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Sample records for chronic high fat

  1. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I.; Watson, Walter H.; Zhong, Hai; States, J. Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a ‘2-hit’ paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet (± arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: ► Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. ► Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. ► This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  2. The organ specificity in pathological damage of chronic intermittent hypoxia: an experimental study on rat with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Jian-li; Feng, Shu-zhi; Sun, Ning; Chen, Bao-yuan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-09-01

    It is known today that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and its characteristic chronic intermittent hypoxia can cause damages to multiple organs, including the cardiovascular system, urinary system, and liver. It is still unclear, however, whether the damage caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and the severity of the damage are organ-specific. This research observed the pathological effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on rat's thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney, under the condition of lipid metabolism disturbance, through establishing the rat model of chronic intermittent hypoxia with high-fat diet by imitating the features of human sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. In this model, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group fed by regular diet, a high-fat group fed by high-fat diet, and a high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group fed by high-fat diet and treated with intermittent hypoxia 7 h a day. At the end of the ninth week, the pathological changes of rat's organs, including the thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney are observed (under both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). As the result of the experiment shows, while there was no abnormal effect observed on any organs of the control group, slight pathological changes were found in the organs of the high-fat group. For the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, however, remarkably severer damages were found on all the organs. It also showed that the severity of the damage varies by organ in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, with the thoracic aorta being the worst, followed by the liver and myocardium, and the kidney being the slightest. Chronic intermittent hypoxia can lead to multiple-organ damage to rat with high-fat diet. Different organs appear to have different sensitivity to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

  3. Chronic blood pressure and appetite responses to central leptin infusion in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2011-04-01

    Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet causes resistance to the appetite and cardiovascular responses to chronic central leptin infusion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (40% kcal from fat, n=5) or normal-fat diet (13% kcal from fat, n=5) for a year. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). A 21G steel cannula was implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle [intracerebroventricular (ICV)]. After recovery, leptin was infused ICV at 0.02 μg/kg per min for 10 days. High-fat rats were heavier than normal-fat rats (582±12 vs. 511±19 g) and exhibited significantly higher MAP (114±3 vs. 96±7 mmHg). Although the acute (24 h) effects of leptin were attenuated in high-fat rats, chronic ICV leptin infusion decreased caloric intake in both groups similarly (50±8 vs. 40±10%) by day 5. Despite decreased food intake and weight loss, leptin infusion significantly increased MAP and HR in both high-fat and normal-fat rats (7±2 and 5±1 mmHg; 18±11 and 21±10 b.p.m., respectively). These results suggest that obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet blunts the acute anorexic effects of leptin but does not cause significant resistance to the chronic central nervous system effects of leptin on appetite, MAP, or HR.

  4. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD.

  5. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of high fat diet in the development of complications of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeira-Alvariño, M; Lindkvist, B; Luaces-Regueira, M; Iglesias-García, J; Lariño-Noia, J; Nieto-García, L; Domínguez-Muñoz, J E

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about risk factors for complications in chronic pancreatitis (CP). High fat diet (HFD) has been demonstrated to aggravate pancreatic injury in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HFD in age at diagnosis of CP and probability of CP related complications. A cross-sectional case-case study was performed within a prospectively collected cohort of patients with CP. Diagnosis and morphological severity of CP was established by endoscopic ultrasound. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by ¹³C mixed triglyceride breath test. Fat intake was assessed by a specific nutritional questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) for CP related complications were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 168 patients were included (128 (76.2%) men, mean age 44 years (SD 13.5)). Etiology of CP was alcohol abuse in 89 patients (53.0%), other causes in 30 (17.9%) and idiopathic in the remaining 49 subjects (29.2%). 24 patients (14.3%) had a HFD. 68 patients (40.5%) had continuous abdominal pain, 39 (23.2%) PEI and 43 (25.7%) morphologically severe CP. HFD was associated with an increased probability for continuous abdominal pain (OR = 2.84 (95% CI, 1.06-7.61)), and a younger age at diagnosis (37.0 ± 13.9 versus 45.8 ± 13.0 years, p = 0.03) but not with CP related complications after adjusting for sex, years of follow-up, alcohol and tobacco consumption, etiology and body mass index. Compared with a normal fat diet, HFD is associated with a younger age at diagnosis of CP and continuous abdominal pain, but not with severity and complications of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic high fat diet induces cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Liaoliao; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2015-08-01

