helminth-induced activation of the Th2 pathway axis effectively mitigate the course of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27273006

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmenta...

  6. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradding Peter

    2008-01-01

    Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and loca...

  7. Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke and Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Zekai; ALİOĞLU, Bülent; ÖZBEK, Emel ÖZYÜREK Namık

    2008-01-01

    We present the case reports of two children with a parasitic infestation associated with hypereosinophilia. One of those patients, who had been exposed to excessive second-hand tobacco smoke, was diagnosed as having acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The second patient had neither a history of exposure to second-hand smoke nor a prior diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. We suggest that passive smoking may trigger acute eosinophilic pneumonia, a condition that develops frequently in children...

  8. Eosinophils Promote Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was a...

  9. A quantitative study of eosinophil polymorphs in Hodgkin's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuggle, W J; Crocker, J; Smith, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Eosinophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes (polymorphs) were counted in 45 specimens from patients with Hodgkin's disease and five specimens from patients with reactive follicular hyperplasia. The use of chlorazol fast pink BK, a little known stain for eosinophil polymorphs, combined with image analysis facilitated rapid and reliable counting. Significant differences were found between the mean percentages of eosinophil polymorphs in the Rye subtypes of Hodgkin's disease. The numbers of eosinoph...

  10. Time course of eosinophilic myocarditis visualized by CMR

    OpenAIRE

    Feuerbach Stefan; Heinicke Norbert; Poschenrieder Florian; Buchner Stefan; Djavidani Behrus; Debl Kurt; Riegger Günter; Luchner Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We report the diagnostic potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to visualize the time course of eosinophilic myocarditis upon successful treatment. A 50-year-old man was admitted with a progressive heart failure. Endomyocardial biopsies were taken from the left ventricle because of a white blood cell count of 17000/mm3 with 41% eosinophils. Histological evaluation revealed endomyocardial eosinophilic infiltration and areas of myocyte necrosis. The patient was diagnosed ...

  11. Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Walford HH; Doherty TA

    2014-01-01

    Hannah H Walford,1,2 Taylor A Doherty11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of California, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic infl...

  12. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation. PMID:25346443

  13. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapa, Rafal Z., E-mail: rz.slapa@gmail.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Kasperlik–Zaluska, Anna A. [Endocrinology Department, Center for Postgraduate Medical Education, Bielanski Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Migda, Bartosz [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland); Otto, Maciej [Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, First Faculty of Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowski, Wiesław S. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Second Faculty of Medicine with English and Physiotherapy Divisions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients.

  14. Application of parametric ultrasound contrast agent perfusion studies for differentiation of hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas—Initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adrenal masses may differ on parametric perfusion ultrasound. • Hyperplastic nodules present distinctive patterns on CEUS in regard to adenomas. • Adrenal lesions perfusion should be further investigated with different modalities. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the possibilities of differentiation of non-malignant adrenal masses with the application of the new technique for the evaluation of enhancement after administration of an ultrasound contrast agent: parametric imaging. Patients and Methods: 34 non-malignant adrenal masses in 29 patients were evaluated in a dynamic examination after the administration of ultrasound contrast agent with parametric imaging. Patterns on parametric imaging of arrival time were evaluated. The final diagnosis was based on CT, MRI, biochemical studies, follow up and/or histopathology examination. Results: The study included: 12 adenomas, 10 hyperplastic nodules, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, hemangioma with hemorrhage and cyst. The pattern of peripheral laminar inflow of Sonovue on parametric images of arrival time of was 100% sensitive for hyperplastic nodules and 83% specific in regard to adenomas. Conclusions: Parametric contrast enhanced ultrasound may accurately differentiate hyperplastic adrenal nodules from adenomas and could be complementary to CT or MRI. Incorporation of perfusion studies to CT or MRI could possibly enable one-shop complete characterization of adrenal masses. This could deliver additional information in diagnostics of patients with Conn Syndrome and warrants further studies in this cohort of patients

  15. Resected case of eosinophilic cholangiopathy presenting with secondary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Miura; Takehide Asano; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenichiro Kato; Tadahiro Takada; Junichi Fukushima; Fukuo Kondo; Hajime Takikawa

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice.Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pyloruspreserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy.On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia.

  16. A unique Critical State two-surface hyperplasticity model for fine-grained particulate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, W. M.; Crouch, R. S.; Augarde, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    Even mild compression can cause re-arrangement of the internal structure of clay-like geomaterials, whereby clusters of particles rotate and collapse as face-to-face contacts between the constituent mineral platelets increase at the expense of edge-to-face (or edge-to-edge) contacts. The collective action of local particle re-orientation ultimately leads to path-independent isochoric macroscopic deformation under continuous shearing. This asymptotic condition is the governing feature of Critical State elasto-plasticity models. Unlike earlier formulations, the two-surface anisotropic model proposed herein is able to reproduce a unique isotropic Critical State stress envelope which agrees well with test data. Material point predictions are compared against triaxial experimental results and five other existing constitutive models. The hyperplastic formulation is seen to offer a significantly improved descriptor of the anisotropic behaviour of fine-grained particulate materials.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and survival of cells. When the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene mutation or point mutations in the PDGFRA gene occur in blood ... their families. Mutations that lead to a PDGFRA fusion gene and PDGFRA point mutations are somatic mutations, which means they occur ...

  18. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. PMID:26976217

  19. Occupational asthma due to low molecular weight agents: eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic variants

    OpenAIRE

    ANEES, W; HUGGINS, V; Pavord, I.; Robertson, A; Burge, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Despite having a work related deterioration in peak expiratory flow (PEF), many workers with occupational asthma show a low degree of within day diurnal variability atypical of non-occupational asthma. It was hypothesised that these workers would have a neutrophilic rather than an eosinophilic airway inflammatory response.

  20. Thalidomide attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshiaki; Kume, Hiroaki; Taki, Fumitaka; Ito, Satoru; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness of the airways. We hypothesized that thalidomide, which has numerous immunomodulatory properties, may have anti-inflammatory effects in allergic asthma. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) were treated orally with thalidomide (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg) or a vehicle. When thalidomide was administered to OVA-challenged mice, the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly decreased. The numbers of inflammatory cells other than eosinophils were not reduced by thalidomide. Thalidomide inhibited the elevated levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in BALF by OVA challenges. Histological analysis of the lung revealed that both the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the hyperplasia of goblet cells were significantly suppressed by thalidomide treatment. Furthermore, thalidomide significantly inhibited the response to methacholine induced by OVA challenges. Taken together, thalidomide treatment decreased airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic asthma. These results might provide an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics to treat severe asthma. PMID:20522972

  1. Eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis in a young dog with prolonged remission after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katajavuori, P; Melamies, M; Rajamäki, M M

    2013-01-01

    A two-year-old Jack Russell terrier was presented for evaluation of chronic cough and exercise intolerance. Previous treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids had only partially ameliorated the clinical signs. During investigation, hypoxaemia, peripheral eosinophilia and an eosinophilic bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were noted. Thoracic radiographs revealed two ovoid clearly delineated soft-tissue opacities, one in the caudal segment of the left cranial lung lobe (diameter 26 mm) and the other in the right cranial lung lobe (diameter 20 mm). These findings were verified by computed tomography, which identified an additional smaller lesion (diameter 16 mm) dorsally in the right caudal lobe. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration samples confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis and treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine was initiated. Within 1 month, granulomas were no longer detectable radiographically. All medication was discontinued after 7 months and currently, after 2·5 years, the dog remains free of clinical signs. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report to describe prolonged remission from idiopathic canine eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis. PMID:23145526

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, D; Cianferoni, A; Spergel, J M; Aceves, S; Holbreich, M; Venter, C; Rothenberg, M E; Terreehorst, I; Muraro, A; Lucendo, A J; Schoepfer, A; Straumann, A; Simon, H-U

    2016-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. EoE is frequently associated with concomitant atopic diseases and immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization to food allergens in children as well as to aeroallergens and cross-reactive plant allergen components in adults. Patients with EoE respond well to elemental and empirical food elimination diets. Recent research has, however, indicated that the pathogenesis of EoE is distinct from IgE-mediated food allergy. In this review, we discuss the individual roles of epithelial barrier defects, dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses, and of microbiota in the pathogenesis of EoE. Although food has been recognized as a trigger factor of EoE, the mechanism by which it initiates or facilitates eosinophilic inflammation appears to be largely independent of IgE and needs to be further investigated. Understanding the pathogenic role of food in EoE is a prerequisite for the development of specific diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutic procedures. PMID:26799684

  3. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  4. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Kellermayer; Nina Tatevian; William Klish; Robert J Shulman

    2008-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  5. Mast cells and eosinophils in invasive breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory cells in the tumour stroma has gained increasing interest recently. Thus, we aimed to study the frequency and prognostic impact of stromal mast cells and tumour infiltrating eosinophils in invasive breast carcinomas. Tissue microarrays containing 234 cases of invasive breast cancer were prepared and analysed for the presence of stromal mast cells and eosinophils. Tumour infiltrating eosinophils were counted on hematoxylin-eosin slides. Immunostaining for tryptase was done and the total number of mast cells were counted and correlated to the proliferation marker Ki 67, positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors, clinical parameters and clinical outcome. Stromal mast cells were found to correlate to low grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. There was a total lack of eosinophils in breast cancer tumours. A high number of mast cells in the tumours correlated to low-grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. Eosinophils are not tumour infiltrating in breast cancers

  6. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration. PMID:26078733

  7. Mepolizumab for the reduction of exacerbations in severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Brightling, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Asthma affects over 300 million people worldwide and is severe in 10% of sufferers. Severe asthma is associated with greater morbidity and mortality particularly as a consequence of frequent exacerbations. Advances in approaches to phenotype the heterogeneity of severe asthma has established the importance of eosinophilic inflammation and emerging new therapies are broadly designed to target T2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation with the aim to reduce exacerbation frequency. Here, we summarize the evidence that eosinophilic asthma is an important pheno(endo)type and identifies a group at risk of exacerbations; that established therapies reduce exacerbations, particularly in eosinophilic severe asthma; and discuss the role of mepolizumab, an IL-5 neutralising monoclonal antibody therapy, in reducing exacerbations in severe eosinophilic asthma compared to established and other emerging therapies. PMID:27058452

  8. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  9. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  10. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histiocytosis X is a disease of unknown origin which usually affects multiple organs, including the lung. The age of onset, the clinical course and the pattern of spread allow a distinction to be made between 3 varieties: Letterer-Siwe, Hand-Schuller-Christian and eosinophilic granuloma. The latter form, in adult patients, may predominantly or solely affect the lungs. The authors reviewed clinical, radiographic and CT findings of 7 adult patients with pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma, picked out of a series of 265 cases of interstitial lung pathology, diagnosed since 1973. Typical pulmonary involvement is bilateral, symmetrical and predominates in upper areas. Honeycomb pattern was found in 1 patient at the onset of symptoms, and in 2 cases during the follow-up, without severe reduction in pulmonary volumes. Pneumothorax was obseved in 3 cases and bone lesions in 2. CT added new and important informations such as presence, size and wall thickness of ''cystic'' lesions. New laboratory tests and bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated minor diagnostic usefulness than radiological findings. The authors conclude by discussing such problems as prognostic factors and differential diagnosis

  11. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  12. Prognostic value of immunohistochemical surfactant protein A expression in regenerative/hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiki Akira; Fukushima Kazuo; Kawabata Masaharu; Wakamatsu Kentaro; Kitasato Yasuhiko; Nagata Nobuhiko; Kitahara Yoshinari; Watanabe Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is difficult to predict survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recently, several proteins, such as surfactant protein (SP) and KL-6, have been reported to be useful biologic markers for prediction of prognosis for interstitial pneumonias. It is not clear whether there is any relationship between expression of these proteins in regenerative/hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells and prognosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Objectives This...

  13. Prognostic value of immunohistochemical surfactant protein A expression in regenerative/hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Nobuhiko; Kitasato, Yasuhiko; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kawabata, Masaharu; Fukushima, Kazuo; Kajiki, Akira; Kitahara, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Background It is difficult to predict survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recently, several proteins, such as surfactant protein (SP) and KL-6, have been reported to be useful biologic markers for prediction of prognosis for interstitial pneumonias. It is not clear whether there is any relationship between expression of these proteins in regenerative/hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells and prognosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Objectives This study ai...

  14. Investigating the Potential Role of Genetic and Epigenetic Variation of DNA Methyltransferase Genes in Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Drini, Musa; Nicholas C. Wong; Hamish S Scott; Craig, Jeffrey M; Dobrovic, Alexander; Chelsee A Hewitt; Dow, Christofer; Young, Joanne P; Jenkins, Mark A; Saffery, Richard; Macrae, Finlay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome (HPS) is a condition associated with multiple serrated polyps, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). At least half of CRCs arising in HPS show a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), potentially linked to aberrant DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. CIMP is associated with methylation of tumor suppressor genes including regulators of DNA mismatch repair (such as MLH1, MGMT), and negative regulators of Wnt signaling (such as WIF1). In...

  15. Kekambuhan gingivitis hiperplasi setelah gingivektomi (Recurrent of hyperplastic gingivitis after gingivectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Ruhadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory enlargement is clinically called hyperthropic gingivitis or gingival hyperplasia and generally related to local or systemic factors. They could be edematous or fibrous. The former is treated by scaling, but the latter that could not be treated by scaling only has to be removed by gingivectomy. There are some cases of gingivectomy resulting in recurrences. The writer wanted to find out the cause of the recurrences. The types of research were clinical and laboratories observational studies. The criteria of sample were: male or female patient who came to periodontal clinic of Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. They were diagnosed gingivitis hyperplasia; had no systemic diseases; did not wear the orthodontic appliances, prosthesis, and crown and bridge; do not smoke. The indicated teeth to be observed were the labial side of maxillary front teeth. The teeth had score hyperplastic index (HI = 2 at the 2nd weeks after scaling. There were 7 samples taken selectively. The results of the studies were based on the comparison of 1 hyperplasia index (HI; 2 the number and percentage of monosite and leucocytes from white blood impedance coutl (WIC and white blood optical coutl (WOC; 3 plaque Index; and 4 gingival index. The result of gingivectomy was reevaluated on the 30th, 45th, 60th, 90th day. The research concluded that the number of monosite was normal, but the dental plaque still accumulated and eventually caused the recurrences of the inflammation.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA content and mass increase in progression from normal to hyperplastic to cancer endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormio Antonella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content and mitochondrial biogenesis associated with the activation of PGC-1α signalling pathway was previously reported in type I endometrial cancer. The aim of this study has been to evaluate if mtDNA content and the citrate synthase (CS activity, an enzyme marker of mitochondrial mass, increase in progression from control endometrium to hyperplasia to type I endometrial carcinoma. Results Given that no statistically significant change in mtDNA content and CS activity in endometrium taken from different phases of the menstrual cycle or in menopause was found, these samples were used as control. Our research shows, for the first time, that mtDNA content and citrate synthase activity increase in hyperplastic endometrium compared to control tissues, even if their levels remain lower compared to cancer tissue. In particular, mtDNA content increases seem to precede increases in CS activity. No statistically significant change in mtDNA content and in CS activity was found in relation to different histopathological conditions such as grade, myometrial invasion and stage. Conclusion MtDNA content and citrate synthase activity increases in pre-malignant lesions could be a potential molecular marker for progression from hyperplasia to carcinoma.

  17. EPHB2 germline variants in patients with colorectal cancer or hyperplastic polyposis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephrin receptor B2 (EPHB2) has recently been proposed as a novel tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). Inactivation of the gene has been shown to correlate with progression of colorectal tumorigenesis, and somatic mutations have been reported in both colorectal and prostate tumors. Here we have analyzed the EPHB2 gene for germline alterations in 101 individuals either with 1) CRC and a personal or family history of prostate cancer (PC), or 2) intestinal hyperplastic polyposis (HPP), a condition associated with malignant degeneration such as serrated adenoma and CRC. Four previously unknown missense alterations were observed, which may be associated with the disease phenotype. Two of the changes, I361V and R568W, were identified in Finnish CRC patients, but not in over 300 Finnish familial CRC or PC patients or more than 200 population-matched healthy controls. The third change, D861N, was observed in a UK HPP patient, but not in additional 40 UK HPP patients or in 200 UK healthy controls. The fourth change R80H, originally identified in a Finnish CRC patient, was also found in 1/106 familial CRC patients and in 9/281 healthy controls and is likely to be a neutral polymorphism. We detected novel germline EPHB2 alterations in patients with colorectal tumors. The results suggest a limited role for these EPHB2 variants in colon tumor predisposition. Further studies including functional analyses are needed to confirm this

  18. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: imaging evaluation; Persistencia hiperplastica do vitreo primitivo: avaliacao por metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: biamjacob@hotmail.com

    2003-06-01

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that primarily affects premature infants. PHPV results from failure of regression of the embryogenic primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature, and proliferation of connective tissue. Three types of PHPV may be found: anterior, posterior and a combination of anterior and posterior. The clinical findings include leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) and microphthalmic eye. This anomaly is usually unilateral and unassociated with other systemic findings. The differential diagnosis between PHPV and other ocular diseases may be difficult due to similar features such as leukocoria, detached retina, retinal folds and cataract. Other diseases with similar features include retinoblastoma, isolated congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity and pseudo gliomas or leukocorias. Direct visualization of the remnants of the fetal hyaloid vascular system offers the best evidence of PHPV. However, diagnosis using the ophthalmoscope is sometimes impossible because of opaque tissues. In this circumstance an indirect visualization by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be useful. These imaging methods provide valuable information for the differentiation from other diseases, particularly retinoblastoma. The authors present a review of the literature and an iconographic study of the imaging findings in patients with PHPV. (author)

  19. Eosinophilic pneumonias. A clinical case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with sertraline and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP is one of the heterogeneous group of disorders termed eosinophilic lung diseases showing an abnormal accumulation of eosinophils in distal airways, air spaces, and the interstitial compartment of the lung. AEP is characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure, a typical radiographic pattern similar to that of acute pulmonary edema, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy with no relapse when tapering or withdrawing treatment in the absence of infection. It can be idiopathic o secondary to known causes such as drugs, or fungal and parasitic infections. Clinical case: We report a case of a 76-year-old woman who developed symptoms, respiratory signs, and radiological and histological findings compatible with secondary AEP, we assessed as being associated with sertraline assumption (second case in literature. Discussion: The AEP we detected could be related to a secondary hypersensitivity syndrome to drug exposure (DRESS syndrome: Drug Rush with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms characterized by 1 skin rush, 2 increased eosinophilia, and 3 systemic involvement. The presence of all three criteria confirmed our diagnosis.

  20. A novel antagonist of CRTH2 blocks eosinophil release from bone marrow, chemotaxis and respiratory burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royer, J F; Schratl, P; Lorenz, S;

    2007-01-01

    (2)-induced release of eosinophils from guinea pig bone marrow, and inhibited the chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils. Pretreatment with PGD(2) primed eosinophils for chemotaxis towards eotaxin, and this effect was prevented by Cay10471. In contrast...

  1. Early phase resolution of mucosal eosinophilic inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjefält Jonas S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely assumed that apoptosis of eosinophils is a central component of resolution of allergic airway disease. However, this has not been demonstrated in human allergic airways in vivo. Based on animal in vivo observations we hypothesised that steroid-induced resolution of human airway eosinophilic inflammation involves inhibition of CCL5 (RANTES, a CC-chemokine regulating eosinophil and lymphocyte traffic, and elimination of eosinophils without evident occurrence of apoptotic eosinophils in the diseased tissue. Objective To determine mucosal eosinophilia, apoptotic eosinophils, general cell apoptosis and cell proliferation, and expression of CCL5 and CCL11 (eotaxin in human allergic airway tissues in vivo at resolution of established symptomatic eosinophilic inflammation. Methods Twenty-one patients with intermittent (birch and/or grass allergic rhinitis received daily nasal allergen challenges for two seven days' periods separated by more than two weeks washout. Five days into these "artificial pollen seasons", nasal treatment with budesonide was instituted and continued for six days in a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design. This report is a parallel group comparison of nasal biopsy histochemistry data obtained on the final day of the second treatment period. Results Treatments were instituted when clinical rhinitis symptoms had been established. Compared to placebo, budesonide reduced tissue eosinophilia, and subepithelial more than epithelial eosinophilia. Steroid treatment also attenuated tissue expression of CCL5, but CCL11 was not reduced. General tissue cell apoptosis and epithelial cell proliferation were reduced by budesonide. However, apoptotic eosinophils were not detected in any biopsies, irrespective of treatment. Conclusions Inhibition of CCL5-dependent recruitment of cells to diseased airway tissue, and reduced cell proliferation, reduced general cell apoptosis, but not

  2. Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

    2004-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

  3. Eosinophilic cystitis in a 3-year-old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare in children; it also affects adults. Clinical manifestations are variable. The diagnosis can be confirmed by cystoscopy and biopsy, both rather invasive procedures, especially in younger patients. We report a 3-year-old boy with eosinophilic cystitis. The most important radiological finding was marked thickening of the bladder wall, documented on ultrasound, cystography and CT. The CT findings of eosinophilic cystitis have, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. In addition to ultrasound and cystography, CT clearly demonstrates extension of the inflammatory process into the perivesical tissues. (orig.)

  4. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Moral-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  5. Eosinophilic cholecystitis as a rare manifestation of visceral larva migrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is an infrequent form of cholecystitis. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, and it is sometimes accompanied with several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rare. We would like to make an alternative interpretation of our recent report "Kaji K, Yoshiji H, Yoshikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ikenaka Y,Noguchi R, Sawai M, Ishikawa M, Mashitani T, Kitade M, Kawaratani H, Uemura M, Yamao J, Fujimoto M,Mitoro A,Toyohara M, Yoshida M, Fukui H. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report.World J Gastroenterol 2007;13: 3760-3762."

  6. Disseminated eosinophilic disease resembling idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, I; Perl, S; Markovics, A

    2001-09-29

    True idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been described in human beings and cats, but not in dogs. The syndrome is characterised by prolonged unexplained peripheral mature eosinophilia, the infiltration of many organs by eosinophils, organ dysfunction and a fatal outcome. This paper describes an idiopathic disseminated eosinophilic disease in a dog involving various organs, manly the heart and the lungs, accompanied by a leukemoid eosinophilic response, and a fatal outcome. The histopathological findings included the infiltration of the myocardium, lung parenchyma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skeletal muscles with eosiniphils. PMID:11601516

  7. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activati...

  8. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  9. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a challenge to diagnose and treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaw, Naw April; Tsai, Her Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The patient presented with bloody diarrhoea, and crampy abdominal pains. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) after the finding of persistently high peripheral eosinophil counts and histology of endoscopic biopsies. She responded to steroids but became dependent on it and her symptoms recurred on steroid tapering. There was little improvement with alternative treatment such as budesonides, azathioprine and montelukast. Surprisingly her symptoms improved significantly after she was treated with clarithromycin for chest infection and she was continued on clarithromycin. Her eosinophil counts fell dramatically and follow-up CT (thorax, abdomen and pelvic) scan showed the mucosal thickening had improved. She became completely free of the symptoms since she was on clarithromycin and her eosinophils counts fell within the normal range during the follow-up. PMID:27613263

  10. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  11. Time course of eosinophilic myocarditis visualized by CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feuerbach Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the diagnostic potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to visualize the time course of eosinophilic myocarditis upon successful treatment. A 50-year-old man was admitted with a progressive heart failure. Endomyocardial biopsies were taken from the left ventricle because of a white blood cell count of 17000/mm3 with 41% eosinophils. Histological evaluation revealed endomyocardial eosinophilic infiltration and areas of myocyte necrosis. The patient was diagnosed with hypereosinophilic myocarditis due to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. CMR-studies at presentation and a follow-up study 3 weeks later showed diffuse subendocardial LGE in the whole left ventricle. Upon treatment with steroids, CMR-studies revealed marked reduction of subendocardial LGE after 3 months in parallel with further clinical improvement. This case therefore highlights the clinical importance of CMR to visualize the extent of endomyocardial involvement in the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic myocarditis.

  12. Time course of eosinophilic myocarditis visualized by CMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Kurt; Djavidani, Behrus; Buchner, Stefan; Poschenrieder, Florian; Heinicke, Norbert; Feuerbach, Stefan; Riegger, Günter; Luchner, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We report the diagnostic potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to visualize the time course of eosinophilic myocarditis upon successful treatment. A 50-year-old man was admitted with a progressive heart failure. Endomyocardial biopsies were taken from the left ventricle because of a white blood cell count of 17000/mm3 with 41% eosinophils. Histological evaluation revealed endomyocardial eosinophilic infiltration and areas of myocyte necrosis. The patient was diagnosed with hypereosinophilic myocarditis due to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. CMR-studies at presentation and a follow-up study 3 weeks later showed diffuse subendocardial LGE in the whole left ventricle. Upon treatment with steroids, CMR-studies revealed marked reduction of subendocardial LGE after 3 months in parallel with further clinical improvement. This case therefore highlights the clinical importance of CMR to visualize the extent of endomyocardial involvement in the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic myocarditis. PMID:18466607

  13. Comparison of airway immunopathology of eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Brightling, C.; Symon, F; Birring, S; Bradding, P; Wardlaw, A; PAVORD, I

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Exhaled nitric oxide was measured and induced sputum, bronchoscopy, bronchial wash (BW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and bronchial biopsy were performed in 16 subjects with eosinophilic bronchitis, 15 with asthma, and 14 normal controls.