    Obesity can cause pathological changes in organs. We determined the effects of chronic high fat diet (HFD) and intermittent fasting, a paradigm providing organ protection, on mouse heart. Seven-week old CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to control, HFD and intermittent fasting groups. Control mice had free access to regular diet (RD). RD was provided every other day to mice in the intermittent fasting group. Mice in HFD group had free access to HFD. Their left ventricles were harvested 11 months after they had been on these diet regimens. HFD increased cardiomyocyte cross-section area and fibrosis. HFD decreased active caspase 3, an apoptosis marker, and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) II/LC3I, an autophagy marker. HFD increased the phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9, a sign of GSK-3β inhibition. Nuclear GATA binding protein 4 and yes-associated protein, two GSK-3β targeting transcription factors that can induce hypertrophy-related gene expression, were increased in HFD-fed mice. Mice on intermittent fasting did not have these changes except for the increased active caspase 3 and decreased ratio of LC3II/LC3I. These results suggest that chronic HFD induces myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, which may be mediated by GSK-3β inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute vs chronic exposure to high fat diet leads to distinct regulation of PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-07-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO). 12-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to a regular diet or HFD and weighed weekly throughout the feeding studies (4 days, 14 weeks; respectively), and during killing. PKA activity and subunit expression were measured in liver, gonadal adipose tissue (AT) and brain. Acute HFD-feeding suppressed basal hepatic PKA activity. In contrast, hepatic and hypothalamic PKA activities were significantly increased after chronic HFD-feeding. Changes in AT were more subtle, and overall, altered PKA regulation in response to chronic HFD exposure was more profound in female mice. The suppression of hepatic PKA activity after 4 day HFD-feeding was indicative of a protective peripheral effect against obesity in the context of overnutrition. In response to chronic HFD-feeding, and with the development of DIO, dysregulated hepatic and hypothalamic PKA signaling was a signature of obesity that is likely to promote further metabolic dysfunction in mice. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic response to chronic high-fat diet consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, E; Frank, A P; Palmer, B F; Rodriguez-Navas, C; Criollo, A; Clegg, D J

    2016-02-01

    In this review, we discuss the observations that, following chronic high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, male mice have higher levels of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and total sphingolipids, whereas lower amounts of polyunsaturated FAs in the central nervous system (CNS) than females. Furthermore, males, when compared with female mice, have higher levels of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus following exposure to HFD. The increase in markers of inflammation in male mice is possibly due to the reductions in proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which is not recapitulated in female mice. Consistently, hypothalamic inflammation is induced both in male and female ERα total-body knockout mice when exposed to a HFD, thus confirming the key role of ERα in the regulation of HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Finally, the HFD-induced depletion of hypothalamic ERα is associated with dysregulation in metabolic homeostasis, as evidenced by reductions in glucose tolerance and decrements in myocardial function.

  10. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Thompson, Benjamin W; Anekonda, Vishwanath T; Ho, Jacqueline M; Graham, James L; Roberts, Zachary S; Hwang, Bang H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J; Havel, Peter J; Bales, Karen L; Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G

    2016-04-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity.

  11. Chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity decreased survival and increased hypertrophy of rats with experimental eccentric hypertrophy from chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Roussel, Elise; Couet, Jacques; Arsenault, Marie

    2014-09-24

    The composition of a diet can influence myocardial metabolism and development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The impact of a high-fat diet in chronic left ventricular volume overload (VO) causing eccentric LVH is unknown. This study examined the effects of chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet in rats with chronic VO caused by severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) on LVH, function and on myocardial energetics and survival. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Shams on control or high-fat (HF) diet (15 rats/group) and AR rats fed with the same diets (ARC (n = 56) and ARHF (n = 32)). HF diet was started one week before AR induction and the protocol was stopped 30 weeks later. As expected, AR caused significant LV dilation and hypertrophy and this was exacerbated in the ARHF group. Moreover, survival in the ARHF group was significantly decreased compared the ARC group. Although the sham animals on HF also developed significant obesity compared to those on control diet, this was not associated with heart hypertrophy. The HF diet in AR rats partially countered the expected shift in myocardial energy substrate preference usually observed in heart hypertrophy (from fatty acids towards glucose). Systolic function was decreased in AR rats but HF diet had no impact on this parameter. The response to HF diet of different fatty acid oxidation markers as well as the increase in glucose transporter-4 translocation to the plasma membrane compared to ARC was blunted in AR animals compared to those on control diet. HF diet for 30 weeks decreased survival of AR rats and worsened eccentric hypertrophy without affecting systolic function. The expected adaptation of myocardial energetics to volume-overload left ventricle hypertrophy in AR animals seemed to be impaired by the high-fat diet suggesting less metabolic flexibility.