  14. Minocycline induced eosinophilic pneumonia: case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Klerkx, S; K. Pat; Wuyts, Wim

    2009-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman with eosinophilic pneumonia due to minocycline is described and a review of available literature is added. Until now, only 49 cases have been described, mainly in the Japanese population. Minocycline induced eosinophilic pneumonia is probably underreported and even underdiagnosed. This case highlights the importance of careful history taking, especially the use of drugs. Relatively safe drugs (like minocycline) can cause serious adverse events. On presentation, the disease...

  15. Eosinophil recruitment and activation: the role of lipid mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are effector cells that migrate toward several mediators released at inflammatory sites to perform their multiple functions. The mechanisms driving eosinophil selective accumulation in sites of allergic inflammation are well-established and involve several steps controlled by adhesion molecules, priming agents, chemotactic, and surviving factors. Even though the majority of studies focused on role of protein mediators like IL-5 and eotaxins, lipid mediators also participate in eos...

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis in a pediatric cohort in Cali, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an entity of difficult diagnosis and treatment. It is considered an allergic pathology by the underlying immune mechanism. The diagnosis is made with a count of 15 eosinophils per high-power field (HPF) in esophageal biopsies of symptomatic patients (1). The aim of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics and sensitization profile (inhalant and food allergens) in a cohort of patients diagnosed with EoE. Methods Prospect...

  17. Eosinophils and their Interactions with Respiratory Virus Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are implicated in the pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection, most typically in negative roles, such as promoting wheezing and bronchoconstriction in conjunction with virus-induced exacerbations of reactive airways disease and in association with aberrant hypersensitivity responses to antiviral vaccines. However, experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo suggest positive roles for eosinophils, as they have been shown to reduce virus infectivity in tissue culture and pro...

  18. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with L-tryptophan ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    A 62 year old woman taking L-tryptophan developed eosinophilic fasciitis shortly after starting an exercise class. She received prednisone without benefit but improved after azathioprine treatment was started and L-tryptophan was discontinued. As products containing L-tryptophan have recently been implicated in development of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome it is suggested that the use of L-tryptophan might have contributed to the development of eosinophilic fasciitis in this patient. Simil...

  19. FRA-1 protein overexpression is a feature of hyperplastic and neoplastic breast disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) is an immediate early gene encoding a member of AP-1 family of transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other biological processes. fra-1 gene overexpression has an important role in the process of cellular transformation, and our previous studies suggest FRA-1 protein detection as a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasias. Here we investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in benign and malignant breast tissues by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis, to evaluate its possible help in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast neoplastic diseases. We investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in 70 breast carcinomas and 30 benign breast diseases by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis. FRA-1 protein was present in all of the carcinoma samples with an intense staining in the nucleus. Positive staining was also found in most of fibroadenomas, but in this case the staining was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and the number of positive cells was lower than in carcinomas. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of breast hyperplasias, with no differences in FRA-1 expression level between typical and atypical breast lesions; however the FRA-1 protein localization is mainly nuclear in the atypical hyperplasias. In situ breast carcinomas showed a pattern of FRA-1 protein expression very similar to that observed in atypical hyperplasias. Conversely, no FRA-1 protein was detectable in 6 normal breast tissue samples used as controls. RT-PCR and qPCR analysis confirmed these results. Similar results were obtained analysing FRA-1 expression in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples. The data shown here suggest that FRA-1 expression, including its intracellular localization, may be considered a useful marker for hyperplastic and neoplastic proliferative breast disorders

  20. FRA-1 protein overexpression is a feature of hyperplastic and neoplastic breast disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Bonito Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1 is an immediate early gene encoding a member of AP-1 family of transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other biological processes. fra-1 gene overexpression has an important role in the process of cellular transformation, and our previous studies suggest FRA-1 protein detection as a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasias. Here we investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in benign and malignant breast tissues by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis, to evaluate its possible help in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast neoplastic diseases. Methods We investigate the expression of the FRA-1 protein in 70 breast carcinomas and 30 benign breast diseases by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR and qPCR analysis. Results FRA-1 protein was present in all of the carcinoma samples with an intense staining in the nucleus. Positive staining was also found in most of fibroadenomas, but in this case the staining was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and the number of positive cells was lower than in carcinomas. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of breast hyperplasias, with no differences in FRA-1 expression level between typical and atypical breast lesions; however the FRA-1 protein localization is mainly nuclear in the atypical hyperplasias. In situ breast carcinomas showed a pattern of FRA-1 protein expression very similar to that observed in atypical hyperplasias. Conversely, no FRA-1 protein was detectable in 6 normal breast tissue samples used as controls. RT-PCR and qPCR analysis confirmed these results. Similar results were obtained analysing FRA-1 expression in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB samples. Conclusion The data shown here suggest that FRA-1 expression, including its intracellular localization, may be considered a useful marker for hyperplastic and neoplastic proliferative

  1. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  2. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    morphological changes in juveniles and adults ticks parasitizing animals which consumed the biotherapic. This observation suggests a negative interference of the biotherapic in the biological cycle of the tick, decreasing its population and consequently his control’s necessity. Comparing the blood cells counts of the first and the twelfth month, a raise of 23% (P> 0.05 in the eosinophils and 8% (P< 0.05 in the platelets was observed in the T1 animals. No changes in liver enzymes were observed. The increase in eosinophils and platelets found in this experiment suggests that biotherapic ingested by the animals strengthens the defense system and the clotting cascade.Key words: bovinos

  3. Osseous eosinophilic granuloma in children; Le granulome eosinophile des os chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Marinard, L.; Galloy, M.A.; Phi, I.N.; Hoeffel, J.C. [Hopital de Brabois-Vandoeuvre, 54 - Nancy (France). Service de radiologie

    2001-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly uni-focal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. CT is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). MR is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors prognosis is more serious in case of multiple lesions. (authors)

  4. Clavicular eosinophilic granuloma causing adult shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Menendez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely reported, neoplasms of the clavicle occur, and their symptoms can be mistaken for more common shoulder conditions. We present the case of a benign clavicular neoplasm, rarely seen in adults, presenting with pain, and eventual pathologic fracture in a 49 year-old. A 49 year-old male firefighter underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for shoulder pain after magnetic resonance imaging revealed supraspinatus tendon tear. The patient’s pain persisted after surgery, and was described as routine until he developed severe pain after minor blunt trauma. A local Emergency Room performed the first x-rays, which revealed a pathologic fracture of the distal clavicle through a destructive lesion. The patient was referred to an orthopedic oncologist, who performed incisional biopsy, which initially diagnosed osteomyelitis. The patient was subsequently taken to surgery for debridement. Pathology then yielded the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. The patient was taken back to surgery for formal curettage with open reduction and internal fixation. The patient’s pain resolved, the pathologic fracture fully healed, and the patient returned to full time work as a firefighter. Though workup for common shoulder conditions often identifies incidental benign lesions of bone, the converse can be true. Persistent pain despite intervention should raise concern for further investigation. An x-ray alone can reveal a destructive bone lesion as the source of shoulder pain.

  5. Diagnosis and classification of eosinophilic fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal-Fernandez, I; Selva-O' Callaghan, A; Grau, J M

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare scleroderma-like syndrome with an unknown etiology and pathogenesis that should be considered an immune-allergic disorder. Painful swelling with progressive induration and thickening of the skin and soft tissues of the limbs and trunk are the clinical hallmarks of the disease. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate are the main laboratory findings. Full-thickness wedge biopsy of the clinically affected skin showing inflammation and thickening of deep fascia is essential to establish the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes systemic sclerosis and other scleroderma subsets such as morphea, and epidemic fasciitis syndromes caused by toxic agents such as the myalgia-eosinophilia syndrome and toxic oil syndrome. Peripheral T cell lymphomas should also be ruled out. The diagnosis of EF can be established by clinical, laboratory and histological findings, but universally accepted international diagnostic criteria are lacking. Corticosteroids are efficacious and remain the standard therapy for EF, although some patients may improve spontaneously. PMID:24424187

  6. Targeted anti-inflammatory therapeutics in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Andrew L.; Caramori, Gaetano; Chung, Kian F; Adcock, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway, although the drivers and site of the inflammation differ between diseases. Asthmatics with a neutrophilic airway inflammation are associated with a poor response to corticosteroids, whereas asthmatics with eosinophilic inflammation respond better to corticosteroids. Biologicals targeting the Th2-eosinophil nexus such as anti–interleukin (IL)-4, anti–IL-5, and anti–IL-13 are ineffective in ...

  7. Radiation therapy of hyperplastic heterotopic ossifications in osteogenesis imperfecta; Two case reports. Strahlentherapie hyperplastischer heterotoper Ossifikationen bei Osteogenesis imperfecta; Zwei Falldarstellungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micke, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie); Wagner, W. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie); Poetter, R. (Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie); Prott, F.J. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie); Karbowski, A. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1994-06-01

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare hereditary disease of connective tissue with a genetic defect in collagen synthesis. In osteogenesis imperfecta hyperplastic heterotopic ossification can be induced by hyperplastic callus formation caused by trauma or operation. Heterotopic ossifications can be found in numerous benign diseases. The successful use of low dose radiotherapy in the treatment of heterotopic ossifications in well-known from the literature. Patients and Methods: We treated two children (a 13-year old girl and a ten-year old boy) with heterotopic ossifications of the lower extremities in osteogenesis imperfecta type IV (Lobstein) with a low dose irradiation (10x1 Gy, respectively 6x1 Gy) under megavoltage conditions. Results: After radiotherapy the children were painfree and the hyperplastic callus was considerably reduced. The previously immobilized patients could partly be mobilized. Thereby it could be contributed to the rehabilitation of the patients. New hyperplastic callus formation was not observed in the irradiated areas so far. Conclusion: Analogous to the successful radiation of heterotopic ossifications in other benign diseases radiation therapy seems to be a successful treatment of hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. Despite the late risks of radiotherapy radiation treatment of benign diseases in children might be indicated. (orig.)

  8. Eosinophils and filarial parasites. Factors affecting eosinophils in animal models and the detection of filarial antigens by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of drugs, such as diethylcarbamazine (DEC), hydrocortisone and an immunologically stimulated state of the host on the sites of localization and behaviour of 113Insup(m)-eosinophils, were studied in guinea pigs. The sites of localization of 113Insup(m)-eosinophils were in the lungs, liver, spleen, bone and muscle. Administration of hydrocortisone did not change the normal distribution. After administration of DEC higher levels of 113Insup(m)-eosinophils were seen in the circulation, bone and muscle. When animals were actively immunized there was an avid concentration of cells in the liver and spleen. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the existence of an eosinophilopoetic factor in tropical eosinophilia (TE), using a rat model. Human gammaglobulin (HGG)-coated latex particles when injected intravenously induced a rise of eosinophils in the bone marrow on the fourth post-injection day, followed by a rise in peripheral eosinophils on the sixth day. When sera of stimulated rats were re-injected into normal rats there was again an eosinophilic response, suggesting the presence of a humoral transferable factor. Sera of two patients of TE also induced a rise of eosinophils in the bone marrow of rats injected with the sera, suggesting the presence of some circulating factor in TE which can stimulate eosinophilopoesis in rats. Serological diagnosis of filariasis by testing for antibodies does not necessarily detect active infection. However, determination of circulating antigens may prove to be more useful. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining W. bancrofti antigens, heteroantigens of Settaria cervii, which is cross-active with W. bancrofti, are used in the development of a radioimmunoassay for filarial antigens. (author)

  9. Biochemical characterization of reactive nitrogen species by eosinophil peroxidase in tyrosine nitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi,Yoshiaki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophils are involved in tyrosine nitration. In this study, we evaluated tyrosine nitration by rat eosinophils isolated from peritoneal fl uid and constituent eosinophils in the stomach. Rat peritoneal eosinophils activated with 1 μM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and 50 μM NO2 ン showed immunostaining for nitrotyrosine only in smaller cells, despite the fact that eosinophils are capable of producing superoxide (O2·ン. Free tyrosine nitrating capacity after incubation with PMA and NO2 ン was 4-fold higher in eosinophils than in neutrophils. Catalase and ク- and コ -tocopherol inhibited free tyrosine nitration by reactive nitrogen species from eosinophils but not that by peroxynitrite. Superoxide dismutase augmented free tyrosine nitration by activated eosinophils and peroxynitrite. The concentration of nitric oxide released from eosinophils was relatively low (0.32 μM/106 cells/h and did not contribute to the formation of nitrotyrosine. On the other hand, most constituent eosinophils constituent in the rat stomach stimulated by PMA and NO2 ン showed tyrosine nitration capacity. These results suggest that intact cells other than apoptotic-like eosinophils eluted in the intraperitoneal cavity could not generate reactive species responsible for nitration by a peroxidase-dependent mechanism. In contrast, normal eosinophils in the stomach were capable of nitration, suggesting that the characteristics of eosinophils in gastric mucosa are diff erent from those eluted in the peritoneal cavity.

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian M Yan; Eldon A Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment,and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/105 in children and 2.5/105 in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline"or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimai contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors,or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign,albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition,this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  12. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  13. Effects of carbon tetrachloride and azathioprine on diethylnitrosamine and N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced hyperplastic liver nodule and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakata,Tatsuro

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and azathioprine (AZP on the evolution of hyperplastic liver nodules and foci and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were tested in short- and long-term in vivo experiments. In diethylnitrosamine (DEN-treated rats, which were fed a N-2-fluorenylacetamide (FAA-containing diet and additionally treated with repeated CCl4 injections, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP-positive hyperplastic nodules were markedly developed in the 8th week of the experiment. However, their number and area in liver sections were remarkably small in DEN-treated rats fed a diet containing both FAA and AZP. Increased area of gamma-GTP-positive foci was also observed in the 12th week in DEN-injected rats fed a choline-devoid died alone or treated with repeated doses of CCl4 alone. Hepatocellular carcinoma in DEN-injected rats treated with both FAA and CCl4 was first detected in the 21st week, and the incidence up to the 36th week was very high. However, no hepatocellular carcinoma developed in DEN-injected rats treated with both FAA and AZP. The increased activity of liver aniline hydroxylase observed 12 h after the administration of FAA, AZP or DEN alone was not observed when AZP was administered simultaneously with FAA to DEN-injected rats. The mechanisms of the effects of CCl4 and AZP on hepatocarcinogenesis are discussed with special reference to drug interaction.

  14. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Mendes, Diego da [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Melo, Christianne Bandeira [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Martins, Marco Aurélio [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Dias, Celidarque da [Laboratório de Fitoquímica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Piuvezam, Márcia Regina, E-mail: mrpiuvezam@ltf.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  15. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca++ influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  16. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derek K; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E; Barra, Nicole G; Bassett, Jennifer D; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D; Bowdish, Dawn M; Erjefält, Jonas S; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan; Jordana, Manel

    2014-07-28

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  17. Recombinant human interleukin 5 is a selective activator of human eosinophil function

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Human rIL-5 was found to selectively stimulate morphological changes and the function of human eosinophils. This molecule is thus a prime candidate for the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in disease.

  18. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva;

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in ...

  19. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  20. Eosinophilic Coronary Periarteritis with Arterial Dissection: The Mast Cell Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rakesh; Brooks, Erin G; Corliss, Robert F

    2015-07-01

    A subset of coronary arterial dissections is associated with eosinophilic coronary periarteritis (ECPA); however, the pathogenesis of the process remains unclear. Mast cells normally reside in coronary arterial adventitia and are known mediators of eosinophilic inflammatory conditions such as type I hypersensitivity reactions. We report two cases in which coronary arterial dissection with ECPA was detected at autopsy. Tryptase, CD68, CD4, CD8, and CD1a immunohistochemical staining was performed to better characterize inflammation. While eosinophils represented a prominent periadventitial inflammatory cell, there were slightly more lymphocytes: CD4/CD8 ratios were within expected reference ranges. There were moderate numbers of macrophages, and few neutrophils or dendritic cells. Numbers of mast cells in dissected versus nondissected sections were compared: adventitial mast cell densities were threefold higher in dissected portions and showed a trend toward increased degranulation. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a role in orchestrating inflammation in cases of ECPA. PMID:25771824

  1. Recent Progress in the Research of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Jiao, Di Jin; Ishihara, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroenteritis are allergic gastrointestinal diseases mainly caused by food allergens. The number of patients with EoE is rapidly increasing in both Western and Asian countries. Basic knowledge of these diseases has mainly come from studies of EoE and Th2 type allergic reactions, including IL-5, IL-13, and IL-15, thymic stromal protein, and eotaxin 3, which are considered to have important roles. For a diagnosis of EoE, endoscopic abnormalities and histological confirmation of dense eosinophile infiltration in the esophageal epithelial layer are important, in addition to identifying dysphagia symptoms. As for eosinophilic gastroenteritis, blood test findings are more useful and the role of an endoscopic examination is reduced. For both diseases, the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori is lower than in healthy controls. Glucocorticoid administration is standard treatment for these diseases, while proton pump inhibitors are frequently effective for EoE. PMID:26789117

  2. Heparin reduces nonspecific eosinophil staining artifacts in mass cytometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Adeeb H; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of heterogeneous cell samples by mass cytometry (CyTOF) relies on the assumption that metal labeled antibodies accurately bind to their target antigens. We report a previously unappreciated experimental artifact of non-specific antibody binding by eosinophils during intracellular CyTOF analysis of human whole blood samples. We hypothesized that this non-specific binding results from a charge-based interaction between the metal-labeled antibodies and highly cationic proteins found in eosinophillic granules and found that this non-specific staining artifact could be reduced to background levels with a simple blocking protocol using heparin as a competing anionic protein. This protocol eliminates a potential source of erroneous data interpretation in all experiments involving intracellular staining of human whole blood samples, and allows accurate assessment of dynamic changes in intracellular proteins in eosinophils by CyTOF. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27061608

  3. Emerging roles of eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke eIsobe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e. lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate.

  4. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone in children; Le granulome eosinophile des os chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Hoeffel, J.C.; Arnould, V.; Galloy, M.A.; Mainard, L. [Hopital d`Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1995-12-31

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly unifocal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. Computerized tomography (CT) is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). Magnetic resonance (MR) is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors in the case of extensive destruction. The natural course of solitary lesions is favorable, spontaneously or with therapy. The prognosis is more serious in the case of multiple lesions. (authors).

  5. Eosinophil count is positively correlated with coronary artery calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies suggested that allergic disorders and increased eosinophil count were associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between eosinophil count and coronary artery calcification (CAC). We performed a cross-sectional study in 1363 consecutive participants with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the relationships between CAC score determined by multislice CT and peripheral eosinophil count as well as major cardiovascular risk factors, including age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Sex (P=0.0004), hypertension (P=0.0002), dyslipidemia (P=0.0004) and DM (P=0.0061) were associated with log (CAC+1), respectively. Positive correlations were found between log (CAC+1), and age (r=0.325, P<0.0001) and eosinophil count (r=0.165, P<0.0001). Negative correlations were found between log (CAC+1) and eGFR (r=-0.166, P<0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that age (β=0.314, P<0.0001), sex (β=0.124, P<0.0001), hypertension (β=0.084, P=0.0008), DM (β=0.108, P<0.0001), eGFR (β=-0.079, P=0.0021) and eosinophil count (β=0.147, P<0.0001) were independent determinants of log (CAC+1). In conclusion, eosinophil count correlated positively with CAC in participants with clinical suspicion of CHD. (author)

  6. 194 Influence of Montelukast on the State of Eosinophil Activation in Asthmatic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Botan, Valéria; Miranda, Marthina; Couto, Shirley; Rocha, Erica; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2012-01-01

    Background Eosinophils play an important role in inflammation asthma. In asthma, the leukotrienes are implicated in pathophysiological mechanisms. The antileukotriene montelukast inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and decreases half-life of eosinophils. However, the influence of montelukast on the activation of eosinophils is not clear yet. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of montelukast on the state of activation of eosinophils in children with persistent asth...

  7. Functional Analysis of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 in Human Eosinophils: Implications in Metabolic Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunori Konno; Shigeharu Ueki; Masahide Takeda; Yoshiki Kobayashi; Mami Tamaki; Yuki Moritoki; Hajime Oyamada; Masamichi Itoga; Hiroyuki Kayaba; Ayumi Omokawa; Makoto Hirokawa

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR1...

  8. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  9. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Y.; T. Wen; Mingler, MK; Caldwell, JM; Wang, YH; Chaplin, DD; Lee, EH; Jang, MH; Woo, SY; Seoh, JY; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, ME

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double–deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3–deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial compositi...

  10. 522 Association between Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Persistent Airflow Limitation in Asthmatic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hyun Hee; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2012-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation contributes to persistent airflow limitation in adults with severe asthma. We aimed to evaluate the association between eosinophilic inflammation in induced sputum and pulmonary function, and persistent airflow limitation in children. Methods A total of 92 asthmatic children and 72 control children were enrolled in this study. Eosinophil count (%) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were measured in induced sputum. We performed spirometry a...

  11. Spontaneous intramural esophageal dissection: an unusual onset of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Sanz, Gemma; Rodríguez Alonso, Lorena; Romero Martínez, Natalia M

    2016-03-01

    A 35-year-old man, with a history of rhinitis, eczema and a dubious achalasia was admitted due to chest pain and sialorrhea. Upper endoscopy showed a little hole and a narrowing of the distal esophagus. A CT-scan with oral contrast exposed a discontinuity of the lumen of the middle third of the esophagus and a dissection of submucosal space 16 cm long. The patient recovered after parenteral nutrition. After four months, an esophageal endoscopic showed transient whitish exudates, longitudinal furrows and esophageal lacerations. The biopsies illustrated significant eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophilic microabscesses and basal cell hyperplasia. PMID:26949147

  12. Primary Eosinophilic Gastritis in a Child with Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Richa; Patne, Shashikant C U; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2016-06-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with multiple episodes of vomiting, fever, and hematemesis for the past 2 months. Except for hemoglobin, her rests of the laboratory tests were unremarkable. Her barium X-ray showed absence of the duodenal bulb and the C-loop. Her endoscopy showed deformed stomach with multiple ulcers and diverticuli. The gastric outlet was not visualized. Distal gastrectomy with gastro-duodenal anastomosis was performed. Histopathological findings revealed transmural dense infiltrates of eosinophils, consistent with eosinophilic gastritis. PMID:26768007

  13. The role of proton pump inhibitor therapy in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Prados-Manzano, Raul; Gonzalez-Cordero, Pedro Luis

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic esophageal disease characterized by a Th2 inflammatory response triggered by food/environmental allergens. Solid data confirm that up to half of patients with suspected EoE achieve complete remission on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) therapy. This disease phenotype is currently labelled as PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). Albeit initially believed to represent gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), evolving evidence has underscored that PPI-REE and EoE show a significant overlap regarding clinic, endoscopic, histologic, Th2 immune-mediated inflammation and gene expression features. Moreover, PPI therapy can effectively reverse Th2 inflammation and the EoE transcriptome expression in PPI-REE patients. Therefore, EoE and PPI-REE likely represent a common allergic disorder, where PPI therapy should be considered a short- and long-term therapeutic asset, along with diet and topical steroids. PMID:27097787

  14. Differentiation of hyperplastic from metastatic lymph nodes using a lymph node specific MR contrast agent gadofluorine M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul Municipal Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, SNUMRC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    We wanted to evaluate the value of a lymph node specific MR contrast agent, Gadofluorine M, for the differentiation of hyperplastic and metastatic lymph nodes. This study included thirty-one rabbits. In ten rabbits, an injection of egg yolk or feces of rat into the calf muscles induced hyperplasia of the lymph node. In sixteen rabbits, metastasis of the lymph node was induced by implantation of VX2 tumor. Five rabbits were normal control models. We acquired the T1-, T2-weighted and SPGR coronal imaging before enhancement with 1.5 T MR. After injection of Gadofluorine M (5 {mu}mol/mL, total amount: 4 mL) interstitially into the interdigital skin fold of the hind limb, we acquired the SPGR coronal imaging at 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes. We calculated the signal-to-noise ratios on the sequential images, and we recorded the number, size and location of the popliteal and iliac lymph nodes. Three readers assessed the state of the lymph nodes according to the pattern of enhancement: they were deemed hyperplastic nodes when totally enhanced and as metastatic nodes when there was no or partial enhancement. We also compared the imaging patterns with the histopathological results. Among the 26 hyperplasia- or metastasis-induced rabbits, two rabbits were excluded because of failure to be enhanced. Histopathologic evaluation of the 24 rabbits detected one hundred seventeen lymph nodes: forty-six lymph nodes in nine hyperplasia-induced rabbits and seventy-one (metastasis in twenty-eight) lymph nodes in fifteen metastasis-induced rabbits. Out of one hundred two lymph nodes that were larger than 5 mm in size, MR enabled us to detect one hundred one lymph nodes (99.1%). The means of sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis by three readers were 97.6% (82/84), 98.2% (215/219), and 95.3% (82/86), and 99.1% (215/217), respectively ({rho} < 0.05). Interstitial MR lymphography using Gadofluorine M showed excellent

  15. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayo Clinic, Division of Pediatric Radiology, E-2, Rochester, MN (United States); Lorenz, Emily A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Di Lorenzo, Carlo [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Columbus, OH (United States); Kahwash, Samir [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  16. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi;

    2007-01-01

    DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid...... eosinophils in human bone marrow specimens expressed DP and CRTH2 receptors at similar levels. Eosinophils isolated from human peripheral blood likewise expressed DP receptor protein but at lower levels than CRTH2. In agreement with this, the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils was inhibited both...

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis in Saudi children: Symptoms, histology and endoscopy results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y Hasosah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by esophageal symptoms in association with a dense eosinophilic infiltrate currently defined as >15 eosinophils per high power field in the appropriate clinical context. This is the first pediatric study in Saudi Arabia to give the experience with EE and examine its symptom, histology and endoscopy results. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with EE at National Guard Hospital, Jeddah Between 2007 and 2009. The authors identified EE on histologic criteria (≥15 eosinophils per high-power field together with their clinical context. The authors reviewed medical records for details of clinical presentation, laboratory data, radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic findings, and the results of treatment. Results: We identified 15 patients in our database in the last three years. 100% of the patients were males. The median age at presentation was 10 years (range, 3-17 years. The commonly reported symptoms were failure to thrive (86%, epigastric abdominal pain (53%, poor eating (40%, dysphagia with solid food (26%, food impaction (13%, and vomiting (20%. Asthma was reported in 46% and allergic rhinitis in 40%. Peripheral eosinophilia (>0.7 Χ 10/l was found in 66%. High serum IgE Level (>60 IU/ml was found in 60%. Upper endoscopic analysis revealed esophageal trachealization in 46%, esophageal erythema in 46%, white specks on the esophageal mucosa in 33%, esophageal narrowing in 13%, and normal endoscopy in 13%. The mean eosinophils per high-power field was 30.4 (range, 20-71. Histologic characteristics included degranulated eosinophils (86%, basal cell hyperplasia (93% and eosinophils clusters (micro-abscess in 73%. The treatment of EE revealed that they used swallowed corticosteroid in 50%, proton pump inhibitors in 66%, elemental diet/ food elimination in 13% and systemic corticosteroid in 13%. Conclusions: Failure to

  18. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Mature Molar with Concurrent Hyperplastic Pulpitis, Internal Root Resorption and Periradicular Periodontitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Kemal Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) of permanent mature teeth is continuously ascertaining to be a more reliable endodontic treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful VPT of a mature mandibular left first molar with concurrent hyperplastic pulpitis, internal root resorption and periradicular periodontitis in a 35-year-old male patient. After complete caries removal and access cavity preparation, the dental pulp was removed from the coronal third of the roots. To protect the remaining pulp, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed and adapted into the cavities; the tooth was then restored with amalgam. Six months after VPT, radiographic examination showed evidence of periradicular healing. Clinically, the tooth was functional without signs and symptoms of infection/inflammation. The successful outcome of this case suggests that diseased dental pulp (i.e. irreversible pulpitis) has the potential to heal after pulp protection with CEM biocement. PMID:26523145

  19. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex in the valproic Acid animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Tania; Perrodin, Catherine; Markram, Henry;

    2008-01-01

    alterations in the prefrontal cortex in the valproic acid rat model of autism and found that the layer 5 pyramidal neurons are connected to significantly more neighbouring neurons than in controls. These excitatory connections are more plastic displaying enhanced long-term potentiation of the strength of...... synapses. The microcircuit alterations found in the prefrontal cortex are therefore similar to the alterations previously found in the somatosensory cortex. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the prefrontal cortex implies hyper-functionality of one of the highest order processing regions in the...... brain, and stands in contrast to the hypo-functionality that is normally proposed in this region to explain some of the autistic symptoms. We propose that a number of deficits in autism such as sociability, attention, multi-tasking and repetitive behaviours, should be re-interpreted in the light of a...

  20. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 years (range 15-60 years. Main symptomatologies were fever, severe headache, body pain, abdominal pain and arthralgia. One patient was in akinetic rigid state with coma. All patients had peripheral eosinophilia. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of all patients showed eosinophilic pleocytosis. The mean CSF white cell count was 588 cells. CSF differential count showed 50-70% eosinophils. CSF glucose levels were normal but proteins were markedly raised (mean CSF protein was 180 mg/dl. MRI brain showed T2 hyperintensities diffusely in periventricular white matter in the comatose patient. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain was normal in others. All eight male patients gave history of eating "raw flesh of Monitor Lizard" (Iguana some three to fourteen days prior to the onset of symptoms. There was no such history for the female patients. Considering the history of exposure and eosinophilic meningitis we suspected a meningoencephalitis with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and treated them with albendazole, steroid and other supportive measures. All of them recovered. Conclusion: Eosinophilic meningitis (EM is a rare condition and in this locality, a CNS infection with Agiostrongylus cantonensis is highly likely. AC is a parasite in monitor lizard. Human infection occurs from consumption of uncooked flesh or blood of infected lizards. Physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion and enquire for any exposure to uncooked meat or blood of monitor lizard when faced with EM

  1. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  2. Lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells and airway vascularization is only partially dependant on eosinophils in a house dust mite-exposed mouse model of allergic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirooya Sivapalan

    Full Text Available Asthmatic responses involve a systemic component where activation of the bone marrow leads to mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. This traffic may be driven by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, a potent progenitor chemoattractant. We have previously shown that airway angiogenesis, an early remodeling event, can be inhibited by preventing the migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC to the lungs. Given intranasally, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that inhibits SDF-1 mediated effects, attenuated allergen-induced lung-homing of EPC, vascularization of pulmonary tissue, airway eosinophilia and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Since SDF-1 is also an eosinophil chemoattractant, we investigated, using a transgenic eosinophil deficient mouse strain (PHIL whether EPC lung accumulation and lung vascularization in allergic airway responses is dependent on eosinophilic inflammation.Wild-type (WT BALB/c and eosinophil deficient (PHIL mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM using a chronic exposure protocol and treated with AMD3100 to modulate SDF-1 stimulated progenitor traffic. Following HDM challenge, lung-extracted EPCs were enumerated along with airway inflammation, microvessel density (MVD and airway methacholine responsiveness (AHR.Following Ag sensitization, both WT and PHIL mice exhibited HDM-induced increase in airway inflammation, EPC lung-accumulation, lung angiogenesis and AHR. Treatment with AMD3100 significantly attenuated outcome measures in both groups of mice. Significantly lower levels of EPC and a trend for lower vascularization were detected in PHIL versus WT mice.This study shows that while allergen-induced lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells, increased tissue vascularization and development lung dysfunction can occur in the absence of eosinophils, the presence of these cells worsens the pathology of the allergic response.

  3. No asthma, no parasites is a rare type of leukemia: chronic myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia and abnormality of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Casiano, Mónica; Alemán, Jesse R; Matos-Fernández, Nelson A; Cáceres-Perkins, Wlliam; De La Paz, Maryknoll

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia and abnormality of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), referred as chronic eosinophilic leukemia, is an extremely rare neoplasm where long-term prognosis is uncertain though a high grade of responsiveness to Imatinib has been reported. The mortality and morbidity associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia is associated with the degree of tissue involvement, damage, or both at diagnosis. We discuss a case of a young male patient with past medical history of hypoglycemia that presented to the emergency room with a complaints of a sharp abdominal pain localized in the upper quadrants. Laboratories were remarkable for elevated white blood cells with eosinophils predominance, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy dislocated a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion of this rare entity since not all eosinophilias can be interpreted as asthma or parasitis infections. PMID:23156891

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment Esofagitis eosinofílica: clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Lucendo Villarín

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a chronic inflammatory, immunoallergic disease of the esophagus that represents the most common eosinophilic gut disease. Understanding and diagnosis regarding this condition have greatly increased in recent years, particularly in Europe and North America, in parallel with other allergic disorders. It consists of dense esophageal infiltration with eosinophils in the absence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER. It involves individuals at all ages, and is particularly common in males during childhood and up to the 5th decade of life. It manifests with chronic, intermittent esophageal symptoms that predominantly include dysphagia, food impaction episodes, and GER-attributable complaints that do not respond to antisecretory therapy. Endoscopically, EE is a polymorphous disease that presents with various changes in esophageal caliber, and subtle changes in mucosal appearance, which lead to biopsy collection as a key procedure for diagnosis. Management must be multidisciplinary, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, allergologists, and also nutrition specialists in pediatric cases. Regarding therapy, dietary food restrictions are especially useful in the management of pediatric EE, but effectiveness is lower in the adult, maybe because of a greater involvement of air allergens. Drug use is standard, particularly involving topical steroids, which may revert manifestations and histological lesions, even though recurrence following discontinuation is common.

  5. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4(+)T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra-deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. PMID:26951334

  6. Assessment of Schistosoma mansoni induced intestinal inflammation by means of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil protein X and myeloperoxidase before and after treatment with praziquantel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, Claus Michael; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.;

    2008-01-01

    Faecal concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in extracts of stool samples obtained from a cohort of people (n=182) living in Bugoigo, a fishing community on the Eastern shore of Lake Albert, Buliisa District, in Nor...

  7. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

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    Spyros Aslanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Enns, Robert; Kazemi, Pooya; Chung, Wiley; Lee, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women) with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Fu...

  9. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

    OpenAIRE

    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM) is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females) with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 ye...

  10. Comment on "Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter J Kerr

    2004-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: I recently read the paper by Chen et al.[1] published in your Journal. The paper shows that there have been a few cases where medications have caused eosinophilia. Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication that can cause eosinophilia. It is pointed out in your paper "The diagnostic criteria included... 5), exclusion of intestinal lymphoma, Crohn's disease or other tumors." Table 2 shows symptoms associated with eosinophilic gastroenteritis,which are very like those in Crohn's disease.

  11. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik; Mehmet Ata Akıl; Halit Acet; Murat Yüksel; Mustafa Oylumlu; Nihat Polat; Adem Aktan; Sait Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Stent restenosis (SR) is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR) and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to car...

  12. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

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    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  13. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

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    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an immune-mediated esophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrand-Goichberg, Jenny; Segal, Idit; Ovadia, Adi; Levine, Arie; Dalal, Ilan

    2013-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease defined by esophageal dysfunction, by typical endoscopic findings and by abnormal eosinophilic inflammation within the esophagus. Eosinophilic accumulation in the esophagus occurs as a result of esophageal overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including T cells and mast cells, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-13, IL-5 and IL-15, as well as chemoattractants (eotaxin and transforming growth factor-β1, fibroblast growth factor and the newly characterized gene--thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which is a key regulator of allergic sensitization initiation). The role of allergy, particularly food allergy in EoE is indisputable, as elimination diet is a proven commonly used treatment for the disease. However, unlike classical immediate IgE-mediated reaction to allergen, EoE is associated with an altered immune response, characterized by a combination of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. In this review, we aim to discuss the many typical aspects of EoE as opposed to other entities involving the esophagus, with focusing on the aberrant immune-mediated key players contributing to the pathogenesis of this unique disease. PMID:23579771

  15. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality

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    Allison J. Pollock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background - Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case - Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology - Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1 myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2 myocyte necrosis and eventually (3 fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion - The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM.

  16. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allison J; Hitt, Stacy L; Stier, Michael A; Houser, Laura M

    2015-10-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  17. Eosinophil-Associated Gene Pathways but not Eosinophil Numbers are Differentially Regulated between Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Treatment and Synchrotron Broad-Beam Treatment by 48 Hours Postirradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibahim, M J; Yang, Y; Crosbie, J C; Stevenson, A; Cann, L; Paiva, P; Rogers, P A

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron microbeam radiation treatment (MRT) is a preclinical radiotherapy technique with considerable clinical promise, although some of the underlying radiobiology of MRT is still not well understood. In recently reported studies, it has been suggested that MRT elicits a different tumor immune profile compared to broad-beam treatment (BB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchrotron MRT and BB on eosinophil-associated gene pathways and eosinophil numbers within and around the tumor in the acute stage, 48 h postirradiation. Balb/C mice were inoculated with EMT6.5 mouse mammary tumors and irradiated with microbeam radiation (112 and 560 Gy) and broad-beam radiation (5 and 9 Gy) at equivalent doses determined from a previous in vitro study. After tumors were collected 24 and 48 h postirradiation, RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR performed to assess eosinophil-associated gene expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect two known markers of eosinophils: eosinophil-associated ribonucleases (EARs) and eosinophil major basic protein (MBP). We identified five genes associated with eosinophil function and recruitment (Ear11, Ccl24, Ccl6, Ccl9 and Ccl11) and all of them, except Ccl11, were differentially regulated in synchrotron microbeam-irradiated tumors compared to broad-beam-irradiated tumors. However, immunohistochemical localization demonstrated no significant differences in the number of EAR- and MBP-positive eosinophils infiltrating the primary tumor after MRT compared to BB. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the effects of MRT on eosinophil-related gene pathways are different from broad-beam radiation treatment at doses previously demonstrated to be equivalent in an in vitro study. However, a comparison of the microenvironments of tumors, which received MRT and BB, 48 h after exposure showed no difference between them with respect to eosinophil accumulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the

  18. Prognostic value of immunohistochemical surfactant protein A expression in regenerative/hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajiki Akira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult to predict survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recently, several proteins, such as surfactant protein (SP and KL-6, have been reported to be useful biologic markers for prediction of prognosis for interstitial pneumonias. It is not clear whether there is any relationship between expression of these proteins in regenerative/hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells and prognosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs. Objectives This study aimed to elucidate the clinical significance of the expression of such lung secretory proteins as SP-A and KL-6 in lung tissues of patients with IIPs. Methods We retrospectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of SP-A, KL-6, cytokeratin (CK, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA in alveolar epithelial cells in lung tissues obtained from surgical lung biopsy in 43 patients with IIPs, and analyzed the correlation between expression of these markers and the prognosis of each IIP patient. CK and EMA were used as general markers for epithelial cells. Results In patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, the ratio of SP-A positive epithelial cells to all alveolar epithelial cells (SP-A positive ratio in the collapsed and mural fibrosis areas varied, ranging from cases where almost all alveolar epithelial cells expressed SP-A to cases where only a few did. On the other hand, in many patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, many of the alveolar epithelial cells in the diseased areas expressed SP-A. The SP-A positive ratio was significantly lower in patients who died from progression of UIP than in patients with UIP who remained stable or deteriorated but did not die. In NSIP patients, a similar tendency was noted between the SP-A positive ratio and prognosis. Conclusions The results suggest that the paucity of immunohistochemical SP-A expression in alveolar epithelial cells in diseased areas (i.e. regenerative/hyperplastic

  19. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  20. Modulatory role of eosinophils in allergic inflammation: new evidence for a rather outdated concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Bandeira-Melo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The eosinophilic response has been identified as a key alteration in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. A close-correlation between disease severity and eosinophilia, and the eosinophil ability to provide toxic and pro-inflammatory agents are the major elements supporting the interpretation that there is indeed a causal relationship between these phenomena. Nevertheless, controversy still persists since some studies have clearly demonstrated that eosinophil infiltration is not necessarily accompanied by tissue damage or hyperresponsiveness. In addition, there are some examples in the literature in which such alterations are not modified following abrogation of eosinophil influx. In this review it will be argued, based on a model of IgE-dependent pleurisy, that eosinophil infiltration can be associated with down-regulation of allergic inflammatory response. The potential mechanism by which eosinophils could be acting as a immunomodulatory cells in this particular system will also be assessed.

  1. Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epplen Jörg T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis (AD is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein (MBP. Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ECP, EDN, EPO and MBP genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls. Results Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. Conclusion We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort.

  2. Duplicated middle cerebral artery arising from the origin of the hyperplastic anterior choroidal artery that mimicked aneurysm on routine MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Ito, Sayaka; Kurita, Hiroki; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of duplicated right middle cerebral artery that arose from the origin of the right hyperplastic anterior choroidal artery diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography. To our knowledge, this is the first case of such a variation reported with magnetic resonance angiographic images. The internal carotid artery-hyperplastic anterior choroidal artery-duplicated middle cerebral artery junction was dilated and mimicking aneurysm. Partial maximum intensity projection images and volume-rendering images showed that it was not a saccular aneurysm but an infundibular dilatation. Careful observation of magnetic resonance angiographic images including its source images is important for detecting rare arterial variations. To identify an anomalous artery on magnetic resonance angiography, creation of partial maximum intensity projection images and volume-rendering images is valuable. PMID:26915899

  3. Russell Body Gastroenteritis: An Aberrant Manifestation of Chronic Inflammation in Gastrointestinal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Feriyl Bhaijee; Brown, Keith A.; Long, Billy W.; Brown, Alexandra S.

    2013-01-01

    First described in 1998, Russell body gastritis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition characterized by abundant intramucosal polyclonal plasma cells, which contain intracytoplasmic eosinophilic globules of immunoglobulins (Russell bodies) that displace the nucleus, with an accompanying chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Russell bodies represent a cellular response to overstimulation of plasma cells, leading to the accumulation of abundant, nondegradable, condensed immunoglobulin in dilated r...

  4. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Barnig, Cindy; Alsaleh, Ghada; Jung, Nicolas; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; De Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils h...

  5. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...... showed only slight eosinophilia. Perforation of the small intestine is a rare but serious complication in eosinophilic gastroenteritis....

  6. Comparison of histochemical methods for murine eosinophil detection in a RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Castilow, Elaine M.; Varga, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of histochemical detection of eosinophils in fixed murine tissue is lacking. Five histochemical methods previously reported for eosinophil detection were quantitatively and qualitatively compared in an established murine RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model. Nonspecific neutrophil staining was evaluated in tissue sections of neutrophilic soft tissue lesions and bone marrow from respective animals. Eosinophils had granular red to orange-red cytoplasmic staining, dependin...

  7. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Farooq; Vivek Choksi; Andrew Chu; Dhruti Mankodi; Sameer Shaharyar; Keith O’Brien; De, Uday Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tende...

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is common in serrated and non-serrated colorectal adenoma, but uncommon in hyperplastic polyp and sessile serrated polyp/adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, PTGS2 plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. COX-2 overexpression in colorectal cancer is inversely associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Evidence suggests that MSI/CIMP+ colorectal cancer may arise through the serrated tumorigenic pathway through various forms of serrated neoplasias. Therefore, we hypothesized that COX-2 may play a less important role in the serrated pathway. Methods By immunohistochemistry, we assessed COX-2 expression in 24 hyperplastic polyps, 7 sessile serrated polyp/adenomas (SSA, 5 mixed polyps with SSA and adenoma, 27 traditional serrated adenomas, 515 non-serrated adenomas (tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma and villous adenoma, 33 adenomas with intramucosal carcinomas, 96 adenocarcinomas with serration (corkscrew gland and 111 adenocarcinomas without serration. Results Strong (2+ COX-2 overexpression was more common in non-serrated adenomas (28% = 143/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (4.2% = 1/24, p = 0.008 and serrated polyps (7 SSAs and 5 mixed polyps (0% = 0/12, p = 0.04. Furthermore, any (1+/2+ COX-2 overexpression was more frequent in non-serrated adenomas (60% = 307/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (13% = 3/24, p Conclusion COX-2 overexpression is infrequent in hyperplastic polyp, SSA and mixed polyp with SSA and adenoma, compared to non-serrated and serrated adenoma. COX-2 overexpression becomes more frequent as tumors progress to higher grade neoplasias. Our observations suggest that COX-2 may play a less significant role in the serrated pathway of tumorigenesis; however, COX-2 may still play a role in later stage of the serrated pathway.

  9. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai upregulates eosinophils and suppresses Th1 and Th17 cells in the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Lee

    Full Text Available The bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (Ulmaceae has been used in traditional Korean medicine for chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the frequency and cytokine profile of the major immune cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI LP, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of mice treated orally with Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai bark water extract (UDE to address the immunomodulatory role of this herb in intestinal homeostasis. B6 mice were given 5g/kg UDE once daily for 14 days. They were then sacrificed, and cells were isolated from the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP. The proportion of B versus T lymphocytes, CD4(+ versus CD8(+ T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 cells, and Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells in the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP were analyzed. The frequency of antigen-presenting cells (APCs, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in the SI LP and the expression of costimulatory molecules on APCs were also evaluated. The numbers and frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the SI LP were significantly reduced in the UDE-treated mice compared with PBS controls. In addition, the proportion of IL-4-producing eosinophils in the SI LP was significantly elevated in the UDE-treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UDE up-regulates the number and frequency of SI LP eosinophils, which can down-regulate the Th1 and Th17 responses via IL-4 secretion and contribute to intestinal homeostasis.

  10. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders.

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    Cindy Barnig

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach-in a limited number of patients and controls-to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology.

  11. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

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    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  12. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex in the valproic acid animal model of autism

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    Tania Rinaldi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex has been extensively implicated in autism to explain deficits in executive and other higher-order functions related to cognition, language, sociability and emotion. The possible changes at the level of the neuronal microcircuit are however not known. We studied microcircuit alterations in the prefrontal cortex in the valproic acid rat model of autism and found that the layer 5 pyramidal neurons are connected to significantly more neighbouring neurons than in controls. These excitatory connections are more plastic displaying enhanced long-term potentiation of the strength of synapses. The microcircuit alterations found in the prefrontal cortex are therefore similar to the alterations previously found in the somatosensory cortex. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the prefrontal cortex implies hyper-functionality of one of the highest order processing regions in the brain, and stands in contrast to the hypo-functionality that is normally proposed in this region to explain some of the autistic symptoms. We propose that a number of deficits in autism such as sociability, attention, multi-tasking and repetitive behaviours, should be re-interpreted in the light of a hyper-functional prefrontal cortex.

  13. Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (EDN/RNase 2 and the Mouse Eosinophil-Associated RNases (mEars: Expanding Roles in Promoting Host Defense

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    Helene F. Rosenberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN/RNase2 and its divergent orthologs, the mouse eosinophil-associated RNases (mEars, are prominent secretory proteins of eosinophilic leukocytes and are all members of the larger family of RNase A-type ribonucleases. While EDN has broad antiviral activity, targeting RNA viruses via mechanisms that may require enzymatic activity, more recent studies have elucidated how these RNases may generate host defense via roles in promoting leukocyte activation, maturation, and chemotaxis. This review provides an update on recent discoveries, and highlights the versatility of this family in promoting innate immunity.

  14. IL-3 and TNFα increase Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Receptor (TSLPR expression on eosinophils and enhance TSLP-stimulated degranulation

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    Cook Ellen B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP and eosinophils are prominent components of allergic inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether TSLP could activate eosinophils, focusing on measuring the regulation of TSLPR expression on eosinophils and degranulation in response to TSLP, as well as other eosinophil activation responses. Methods Eosinophil mRNA expression of TSLPR and IL-7Rα was examined by real-time quantitative PCR of human eosinophils treated with TNFα and IL-5 family cytokines, and TSLPR surface expression on eosinophils was analyzed by flow cytometry. Eosinophils were stimulated with TSLP (with and without pre-activation with TNFα and IL-3 and evaluated for release of eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN, phosphorylation of STAT5, and survival by trypan blue exclusion. A blocking antibody for TSLPR was used to confirm the specificity of TSLP mediated signaling on eosinophil degranulation. Results Eosinophil expression of cell surface TSLPR and TSLPR mRNA was upregulated by stimulation with TNFα and IL-3. TSLP stimulation resulted in release of EDN, phosphorylation of STAT5 as well as promotion of viability and survival. TSLP-stimulated eosinophil degranulation was inhibited by a functional blocking antibody to TSLPR. Pre-activation of eosinophils with TNFα and IL-3 promoted eosinophil degranulation at lower concentrations of TSLP stimulation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that eosinophils are activated by TSLP and that eosinophil degranulation in response to TSLP may be enhanced on exposure to cytokines present in allergic inflammation, indicating that the eosinophil has the capacity to participate in TSLP-driven allergic responses.

  15. GM-CSF Differentially Regulates Eosinophil and Neutrophil Adhesive Interactions with Vascular Endothelium in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Sheikh Bahaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic airway inflammation is characterized by elaboration of cytokines and chemokines leading to recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes, predominantly eosinophils, to the airways. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is generated in the lungs of human subjects with asthma in response to allergen challenge and is necessary for the development of allergen-induced bronchial eosinophilia in mice. The effect of GM-CSF on human eosinophil and neutrophil interactions with the vascular endothelium under conditions of blood flow was investigated in post-capillary venules of the rabbit mesentery by intravital microscopy.While GM-CSF significantly reduced the rolling fraction of neutrophils in vivo and induced consistent shedding of neutrophil L-selectin in vitro, its effect on eosinophil rolling was variable. Eosinophils from 57% of the donors demonstrated inhibition of rolling, while eosinophils from the remaining 43% of donors demonstrated no inhibition or increased rolling. The variable effect of GM-CSF on inhibition of eosinophil rolling was associated with variable shedding of L-selectin in vitro. In contrast to the differential effect of GM-CSF on neutrophils versus eosinophils, stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate demonstrated a similar degree of inhibition of rolling and L-selectin shedding by neutrophils and eosinophils suggesting that there was no defect in L-selectin shedding in the eosinophil donors who did not respond to GM-CSF. Overall, these studies demonstrate that GM-CSF consistently inhibits interaction of neutrophils with endothelium in vivo, whereas its effect on eosinophil-endothelial interactions is variable. GM-CSF may thus be one factor accounting for the varying percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils recruited to sites of allergic inflammation in different individuals.