  12. Adverse effect of combination of chronic psychosocial stress and high fat diet on hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2009-12-01

    The combined effects of high fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress on the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were studied in rats using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Chronic psychosocial stress and/or HFD were simultaneously administered for 3 months to young adult male Wister rats. In the RAWM, rats were subjected to 12 learning trials as well as short-term and long-term memory tests. This procedure was applied on a daily basis until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and in memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Groups were compared based on the number of errors per trial or test as well as on the DTC. Chronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD animal groups showed impaired learning as indicated by committing significantly (Pchronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD groups showed significantly impaired performance compared to control group. Additionally, the stress/HFD was the only group that showed significantly impaired performance in memory tests on the 5th training day, suggesting more severe memory impairment in that group. Furthermore, DTC value for above groups indicated that chronic stress or HFD, alone, resulted in a mild impairment of spatial memory, but the combination of chronic stress and HFD resulted in a more severe and long-lasting memory impairment. The data indicated that the combination of stress and HFD produced more deleterious effects on hippocampal cognitive function than either chronic stress or HFD alone.

  13. The impact of chronic blackberry intake on the neuroinflammatory status of rats fed a standard or high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Manuela; Marques, Cláudia; Norberto, Sónia; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Rendeiro, Catarina; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição

    2015-11-01

    Neuroinflammation has been suggested as a central mediator of central nervous system dysfunction, including in dementia and neurodegenerative disease. Flavonoids have emerged as promising candidates for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and are thought to be capable of antiinflammatory effects in the brain. In the present study, the impact of a chronic intake of an anthocyanin extract from blackberry (BE) on brain inflammatory status in the presence or absence of a high-fat diet was investigated. Following intake of the dietary regimes for 17 weeks neuroinflammatory status in Wistar rat cortex, hippocampus and plasma were assessed using cytokine antibody arrays. In the cortex, intake of the high-fat diet resulted in an increase of at least 4-fold, in expression of the cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant CINC-3, the ciliary neurotrophic factor CNTF, the platelet-derived growth factor PDGF-AA, IL-10, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products RAGE. BE intake partially decreased the expression of these mediators in the high-fat challenged brain. In standard-fed animals, BE intake significantly increased cortical levels of fractalkine, PDGF-AA, activin, the vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF and agrin expression, suggesting effects as neuronal growth and synaptic connection modulators. In hippocampus, BE modulates fractalkine and the thymus chemokine TCK-1 expression independently of diet intake and, only in standard diet, increased PDGF-AA. Exploring effects of anthocyanins on fractalkine transcription using the neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y suggested that other cell types may be involved in this effect. This is the first evidence, in in vivo model, that blackberry extract intake may be capable of preventing the detrimental effects of neuroinflammation in a high-fat challenged brain. Also, fractalkine and TCK-1 expression may be specific targets of anthocyanins and their metabolites on

  14. Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist attenuates pain related behavior in rats with chronic alcohol/high fat diet induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Kline, Robert H; McNearney, Terry A; Johnson, Michael P; Westlund, Karin N