  16. Focal exocytosis by eosinophils--compound exocytosis and cumulative fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Scepek, S; Lindau, M

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the granule fusion events during exocytosis in horse eosinophils by time-resolved patch-clamp capacitance measurements. Stimulation with intracellular GTP gamma S leads to a stepwise capacitance increase by 4.0 +/- 0.9 pF. At GTP gamma S concentrations < 20 microM the step size distribution is in agreement with the granule size distribution in resting cells. Above 80 microM the number of steps is reduced and very large steps occur. The total capacitance increase, however,...

  17. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junji Takeyama; Daiki Abukawa; Katsushi Miura

    2007-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy developed transient protein-losing gastroenteropathy associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Both IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV were positive in a serologic blood test. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple erosions throughout the body of the stomach, without enlarged gastric folds. Histological examination of the biopsy specimens indicated eosinophilic gastroenteritis and CMV infection. The patient had complete resolution without specific therapy for CMV in four weeks. An allergic reaction as well as CMV infection played important roles in the pathogenesis of this case.

  18. Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Andõn, F. T.; Kapralov, A A; Yanamala, N.; Feng, W.; Baygan, Arjang; Chambers, B.J.; Hultenby, K.; Ye, Fei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Brandner, B. D.; Fornara, Andrea; Klein-Seetharaman, J.; Kotchey, G. P.; Star, A.; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O 2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site)...

  19. Eosinophils are not required for the induction and maintenance of an alloantibody response

    OpenAIRE

    Cravedi, P.; Lessman, D. A.; Heeger, P S

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil-produced cytokines have been shown to participate in the maintenance of antigen-specific plasma cells (PC) in bone marrow (BM), suggesting that eosinophils are required in the development and/or maintenance of alloantibody responses post-transplant.

  20. Functional analysis of free fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human eosinophils: implications in metabolic homeostasis.

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    Yasunori Konno

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system.

  1. Eosinophils count and periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Barbieri, L.; Sinigaglia, F.; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophils have been involved in a wide spectrum of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic conditions, with the development of cardiovascular complications in a significant proportion of hypereosinophilic patients. However, no study has so far evaluated the impact of eosinophils levels on

  2. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the rat eosinophil chemotactic response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Alessandra C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the effect of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE type III, IV and V on eosinophil chemotaxis triggered by platelet activating factor (PAF and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in vitro. The effect of the analogues N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic AMP and N2-2'-O- dibutyrylguanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic GMP has also been determined. The eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of naive Wistar rats and purified in discontinuous Percoll gradients to 85-95% purity. We observed that pre-incubation of eosinophils with the PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram suppressed the chemotactic response triggered by PAF and LTB4, in association with an increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. In contrast, neither zaprinast (type V inhibitor nor type III inhibitors milrinone and SK&F 94836 affected the eosinophil migration. Only at the highest concentration tested did the analogue Bt2 cyclic AMP suppress the eosinophil chemotaxis, under conditions where Bt2 cyclic GMP was ineffective. We have concluded that inhibition of PDE IV, but not PDE III or V, was able to block the eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting that the suppressive activity of selective PDE IV inhibitors on tissue eosinophil accumulation may, at least, be partially dependent on their ability to directly inhibit the eosinophil migration.

  3. Detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Venge, P; Kharazmi, A;

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a highly basic and potent cytotoxic single-chain zinc-containing protein present in the granules of the eosinophilic granulocytes. ECP appears to be involved in defence against parasites and in the tissue damage seen in subjects with allergic and inflammatory...

  4. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, M K; Caldwell, J M; Wang, Y H; Chaplin, D D; Lee, E H; Jang, M H; Woo, S Y; Seoh, J Y; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3 deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer's patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t-positive (ROR-γt(+)) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β-deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA(+) cells and ROR-γt(+) ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  5. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases. PMID:27165445

  6. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth. PMID:26720604

  7. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E;

    1998-01-01

    To assess the eosinophil response to Plasmodium falciparum infection a cohort of initially parasite-free Ghanaian children was followed for 3 months. Seven of nine children who acquired an asymptomatic P. falciparum infection showed increase in eosinophil counts, while a decrease was found in sev...

  8. Eosinophils Modulate CD4+ T Cell Responses via High Mobility Group Box-1 in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Eun-Jin; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Bang, Bo-Ram; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils have been reported to modulate T cell responses. Previously, we reported that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) played a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. This study was conducted to test our hypothesis that eosinophils could modulate T cell responses via HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of asthma characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation. We performed in vitro experiments using eosinophils, dendritic cells (DCs), and CD4+ T cells obtained from a murine model of ast...

  9. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double...... week of high-dose ICS therapy and increased with time. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that eosinophilic airway inflammation may be important in modifying the severity of EIB and the response to ICS therapy. Measurements of sputum eosinophil percentage may, therefore, be useful in predicting the...... and sputum analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data were pooled and demonstrated that 10 subjects had baseline sputum eosinophilia >or= 5%. Only high-dose ICS therapy (ie, 160 and 320 microg) significantly attenuated the sputum eosinophil percentage. Sputum eosinophil percentage significantly correlated...

  10. A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Matsumoto; Masahiko Sugitani; Kiyoshi Yokoyama; Kazuhiko Nakai; Toshiki Yamamoto; Takeshi Otani; Masahiro Ogawa; Naohide Tanaka; Ariyoshi Iwasaki; Yasuyuki Arakawa

    2007-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils.Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily.The patient's biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile dud. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient's eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified.

  11. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Young Yun; Young Up Cho; In Suh Park; Sun Keun Choi; Sei Joong Kim; Seok Hwan Shin; Kyung Rae Kim

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and symptoms associated with gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the authors experienced a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction. A 51-year old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Computed tomography confirmed a dilatation of the small intestine with ascites. An emergency laparotomy was performed for a diagnosis of peritonitis due to intestinal obstruction. Segmental resection of the ileum and end to end anastomosis were performed. Histologically, there was a dense infiltration of eosinophils throughout the entire thickness of ileal wall and eosinophilic enteritis was diagnosed. The patient recovered well, and was free from gastrointestinal symptoms at the time when we reported her disease.

  12. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Chuangyu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in a previously healthy 16-year-old male adolescent with 2-month history of frequent micturition and dysuria with no significant apparent causative factors. The tumor regressed after a 6-week course of glucocorticosteroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our case is a rare case of inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder treated with complete conservative management. Due to its glucocorticosteroid-sensitive nature, we postulate that this disease belongs to a subgroup of eosinophilic disorders.

  13. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  14. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Two Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M. Frech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT is the most common extracutaneous organ system damaged in systemic sclerosis (SSc and is the presenting feature in 10% of patients. The esophagus as the portion of the GIT is the most commonly affected and there is an association of gastroesophageal reflux (GER with SSc interstitial lung disease (ILD. Thus, an aggressive treatment for GER is recommended in all SSc patients with ILD; however, it is recognized that a long-term benefit to this treatment is needed to understand its impact. In this case report we discuss the presence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE in two SSc patients and discuss the role for early EGD in SSc patients with moderate-severe GER symptoms for tissue study. Assessment of esophageal biopsy specimens for the presence of eosinophils and possibly ANA can help elucidate disease pathogenesis and direct therapy, as the presence of EoE in SSc has important management considerations, particularly with regards to dietary modification strategies.

  15. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  16. Treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räßler, F; Lukács, J; Elsner, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) is a rare inflammatory skin disease defined by erythematous, tender, sometimes urticarial plaques, possibly with vesicles and bullae, and granulomatous eosinophilic infiltrates in the dermis. Usually the disease has a benign course with spontaneous remission within a few weeks. Nevertheless, recurrences are quite frequent and may occur for several years. The objective of this study was to review the so far reported treatment options for Wells syndrome in a systematic manner. This systematic review is based on a search on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register for English and German articles from 1970 to 2015. Advices on the treatment of Wells syndrome are limited predominately to case reports or to small case series. There are no randomized controlled trials, and control groups are missing. A variety of treatment options for Wells syndrome were reported including topical and systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, cyclosporine, dapsone, azathioprine, griseofulvin, doxycycline, minocycline, antimalarial medications, oral tacrolimus/topical tacrolimus, sulfasalazine, interferon alpha and gamma, TNF alpha inhibitors, colchicine and PUVA therapy. As well-designed, randomized controlled trials are missing, no guidelines for the treatment of this disease can be given. Due to the small number of patients and the frequent misdiagnosis of this clinical entity, the aim of this systematic overview is to call attention to this rare condition and to help clinicians to diagnose and treat Wells syndrome effectively. Due to the good prognosis and tendency to resolve, systemic treatment should be limited to cases resistant to local therapy or with widespread lesions. PMID:27357601

  17. Effects of ischemia and reperfusion on eosinophilic accumulation and distribution in mucosa of equine jejunum and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, Anna K; Freeman, David E; Constable, Peter D; Eurell, Jo Ann C; Wallig, Matt A

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the eosinophilic response in intestinal mucosa of horses with intestinal ischemia and reperfusion or with strangulation of the jejunum or colon. SAMPLE Mucosal samples from horses with naturally occurring strangulation (n = 24 horses) or distention (n = 6) of the jejunum or colon (11), with experimentally induced ischemia and reperfusion of the jejunum (6) or colon (15), or that were euthanized for reasons other than gastrointestinal tract disease (13). PROCEDURES Mucosal samples were collected and grouped by type of intestinal injury. Slides were stained with Luna eosinophil stain and histologically examined to determine eosinophil accumulation and distribution. Number of eosinophils per mm(2) of mucosa was calculated as a measure of eosinophil accumulation. Additionally, mucosa was categorized into 5 regions; the percentage of eosinophils in each of the 5 regions, relative to the total eosinophil count in all regions, was determined. RESULTS Eosinophil migration toward and onto the luminal surface was evident in tissues after ischemia and reperfusion and after naturally occurring strangulating disease of the jejunum and colon, as indicated by a decrease in the number of eosinophils near the muscularis mucosa and an increase in the number of eosinophils on or near the luminal surface. Ischemia alone did not change eosinophil distribution in the jejunum or colon. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Eosinophils responded to mucosal damage evoked by ischemia and reperfusion by migration toward and onto the luminal surface. This migration could represent an important component of the inflammatory response to injury in equine gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:27111021

  18. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review. PMID:26797962

  19. Distinct Tlr4-expressing cell compartments control neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlees, J W; Whitehead, G S; Harley, I T W; Cappelletti, M; Rewerts, C L; Holdcroft, A M; Divanovic, S; Wills-Karp, M; Finkelman, F D; Karp, C L; Cook, D N

    2015-07-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease. Some forms of allergic asthma are characterized by T helper type 2 (Th2)-driven eosinophilia, whereas others are distinguished by Th17-driven neutrophilia. Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on hematopoietic and airway epithelial cells (AECs) contributes to the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and allergens, but the specific contribution of TLR4 in these cell compartments to airway inflammatory responses remains poorly understood. We used novel, conditionally mutant Tlr4(fl/fl) mice to define the relative contributions of AEC and hematopoietic cell Tlr4 expression to LPS- and allergen-induced airway inflammation. We found that Tlr4 expression by hematopoietic cells is critical for neutrophilic airway inflammation following LPS exposure and for Th17-driven neutrophilic responses to the house dust mite (HDM) lysates and ovalbumin (OVA). Conversely, Tlr4 expression by AECs was found to be important for robust eosinophilic airway inflammation following sensitization and challenge with these same allergens. Thus, Tlr4 expression by hematopoietic and airway epithelial cells controls distinct arms of the immune response to inhaled allergens. PMID:25465099

  20. Approaching chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient's daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker's cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis. PMID:26892615

  1. Investigating the potential role of genetic and epigenetic variation of DNA methyltransferase genes in hyperplastic polyposis syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Drini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome (HPS is a condition associated with multiple serrated polyps, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. At least half of CRCs arising in HPS show a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, potentially linked to aberrant DNA methyltransferase (DNMT activity. CIMP is associated with methylation of tumor suppressor genes including regulators of DNA mismatch repair (such as MLH1, MGMT, and negative regulators of Wnt signaling (such as WIF1. In this study, we investigated the potential for interaction of genetic and epigenetic variation in DNMT genes, in the aetiology of HPS. METHODS: We utilized high resolution melting (HRM analysis to screen 45 cases with HPS for novel sequence variants in DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3L. 21 polyps from 13 patients were screened for BRAF and KRAS mutations, with assessment of promoter methylation in the DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3L MLH1, MGMT, and WIF1 gene promoters. RESULTS: No pathologic germline mutations were observed in any DNA-methyltransferase gene. However, the T allele of rs62106244 (intron 10 of DNMT1 gene was over-represented in cases with HPS (p<0.01 compared with population controls. The DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B promoters were unmethylated in all instances. Interestingly, the DNMT3L promoter showed low levels of methylation in polyps and normal colonic mucosa relative to matched disease free cells with methylation level negatively correlated to expression level in normal colonic tissue. DNMT3L promoter hypomethylation was more often found in polyps harbouring KRAS mutations (p = 0.0053. BRAF mutations were common (11 out of 21 polyps, whilst KRAS mutations were identified in 4 of 21 polyps. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or epigenetic alterations in DNMT genes do not appear to be associated with HPS, but further investigation of genetic variation at rs62106244 is justified given the high frequency of the minor allele in this case series.

  2. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  3. The Eosinophil in Health and Disease: from Bench to Bedside and Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Long, Hai; Chang, Christopher Chia-Chi; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    Historically, eosinophils have been considered as end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasitic infection and in the mechanisms of hypersensitivity. However, later studies have shown that this multifunctional cell is also capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and soluble mediators and is involved in tissue homeostasis and modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, we summarize the biology of eosinophils, including the function and molecular mechanisms of their granule proteins, cell surface markers, mediators, and pathways, and present comprehensive reviews of research updates on the genetics and epigenetics of eosinophils. We describe recent advances in the development of epigenetics of eosinophil-related diseases, especially in asthma. Likewise, recent studies have provided us with a more complete appreciation of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Over the past decades, the definition and criteria of HES have been evolving with the progress of our understanding of the disease and some aspects of this disease still remain controversial. We also review recent updates on the genetic and molecular mechanisms of HES, which have spurred dramatic developments in the clinical strategies of diagnosis and treatment for this heterogeneous group of diseases. The conclusion from this review is that the biology of eosinophils provides significant insights as to their roles in health and disease and, furthermore, demonstrates that a better understanding of eosinophil will accelerate the development of new therapeutic strategies for patients. PMID:26410377

  4. A functional gammadeltaTCR/CD3 complex distinct from gammadeltaT cells is expressed by human eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Legrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are effector cells during parasitic infections and allergic responses. However, their contribution to innate immunity has been only recently unravelled. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that human eosinophils express CD3 and gammadelta T Cell Receptor (TCR but not alphabeta TCR. Surface expression of gammadeltaTCR/CD3 is heterogeneous between eosinophil donors and inducible by mycobacterial ligands. Surface immunoprecipitation revealed expression of the full gammadeltaTCR/CD3 complex. Real-time PCR amplification for CD3, gamma and delta TCR constant regions transcripts showed a significantly lower expression in eosinophils than in gammadeltaT cells. Limited TCR rearrangements occur in eosinophils as shown by spectratyping analysis of CDR3 length profiles and in situ hybridization. Release by eosinophils of Reactive Oxygen Species, granule proteins, Eosinophil Peroxidase and Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin and cytokines (IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was observed following activation by gammadeltaTCR-specific agonists or by mycobacteria. These effects were inhibited by anti-gammadeltaTCR blocking antibodies and antagonists. Moreover, gammadeltaTCR/CD3 was involved in eosinophil cytotoxicity against tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence that human eosinophils express a functional gammadeltaTCR/CD3 with similar, but not identical, characteristics to gammadeltaTCR from gammadeltaT cells. We propose that this receptor contributes to eosinophil innate responses against mycobacteria and tumors and may represent an additional link between lymphoid and myeloid lineages.

  5. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection. PMID:26801599

  6. Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoram Elitsur

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children.The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011.In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease,there are many areas where scientific data are missing,especially in regard to the disease's pathophysiology.Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinicalphenotypic presentation.Those factors may include place of living,air pollution,race,genetic factors and other.In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors,the new developments,and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

  7. MR imaging of eosinophilic granuloma: report of 11 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings in 11 patients with histologically proven eosinophilic granuloma (EG) examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. In contrast with the variable appearance of EG on conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT), relatively constant features - intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighting, high signal intensity of T2-weighting, marked enhancement - were found on MRI. MRI was superior to other imaging methods in demonstrating bone marrow involvement and any accompanying soft tissue mass or inflammation. Intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighting and marked contrast enhancement could not be 'explained' by histological findings. Prediction of the evolutionary phase of EG by MRI remains questionable because of the phase I (proliferative) histology of all 11 lesions. (orig.)

  8. Cervical spine cord compression by eosinophilic granuloma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Silva, E B; Noujaim J el-K; Carnevale, F

    1999-06-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a term reserved for the most often and benign form of disorder known as Langerhans cells histiocytosis. It is a disease of children and adolescents that very rarely affects adults, representing the localized form of a pathological proliferation of histiocytes in bones, like skull and long bones. Vertebral involvement is uncommon, approximately 8% of the cases, being the cervical localization the least affected. Moreover, the involvement of the spinal cord and roots remains a rare occurrence. Only five cases characterized by signs of cervical spinal cord compression have been reported. We report the sixth case in a 42-year-old-man who evolved with resolution of symptoms, and has remained asymptomatic after treatment. The clinical, radiological and histological features and, also, the value, in selected cases, of surgical treatment followed by low-dose radiation therapy is discussed. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. PMID:10450361

  9. Dividing the Janus vasculitis? Pathophysiology of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigne, Benjamin; Terrier, Benjamin; Thieblemont, Nathalie; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Mouthon, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA) is a rare small- and medium-sized vessel vasculitis belonging to the group of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV). It is commonly divided into two phenotypes depending on the presence of ANCAs targeting myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO-ANCAs are present in 31% to 38% of patients and are associated with a vasculitis phenotype of the disease, whereas patients without MPO-ANCA are at risk of cardiac involvement. Despite significant advances in understanding the overall pathogenesis of the disease, the explanation for this dichotomy is still unclear. In this review, we synthesize our knowledge of the pathogenesis of EGPA and attempt to i) distinguish EGPA from other diseases including other AAVs, asthma, allergy and hypereosinophilic-associated conditions and ii) speculate about the preponderant mechanisms, which could explain the two disease phenotypes. PMID:26506114

  10. 嗜酸粒细胞和嗜酸粒细胞阳离子蛋白在气道高反应性患者诊断中的价值%Diagnostic Value of Eosinophil Count and Eosinophil Cationic Protein in the Patients with Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小军; 聂汉祥; 丁续红; 余红樱; 黄毅; 李清泉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of eosinophil count and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the patients with chronic cough and/or chest tightness and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods: A total of 378 subjects with mild respiratory symptoms were screened through methacholine challenge test (MCT) and the patients with positive MCT were further studied and followed up. They underwent further laboratory studies, including serum eosinophil count, sputum eosinophil count, and sputum ECP analysis. All the patients with AHR were considered suspected diagnosed asthma and were systematic treated according to GINA. A final diagnosis of asthma was made by reactivity to therapy and 24 months' follow-up. Results: Of all the 112 positive subjects, 83 subjects (74.1%) were diagnosed as asthma and 25 (22.3%) subjects were considered non-asthmatics. Serum eosinophil count of the asthma patients was different from that of the non-asthma patients ([4.8±3.5]% vs [1.2±2. 1]%, P<0.01) ; the eosinophil count and ECP of induced sputum in non-asthma group were (2. 1±1.3)% and 57. 7±18. 7 μg/L, respectively, which were lower than those in subjects with asthma (9. 4±3.2 and 289.4± 112.3μg/L, respectively, both P<0.01). The concordance of eosinophil count and ECP of induced sputum was high in the diagnosis of asthma. Conclusion: The sputum eosinophils, ECP and serum eosinophils are important indicators in diagnosing for asthma.%目的:探讨嗜酸粒细胞和嗜酸粒细胞阳离子蛋白(ECP)在气道高反应性患者诊断中的价值.方法:378名慢性咳嗽和/或胸闷病人作激发试验,激发试验阳性者作进一步的检查,包括血清嗜酸粒细胞、痰液嗜酸粒细胞和ECP.排除其它疾病后,这些病人被拟诊为支气管哮喘,根据GINA方案进行规范治疗,并追踪24个月.结果:83名患者诊断为哮喘,25名诊断为非哮喘,哮喘患者血清嗜酸细胞计数为(4.8±3.5)%,明显高于非哮喘患者[(1.2

  11. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

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    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  12. Potential Contribution of IL-7 to Allergen-Induced Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma1

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Koziol, Cynthia; Clay, Kathryn J.; Liu, Linying; Bates, Mary Ellen; Bertics, Paul J.; Jarjour, Nizar N.

    2009-01-01

    The primary function of IL-7 is to promote maturation and survival of T cells. Through microarray expression analysis, we previously observed that human blood eosinophils express mRNA for IL-7Rα (CD127) and its common gamma chain (γc, CD132). The purpose of this study was to determine if eosinophils have functional IL-7 receptors and to assess the potential contribution of IL-7 to eosinophilic airway inflammation by evaluating its presence in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of subjects wit...

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis: Current status = Esofagitis eosinofílica: estado actual

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    Muñoz Ortiz, Édison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is an infiltration of the esophagus by eosinophils, presumably of allergic origin; it may affect both children and adults. In the latter, it is more common in middle-aged men and its main clinical feature in this population is the presence of dysphagia. Knowledge on this disease has had great development in the last 10 years with better understanding of its pathophysiology, and many studies are being done to evaluate different therapeutic alternatives. We present a review of the literature on eosinophilic esophagitis describing the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and therapeutic options.

  14. Overexpression of Caspase-1 in adenocarcinoma of pancreas and chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Mo Yang; Marco Ramadani; Yan-Ting Huang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To identify the expression of Caspase-l(interleukin1.β converting enzyme) and its role in adenoma of the pancreas and chronic pancreatitis.METHODS: The expression of Caspase-1 was assessed in 42 pancreatic cancer tissue samples, 38 chronic pancreatitis specimens, and 9 normal pancreatic tissues by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Overexpression of Caspase-1 was observed in both disorders, but there were differences in the expression patterns in distinct morphologic compartments. Pancreatic cancer tissues showed a clear cytoplasmatic overexpression of Caspase-1 in tumor cells of 71% of the tumors, whereas normal pancreatic tissues showed only occasional immunoreactivity. In chronic pancreatitis, overexpression of Caspase-1 was found in atrophic acinar cells (89 %),hyperplastic ducts (87 %), and dedifferentiating acinar cells (84 %). Although in atrophic cells a clear nuclear expression was found, hyperplastic ducts and dedifferentiating acinar cells showed dear cytoplasmic expression. Western blot analysis revealed a marked expression of the 45 kDa precursor of Caspase-1 in pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis (80 %and 86 %, respectively). Clear bands at 30 kDa, which suggested the p10-p20 heterodimer of active Caspase-1, were found in 60 % of the cancer tissue and 14 % of the pancreatitis tissue specimens, but not in normal pancreatic tissues.CONCLUSION: Overexpression of Caspase-1 is a frequent event in pancreatic disorders and its differential expression patterns may reflect two functions of the protease. One is its participation in the apoptotic pathway in atrophic acinar cells and tumor-surrounding pancreatitis tissue, the other is its possible role in proliferative processes in pancreatic cancer cells and hyperplastic duct cells and dedifferentiating acinar cells in chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J; Burney, Peter G J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celli, Bartolome R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with high global morbidity and mortality. COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airway obstruction, which is confirmed by spirometry, and includes obstruction of the small airways (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis) and emphysema, which lead to air trapping and shortness of breath in response to physical exertion. The most common risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, but other environmental factors, such as exposure to indoor air pollutants - especially in developing countries - might influence COPD risk. Not all smokers develop COPD and the reasons for disease susceptibility in these individuals have not been fully elucidated. Although the mechanisms underlying COPD remain poorly understood, the disease is associated with chronic inflammation that is usually corticosteroid resistant. In addition, COPD involves accelerated ageing of the lungs and an abnormal repair mechanism that might be driven by oxidative stress. Acute exacerbations, which are mainly triggered by viral or bacterial infections, are important as they are linked to a poor prognosis. The mainstay of the management of stable disease is the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, whereas corticosteroids are beneficial primarily in patients who have coexisting features of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation and more reversibility of airway obstruction. Apart from smoking cessation, no treatments reduce disease progression. More research is needed to better understand disease mechanisms and to develop new treatments that reduce disease activity and progression. PMID:27189863

  16. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  17. Circulating fibrosis markers, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil protein X in patients with Wuchereria bancrofti infection: association with clinical status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterre P.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We measured the concentrations of several circulating fibrosis markers (type I collagen I, type III procollagen, hyaluronan and eosinophil granule proteins (ECP and EPX in lymphatic filariasis patients to investigate their relationship with clinical, parasitological and immunological data. This study was conducted in Polynesian patients with various stages of the disease (acute lymphangitis, chyluria, hydrocoele, elephantiasis, a closely related microbial lymphangitis and endemic controls. We observed modifications of the different markers in this pathology. Serum type I collagen and PIIINP were decreased. Serum hyaluronan, linked to perilymphatic granulomatous inflammation, was significantly increased in acute lymphangitis and elephantiasis patients. Serum ECP was also increased, at the limit of significance in our sample, in elephantiasis patients. These two last markers, already validated in another helminth disease, schistosomiasis, have potential interest in terms of follow-up of morbidity in these parasitic diseases.