    2014-11-17

    Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a complex and multifactorial syndrome. Many contributing factors result in development of dysfunctional pain in a significant number of patients. Drugs developed to treat a variety of pain states fall short of providing effective analgesia for patients with chronic pancreatitis, often providing minimal to partial pain relief over time with significant side effects. Recently, availability of selective pharmacological tools has enabled great advances in our knowledge of the role of the cannabinoid receptors in pathophysiology. In particular, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as an attractive target for management of chronic pain, as demonstrated in several studies with inflammatory and neuropathic preclinical pain models. In this study, the analgesic efficacy of a novel, highly selective CB2 receptor agonist, LY3038404 HCl, is investigated in a chronic pancreatitis pain model, induced with an alcohol/high fat (AHF) diet. Rats fed the AHF diet developed visceral pain-like behaviors detectable by week 3 and reached a maximum at week 5 that persists as long as the diet is maintained. Rats with AHF induced chronic pancreatitis were treated with LY3038404 HCl (10 mg/kg, orally, twice a day for 9 days). The treated animals demonstrated significantly alleviated pain related behaviors after 3 days of dosing, including increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT), prolonged abdominal withdrawal latencies (ABWL), and decreased nocifensive responses to noxious 44°C hotplate stimuli. Terminal histological analysis of pancreatic tissue sections from the AHF chronic pancreatitis animals demonstrated extensive injury, including a global pancreatic gland degeneration (cellular atrophy), vacuolization (fat deposition), and fibrosis. After the LY3038404 HCl treatment, pancreatic tissue was significantly protected from severe damage and fibrosis. LY3038404 HCl affected neither open field exploratory behaviors nor dark/light box preferences as measures

  15. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between obesity and chronic inflammation has been studied. Diet-induced obesity or chronic inflammation could reduce the testicular functions of males. However, the mechanism underlying the reproductive effects of fattening foods in males with or without chronic inflammation still needs further discussion. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of high-fat, high-protein diet on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice under physiological and chronic inflammatory conditions. Because casein can trigger a non-infectious systemic inflammatory response, we used casein injection to induce chronic inflammation in male adult Kunming mice. Twenty-four mice were randomly and equally divided into four groups: (i) normal diet+saline (Control); (ii) normal diet+casein (ND+CS); (iii) high-fat, high-protein diet+saline (HFPD+SI); (iv) high-fat, high-protein diet+casein (HFPD+CS). After 8weeks, there was a significant increase in body weight for groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS and a decrease in group ND+CS compared with the control. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and lipid profiles were increased markedly in groups ND+CS, HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control. A remarkable reduction of serum adiponectin level occurred in group HFPD+CS compared with group ND+CS. Sperm parameters (sperm count, viability and abnormality) were also adversely affected in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI. Groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI showed severe pathological changes in testicular tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining also showed significant reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control, whereas testicular mRNA and protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS significantly increased. The m

  16. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is required for beneficial effects of exercise during chronic high-fat feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Christine; Magrisso, I. Jack; Haas, Michael; Balusu, Sowmya; Krishna, Radha; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Obici, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an effective therapy against the metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular pathways underlying the advantageous effects of exercise are elusive. Glucagon receptor signaling is essential for exercise benefits, and recent evidence indicates that a downstream effector of glucagon, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is implicated in this response. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that FGF21 action is necessary in mediating metabolic effects of exercise. We utilized acute exhaustive treadmill exercise in Wistar rats to identify a putative, concomitant increase in plasma glucagon and FGF21 with the increase in glucose and lactate following exercise. To test the necessity of FGF21 action in the exercise response, we exposed FGF21 congenitally deficient mice (Fgf21−/−) and their wild-type (Wt) littermates to chronic high-fat (HF) feeding and inoperable (sedentary) or operable (exercise) voluntary running wheels. Physiological tests were performed to assess the role of FGF21 in the beneficial effect of exercise on glucose metabolism. Wt and Fgf21−/− littermates exhibited similar running behavior, and exercise was effective in suppressing weight and fat mass gain and dyslipidemia independently of genotype. However, exercise failed to positively affect hepatic triglyceride content and glucose tolerance in HF diet-fed Fgf21−/− mice. Furthermore, Fgf21−/− mice exhibited an impaired adaptation to exercise training, including reduced AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle. This study demonstrates that FGF21 action is necessary to achieve the full metabolic benefits of exercise during chronic HF feeding. PMID:27445299

  18. Cardiovascular and metabolic consequences of the association between chronic stress and high-fat diet in rats.

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    Simas, Bruna B; Nunes, Everson A; Crestani, Carlos C; Speretta, Guilherme F