  18. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a Middle Aged Man After Consumption of Camel Meat

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    K Ummer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a middle aged male who presented with headache and vomiting and later diagnosed to have eosinophilic meningitis as a complication after consumption of camel meat.

  19. Endoscopic findings and pathologic characteristics of gastric eosinophilic granuloma: A report of 18 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Chong Song; Jie-Ping Yu; Lei Shen; Hong Xia; He-Sheng Luo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the endoscopic findings and pathologic characteristics of gastric eosinophilic granuloma(GEG).METHODS: A retrospective study of 18 cases of gastric eosinophilic granulomas was conducted. Gastroscopy was performed and all specimens of biopsies were stained by H&E and observed under light microscopy.RESULTS: Ulcer was the most frequent endoscopic appearance. The others included deformed pylorus and/or duodenal bulb, esophagitis, mucous hyperemia and/or mucosal erosion. Eosinophilic cell infiltration and generous hyperplasia of arterioles, venules and lymph vessels were found in the lesions of the patients.Interstitium had massive eosinophilic infiltrates and was made up of collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Lymphoid follicles were revealed in some sections of biopsies.CONCLUSION: GEG is lack of specific symptoms and physical signs. It can be misdiagnosed as gastric ulcer in most cases before biopsies. Endoscopy and endoscopic multiple deep biopsies in suspected areas are indispensable for correct diagnosis of GEG.

  20. Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN). Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and purification from normal human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Minuva, U; Kharazmi, A; Bendtzen, K

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN) is one of the cationic proteins found in the granules of the human eosinophilic granulocytes. EPX was purified from extracts of granules isolated from blood buffy coat cells of healthy donors. Polyclonal anti-EPX antibodies were subsequ......, but they differed slightly on SDS-PAGE probably due to differences in glycosylation. Our results support the findings that EPX/EDN is identical to a nonsecretory ribonuclease isolated from urine....... were 6.5% and 8.2%, respectively, and the mean recoveries of 25 and 50 pg of purified EPX added to diluted serum samples were 106 +/- 16% (mean +/- SD; n = 12) and 112 +/- 14%, respectively. Using this assay we found high amounts of EPX in normal human urine (U-EPX). U-EPX was purified by a two step...

  1. The pan-B cell marker CD22 is expressed on gastrointestinal eosinophils and negatively regulates tissue eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Mingler, Melissa K; Blanchard, Carine; Wahl, Benjamin; Pabst, Oliver; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2012-02-01

    CD22 is currently recognized as a B cell-specific Siglec and has been exploited therapeutically with humanized anti-CD22 mAb having been used against B cell leukemia. In this study, tissue-specific eosinophil mRNA microarray analysis identified that CD22 transcript levels of murine gastrointestinal (GI) eosinophils are 10-fold higher than those of lung eosinophils. To confirm the mRNA data at the protein level, we developed a FACS-based protocol designed to phenotype live GI eosinophils isolated from the murine lamina propria. Indeed, we found that jejunum eosinophils expressed remarkably high levels of surface CD22, similar to levels found in B cells across multiple mouse strains. In contrast, CD22 was undetectable on eosinophils from the colon, blood, thymus, spleen, uterus, peritoneal cavity, and allergen-challenged lung. Eosinophils isolated from newborn mice did not express CD22 but subsequently upregulated CD22 expression to adult levels within the first 10 d after birth. The GI lamina propria from CD22 gene-targeted mice harbored more eosinophils than wild type control mice, whereas the GI eosinophil turnover rate was unaltered in the absence of CD22. Our findings identify a novel expression pattern and tissue eosinophilia-regulating function for the "B cell-specific" inhibitory molecule CD22 on GI eosinophils. PMID:22190185

  2. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a young girl – long term remission under Montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rump Lars C

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are an emerging disease entity characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. Oral steroids can be still considered as first line treatment. Unfortunately relapses are quite common. Usually long term low-dose prednisone or immunosuppressive therapy is required, which is especially problematic in young patients. Thus a reliable steroid sparing agent with low side effects suitable for long term use is needed. There are strong hints to a similar pathophysiology of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders to that of asthma. Indeed leukotriene D4 plays an important role in the recruitment of eosinophils into the intestinal tissue causing damage. This patho-mechanism provides the rationale for the treatment with a leukotriene D4 receptor antagonist. Recently there have been first reports about successful short term use of Montelukast in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Case presentation We report the case of a 17 year old girl with a long history of severe abdominal complaints leading to several hospitalizations in the past. Mimicking the picture of an intestinal tuberculosis she received an anti mycobacterial treatment without any success. Marked eosinophilia in blood, ascites and tissue samples of the intestinal tract finally lead to the diagnosis eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Tapering off prednisone caused another severe episode of abdominal pain. At that point leukotriene antagonist Montelukast was started at a dose of 10 mg once daily. Steroids could be tapered off completely within six weeks. The patient has been free of symptoms for over two years by now. Routine examinations, blood tests and endoscopy have rendered regular results. So far no side effects were noted. Conclusion Here report about successful long term remission of eosinophilic gastroenteritis under Montelukast. Further randomized control trials are required to asses the full benefits of

  3. Identification of C3 beta chain as the human serum eosinophil cytotoxicity inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    An eosinophil cytotoxicity inhibitor (ECI) was purified from serum of a human subject with severe allergic dermatitis. Molecular weight of the isolated polypeptide (75,000) and its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence identified it as the beta chain of the C3 complement component (apparently free, but perhaps attached to very small fragments of the alpha chain). Free beta chain, prepared from normal plasma by reduction of C3, inhibited both eosinophil cytotoxicity and neutrophil adherence functio...

  4. Eosinophilic pleural effusion and giardiasis: A causal or a casual relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvinderpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion with coincidental intestinal infestation of giardia lamblia is being reported. After reviewing the possible causes of this type of pleural effusion, no clinical or laboratory data were obtained which could explain this condition except giardiasis. Moreover the clearance of pleural effusion with the treatment of giardia with metronidazole suggests giardia as the probable cause of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  5. Eosinophils: Offenders or General Bystanders in Allergic Airway Disease and Pulmonary Immunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Akuthota, Praveen; Xenakis, Jason J.; Weller, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils have long been noted to be present in asthma and other forms of pulmonary inflammation, but whether they act as true offenders or merely as bystanders has been a point of uncertainty. However, in recent years, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that eosinophils are not passive cells in the respiratory system, acting only as markers of allergic inflammation. This review discusses key evidence from animal models and human clinical trials that support the importance of eos...

  6. Eosinophilic pleural effusion and giardiasis: A causal or a casual relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Urvinderpal Singh; Nishi Garg; Vishal Chopra

    2013-01-01

    A case of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion with coincidental intestinal infestation of giardia lamblia is being reported. After reviewing the possible causes of this type of pleural effusion, no clinical or laboratory data were obtained which could explain this condition except giardiasis. Moreover the clearance of pleural effusion with the treatment of giardia with metronidazole suggests giardia as the probable cause of bilateral eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  7. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    D Santhosh Reddy; Sivapathasundharam, B; T R Saraswathi; Sriram, G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were stud...

  8. Local B cells and IgE production in the oesophageal mucosa in eosinophilic oesophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vicario, M; Blanchard, C; Stringer, K F; Collins, M.H.; Mingler, M K; Ahrens, A.; Putnam, P E; Abonia, J P; Santos, J.; Rothenberg, M E

    2009-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) is an emerging yet increasingly prevalent disorder characterised by a dense and selective eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal wall. While EO is considered an atopic disease primarily triggered by food antigens, disparities between standard allergen testing and clinical responses to exclusion diets suggest the participation of distinct antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the pathophysiology of EO. Aim: To find evidence for a local IgE ...

  9. Effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists on eosinophil adhesion, superoxide anion generation, and degranulation

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Noguchi; Kazuyuki Nakagome; Takehito Kobayashi; Yutaka Ueda; Tomoyuki Soma; Hidetomo Nakamoto; Makoto Nagata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eosinophils play important roles in the development of asthma exacerbation. Viral infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbation, and the expression of IFN-γ-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) is up-regulated in virus-induced asthma. As β2-adrenergic agonists, such as formoterol or salbutamol, are used to treat asthma exacerbation, we examined whether formoterol or salbutamol could modify eosinophil functions such as adhesiveness, particular...

  10. A rapid and simple method for the isolation of pure eosinophilic leukocytes from horse blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörg, A; Portmann, P; Fellay, G; Dreyer, J L; Meyer, J

    1978-12-15

    An improved and short method is described for the isolation of intact eosinophilic leukocytes from horse blood with high yield (1--1.5 g/20 l). Viability and purity of the preparations were verified by light and electron microscopy and by the trypan blue exclusion test. Isolated eosinophils were 98--100% pure, intact and viable, and they could be shown to phagocytise immune-complexes. PMID:729750

  11. Ascaris‐induced eosinophilic pneumonitis in an HIV‐infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Susanna Kar Pui; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Ma, Edmond S K; Yuen, Kwok‐Yung

    2007-01-01

    A case of Ascaris-induced eosinophilic pneumonitis in an HIV-infected patient is described. Owing to his HIV status and the absence of peripheral blood eosinophilia on admission, the initial diagnosis was incorrect until the passage of two worms in his stool. The patient developed eosinophilia subsequently, and examination of his sputum also showed increased eosinophils. The patient gradually improved with inhaled bronchodilators, steroid and mebendazole. As peripheral blood eosinophilia may ...

  12. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome - A Rare Combination

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Traif, I; Jewell, L.; Thomson, ABR

    1992-01-01

    A case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and profound weight loss is presented. Because of inability to tolerate glucocorticosteroids, symptoms were treated with sodium chromoglycate and an elemental diet given by jejunostomy. The patient did well on this program. The gastrointestinal manifestations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are reviewed as well as the treatment modali...

  13. Objective quantitative analysis of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells in induced sputum by laser scanning cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Woltmann, G; Ward, R.; Symon, F; Rew, D.; Pavord, I.; Wardlaw, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sputum induction is an important non-invasive technique for measuring airway inflammation in asthma. Cell numbers are often too low for flow cytometric analysis. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a novel technique that allows objective multicolour fluorescence analysis of cells on a microscope slide.
METHODS—LSC was used to determine sputum eosinophil and bronchial epithelial cell counts. We first confirmed that we could measure eosinophil counts accurately in ...

  14. Elevated IgG antibody to Sarcocystis cruzi associated with eosinophilic myositis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, R W; Fox, J C

    1989-01-01

    Blood sera, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle from 24 bovine carcasses condemned for eosinophilic myositis by US Department of Agriculture meat inspection veterinarians were compared with similar specimens from 35 random carcasses passed for human consumption. Fluorescence values determined by using a fluorometric immunoassay system were used to measure the specific antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi. The values were significantly elevated in carcasses condemned for eosinophilic myositis as compared to carcasses passed for human consumption. The elevated fluorescence values appeared to be more than coincidental, suggesting that S. cruzi may be a causative agent of eosinophilic myositis. Microscopic examination of affected muscle revealed lesions typical of eosinophilic myositis. Lesions were characterized by extensive multifocal areas of myofiber hyaline degeneration, necrosis with sarcoplasmic fragmentation, mineralization of occasional myofibers, and atrophy of fibers with varied stages of fibrosis. Inflammatory cell exudates were predominantly eosinophils, with some macrophages and lymphocytes, and extravasated erythrocytes within, and adjacent to, affected myofibers. Affected muscles contained more S. cruzi than unaffected muscle from passed carcasses. However, a distinct cause and effect relationship could not be determined between the parasite and the presence of eosinophilic myositis. PMID:2518705

  15. Uvaol attenuates pleuritis and eosinophilic inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Lais Costa; Lins, Marvin Paulo; da Silva Marques, Patrícia; Smaniotto, Salete; Bandeira de Melo, Christianne; Lagente, Vincent; Barreto, Emiliano

    2016-06-01

    Uvaol, a triterpene present in olives and virgin olive oil, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant effects. However, until now, no studies have demonstrated its potential effects on allergic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of uvaol in a mouse model of allergy characterized by eosinophil-dominant inflammation in actively sensitized mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of uvaol was analyzed in two murine models of allergic inflammation (pleurisy and asthma). In these models, Swiss mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). In the pleurisy model, the pleural eosinophilic inflammation and IL-5 concentrations were examined 24h after the OVA challenge, while in the asthma model were examined the airway inflammation via bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and lung histopathology analyses. Our results showed that uvaol decreased the accumulation of eosinophils and the concentration of IL-5 in pleural effluent. Uvaol also demonstrated important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting production of IL-5 and influx of leukocytes, mainly of eosinophils, in BAL fluid, but without interfering with levels of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes. Moreover, the eosinophil infiltration, mucus production, number of alveoli that collapsed, and IL-5 levels in the lung were clearly decreased by uvaol treatment. These findings indicate that uvaol can be a good candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammation by inhibiting eosinophil influx and IL-5 production in ovalbumin-induced allergy. PMID:27038519

  16. Analysis of eosinophils and myeloid progenitor responses to modified forms of MPIF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, K J; Yao, X T; Kreider, B; Olsen, H S; Morris, T S; Zhang, L; Sanyal, I; Nardelli, B; Zukauskas, D; Brewer, L; Bong, G W; Kim, Y; Garotta, G; Salcedo, T W

    2001-02-21

    Myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor (MPIF)-2 is a beta-chemokine with select and potent activities on eosinophils and myeloid progenitors. In the beta-chemokine family, biological activity is modulated by differential processing of the amino-terminus. Here, for MPIF-2, we describe the biological activities of NH(2)-terminal deletion mutants and compare regions necessary for eosinophil and myeloid progenitor activities. Five MPIF-2 proteins with deletions at the amino-terminus were produced in Escherichia coli and assayed for calcium mobilization, chemotaxis and receptor binding activities on eosinophils, and for their ability to inhibit colony formation of human myeloid bone marrow progenitors. For eosinophils, deletion of the first two amino acids did not markedly alter activity, while subsequent truncations result in a complete loss of activity. One of the MPIF-2 mutants, MPIF-2 (P30-R99) was converted from an agonist to an antagonist of eotaxin, MPIF-2 and MCP-4 functional responses in eosinophil calcium flux and chemotaxis assays. Surprisingly, while displaying a complete loss of agonist activity toward eosinophils, MPIF-2 (P30-R99) retains ability to inhibit human bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell colony formation. In addition, processing at the amino terminus of MPIF-2 in vivo, may result in a chemokine with altered biological activities. PMID:11237428

  17. CCL11-induced eosinophils inhibit the formation of blood vessels and cause tumor necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanjiang; Tian, Yijun; Kurosawa, Takamasa; Matsui, Sayaka; Touma, Maki; Yanai, Takanori; Wu, Qiong; Sugimoto, Kenkichi

    2016-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that IL-18 and CCL11 were highly expressed in an NFSA tumor cell line that showed limited angiogenesis and severe necrosis. However, IL-18 was not responsible for the immune cell accumulation and necrosis. Here, we attempted to clarify the relevance of CCL11 in angiogenesis and tumor formation. We established CCL11-overexpressing MS-K cell clones (MS-K-CCL11) to assess the role of CCL11 in immune cell accumulation and angiogenesis. The MS-K-CCL11 cells did not form tumors in mice. MS-K-CCL11-conditioned medium (CM) and recombinant CCL11 induced macrophage and eosinophil differentiation from bone marrow cells. The MS-K-CCL11-CM effectively recruited the differentiated eosinophils. Furthermore, the eosinophils damaged the MS-K, NFSA and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of an antagonist of CCR3, a CCL11 receptor, to NFSA tumor-bearing mice restored the blood vessel formation and blocked the eosinophil infiltration into the NFSA tumors. Furthermore, other CCL11-overexpressing LM8 clones were established, and their tumor formation ability was reduced compared to the parental LM8 cells, accompanied by increased eosinophil infiltration, blockade of angiogenesis and necrosis. These results indicate that CCL11 was responsible for the limited angiogenesis and necrosis by inducing and attracting eosinophils in the tumors. PMID:27169545

  18. Eosinophil viability is increased by acidic pH in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottyan, Leah C; Collier, Ann R; Cao, Khanh H; Niese, Kathryn A; Hedgebeth, Megan; Radu, Caius G; Witte, Owen N; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Rothenberg, Marc E; Zimmermann, Nives

    2009-09-24

    The microenvironment of the lung in asthma is acidic, yet the effect of acidity on inflammatory cells has not been well established. We now demonstrate that acidity inhibits eosinophil apoptosis and increases cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner between pH 7.5 and 6.0. Notably, acidity induced eosinophil cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production and enhanced cellular viability in an adenylate cyclase-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identify G protein-coupled receptor 65 (GPR65) as the chief acid-sensing receptor expressed by eosinophils, as GPR65-deficient eosinophils were resistant to acid-induced eosinophil cAMP production and enhanced viability. Notably, GPR65(-/-) mice had attenuated airway eosinophilia and increased apoptosis in 2 distinct models of allergic airway disease. We conclude that eosinophil viability is increased in acidic microenvironments in a cAMP- and GPR65-dependent manner. PMID:19641187

  19. Eosinophilic Digestive Disease (EDD and Allergic Bronchial Asthma; Two Diseases or Expression of One Disease in Two Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot Mostafa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eosinophilic digestive disease (EDD includes a broad spectrum of clinical presentations due to eosinophilic inflammation involving anywhere from the esophagus to the rectum. The heterogeneity in the clinical presentations of EDD is determined by the site and depth of eosinophilic infiltration. The sites of inflammation determine the nomenclature for EDD. The most well characterized of these, eosinophilic esophagitis (EE, eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG, and eosinophilic colitis or enterocolitis. While the depth of esosinophilic infiltration through the three main layers (mucosa, musculosa and serosa determines the prominent clinical manifestation. The recent advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy and the increasing awareness and diagnosis of EDD, in my viewpoint, can be of help to add to our understanding of the heterogeneous clinical syndrome under the broad title bronchial asthma. Here I present my viewpoint that EDD and the allergic bronchial asthma can be regarded as two clinical expressions of one disease in two different but related anatomical systems.

  20. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B. [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  1. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  2. [Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with Parkinson's syndrome - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisin, Vesna; Vrabec-Matković, Dragica; Milavac-Puretić, Visnja

    2013-01-01

    We present a 67 year old patient with erythema and swelling of the right arm. Suspected erysipelas and lymphedema are diagnosed at infectious department in the second month of the disease. He was treated with parenteral antibiotics (clindamycin + quinolon). After that, he was hospitalized at rheumatology department as right hand lymphedema, condition after erysipelas, cervicobrachial syndrome and ulnar epicondylitis of right elbow. Lymphatic drainage of right hand was performed, but with no effect. In the seventh month of the disease, the diagnosis of eosinophilic faciitis was established and started treatment with corticosteroids. Besides mentioned, dizziness, tremor, balance disorders, impaired hearing and pain in the cervical and lumbar spine were apeared. The therapy was introduced with levodopa and ropanirol and there is a slight improvement of neurological manifestations of extrapyramidal syndrome. After 18 months of disease the patient has a contracture of his right shoulder, induration and painful movements right forearm, pronounced tremor of the head and hands, balance disorders, neck pain and back pain, difficulty in walking. PMID:24003683

  3. Interactions between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; van Rhijn, Bram D

    2015-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is the most common oesophageal disorder, whereas eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease unresponsive to PPI therapy. Updated guidelines in 2011 described proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), a novel phenotype in EoE patients who were responsive to PPIs. This article aims to update the complex interplay between GORD, EoE and PPIs. Oesophageal mucosal integrity is diffusely impaired in EoE and PPI-REE patients. PPI-REE might occur with either normal or pathological pH monitoring. The genetic hallmark of EoE is overlapped in PPI-REE, but not in GORD. PPIs can partially restore epithelial integrity and reverse allergic inflammation gene expression in PPI-REE. Acid hypersensitivity in EoE patients may explain symptomatic but not histological response on PPIs. Unsolved issues with PPI-REE are whether oesophageal barrier impairment is the cause or the effect of oesophageal eosinophilia and whether PPIs primarily targets barrier integrity or oesophageal inflammation. PMID:26552774

  4. A comparison of the inhibitory activity of selective PDE4 inhibitors on eosinophil recruitment in guinea pig skin

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Mauro M.; JM Miotla; Cooper, N.; RW Gristwood; PG Hellewell

    1997-01-01

    The elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibt eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram an...

  5. Disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of a newborn infant, with perforation of the terminal ileum and bile duct obstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, S. M.; Woods, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    A preterm boy died 4 days after delivery from septicaemia which at necropsy was found to be due to perforation of an eosinophilic lesion of the terminal ileum. Eosinophilic infiltration was also found in kidney, lymph node, bone marrow, portal tracts of liver, gall bladder, and bile duct with associated obstruction of the cystic duct and mucocele of the gall bladder. No allergic cause for the infiltrate was found in either the infant or his mother. Eosinophilic infiltration of neonatal spleen...

  6. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of 3H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, 3H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of 3H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease. (J.P.N.)

  7. Phenotype of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Chin Kook

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping characteristics of both diseases. By spirometric definition, patients with both fixed airflow obstruction (AO) and bronchodilator reversibility or fixed AO and bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be considered to have asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, patients regarded to have ACOS by spirometric criteria alone are heterogeneous and can be classified by phenotype. Eosinophilic inflammation, a ...

  8. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mamôru Sakae

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone; and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. RESULTS: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (↓8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001, sputum IL-5 (↓83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001, and sputum ECP (↓267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001, as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (↑8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1.

  9. Evaluation of D-dimer serum levels among patients with chronic urticaria, psoriasis and urticarial vasculitis*

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Antinori, Lidi Che Leon; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been demonstrated that neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes, under appropriated stimulus, may express tissue factor and therefore, activate the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. We performed a transversal and case-control study of patients with chronic urticaria and patients with psoriasis, in our outpatient clinic to evaluate the production of D-dimer. OBJECTIVE To evaluate D-dimer serum levels in patients with chronic urticaria and its possible correlation with disease a...

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough in China: an insight into the status quo

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kefang; Luo, Wei; Zeng, Guangqiao; Zhong, Nanshan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cough is a very common complaint in clinics throughout China. Clinical and basic science research on chronic cough started late, but in recent years the effort has yielded promising findings regarding the etiological diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis. We found that inflammation in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis has some similarities to cough variant asthma but also a number of distinct differences. Recent evidence has also suggested a mechanistic link between airway neurogen...

  11. Molecular cloning of the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: A member of the ribonuclease gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated a 725-base-pair cDNA clone for human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a distinct cationic protein of the eosinophil's large specific granule known primarily for its ability to induce ataxia, paralysis, and central nervous system cellular degeneration in experimental animals (Gordon phenomenon). The open reading frame encodes a 134-amino acid mature polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa and a 27-residue amino-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence. The sequence of the mature polypeptide is identical to that reported for human urinary ribonuclease, and to the amino-terminal sequence of human liver ribonuclease; the cDNA encodes a tryptophan in position 7. Both EDN and the related granule protein, eosinophil cationic protein, have ribonucleolytic activity; sequence similarities among EDN, eosinophil cationic protein, ribonucleases from liver, urine, and pancreas, and angiogenin define a ribonuclease multigene family. mRNA encoding EDN was detected in uninduced HL-60 cells and was up-regulated in cells induced toward eosinophilic differentiation with B-cell growth factor 2/interleukin 5 and toward neutrophilic differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide. EDN mRNA was detected in mature neutrophils even though EDN-like neurotoxic activity is not found neutrophil extracts. These results suggest that neutrophils contain a protein that is closely related or identical to EDN

  12. Cutting edge: histamine is required for IL-4-driven eosinophilic allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Julie A; Byrne, Adam J; Bryce, Paul J

    2012-01-15

    Histamine is an important allergic mediator, and studies have defined roles for both histamine 1 and 4 receptors in allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that histamine is necessary to generate IL-4-driven eosinophilic inflammation, as histamine-deficient mice cannot generate eosinophilic lung inflammation in response to intratracheal IL-4 and exogenous histamine restores responsiveness. This is histamine 2 receptor (H2R) dependent because H2R knockout mice fail to respond to IL-4, and a H2R agonist restores inflammation in histidine decarboxylase knockout. Furthermore, alveolar epithelial cells require H2R to produce CCL24, an eosinophil recruitment factor, whereas H2R blockade reduces CCL24 production from wild-type cells. In an allergic inflammation model, H2R knockout mice show significantly reduced eosinophilic inflammation and CCL24 expression. These data demonstrate a previously unidentified role for H2R in allergic inflammation and establishes a synergy between endogenous histamine and IL-4 that supports eosinophilic recruitment to the lung. PMID:22156496

  13. Histamine is required for IL-4-driven eosinophilic allergic responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Julie A.; Byrne, Adam J.; Bryce, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Histamine is an important allergic mediator and studies have defined roles for both histamine 1 and 4 receptors (H1R and H4R) in allergic airway inflammation. Here, we show that histamine is necessary to generate IL-4-driven eosinophilic inflammation, as histamine deficient mice cannot generate eosinophilic lung inflammation in response to intratracheal IL-4 and exogenous histamine restores responsiveness. This is histamine 2 receptor (H2R) dependent since H2R KO mice fail to respond to IL-4, and a H2R agonist restores inflammation in HDC KO. Furthermore, alveolar epithelial cells require H2R in order to produce CCL24, an eosinophil recruitment factor, while H2R blockade reduces CCL24 production from WT cells. In an allergic inflammation model, H2R KO mice show significantly reduced eosinophilic inflammation and CCL24 expression. These data demonstrate a previously unidentified role for H2R in allergic inflammation and establishes a synergy between endogenous histamine and IL-4 that supports eosinophilic recruitment to the lung. PMID:22156496

  14. Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a 14-month-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Neul Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (IAEP, characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure associated with diffuse radiographic infiltrates and pulmonary eosinophilia, is rarely reported in children. Diagnosis is based on an association of characteristic features including acute respiratory failure with fever, bilateral infiltrates on the chest X-ray, severe hypoxemia and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid &gt;25% eosinophils or a predominant eosinophilic infiltrate in lung biopsies in the absence of any identifiable etiology. We present a 14-month-old girl who was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit because of acute respiratory distress. She had a fever, dry cough, and progressive dyspnea for 1 day. Chest X-ray showed multifocal consolidations, increased interstitial markings, parenchymal emphysema and pneumothorax. IAEP was confirmed by marked pulmonary infiltrates of eosinophils in the lung biopsy specimen. Most known causes of acute eosinophilic pneumonia, such as exposure to causative drugs, toxins, second-hand smoking and infections were excluded. Her symptoms were resolved quickly after corticosteroid therapy.