    2018-05-01

    Obesity and chronic stress are considered independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and changes in autonomic system activity. However, the cardiovascular consequences induced by the association between high-fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the association between HFD and exposure to a chronic variable stress (CVS) protocol for four weeks might exacerbate the cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats when compared to these factors singly. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control-standard chow diet (SD; n = 8); control-HFD (n = 8); CVS-SD (n = 8); and CVS-HFD (n = 8). The CVS consisted of repeated exposure of the rats to different inescapable and unpredictable stressors (restraint tress; damp sawdust, cold, swim stress and light cycle inversion). We evaluated cardiovascular function, autonomic activity, dietary intake, adiposity and metabolism. The HFD increased body weight, adiposity and blood glucose concentration (∼15%) in both control and CVS rats. The CVS-HFD rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity (25%) compared to CVS-SD rats. The control-HFD and CVS-HFD rats presented increased intrinsic heart rate (HR) values (∼8%). CVS increased cardiac sympathetic activity (∼65%) in both SD- and HFD-fed rats. The HFD increased basal HR (∼10%). Blood pressure and baroreflex analyzes showed no differences among the experimental groups. In conclusion, the present data indicate absence of interaction on autonomic imbalance evoked by either CVS or HFD. Additionally, HFD increased HR and evoked metabolic disruptions which are independent of stress exposure.

  19. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  20. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid-Base Status in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Sharma, Avish P; Ross, Megan L; Welvaert, Marijke; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-18

    Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃ - ) and lactate (La - ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female) elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO₃ - ], and blood [La - ] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48-72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO₃ - ], or [La - ], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day -1 ) (95% CI = [10.44; 36.04]). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid-base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid-base status than nutritional intake.

  1. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid–Base Status in Elite Athletes

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    Amelia J. Carr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although short (up to 3 days exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate [HCO3−] and lactate [La−] in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9, PCHO (n = 7, or HCHO (n = 8 under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3−], and blood [La−] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3−], or [La−], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day−1 (95% CI = (10.44; 36.04. Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake.

  2. Chronic maternal inflammation or high-fat-feeding programs offspring obesity in a sex-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudele, A; Hougaard, K S; Kjølby, M

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The current world-wide obesity epidemic partially results from a vicious circle whereby maternal obesity during pregnancy predisposes the offspring for accelerated weight gain and development of metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether low-grade inflammation......, characteristic of the obese state, provides a causal role for this disastrous fetal programming in mice. Methods: We exposed pregnant and lactating C57BL/6JBom female mice to either high-fat diet (HFD), or continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent trigger of innate immunity, and studied offspring...... inflammatory response to HFD at adulthood. Conclusions: This supports our hypothesis and highlights the programming potential of inflammation in obese pregnancies....

  3. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

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    Beatriz C S Boa

    Full Text Available Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30 starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change, return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30, high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET (HFEX, n = 30 and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30. Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM (HF4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8 M (HF87.9±2.7%; (HFSC*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6 M (HF95.3±3.1%; (HFSC*126±6.2%; (HFEX*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4 M (HF109.5±4.8%; (HFSC*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF40.5±4.2; (HFSC*19.0±1.6; (HFEX*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2, decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular

  4. Chronic administration of recombinant IL-6 upregulates lipogenic enzyme expression and aggravates high-fat-diet-induced steatosis in IL-6-deficient mice

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    Margarita Vida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 has emerged as an important mediator of fatty acid metabolism with paradoxical effects in the liver. Administration of IL-6 has been reported to confer protection against steatosis, but plasma and tissue IL-6 concentrations are elevated in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver diseases associated with obesity and alcoholic ingestion. In this study, we further investigated the role of IL-6 on steatosis induced through a high-fat diet (HFD in wild-type (WT and IL-6-deficient (IL-6−/− mice. Additionally, HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice were also chronically treated with recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6. Obesity in WT mice fed a HFD associated with elevated serum IL-6 levels, fatty liver, upregulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3, increased AMP kinase phosphorylation (p-AMPK, and downregulation of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1. The HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice showed severe steatosis, no changes in CPT1 levels or AMPK activity, no increase in STAT3 amounts, inactivated STAT3, and marked downregulation of the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. The IL-6 chronic replacement in HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice restored hepatic STAT3 and AMPK activation but also increased the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. Furthermore, rIL-6 administration was associated with aggravated steatosis and elevated fat content in the liver. We conclude that, in the context of HFD-induced obesity, the administration of rIL-6 might contribute to the aggravation of fatty liver disease through increasing lipogenesis.