  15. Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia with Abnormal Eosinophils: A Case Report with Multi- Modality Diagnostic Work-up

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    Ching-Cherng Tzeng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities often carries a favorableprognosis. AML with inv(16(p13q22 occurs predominantly in younger patients and usually showsgranulocytic and monocytic differentiation with abnormal eosinophils. It is referred to as acutemyelomonocytic leukemia with abnormal eosinophils (AMML Eo. We report a case in a 27-year-oldman with leukocytosis (10.6x103/μL with 34% blasts, thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Marrowaspiration showed 47% blasts and 33% eosinophils, of which 19% were morphologically abnormalwith both eosinophilic and basophilic cytoplasmic granules. Cytochemically, the blasts were positivefor myeloperoxidase while the granules of abnormal eosinophils were positive for naphthol ASDchloroacetate esterase. With flow cytometric immunophenotyping the blasts expressed CD13, CD33,CD117, myeloperoxidase and CD34. Marrow trephine showed 90% cellularity with 40% blastsexpressing CD34, CD117, and myeloperoxidase on immunohistochemistry. Chromosomal analysisreveled a karyotype of 46, XY, inv(16(p13q22. This case illustrates a typical AMML Eo confirmedby a multi-modality diagnostic approach including morphology, cytochemistry, flow cytometry,immunohistochemistry, and conventional cytogenetic study.

  16. Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Asthma: Implications for Eosinophilic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redwan Moqbel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the treatment and management of asthma have suggested that leukotriene (LT receptor antagonists may be very beneficial as a second generation therapy with steroid-sparing properties and negligible side effects. These agents have shown interesting effects on peripheral blood and sputum eosinophils. A major contributor to the damage in the airway of asthmatic patients is the eosinophil, which, upon activation, releases a battery of granule-associated cytotoxic, cationic proteins, including the major basic protein and eosinophil peroxidase, and membrane-derived de novo-synthesized bioactive lipid mediators, including LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, as well as platelet activating factor. These products have deleterious effects on the airway tissue including mucosal and smooth muscle layers. Accumulating evidence suggests that these agents may also influence the accumulation and maintenance of eosinophilic responses at the site of inflammation. This article reviews the possible anti-inflammatory mode of action of these therapies. It also discusses where there may be a gap in the knowledge regarding the potential direct and indirect effects of LT modifiers on eosinophil function and recruitment.

  17. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  18. Significance of eosinophils in diagnosing Hashimoto′s thyroiditis on fine-needle aspiration cytology

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    Ekambaram Maheswari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in those areas of the world where iodine levels are sufficient. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can accurately diagnose this lesion in most of the patients. However, a small percentage of cases may be missed due to inherent limitations of this procedure. Therefore, cytologic clues to increase sensitivity of diagnosis need to be searched for. Aims: To assess whether an eosinophilic infiltration of the thyroid gland has a higher association with HT than colloid goiter. Materials and Methods: The study was a case-control study. Smears obtained by FNAC of 50 case, each of HT (which served as cases and colloid goiter (which served as controls were observed. The number of eosinophils and neutrophils per high-power field (HPF was counted in all the smears. The eosinophil-neutrophil ratio in the smears, diagnosed as HT, was then compared with that of colloid goiter using unpaired t-test. Results: Smears diagnosed as HT was found to have a significantly higher eosinophil-neutrophil ratio than smears diagnosed as colloid goiter (P value 0.0001. Conclusion: Eosinophilic infiltration of the thyroid gland has higher association with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  19. Immunohistological evaluation of feline herpesvirus-1 infection in feline eosinophilic dermatoses or stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meichet; Bosward, Katrina L; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2010-02-01

    This study used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and histopathology to evaluate the presence of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) in feline cases of 'eosinophilic granuloma complex' (EGC) or other eosinophilic dermatoses or stomatitis, diagnosed at the Veterinary Pathology Diagnostic Service, University of Sydney between January 1996 and June 2008. Two of the 30 cases (6.6%) examined showed positive immunoreactivity to FHV-1 using IHC. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were also detected on histopathological examination of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of both cases but were very difficult to find. Therefore, FHV-1 is uncommonly associated with EGC or other eosinophilic dermatoses or stomatitis in Sydney. However, misdiagnosis as an EGC lesion or other eosinophilic dermatoses may occur if inclusion bodies are overlooked or absent on histopathology and this may significantly decrease the chance of a favourable treatment outcome. FHV-1 should be considered in cats with severe ulcerative cutaneous or oral lesions, unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment, with or without concurrent or historical signs of upper respiratory tract or ocular disease more typical of FHV-1. IHC may be helpful in differentiating FHV-1 dermatitis or stomatitis from other eosinophilic lesions, which is of vital clinical and therapeutic importance. PMID:20113951

  20. Identification of JAK2 as a mediator of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-induced eosinophil growth and function in CEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha fusion gene (F/P arising in the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC,causes 14% to 60% of patients with hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES. These patients, classified as having F/P (+ chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL, present with clonal eosinophilia and display a more aggressive disease phenotype than patients with F/P (- HES patients. The mechanisms underlying predominant eosinophil lineage targeting and the cytotoxicity of eosinophils in this leukemia remain unclear. Given that the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat signaling pathway is key to cytokine receptor-mediated eosinophil development and activated Stat3 and Stat5 regulate the expression of genes involved in F/P malignant transformation, we investigated whether and how JAK proteins were involved in the pathogenesis of F/P-induced CEL. F/P activation of JAK2, Stat3 and Stat5, were confirmed in all the 11 F/P (+ CEL patients examined. In vitro inhibition of JAK2 in EOL-1, primary F/P(+ CEL cells (PC and T674I F/P Imatinib resistant cells(IR by either JAK2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA or the tryphostin derivative AG490(AG490, significantly reduced cellular proliferation and induced cellular apoptosis. The F/P can enhance the IL-5-induced JAK2 activation, and further results indicated that JAK2 inhibition blocked IL-5-induced cellular migration and activation of the EOL-1 and PC cells in vitro. F/P-stimulation of the JAK2 suppressed cells led to a significantly reduction in Stat3 activation, but relatively normal induction of Stat5 activation. Interestingly, JAK2 inhibition also reduced PI3K, Akt and NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed expression levels of c-Myc and Survivin. These results strongly suggest that JAK2 is activated by F/P and is required for F/P stimulation of cellular proliferation and infiltration, possibly through

  1. Th2 cytokines and asthma — The role of interleukin-5 in allergic eosinophilic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Richard W

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interleukin-5 is produced by a number of cell types, and is responsible for the maturation and release of eosinophils in the bone marrow. In humans, interleukin-5 is a very selective cytokine as a result of the restricted expression of the interleukin-5 receptor on eosinophils and basophils. Eosinophils are a prominent feature in the pulmonary inflammation that is associated with allergic airway diseases, suggesting that inhibition of interleukin-5 is a viable treatment. The present review addresses the data that relate interleukin-5 to pulmonary inflammation and function in animal models, and the use of neutralizing anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of asthma in humans.

  2. Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen L; Siersma, Volkert D; Hasselbalch, Hans C;

    2015-01-01

    . From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one differential cell count encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007 and matched these laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers. We used multivariable...... logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16x10(9) /l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above...... malignancies and mortality even below the definition of eosinophilia. The observed plateau of risks around 1.0x10(9) /l is important for physicians encountering patients with eosinophilia since even mild-to-moderate eosinophilia according to traditional definitions confers maximally increased risks of...

  3. The transcription factor XBP1 is selectively required for eosinophil differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettigole, Sarah E.; Lis, Raphael; Adoro, Stanley; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Spencer, Lisa A.; Weller, Peter F.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor XBP1 has been linked to the development of highly secretory tissues such as plasma cells and Paneth cells, yet its function in granulocyte maturation has remained unknown. Here we discovered an unexpectedly selective and absolute requirement for XBP1 in eosinophil differentiation without an effect on the survival of basophils or neutrophils. Progenitors of myeloid cells and eosinophils selectively activated the endoribonuclease IRE1α and spliced Xbp1 mRNA without inducing parallel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways. Without XBP1, nascent eosinophils exhibited massive defects in the post-translational maturation of key granule proteins required for survival, and these unresolvable structural defects fed back to suppress critical aspects of the transcriptional developmental program. Hence, we present evidence that granulocyte subsets can be distinguished by their differential reliance on secretory-pathway homeostasis. PMID:26147683

  4. Eosinophils and mast cells as therapeutic targets in pediatric functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig; A; Friesen; Jennifer; V; Schurman; Jennifer; M; Colombo; Susan; M; Abdel-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing appreciation for the importance of inflammation as a pathophysiologic entity that contributes to functional gastrointestinal disorders including functional dyspepsia(FD).Importantly,inflammation may serve as a mediator between psychologic and physiologic functions.This manuscript reviews the literature implicating two inflammatory cell types,mast cells and eosinophils,in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms and explores their potential as targets for the treatment of FD.There are a number of inciting events which may initiate an inflammatory response,and the subsequent recruitment and activation of mast cells and eosinophils.These include internal triggers such as stress and anxiety,as well as external triggers such as microbes and allergens.Previous studies suggest that there may be efficacy in utilizing medications directed at mast cells and eosinophils.Evidence exists to suggest that combining "anti-inflammatory" medications with other treatments targeting stress can improve the rate of symptom resolution in pediatric FD.

  5. Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kleniewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented. Med Pr 2013;64(4:569–578

  6. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. PMID:26939881

  7. Emergency cesarean section as a result of acute eosinophilic pneumonia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Yasushi; Shiota, Mitsuru; Umemoto, Masahiko; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Tobiume, Takako; Tsuritani, Hiromitsu; Shimaoka, Masao; Doh, Kunihiko; Hoshiai, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltrative shadows on radiography. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia follows an acute course within 1 week and the symptoms include fever, dyspnea, and cough. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia has a good prognosis and responds promptly to steroid treatments. Here we present a critical case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia during pregnancy, which led to emergency cesarean section because of fetal distress. The patient was a 24-year-old gravida at 34 + 6 weeks gestation, with fever, and an elevated CRP; thus antibiotics were started. At 35 + 1 weeks gestation, cardiotocography (CTG) revealed late decelerations, fetal distress was diagnosed, and an emergency cesarean section was performed. The pre-operative maternal blood gas analysis showed a low PaO(2) of 55.7 mmHg and a chest X-ray revealed ground-glass opacities and pleural effusions in the middle lower lung fields bilaterally. A male of 2,336 g in weight was delivered with Apgar scores of 8 and 8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. Due to the clinical progress and the elevated eosinophil count (532/microl) in the peripheral blood differential leukocyte count, the diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was made. With the administration of oxygen and steroid treatment, the patient's general condition recovered. Both the mother and the baby were discharged on the 10(th) post-operative day and the patient has been leading a normal life with no recurrence for > 3 years since delivery. PMID:19851054

  8. Gamma-delta T lymphocytes coordinate eosinophil influx during allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Das GraçasMuller De OliveiraHenriques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue eosinophil infiltration, which is a hallmark of allergic and helminthic diseases, is mainly coordinated by T lymphocytes, via the production of eosinophilotactic chemokines. Among T lymphocyte subsets, lymphocytes expressing gamma delta TCR have been determined as a key factor for eosinophil accumulation via direct and indirect mechanisms. This knowledge is strongly supported by the fact that, in different experimental models of eosinophilic airway inflammation and helminth-induced Th2 lung inflammation, an evident tissue accumulation of gamma delta T lymphocytes is observed. In addition, the depletion of gamma delta T lymphocytes is correlated with the impairment of eosinophil accumulation in inflamed tissue. Gamma delta T lymphocytes are non-conventional T lymphocytes, which comprise a minor T lymphocyte subset, mainly distributed in the tissue, and present crucial roles in innate and acquired immune responses. Gamma delta T lymphocytes recognize several danger- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and stress antigens in a MHC-independent fashion and can provide rapid tissue-specific responses, via the production of a wide range of chemical mediators capable to modulate other cell populations. These mediators include chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines that attract eosinophils into the tissue by either direct recognition (such as IL-5, CCL11/eotaxin, or indirect mechanisms via the modulation of alpha beta T lymphocytes and macrophages (through the production of interferon-γ, IL-4 and CCL2/MCP-1, for example. The present review presents an overview of how gamma delta T lymphocytes coordinate eosinophil accumulation in allergy, by focusing on their role in airway inflammation and by discussing the involvement of cytokines and chemokines in this phenomenon.

  9. Genetic factors explain half of all variance in serum eosinophil cationic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, C.; Sverrild, A.; van der Sluis, S.;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundEosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is one of four basic proteins of the secretory granules of eosinophils. It has a variety of functions associated with inflammatory responses. Little is known about the causes for variation in serum ECP levels. AimTo identify factors associated with...... variation in serum ECP and to determine the relative proportion of the variation in ECP due to genetic and non-genetic factors, in an adult twin sample. MethodsA sample of 575 twins, selected through a proband with self-reported asthma, had serum ECP, lung function, airway responsiveness to methacholine...

  10. Effect of lodoxamide and disodium cromoglycate on tear eosinophil cationic protein in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, A.; Borghesan, F.; Avarello, A.; Plebani, M.; Secchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To validate the use of tear eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a marker for eosinophil activation, and its pharmacological modulation, in addition to evaluating the efficacy of lodoxamide and sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—Tears were collected from 30 patients affected by active mild to moderate VKC before and after therapy with disodium cromoglycate 4% (DSCG) (n=15) or lodoxamide 0.1% (n=15) for 10 days. Tear cytology and ECP measurem...

  11. Histamine is required for IL-4-driven eosinophilic allergic responses1

    OpenAIRE

    Swartzendruber, Julie A.; Byrne, Adam J.; Bryce, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Histamine is an important allergic mediator and studies have defined roles for both histamine 1 and 4 receptors (H1R and H4R) in allergic airway inflammation. Here, we show that histamine is necessary to generate IL-4-driven eosinophilic inflammation, as histamine deficient mice cannot generate eosinophilic lung inflammation in response to intratracheal IL-4 and exogenous histamine restores responsiveness. This is histamine 2 receptor (H2R) dependent since H2R KO mice fail to respond to IL-4,...

  12. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  13. The Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (eosinophilic granuloma) of the cervical spine: a rare diagnosis of cervical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanski, C; Bouillon, B; Brockmann, M; Tiling, T

    2004-05-01

    We present the case of a 44-year-old man who complained of cervical pain. He was treated with physiotherapy and analgetics. Because of persistent pain, computed tomography (CT) scan and MRI were performed. They revealed an osteolytic destruction of the fourth cervical vertebra. The patient was treated surgically for removal of the tumor and stabilization of his cervical spine. Histology of the osteolytic material led to the diagnosis of an eosinophilic granuloma of the cervical spine. This case report describes the incidence, clinical significance, background and therapy of an eosinophilic granuloma of the spine. PMID:15120180

  14. Eosinophilic cystitis mimicking tuberculosis: An analysis of five cases with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cystitis (EC is a rare disease. It is a transmural inflammation of the bladder, predominantly with eosinophils. High index of suspicion is needed for timely intervention. EC should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms due to small capacity bladder with a negative workup for urinary tuberculosis and in patients having hematuria and negative cytology, or incidentally found bladder lesions with known risk factors. Initial treatment is conservative with removal of risk factor, anti-histaminics and steroids. Augmentation cystoplasty should be considered in patients with a small capacity bladder. These patients need a strict and long term follow-up.

  15. MRI findings of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To study the imaging characteristics of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen MRI examinations of the brain and spinal cord in five patients with angiostrongyliasis cantonensis of the central nervous system were performed. The final diagnosis was based on typical clinical symptoms, results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, and the presence of nematode larvae in the CSF. The sequential MRI follow-up examinations were carried out at a different stage for every patient from 1 to 28 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The features of the lesions in the brain, spinal cord, meninges and nerve roots on MRI were studied, moreover, the development of the lesions was analysed on follow-up MRI. RESULTS: Abnormalities were demonstrated on MRI in all five cases. They included three cases of meningoencephalitis, one case of encephalitis and one myelomeningitis. The locations and appearances of the lesions were as follows: (1) brain involvement in four cases (including cerebrum in four, cerebellum in two and brain stem in three), and spinal cord involvement in one case. These lesions were diffuse or scattered and appeared as similar or slightly reduced signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI), high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and turbo fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequence (FLAIR) images. After administration of gadolinium chelate (Gd-DTPA), multiple round or oval enhancing nodules, with diameters ranging from 3 to 10 mm, were seen on T1WI, a few lesions appeared as stick-shaped enhancement whose longest measurement was 14 mm. Diffuse or local oedema around the lesion could be seen. (2) Meningeal involvement in four cases, a case of ependymal involvement and a case of nerve root involvement were among them. These lesions appeared as linear or nodular enhancement of the leptomeninges and ependyma, as well as nerve root

  16. Effectiveness of Dietary Allergen Exclusion Therapy on Eosinophilic Colitis in Chinese Infants and Young Children ≤ 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet, anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ≤3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ≥20 hpf−1 from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children’s hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ≤3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion.

  17. CD63 is tightly associated with intracellular, secretory events chaperoning piecemeal degranulation and compound exocytosis in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Lívia A S; Bonjour, Kennedy; Ueki, Shigeharu; Neves, Josiane S; Liu, Linying; Spencer, Lisa A; Dvorak, Ann M; Weller, Peter F; Melo, Rossana C N

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of presynthesized, granule-stored mediators that determine the course of allergic, inflammatory, and immunoregulatory responses. CD63, a member of the transmembrane-4 glycoprotein superfamily (tetraspanins) and present on the limiting membranes of eosinophil-specific (secretory) granules, is considered a potential surface marker for eosinophil degranulation. However, the intracellular secretory trafficking of CD63 in eosinophils and other leukocytes is not understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive investigation of CD63 trafficking at high resolution within human eosinophils stimulated with inflammatory stimuli, CCL11 and tumor necrosis factor α, which induce distinctly differing secretory processes in eosinophils: piecemeal degranulation and compound exocytosis, respectively. By using different transmission electron microscopy approaches, including an immunonanogold technique, for enhanced detection of CD63 at subcellular compartments, we identified a major intracellular pool of CD63 that is directly linked to eosinophil degranulation events. Transmission electron microscopy quantitative analyses demonstrated that, in response to stimulation, CD63 is concentrated within granules undergoing secretion by piecemeal degranulation or compound exocytosis and that CD63 tracks with the movements of vesicles and granules in the cytoplasm. Although CD63 was observed at the cell surface after stimulation, immunonanogold electron microscopy revealed that a strong CD63 pool remains in the cytoplasm. It is remarkable that CCL11 and tumor necrosis factor α triggered increased formation of CD63(+) large vesiculotubular carriers (eosinophil sombrero vesicles), which fused with granules in the process of secretion, likely acting in the intracellular translocation of CD63. Altogether, we identified active, intracellular CD63 trafficking connected to eosinophil granule-derived secretory pathways. This is important for understanding the

  18. Nilotinib and imatinib are comparably effective in reducing growth of human eosinophil leukemia cells in a newly established xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wicklein

    Full Text Available We developed a xenograft model of human Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL to study disease progression and remission-induction under therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors using imatinib and nilotinib as examples. The FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ human CEL cell lineEOL-1 was injected intravenously into scid mice, and MR imaging and FACS analysis of mouse blood samples were performed to monitor disease development and the effects of imatinib and nilotinib. Organ infiltration was analyzed in detail by immunohistochemistry after sacrifice. All animals developed CEL and within one week of therapy, complete remissions were seen with both imatinib and nilotinib, resulting in reduced total tumor volumes by MR-imaging and almost complete disappearance of EOL-1 cells in the peripheral blood and in tissues. The new model system is feasible for the evaluation of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors and our data suggest that nilotinib may be a valuable additional targeted drug active in patients with FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL.

  19. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. PMID:26917244

  20. Anti-Fas mAb-induced apoptosis and cytolysis of airway tissue eosinophils aggravates rather than resolves established inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Carl GA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fas receptor-mediated eosinophil apoptosis is currently forwarded as a mechanism resolving asthma-like inflammation. This view is based on observations in vitro and in airway lumen with unknown translatability to airway tissues in vivo. In fact, apoptotic eosinophils have not been detected in human diseased airway tissues whereas cytolytic eosinophils abound and constitute a major mode of degranulation of these cells. Also, Fas receptor stimulation may bypass the apoptotic pathway and directly evoke cytolysis of non-apoptotic cells. We thus hypothesized that effects of anti-Fas mAb in vivo may include both apoptosis and cytolysis of eosinophils and, hence, that established eosinophilic inflammation may not resolve by this treatment. Methods Weeklong daily allergen challenges of sensitized mice were followed by airway administration of anti-Fas mAb. BAL was performed and airway-pulmonary tissues were examined using light and electron microscopy. Lung tissue analysis for CC-chemokines, apoptosis, mucus production and plasma exudation (fibrinogen were performed. Results Anti-Fas mAb evoked apoptosis of 28% and cytolysis of 4% of eosinophils present in allergen-challenged airway tissues. Furthermore, a majority of the apoptotic eosinophils remained unengulfed and eventually exhibited secondary necrosis. A striking histopathology far beyond the allergic inflammation developed and included degranulated eosinophils, neutrophilia, epithelial derangement, plasma exudation, mucus-plasma plugs, and inducement of 6 CC-chemokines. In animals without eosinophilia anti-Fas evoked no inflammatory response. Conclusion An efficient inducer of eosinophil apoptosis in airway tissues in vivo, anti-Fas mAb evoked unprecedented asthma-like inflammation in mouse allergic airways. This outcome may partly reflect the ability of anti-Fas to evoke direct cytolysis of non-apoptotic eosinophils in airway tissues. Additionally, since most apoptotic tissue

  1. Preferential Secretion of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) by Terminally Differentiated Esophageal Epithelial Cells: Relevance to Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna M; Shen, Dawen; Lee, Anna J; Benitez, Alain; Dods, Kara; Gambanga, Fiona; Wilkins, Benjamin J; Merves, Jamie; Noah, Yuliana; Toltzis, Sarit; Yearley, Jennifer H; Spergel, Jonathan M; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Malefyt, Rene deWaal; Muir, Amanda B; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic Th2 and food antigen-mediated disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), an epithelial derived cytokine which bridges innate and Th2-type adaptive immune responses in other allergic conditions, is overexpressed in esophageal biopsies of EoE subjects. However, the triggers of TSLP expression in the esophageal epithelium are unknown. The objective of the current study was to characterize TSLP expression in human esophageal epithelium in EoE in vivo and to determine the role of food antigens upon epithelial TSLP expression in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we localized TSLP in esophageal biopsies of active EoE (≥15 eos/hpf), inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf) and non-EoE control subjects, and found that TSLP expression was restricted to the differentiated suprabasal layer of the epithelium in actively inflamed EoE biopsies. Consistent with these results in vivo, inducible TSLP protein secretion was higher in CaCl2 differentiated telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) compared to undifferentiated cells of the basal phenotype, following stimulation with the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). To determine whether food antigens could directly induce epithelial TSLP secretion, differentiated and undifferentiated primary esophageal epithelial cells from EoE and non-EoE subjects were challenged with food antigens clinically relevant to EoE: Chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA), wheat, and milk proteins beta-lactoglobulin (blg) and beta-casein. Food antigens failed to induce TSLP secretion by undifferentiated cells; in contrast, only OVA induced TSLP secretion in differentiated epithelial cells from both EoE and control cell lines, an effect abolished by budesonide and NF-κb inhibition. Together, our study shows that specific food antigens can trigger innate immune mediated esophageal TSLP secretion, suggesting that esophageal epithelial cells at the barrier surface

  2. Preferential Secretion of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP by Terminally Differentiated Esophageal Epithelial Cells: Relevance to Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna M Chandramouleeswaran

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a chronic Th2 and food antigen-mediated disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. Thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP, an epithelial derived cytokine which bridges innate and Th2-type adaptive immune responses in other allergic conditions, is overexpressed in esophageal biopsies of EoE subjects. However, the triggers of TSLP expression in the esophageal epithelium are unknown. The objective of the current study was to characterize TSLP expression in human esophageal epithelium in EoE in vivo and to determine the role of food antigens upon epithelial TSLP expression in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC, we localized TSLP in esophageal biopsies of active EoE (≥15 eos/hpf, inactive EoE (<15 eos/hpf and non-EoE control subjects, and found that TSLP expression was restricted to the differentiated suprabasal layer of the epithelium in actively inflamed EoE biopsies. Consistent with these results in vivo, inducible TSLP protein secretion was higher in CaCl2 differentiated telomerase-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT compared to undifferentiated cells of the basal phenotype, following stimulation with the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C. To determine whether food antigens could directly induce epithelial TSLP secretion, differentiated and undifferentiated primary esophageal epithelial cells from EoE and non-EoE subjects were challenged with food antigens clinically relevant to EoE: Chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA, wheat, and milk proteins beta-lactoglobulin (blg and beta-casein. Food antigens failed to induce TSLP secretion by undifferentiated cells; in contrast, only OVA induced TSLP secretion in differentiated epithelial cells from both EoE and control cell lines, an effect abolished by budesonide and NF-κb inhibition. Together, our study shows that specific food antigens can trigger innate immune mediated esophageal TSLP secretion, suggesting that esophageal epithelial cells at the

  3. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N;

    1990-01-01

    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days af...

  4. Gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-like immunoreactivity in blood cells of human eosinophilic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, O; Virtanen, M; Hilliges, M; Hansson, L O

    1991-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of the peptide gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) within human polymorphonuclear leucocytes of blood from eosinophilic patients is described. The gamma-MSH immunoreactivity was observed only in neutrophilic granulocytes leaving all other cell types immuno-negative. PMID:1805488

  5. Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis Post Chemotherapy in a Patient of Non-Hogkins Lymphoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Prachi C; Ghodge, Rakhi R; Bhobe, Mayur R; Shukla, Pankaj R

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) was originally described by Ofuji in Japanese patients without any systemic disease. Later it was widely associated with HIV. Lately a large number of hematological malignancies have been associated with EPF. We hereby report an association of non-Hogkins lymphoma with EPF, probably the first in Indian context. PMID:26538725

  6. [A case of eosinophilic pneumonia caused by inhalation of nickel dusts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, M; Sato, A; Taniguchi, M; Imokawa, S; Nakazawa, K; Hayakawa, H; Chida, K

    1994-05-01

    A 16-year-old male, an industrial high school student working at an ironworks, without a dust mask, began to complain of dry cough and fever several hours after inhalation of stainless steel dusts including 0.1% nickel. A chest X-ray film revealed ground glass shadows, patchy shadows and Kerley B lines in the right lung fields. A high resolution chest CT scan showed fusing panlobular densities, thickening of bronchial walls and thickening of interlobular septa. Blood cells counts revealed leucocytosis with eosinophilia. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia. A bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen showed a marked increase in the total cell count and in eosinophils. A transbronchial biopsy specimen showed eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration in the alveolar septa. Steroid therapy with methylpredonisolne (250 mg x three days) resulted in clinical remission. As we suspected nickel-induced eosinophilic pneumonia, an inhalation provocation test with 0.5% nickel sulfate solution was carried out with the patient's informed consent. Six hours after inhalation he developed a dry cough and fever with leucocytosis and A-aDo2 widening. The positive results of the inhalation provocation test provided a definite diagnosis of nickel induced eosinophilic pneumonia. A review of the world literature revealed three case reports of nickel induced PIE syndrome, all of whom were clinically diagnosed without biopsy however. We believe that this is the first case diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy-proven tissue eosinophilia and a positive nickel inhalation provocation test. PMID:8084105

  7. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome: a diagnostic rarity with an atypical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Raina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 33-year-old woman who presented to us with symptoms of bronchial asthma and peripheral neuropathy. After investigations, the diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatosis and polyangitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome was made.

  8. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the gene encoding human eosinophil differentiation factor (interleukin 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF) gene was cloned from a genomic library in λ phage EMBL3A by using a murine EDF cDNA clone as a probe. The DNA sequence of a 3.2-kilobase BamHI fragment spanning the gene was determined. The gene contains three introns. The predicted amino acid sequence of 134 amino acids is identical with that recently reported for human interleukin 5 but shows no significant homology with other known hemopoietic growth regulators. The amino acid sequence shows strong homology (∼ 70% identity) with that of murine EDF. Recombinant human EDF, expressed from the human EDF gene after transfection into monkey COS cells, stimulated the production of eosinophils and eosinophil colonies from normal human bone marrow but had no effect on the production of neutrophils or mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphoid cells). The apparent specificity of human EDF for the eosinophil lineage in myeloid hemopoiesis contrasts with the properties of human interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors but is directly analogous to the biological properties of murine EDF. Human EDF therefore represents a distinct hemopoietic growth factor that could play a central role in the regulation of eosinophilia

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis - eosinophilic granuloma in the maxillo-facial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) includes three entities with unknown etiology, which have common histological features where the affected tissues are infiltrated with Langerhans cells. LCH (previously known as Histiocytosis X) comprises rare diseases: Eosinophilic granuloma, Hand-Schueller-Christian syndrome, Letterer-Siwe syndrome, Hashimoto-Pritzke syndrome ect. where the accumulation of pathological Langerhans cells lead to destruction of tissues. Therefore the clinical manifestation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis varies from monoosal or polyosal disorders with unifocal or multifocal bone alteration to dessiminative forms affecting many organs and systems. Eosinophilic granuloma - the localized form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis may flow with single or multiple changes in the skeleton, without involving the internal organs. Eosinophilic granuloma in maxillo-facial region can affect each of the bones, but most often found in the mandible (approx. 70%). First clinical symptoms of EG in maxillo-facial region usually take place in the oral cavity and the bone changes are twice as frequent as oral soft tissue's changes. Sometimes oral manifestation - single or multiple bone and oral soft tissue nonspecific lesions could be the first or the only sign of this disease. That's way early symptoms of Eosinophilic granuloma in maxillo-facial region manifested in jaw area can be first recognized by dental professionals. (authors)

  10. Best On-Farm Food Safety Practices: Risks Associated with Rat Lungworm and Human Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of eosinophilic meningitis in Hawai’i have drawn attention to a food-borne parasitic infection that occurs in Hawai‘i, the Pacific Islands, southern and eastern Asia, and elsewhere. In late 2008, the Hawai‘i Department of Health reported that four people on the island of Hawai‘i had bee...

  11. Idiopathic eosinophilic parotitis in an eight-year-old boy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A number of medical conditions, some of them recently reported, are associated with an increased production of eosinophils. We report the first case of eosinophilic parotitis in the literature. Case presentation The patient was an eight-year-old Caucasian boy who presented with a two-year history of recurring acute parotitis with no fever. He had had a total of five episodes with no response to antibiotics, but remission had been achieved with oral corticosteroid therapy. We performed allergy tests for inhalant and food allergens and for haptens, but the results were all negative. The results of echography ruled out sialodochitis. Instead, a swab from the parotid duct led to the detection of a high number of eosinophils. Conclusions This report is first in the literature to describe a case of eosinophilic parotitis, and we suggest that a cytological assessment, which is quite simple yet rarely used by physicians, be performed when patients with parotitis of uncertain origin are under evaluation.

  12. Effect of beta2-adrenergic agonists on eosinophil adhesion, superoxide anion generation, and degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Noguchi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that formoterol, but not salbutamol, suppresses eosinophil functions enhanced by IL-5, LTD4, or IP-10. As these factors are involved in the development of asthma exacerbation, our results strongly support the hypothesis that administration of formoterol is a novel strategy for treating asthma exacerbation.

  13. Effect of endothelin antagonism on the production of cytokines in eosinophilic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsnes, F; Lyberg, T; Christensen, G; Skjønsberg, O H

    2001-04-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 has been launched as an important mediator in bronchial asthma, which is an eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, the interplay between ET-1 and other proinflammatory mediators during the development of airway inflammation has not been elucidated. We wanted to study 1) whether the production of ET-1 precedes the production of other proinflammatory mediators and 2) whether ET-1 stimulates the production of these mediators within the airways. These hypotheses were studied during the development of an eosinophilic airway inflammation in rats. The increase in ET-1 mRNA level in lung tissue preceded the increase in mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-8. Treatment of the animals with the ET receptor antagonist bosentan resulted in a substantial decrease in the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-4, IL-1beta, interferon-gamma, and ET-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In conclusion, the synthesis of ET-1 as measured by increased mRNA level precedes the synthesis of other proinflammatory cytokines of importance for the development of an eosinophilic airway inflammation, and ET antagonism inhibits the production of these mediators within the airways. Whether treatment with ET antagonists will prove beneficial for patients with eosinophilic airway inflammations like bronchial asthma is not yet known. PMID:11238005

  14. Dynamics of eosinophil infiltration in the bronchial mucosa before and after the late asthmatic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, R; de Monchy, J G; Kauffman, H F; Smith, M; Hoekstra, Y; Vrugt, B; Timens, W

    1993-06-01

    We wanted to determine whether changes in bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) following allergen challenge show a time relationship with inflammatory events in the airways of allergic asthmatic subjects. Lavage was performed and endobronchial biopsies were taken via the fiberoptic bronchoscope, before, and 3 and 24 h after, allergen challenge, on separate occasions, in nine dual asthmatic responders. The numbers of activated eosinophils, identified by immunohistochemistry, using the monoclonal anti-eosinophil cationic protein antibody, EG2, were significantly increased both at 3 h and at 24 h in the submucosa and bronchial lavage. A significant negative correlation was found between the number of EG2+ cells in the submucosa and in the bronchial lavage 24 h after the allergen challenge (r = -0.70). At 24 h, the amount of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was increased in the bronchial lavage. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of ECP at 3 h and the log provocative dose of house dust mite producing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD20 HDM) (r = -0.63). The results suggest a recruitment of activated eosinophils to the submucosa and, further, to the epithelial lining, followed by degranulation. This process has already started 3 h after allergen challenge, and lasts for at least 24 h, which may result in mucosal damage and subsequent allergen-induced increase in BHR, before and after the late asthmatic reaction. PMID:8339804

  15. Eosinophilic granuloma of the bone: Considerations of differential diagnosis exemplified by three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the radiologist, eosinophilic granulomas of the bone impose in the shape of osteolyses. Depending on localization and anamnestic/clinical data, various other bone diseases are to be differentiated; when doing so, however, accuracy of diagnostic radiology prior to histological verification is varying. The article presents considerations of differential diagnosis exemplified by three cases with diagnosis confirmed by histological findings. (orig.)

  16. Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis Post Chemotherapy in a Patient of Non-Hogkins Lymphoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandare, Prachi C; Ghodge, Rakhi R; Mayur R Bhobe; Shukla, Pankaj R

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) was originally described by Ofuji in Japanese patients without any systemic disease. Later it was widely associated with HIV. Lately a large number of hematological malignancies have been associated with EPF. We hereby report an association of non-Hogkins lymphoma with EPF, probably the first in Indian context.

  17. CT-guided corticosteroid injection for solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimondi, Eugenio; Rossi, Giuseppe [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, University of Bologna, Department of Radiology and Interventional Angiographic Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Mavrogenis, Andreas F. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, University of Bologna, Department of Orthopedics, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, University of Bologna, Department of Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Oncology Service, Bologna (Italy); Ussia, Giuseppe; Angelini, Andrea [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, University of Bologna, Department of Orthopedics, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, Pietro [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, University of Bologna, Department of Orthopedics, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, University of Bologna, Department of Orthopaedics, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    To evaluate the clinical and imaging outcome of patients with symptomatic eosinophilic granuloma of the spine treated with CT-guided intralesional methylprednisolone injection after biopsy. Patients (n =19) with symptomatic solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the spine treated by CT-guided intralesional methylprednisolone injection were retrospectively studied. There were 12 males and seven females with a mean age of 17 years (range, 3-43 years). The mean follow-up was 6 years (median, 4 years; range, 0.5-19 years). Spinal location included the cervical (two patients), thoracic (seven patients), lumbar spine (eight patients), and the sacrum (two patients). Vertebra plana was observed in two patients. All patients had biopsies before treatment. Complete resolution of pain and healing of the lesion was observed in 17 patients (89.5%); none of these patients had recurrence at the latest examination. Reconstitution of the T1 and L1 vertebra plana was observed in both patients. Two patients initially diagnosed and treated for a solitary eosinophilic granuloma had constant pain after the procedure; in these patients, 6 and 12 months after the procedure, respectively, imaging showed multifocal disease and systemic therapy was administered. Complications related to the procedure were not observed. General anesthesia was administered in two patients because of intolerable pain during the procedure. In view of the benign clinical course of eosinophilic granuloma, in patients with symptomatic lesions, CT-guided intralesional corticosteroid injection is a safe and effective outpatient treatment with a low complication rate. (orig.)

  18. CT-guided corticosteroid injection for solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical and imaging outcome of patients with symptomatic eosinophilic granuloma of the spine treated with CT-guided intralesional methylprednisolone injection after biopsy. Patients (n =19) with symptomatic solitary eosinophilic granuloma of the spine treated by CT-guided intralesional methylprednisolone injection were retrospectively studied. There were 12 males and seven females with a mean age of 17 years (range, 3-43 years). The mean follow-up was 6 years (median, 4 years; range, 0.5-19 years). Spinal location included the cervical (two patients), thoracic (seven patients), lumbar spine (eight patients), and the sacrum (two patients). Vertebra plana was observed in two patients. All patients had biopsies before treatment. Complete resolution of pain and healing of the lesion was observed in 17 patients (89.5%); none of these patients had recurrence at the latest examination. Reconstitution of the T1 and L1 vertebra plana was observed in both patients. Two patients initially diagnosed and treated for a solitary eosinophilic granuloma had constant pain after the procedure; in these patients, 6 and 12 months after the procedure, respectively, imaging showed multifocal disease and systemic therapy was administered. Complications related to the procedure were not observed. General anesthesia was administered in two patients because of intolerable pain during the procedure. In view of the benign clinical course of eosinophilic granuloma, in patients with symptomatic lesions, CT-guided intralesional corticosteroid injection is a safe and effective outpatient treatment with a low complication rate. (orig.)

  19. Histone deacetylase activity and recurrent bacterial bronchitis in severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, L; Cox, A; Pray, C; Radford, K; Novakowski, K; Dorrington, M; Surette, M G; Bowdish, D; Nair, P

    2016-04-01

    An increase in P13 Kinase activity and an associated reduction in histone deacetylase activity may contribute to both relative steroid insensitivity in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and impaired macrophage scavenger function and susceptibility to recurrent infective bronchitis that may, in turn, contribute to further steroid insensitivity. PMID:26715426

  20. c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates constitutive human eosinophil apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasala, Hannele; Zhang, Xianzhi; Saarelainen, Seppo; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates constitutive human eosinophil apoptosis correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +358335517318; fax: +358335518082. (Kankaanranta, Hannu) (Kankaanranta, Hannu) The Immunopharmacology Research Group--> , Medical School--> , University of Tampere--> , Tampere--> - FINLAND (Hasala, Hannele) The Immunopharmacology Research Group--> , Medical School--...

  1. Bilateral ocular abnormalities in a wild stranded harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) suggestive of anterior segment dysgenesis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Colitz, Carmen M H; Abrams, Ken; Smith, Ainsley; Tuttle, Allison D

    2011-06-01

    A male yearling harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) stranded and was brought to Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration's Seal Rescue and Rehabilitation Center. The seal presented with a bilateral pendular vertical nystagmus, negative menace response, and a positive palpebral response. Ophthalmological examination by slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed perilimbal corneal edema, excessive iridal surface structures, pupils that appeared to be shaped improperly (dyscoria), and suspected cataracts. Attempts to dilate the pupils with both dark-lighted conditions and repeated dosages of 10% phenylephrine and 1% atropine ophthalmic solution in each eye (OU) were unsuccessful. Ocular ultrasonography findings suggested bilateral cataracts with flattened anterior-posterior (A-P) diameter and possible persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. It is possible that these structural congenital abnormalities could produce further ocular complications for this seal including uveitis, secondary glaucoma, retinal detachment, and/or vitreal hemorrhage in the future. This case demonstrates the importance of a thorough ophthalmological examination in stranded wild animals, especially if their symptoms appear neurological. PMID:22946409

  2. Prevalence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in mismatch repair mutation carriers among CAPP2 participants: report by the colorectal adenoma/carcinoma prevention programme 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljegren, Annelie; Barker, Gail; Elliott, Faye;

    2008-01-01

    in smaller studies, and the results have been found to be variable. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme 2 trial is a chemoprevention trial in people classified as having HNPCC. The 695 patients with a proven germline MMR mutation and documented screening history...... before the chemoprevention study were the focus of this study. The number, histology, size, and location of polyps found at the participants' first ever colonoscopy were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (10.6%) were found to have at least one adenoma at first...... colonoscopy, whereas 37 (5.3%) had at least one hyperplastic polyp. The frequency of an adenoma at first colonoscopy increased from 5.0% (95% CI, 2.8% to 8.3%) in patients younger than 35 years old to 18.9% (95% CI, 9.4% to 32.0%) in patients age at least 55 years (P = .0001 for trend). No such trend was...

  3. Repeated Nitrogen Dioxide Exposures and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthmatics: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillossou, Gaëlle; Neukirch, Catherine; Dehoux, Monique; Koscielny, Serge; Bonay, Marcel; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Samet, Jonathan M.; Mure, Patrick; Ropert, Luc; Tokarek, Sandra; Lambrozo, Jacques; Aubier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant, may enhance the asthmatic response to allergens through eosinophilic activation in the airways. However, the effect of NO2 on inflammation without allergen exposure is poorly studied. Objectives: We investigated whether repeated peaks of NO2, at various realistic concentrations, induce changes in airway inflammation in asthmatics. Methods: Nineteen nonsmokers with asthma were exposed at rest in a double-blind, crossover study, in randomized order, to 200 ppb NO2, 600 ppb NO2, or clean air once for 30 min on day 1 and twice for 30 min on day 2. The three series of exposures were separated by 2 weeks. The inflammatory response in sputum was measured 6 hr (day 1), 32 hr (day 2), and 48 hr (day 3) after the first exposure, and compared with baseline values measured twice 10–30 days before the first exposure. Results: Compared with baseline measurements, the percentage of eosinophils in sputum increased by 57% after exposure to 600 ppb NO2 (p = 0.003) but did not change significantly after exposure to 200 ppb. The slope of the association between the percentage of eosinophils and NO2 exposure level was significant (p = 0.04). Eosinophil cationic protein in sputum was highly correlated with eosinophil count and increased significantly after exposure to 600 ppb NO2 (p = 0.001). Lung function, which was assessed daily, was not affected by NO2 exposure. Conclusions: We observed that repeated peak exposures of NO2 performed without allergen exposure were associated with airway eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatics in a dose-related manner. Citation: Ezratty V, Guillossou G, Neukirch C, Dehoux M, Koscielny S, Bonay M, Cabanes PA, Samet JM, Mure P, Ropert L, Tokarek S, Lambrozo J, Aubier M. 2014. Repeated nitrogen dioxide exposures and eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics: a randomized crossover study. Environ Health Perspect 122:850–855; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307240 PMID

  4. Expired breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH for screening cough variant asthma among chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Al Obaidi Amina

    2007-01-01

    The reported studies suggest a role for eosinophils in the pathogenesis of cough variant asthma. In the present study, the expired breath condensate level of hydrogen peroxide and pH were determined in patients with cough variant asthma and compared to subjects with classical asthma, with chronic cough nonasthmatic and healthy control. Twenty-seven patients with cough variant asthma, 43 patients with classical asthma, 32 patients with chronic cough and 27 healthy subjects were studied in a cr...

  5. Time-dependent labelling course of human eosinophilic granulocytes after 3H thymidine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After intravenous injection of 0.1 μCi/g body weight 3H-Thymidine and taking of blood samples in intervals of 6-12 hrs. on three test persons with healthy blood, the labelling course of the eosinophilic granulocytes was studied. The cells were classified in four groups, according to the relative frequency of the different degrees of labelling. The time-dependent labelling index curves showed a nawe-sheped course. Elimination of the eosinophilics from the blood is carried out according to the 'At-random'-principle. 12 hrs. p.i. already 10% of the eosinophilics in the blood were labelled with maximally 5 grains. The cell flow-in phase of 13 hrs. was succeeded by a flow-out phase of nearly the same duration, afthr the first labelling maximum of 17%. 80 hrs. p.i. the first massive in-flow of high-labelled cells containing more than 30 grains. After reaching the labelling maximum of 58%, the labelling index values decreased continuously. Until the 11th day p.i., appr. 50% of the eosinophilics were still labelled, after 17 days appr. 25%, more than 65% of which consisted of cells with only 2-4 grains. Comparison of the labelling index curves of the grain groups with each other shows at first a synchronous, then an increasingly asynchronous course, according to the desynchronization of the several eosinophilic generation cycles in the bone marrow which gets more significant in the course of time. (orig.)

  6. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. PMID

  7. Prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults presenting with oesophageal food bolus obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neel; Heerasing; Shok; Yin; Lee; Sina; Alexander; Damian; Dowling

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To look at the relationship between eosinophilic oesophagitis(EO) and food bolus impaction in adults. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed medical records of 100 consecutive patients who presented to our hospital with oesophageal food bolus obstruction(FBO) between 2012 and 2014. In this cohort, 96 were adults(64% male), and 4 paediatric patients were excluded from the analysis as our centre did not have paediatric gastroenterologists. Eighty-five adult patients underwent emergency gastroscopy. The food bolus was either advanced into the stomach using the push technique or retrieved using a standard retrieval net. Biopsies were obtained in 51 patients from the proximal and distal parts of the oesophagus at initial gastroscopy. All biopsy specimens were assessed and reviewed by dedicated gastrointestinal pathologists at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital Geelong. The diagnosis of EO was defined and established by the presence of the following histological features:(1) peak eosinophil counts > 20/hpf;(2) eosinophil microabscess;(3) superficial layering of eosinophils;(4) extracellular eosinophil granules;(5) basal cell hyperplasia;(6) dilated intercellular spaces; and(7) subepithelial or lamina propria fibrosis. The histology results of the biopsy specimens were accessed from the pathology database of the hospital and recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Our cohort had a median age of 60. Seventeen/51(33%) patients had evidence of EO on biopsy findings. The majority of patients with EO were male(71%). Classical endoscopic features of oesophageal rings, furrows or white plaques and exudates werefound in 59% of patients with EO. Previous episodes of FBO were present in 12/17 patients and 41% had a history of eczema, hay fever or asthma. Reflux oesophagitis and benign strictures were found in 20/34 patients who did not have biopsies. CONCLUSION: EO is present in approximately one third of patients who are admitted with FBO. Biopsies should be performed

  8. Inhibitory effects of cryptoporus polysaccharide on airway constriction, eosinophil release, and chemotaxis in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan ZHAO; Qiang-min XIE; Ji-qiang CHEN; Chuan-kui KE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study effects of cryptoporus polysaccharide (CP) on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) release in vivo, and on platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro in guinea pig. METHODS: The asthma model of guinea pig was formed with ovalbumin (OVA). The changes of lung resistance (RL) and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), EPO level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and eosinophil migration were determined. RESULTS: Pretreatment of CP at doses of 3, 9, and 27 mg/kg by intragastric gavage (ig), qd for 10 d, inhibited early asthma response in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitory rates of mean increase value from 1 to 30 min of RL were 34.8 %, 74.4 % (P<0.05), and 79.6 % (P<0.05), respectively. Inhibitory rate of mean reduction value of Cdyn were 22.9 %, 40.5 % (P<0.01), and 66.5 % (P<0.01), respectively.Pretreatment of CP at doses of 3, 9, and 27 mg/kg also inhibited late asthma response, and the reduction of EPO level in BALF were 3.1%, 16.9 % (P<0.01), and 20.1% (P<0.01), respectively. The inhibitory rates of CP at concentrations of 0.13, 1.3, 13, 130 nmol/L to eosinophil migration induced by PAF were 6.8 %, 17.2 % (P<0.05),29.6 % (P<0.01), and 35.9 % (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: CP protects lung against increase of RL and reduction of Cdyn, decreases EPO level in the asthma model, and inhibits eosinophil chemotaxis induced by PAF. The results suggest that CP may be a novel antiinflammatory agent for the treatment of asthma and allergic diseases.

  9. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: asthmatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic obstructive asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slats, Annelies; Taube, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are different disease entities. They are both clinical diagnoses, with diagnostic tools to discriminate between one another. However, especially in older patients (>55 years) it seems more difficult to differentiate between asthma and COPD. This has led to the definition of a new phenotype called asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, our understanding of ACOS is at a very preliminary stage, as most research has involved subjects with existing diagnoses of asthma or COPD from studies with different definitions for ACOS. This has led to different and sometimes opposing results between studies on several features of ACOS, also depending on the comparison with COPD alone, asthma alone or both, which are summarized in this review.We suggest not using the term ACOS for a patient with features of both asthma and COPD, but to describe a patient with chronic obstructive airway disease as completely as possible, with regard to characteristics that determine treatment response (e.g. eosinophilic inflammation) and prognosis (such as smoking status, exacerbation rate, fixed airflow limitation, hyperresponsiveness, comorbidities). This will provide a far more clinically relevant diagnosis, and would aid in research on treatment in more homogenous groups of patients with chronic airways obstruction. More research is certainly needed to develop more evidence-based definitions for this patient group and to evaluate biomarkers, which will help to further classify these patients, treat them more adequately and unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:26596632

  10. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicle Proteins Induce Human Eosinophil Degranulation via a β2 Integrin CD11/CD18- and ICAM-1-Dependent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, a cytotoxic protein contained in eosinophils granules, can contribute to various inflammatory responses. Although Helicobacter pylori infection increases infiltration of eosinophils, the mechanisms of eosinophil degranulation by H. pylori infection are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of H. pylori outer membrane vesicles (OMVs in modulating eosinophil degranulation. We found that eosinophils treated with H. pylori OMVs released significantly more ECP compared with untreated controls. In addition, eosinophils cocultured with OMV-preexposed primary gastric epithelial cells exhibited significantly increased ECP release. Similarly, eosinophils cocultured with culture supernatant (CM from primary gastric epithelial cells exposed to OMVs (OMV-CM released significantly higher amounts of ECP compared with eosinophils cocultured with CM from unexposed control cells. Furthermore, OMVs and OMV-CM both induced the upregulation of ICAM-1 on gastric epithelial cells and β2 integrin CD11b on eosinophils. In addition, both transduction of ICAM-1 shRNA into gastric epithelial cells and treatment with neutralizing mAbs to CD18 significantly decreased OMV-mediated or OMV-CM-mediated release of ECP. These results suggest that the eosinophil degranulation response to H. pylori OMVs occurs via a mechanism that is dependent on both β2 integrin CD11/CD18 and ICAM-1.

  11. Pathogenesis of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A P; Greaves, M

    2009-06-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as the presence of urticaria (hives) for at least 6 weeks with the assumption that it occurs daily or close to it. If we eliminate physical urticarias and urticarial vasculitis from consideration, the remainder can be divided into autoimmune chronic urticaria (45%) and idiopathic chronic urticaria (55%). The autoimmune subgroup is associated with the IgG anti-IgE receptor alpha subunit in 35-40% of patients and IgG anti-IgE in an additional 5-10%. These autoantibodies have been shown to activate blood basophils and cutaneous mast cells in vitro with augmentation of basophil activation by complement and release of C5a, in particular. Binding methods (immunoblot and ELISA) yield positives in many autoimmune diseases as well as occasional normal subjects or patients with other forms of urticaria but most such sera are non-functional. Activation of basophils or mast cells causing histamine release is quite specific for chronic urticaria and defines the autoimmune subgroup. Although pathogenicity is not formally proven, the antibodies cause wealing upon intradermal injection, and removal of the autoantibody leads to remission. A cellular infiltrate is seen to be characterized by mast cell degranulation and infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The intensity of the infiltrate and clinical severity of the disease (including accompanying angio-oedema) is more severe in the autoimmune subpopulation. This latter group also has a higher evidence of human leucocyte antigen DR alleles associated with autoimmunity and a 25% incidence of antithyroid antibodies with diagnosed hypothyroidism in some. Hypo-responsiveness of patients' basophils to anti-IgE and hyperresponsiveness to serum defines another subpopulation (at least 50%) that overlaps the idiopathic and autoimmune subgroups. Hypo-responsiveness to anti-IgE has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of cytoplasmic phosphatases that

  12. The pan-B cell marker CD22 is expressed on gastrointestinal eosinophils and negatively regulates tissue eosinophilia¶

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Ting; Melissa K Mingler; Blanchard, Carine; Wahl, Benjamin; Pabst, Oliver; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2011-01-01

    CD22 is currently recognized as a B cell-specific Siglec and has been exploited therapeutically with humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody having been used against B cell leukemia. Herein, tissue-specific eosinophil mRNA microarray analysis identified that CD22 transcript levels of murine gastrointestinal (GI) eosinophils are 10-fold higher than those of lung eosinophils. In order to confirm the mRNA data at the protein level, we developed a FACS-based protocol designed to phenotype live GI...

  13. Histomorphometry of feline chronic kidney disease and correlation with markers of renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, S; Syme, H M; Brown, C A; Elliott, J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is common in geriatric cats, but most cases have nonspecific renal lesions, and few studies have correlated these lesions with clinicopathological markers of renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to identify the lesions best correlated with renal function and likely mediators of disease progression in cats with chronic kidney disease. Cats were recruited through 2 first-opinion practices between 1992 and 2010. When postmortem examinations were authorized, renal tissues were preserved in formalin. Sections were evaluated by a pathologist masked to all clinicopathological data. They were scored semiquantitatively for the severity of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis. Glomerular volume was measured using image analysis; the percentage of glomeruli that were obsolescent was recorded. Sections were assessed for hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis and tubular mineralization. Kidneys from 80 cats with plasma biochemical data from the last 2 months of life were included in the study. Multivariable linear regression (P glomerular hypertrophy, whereas higher time-averaged systolic blood pressure was associated with glomerulosclerosis and hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis. PMID:22773469

  14. The release of eosinophil chemotactic activity and eosinophil chemokinesis inhibitory activity by mononuclear cells from atopic asthmatic and non-atopic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grzegorczyk

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to assess the chemotactic activity for eosinophils (ECA and neutrophils (NCA and histamine releasing activity (HRA in crude supernatants of mononuclear cells in monosensitized atopic asthmatics and healthy controls. Chemotactic activity for ECA and neutrophils was measured in supernatants of cultured mononuclear cells with modified Boyden’s chamber and HRA was assessed on healthy donor basophils. With respect to ECA generation two distinct subgroups of subjects were distinguished: releasers [ECA (+] and non-releasers [ECA (–]. In atopic and non-atopic ECA (+ the mean ECA index was 3.78 ± 0.49 and 2.47 ± 0.27 respectively (P > 0.05. Supernatants from the remaining subjects (seven of 22 atopic and five of 11 non-atopic did not express ECA, but revealed significant inhibitory activity for chemokinesis of eosinophils (mean chemotactic index 0.25 ± 0.16 and 0.48 ± 0.22 for atopic and non-atopic non-releasers respectively. Stimulation with antigen of MNC from atopic and with PHA from non-atopic ECA (– restored cells ability to release ECA. Sephadex gel chromatography revealed that supernatants of MNC contained chemotactic and chemokinesis inhibitory activity in different fractions. The spontaneous productions of NCA and HRA by mononuclear cells was sim ilar in ECA releasers and non-releasers, although the HRA was higher following stimulation with PHA in the non-atopic ECA (+ subgroup. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that MNC are capable of generating not only chemotactic activity but also chemokinesis inhibitory activity for eosinophils.

  15. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukemoid reaction in a woman with spindle cell sarcoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauter Carl B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of a patient with marked eosinophilia and neutrophilia as a manifestation of a spindle cell sarcoma. Case presentation A 41-year-old African American woman presented with an enlarging, painful mass in her right knee area. Four years previously, she had had a mass similar to this diagnosed as an osteosarcoma, and had undergone a radical resection and hinge-knee replacement. Before the surgery, she was treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and gemcitabine. A biopsy was taken from the recurrent mass, and histological examination revealed high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma. The patient received no further treatment. Complete blood counts revealed a white blood cell (WBC count of 13.6 to 17.9 × 109/L, with neutrophils being 8.2 to 10.9 × 109/L and eosinophils 1.8 to 1.9 × 109/L. At readmission six months later, WBC was 126.7 × 109/L, with neutrophils being 57.02 × 109/L and eosinophils 60.82 × 109/L. The eosinophils peaked at 77.79 × 109/L two days later. Evaluations for allergies, infection, and autoimmune mechanisms were negative. Bone marrow revealed increased eosinophils without blasts. After resection, blood counts abruptly decreased to the normal range. Pathology confirmed high-grade spindle cell sarcoma. Approximately one year after resection, the patient was readmitted with metastatic disease to her lungs. During this presentation, her eosinophil and neutrophil count was again increased. WBC was 107.8 × 109/L, with eosinophil count of 47.43 × 109/L and neutrophil count of 44.10 × 109/L. Interleukin-5 was normal, and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF was elevated at 208.8 (normal Conclusion In our case, the patient had eosinophilia and neutrophilia associated with a spindle cell sarcoma, possibly representing a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to GM-CSF. There were no signs of infectious, allergic, or autoimmune causes for the eosinophilia or neutrophilia. Even though the

  16. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, Anders; Baines, Katherine J;

    2016-01-01

    tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  17. Effect of intranasal corticosteroid on pre-onset activation of eosinophils and mast cells in experimental Japanese cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Noyama

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that pre-onset activation of eosinophils and mast cells is present in experimental JCP, and that prophylactic treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has the potential to control such activation.

  18. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  19. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  20. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

    OpenAIRE

    S Widjajanti; S.E Estuningsih; Subandriyo; D Piedrafita; Raadsma, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep, Merino sheep, b...

  1. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 3 release from human peripheral blood eosinophils and neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Human peripheral blood eosinophils released eosinophil survival- enhancing activity when stimulated with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. The release of activity was detected as early as 3 h after stimulation and was inhibited by an immunomodulating agent, cyclosporin A. The survival-enhancing activity was completely abolished by treatment with anti-interleukin 3 (IL-3) and anti- granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, IL-3 and GM-CSF were m...

  2. Simvastatin Inhibits IL-5-Induced Chemotaxis and CCR3 Expression of HL-60-Derived and Human Primary Eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Tsai, Wan-Chun; Lee, Ta-Jen; Huang, Chi-Che; Chang, Po-Hung; Su Pang, Jong-Hwei

    2016-01-01

    IL-5-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils is an important feature of allergic airway inflammatory diseases. Simvastatin, a lipid lowering agent, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Our aim was to investigate the effect of simvastatin on IL-5-induced eosinophil chemotaxis and its regulatory mechanisms. Eosinophils were derived by treating HL-60 clone 15 (HC15) cells with butyric acid (BA) in an alkaline condition or through direct isolation from human peripheral blood. The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and interleukin (IL)-5 receptors (IL5Rα and β) were analyzed using RT/real-time PCR. The granular proteins were stained using fast green. Eotaxin-induced chemotaxis was measured using a transwell migration assay. CCR3 protein expression was revealed by immunocytochemistry. An animal model of allergic rhinitis was established by challenging Sprague–Dawley® rats repeatedly with ovalbumin. Butyric acid significantly increased the expression of IL5Rα and IL5Rβ, CCR3 and granular proteins in HC15 cells, indicating the maturation of eosinophils (BA-E cells). IL-5 further enhanced the CCR3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis of BA-E cells. Simvastatin inhibited the effects of IL-5 on BA-E cells, but not in the presence of mevalonate. Similar results were also exhibited in human primary eosinophils. In vivo animal studies further confirmed that oral simvastatin could significantly suppress the infiltration of eosinophils into turbinate tissues of allergic rats. Therefore, simvastatin was demonstrated to inhibit IL-5-induced CCR3 expression and chemotaxis of eosinophils mediated via the mevalonate pathway. We confirmed that simvastatin also reduced eosinophilic infiltration in allergic rhinitis. PMID:27275740

  3. Synchronously diagnosed eosinophilic granuloma and Hodgkin's disease in a 12-year-old boy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmadi Soheila; Heidari Amir B; Sina Amir H; Ehsani Mohammad A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Synchronous composite tumors are uncommon. Simultaneous, rather than metachronous or consecutive, occurrences of eosinophilic granuloma and Hodgkin's lymphoma in children are very rare. This is the first report of this kind in the medical literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-year-old Iranian boy with eosinophilic granuloma localized in his leg around the knee and Hodgkin's lymphoma in a cervical lymph node. The two tumours occurred synchronously befor...

  4. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  5. [A case of pulmonary sarcoidosis complicated with bronchial asthma that proved eosinophilic invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Yuji; Touge, Hirokazu; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2012-12-01

    A 33-year-old man complaining of cough admitted our hospital for examination of bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. He diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis, because of elevation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), epitheloid granuloma with noncaseating necrosis from transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimen, increasing of lymphocyte and elevation of the CD4/CD8 ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, eosinophil ratio in BALF was 3%, hyperplasia of goblet cell, eosinophilic invasion to bronchial epithelium, and thickened basal membrane were found in same biopsy specimen. He had mild reversible airway obstruction. He was diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis complicated with bronchial asthma. Sarcoidosis is characteristic of the T helper type 1 (Th1) mediated immune response, and bronchial asthma is characteristic of the Th2. This case histopathologically revealed that both Th1 mediated immune response and Th2 could be coexisted. PMID:23466616

  6. Efficacy and safety of reslizumab in patients with moderate to severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2015-04-01

    Reslizumab, a neutralizing anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, is a promising adjunctive treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma. Monthly intravenous 3.0 mg/kg reslizumab had resulted in improvements in lung function and asthma control. It is well tolerated and common adverse events include headache, nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection. Rebound eosinophilia after cessation of reslizumab and attenuation of the treatment response with repeated dosing had been reported. Stringent selection of patients with a high eosinophil burden, who are poorly controlled despite moderate to high doses of inhaled corticosteroid, confers the most significant treatment response. Future trials should compare the dose, delivery platform, frequency of dosing and study combinations with other biologics, which will affect its maximal clinical efficacy. PMID:25578680

  7. [A case of hepatic eosinophilic granuloma, which needs distinction with metastatic liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Fumihiko; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Suga, Hideya; Watanabe, Toru; Arinaga, Teruko; Naito, Yoshiki; Uchida, Shinji; Hisaka, Toru; Toyonaga, Atsushi; Kojiro, Masamichi; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2008-10-01

    A 68-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of eosinophilia in peripheral blood and pancreatic tumor on abdominal US. He was accustomed to eating the raw flesh of wild boar and keeping wild boar, and under medical treatment for Diabetes. Pancreatic tumor was diagnosed to the pancreatic ductal cancer by the imaging examination and endoscopic transpapillary brushing cytology for pancreatic duct. The diagnosis of hepatic eosinophilic granuloma was done by aspiration biopsy for hepatic multiple small nodules. Because of the strong positive finding for nematose in the assay of multi dot-ELISA for parasite, hepatic eosinophilic granuloma caused by visceral larva migrans was accidentally complicated by pancreatic cancer, and operation for the pancreatic cancer was done. To bear this disease in mind and to research his life history, is important to diagnose hepatic multiple nodules with eosinophilia. PMID:18840990

  8. Endoscopic findings in patients with Schatzki rings:Evidence for an association with eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michaela Müller; Alexander J Eckardt; Annette Fisseler-Eckhoff; Susanne Haas; Ines Gockel; Till Wehrmann

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate endoscopic findings in patients with Schatzki rings (SRs) with a focus on evidence for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).METHODS:We consecutively approached all adult patients scheduled for elective outpatient upper endoscopy for a variety of indications at the German Diagnostic Clinic,Wiesbaden,Germany between July 2007 and July 2010.All patients with endoscopically diagnosed SRs,defined as thin,symmetrical,mucosal structures located at the esophagogastric junction,were prospectively registered.Additional endoscopic findings,clinical information and histopathological findings with a focus on esophageal eosinophilia (≥ 20 eosinophils/highpower field) were recorded.The criteria for active EoE were defined as:(1) eosinophilic tissue infiltration ≥20 eosinophils/hpf; (2) symptoms of esophageal dysfunction; and (3) exclusion of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia.Gastroesophageal reflux disease was excluded by proton pump inhibitor treatment prior to endoscopy.The presence of ≥ 20 eosinophils/hpf in esophageal biopsies in patients that did not fulfil the criteria of EoE was defined as esophageal hypereosinophilia.RESULTS:A SR was diagnosed in 171 (3.3%; 128males,43 females,mean age 66±12.9 years) of the 5163 patients that underwent upper gastrointestinalendoscopy.Twenty of the 116 patients (17%) from whom esophageal biopsies were obtained showed histological hypereosinophilia (≥ 20 eosinophils/hpf).Nine of these patients (8 males,1 female,mean age 49 ± 10 years) did not fulfill all diagnostic criteria of EoE,whereas in 11 (9%) patients with ≥ 20 eosinophils/hpf,a definite diagnosis of EoE was made.Three of the 11 patients (27%) with definite EoE had no suspicious endoscopic features of EoE.In contrast,in the 25 patients in whom EoE was suspected by endoscopic features,EoE was only confirmed in 7 (28%) patients.Patients with EoE were younger (mean age 41.5±6.5 vs 50.5± 11.5 years,P =0.012),were more likely to have a history of

  9. Mast cells and eosinophils in allergy: Close friends or just neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Roopesh Singh; Friedman, Sheli; Seaf, Mansour; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Mast cells are mostly known for their role in allergic diseases although in recent years it has become clear that they have a role in other diseases and in the body's defense against microbes. In most cases, but especially in allergy, eosinophils are present in the tissue within proximity of mast cells. Due to this spatio-temporal correlation we and others have postulated and described a crosstalk between these two cells, mediated via their released mediators and physical interactions, that is able to modulate each other's function and ultimately the outcome of the allergic inflammatory reaction. This review will focus on the functional unit between mast cells and eosinophils that we have named the "Allergic Effector Unit" and specifically highlight its role in allergy. PMID:26526347

  10. Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Mandible: Is a Conservative Treatment Sufficient for Local Disease Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Paola; Gallesio, Cesare; Longoni, Valentina; Ramieri, Guglielmo

    2016-05-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is the most benign and common form of the Langerhans cell histiocytosis, a rare proliferative disease that can affect single or multiple organs. In the quite common head and neck manifestation these lesions can be confused in the beginning, with other bone diseases such as odontogenic cysts, periodontal disease, or malignancies. Treatment varies depending on the size, number, localization of the lesions, and patient's general conditions. The authors describe here a patient of a single lesion of eosinophilic granuloma localized in the posterior mandible region treated with a very conservative surgical approach in a patient with poor socio-economic conditions. The authors performed teeth extractions, an excisional biopsy and open curettage and after a follow-up of 24 months without partial mandible resection and reconstruction time the lesion had healed. The clinical situation confirmed that, in carefully selective patients, a conservative approach could be a useful therapeutic opportunity. PMID:26999697

  11. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kosuke Kaji; Mitsuteru Kitade; Hideto Kawaratani; Masahito Uemura; Junichi Yamao; Masao Fujimoto; Akira Mitoro; Masahisa Toyohara; Motoyuki Yoshida; Hiroshi Fukui; Hitoshi Yoshiji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Masaharu Yamazaki; Yasuhide Ikenaka; Ryuichi Noguchi; Masayoshi Sawai; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Tsuyoshi Mashitani

    2007-01-01

    Although the etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, the postulated causes include allergies,parasites, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. It is sometimes accompanied by several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rares. A 28-year-old woman complained of acute right hypocondrial pain and dyspnea associated with systemic eruption. Several imaging modalities revealed acute cholecystitis and pericarditis with massive pericardial effusion. A marked peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, and the eruption was diagnosed as urticaria. Her serum had a high titer of antibody against Ascaris lumbricoides. Treatment with albendazole drastically improved all clinical manifestations along with normalization of the imaging features and eosinophilia. We report herein a rare case of simultaneous onset of acute cholecystitis and pericarditis associated with a marked eosinophilia caused by parasitic infection.

  12. Changes in eosinophil and corticosterone levels and catecholamine metabolism during emotionalpainful stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, V.V.; Manukhin, B.N.; Petrova, V.A.

    1985-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study blood levels of eosinophils, corticosterone (CS), adrenalin, noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) during the development of the stress reaction, and also to study neuronal uptake and synthesis of catecholamines in the adrenals and heart. In some animal groups, the neuronal uptake of /sup 3/H-NA and the intensity of /sup 3/H-Na and /sup 3/H-DA synthesis from /sup 3/H-tyrosine were investigated by a method described previously, 2 h after the end of induction of emotional-painful stress (EPS). Radioactivity was measured on an SL-30 liquid scintillation counter. A regular relationship was found between changes in blood eosinophil level, the CH concentration, and catecholamine metabolism in the course of EPS.

  13. Oral eosinophilic granulomas in tigers (Panthera tigris)--a collection of 16 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, John M; Garner, Michael M; Greer, Leah L; Lung, Nancy P; Coke, Rob L; Ridgley, Frank; Bush, Mitch; Montali, Richard J; Okimoto, Ben; Schmidt, Robert; Allen, Jack L; Rideout, Bruce A; Pesavento, Patricia A; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    Oral eosinophilic granulomas were diagnosed in 16 tigers (Panthera tigris). All lesions were located on the hard or soft palate and typically consisted of flat or slightly raised circular ulcers. Histologic features of these lesions were essentially identical to those seen in oral eosinophilic granulomas of domestic cats and dogs. No clinical signs were noted in eight cases, though various degrees of inappetence, excessive salivation, and dysphagia were noted in the other eight tigers. Six cases were not treated. Treatment for the remaining 10 cases centered on corticosteroids and additional treatments included surgical removal, cryotherapy, antibiotics, and chlorpheniramine. Treatment with corticosteroids did appear to be effective in some cases, though lesions would worsen after cessation of therapy and no cases were cured. In addition, three cases developed complications possibly related to this corticosteroid therapy. The etiology of these lesions remains unknown, though an underlying allergic condition is likely. PMID:17679515

  14. Efficacy of Tocilizumab in the treatment of Eosinophilic fasciitis: Report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Francisco; Jorgensen, Christian; Pers, Yves-Marie

    2015-12-01

    A 43-year-old man was diagnosed with an Eosinophilic fasciitis with cutaneous and articular involvement. The patient experienced an early response with high-dose corticosteroids achieving a global remission of disease. Nevertheless, during the steroids tapering phase, he presented a new flare and subsequently developed a corticosteroid refractory disease. The addition of Methotrexate in monotherapy then associated with an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent did not show any additional benefit. Therefore Tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor, was initiated achieving an immediate response that persists after 36 months of follow-up. The use of this biological agent allows prednisone withdrawal at 3 months and remission of both articular and cutaneous manifestations at 6 months. This report describes for the first time the efficacy of an anti interleukin-6 agent in Eosinophilic fasciitis treatment. PMID:26162635

  15. Eosinophils and megakaryocytes support the early growth of murine MOPC315 myeloma cells in their bone marrow niches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wong

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a bone marrow plasma cell tumor which is supported by the external growth factors APRIL and IL-6, among others. Recently, we identified eosinophils and megakaryocytes to be functional components of the micro-environmental niches of benign bone marrow plasma cells and to be important local sources of these cytokines. Here, we investigated whether eosinophils and megakaryocytes also support the growth of tumor plasma cells in the MOPC315.BM model for multiple myeloma. As it was shown for benign plasma cells and multiple myeloma cells, IL-6 and APRIL also supported MOPC315.BM cell growth in vitro, IL-5 had no effect. Depletion of eosinophils in vivo by IL-5 blockade led to a reduction of the early myeloma load. Consistent with this, myeloma growth in early stages was retarded in eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice. Late myeloma stages were unaffected, possibly due to megakaryocytes compensating for the loss of eosinophils, since megakaryocytes were found to be in contact with myeloma cells in vivo and supported myeloma growth in vitro. We conclude that eosinophils and megakaryocytes in the niches for benign bone marrow plasma cells support the growth of malignant plasma cells. Further investigations are required to test whether perturbation of these niches represents a potential strategy for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

  16. Management of the patient with eosinophilic asthma: a new era begins

    OpenAIRE

    Jantina C. de Groot; Anneke ten Brinke; Elisabeth H.D. Bel

    2015-01-01

    Now that it is generally accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous condition, phenotyping of asthma patients has become a mandatory part of the diagnostic workup of all patients who do not respond satisfactorily to standard therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. Late-onset eosinophilic asthma is currently one of the most well-defined asthma phenotypes and seems to have a different underlying pathobiology to classical childhood-onset, allergic asthma. Patients with this phenotype can be identifie...

  17. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis*,**

    OpenAIRE

    Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Maurici, Rosemeri; Trevisol, Daisson José; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emílio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating par...

  18. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis,

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Mamôru Sakae; Rosemeri Maurici; Daisson José Trevisol; Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini; Emílio Pizzichini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating par...

  19. Repeated Nitrogen Dioxide Exposures and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthmatics: A Randomized Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ezratty, Véronique; Guillossou, Gaëlle; Neukirch, Catherine; Dehoux, Monique; Koscielny, Serge; Bonay, Marcel; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Samet, Jonathan M; Mure, Patrick; Ropert, Luc; Tokarek, Sandra; Lambrozo, Jacques; Aubier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant, may enhance the asthmatic response to allergens through eosinophilic activation in the airways. However, the effect of NO2 on inflammation without allergen exposure is poorly studied. Objectives: We investigated whether repeated peaks of NO2, at various realistic concentrations, induce changes in airway inflammation in asthmatics. Methods: Nineteen nonsmokers with asthma were exposed at rest in a double-blind, crossover s...

  20. Assessment of Fractionated Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Biomarker for the Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, John; Nguyen-Traxler, Ann; Lee, Erika M.; Yip, Jason S.; Weinstock, Joel V.; Chan, Walter Wai-Yip; Ngo, Peter; Weinstein, Barbara J.; Bonis, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and determination of response to therapy is based on histological assessment of the esophagus, which requires upper endoscopy. In children, in whom a dietary approach is commonly used, multiple endoscopies are needed, because foods are eliminated and then gradually reintroduced. Ideally, noninvasive methods could supplement or replace upper endoscopy to facilitate management. Fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been proposed as a useful mea...