  5. The Effects of High-fat-diet Combined with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress on Depression-like Behavior and Leptin/LepRb in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin Ling; Liu, De Xiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Ho, Roger Cm

    2016-10-14

    Leptin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and depression via the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). An animal model of comorbid obesity and depression induced by high-fat diet (HFD) combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was developed to study the relationship between depression/anxiety-like behavior, levels of plasma leptin and LepRb in the brains between four groups of rats, the combined obesity and CUMS (Co) group, the obese (Ob) group, the CUMS group and controls. Our results revealed that the Co group exhibited most severe depression-like behavior in the open field test (OFT), anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test (EMT) and cognitive impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM). The Ob group had the highest weight and plasma leptin levels while the Co group had the lowest levels of protein of LepRb in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, depressive and anxiety-like behaviors as well as cognitive impairment were positively correlated with levels of LepRb protein and mRNA in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. The down-regulation of leptin/LepRb signaling might be associated with depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment in obese rats facing chronic mild stress.

  6. Gut Microbiota Mediates the Protective Effects of Dietary Capsaicin against Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Associated Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet

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    Chao Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. High-resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt analysis. The results showed, among others, that dietary CAP induced increased levels of butyrate-producing Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, while it caused lower levels of members of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-producing family S24_7. Predicted function analysis (PICRUSt showed depletion of genes involved in bacterial LPS synthesis in response to CAP. We further identified that inhibition of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 by CAP also contributes to prevention of HFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation experiments conducted in germfree mice demonstrated that dietary CAP-induced protection against HFD-induced obesity is transferrable. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block the CAP-induced protective phenotype against obesity, further suggesting the role of microbiota in this context. Together, our findings uncover an interaction between dietary CAP and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acting through prevention of microbial dysbiosis, gut barrier dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation.

  7. Influence of chronic stress on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride in male Wistar rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siyuan; Han, Xue; Fu, Jihua; Yuan, Xiaoling; Sun, Xing; Li, Qiang

    2012-07-01

      We determined the influence of chronic stress (CS) on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD).   Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard diet or a HFD and half of the HFD fed rats were given CS (electric foot shock assisted with noise) for 8 weeks.   Compared with the control group, the levels of hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and TG were significantly elevated in the HFD and HFD with chronic stress (HFD+CS) groups, and the more severe elevations of them were found in the HFD group. Inversely, the more severe elevations of hepatic water-soluble parts of TC and TG were found in the HFD+CS group, as the elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in liver and serum, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde in liver. Meanwhile, downregulated mRNA expressions of hepatic liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were also more severe in the HFD+CS group.   CS can aggravate the high levels of water-soluble compositions of hepatic TC and TG induced by HFD as it aggravates hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress; in spite of that, however, it cannot further promote hepatic lipidosis. This is consistent with the downregulated mRNA expressions of LXR-α and PPAR-γ. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  8. Gut Microbiota Mediates the Protective Effects of Dietary Capsaicin against Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Associated Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao; Wang, Bin; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Xiaolan; Lang, Hedong; Hui, Suocheng; Huang, Li; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Mengting; Mi, Mantian

    2017-05-23

    Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. High-resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis. The results showed, among others, that dietary CAP induced increased levels of butyrate-producing Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae , while it caused lower levels of members of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-producing family S24_7. Predicted function analysis (PICRUSt) showed depletion of genes involved in bacterial LPS synthesis in response to CAP. We further identified that inhibition of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB 1 ) by CAP also contributes to prevention of HFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation experiments conducted in germfree mice demonstrated that dietary CAP-induced protection against HFD-induced obesity is transferrable. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block the CAP-induced protective phenotype against obesity, further suggesting the role of microbiota in this context. Together, our findings uncover an interaction between dietary CAP and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acting through prevention of microbial dysbiosis, gut barrier dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation. IMPORTANCE Metabolic endotoxemia due to gut microbial dysbiosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of

  9. Down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ contributes to endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced obese mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Chunlian; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong

    2017-10-14

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of OSA is linked to an epidemic of obesity. CIH has recently been reported to cause endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese animals by exaggerating oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PPAR-γ, a ligand-inducible transcription factor that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, is down-regulated in the peripheral tissues in diet-induce obesity. We tested the hypothesis that down-regulation of vascular PPAR-γ in diet-induced obesity enhances inflammation and oxidative stress in response to CIH, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) and simultaneously exposed to CIH or intermittent air for 6 weeks. An additional HFD group received a combination of CIH and PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone for 6 weeks. Endothelial-dependent vasodilation was impaired only in HFD group exposed to CIH, compared with other groups, but was restored by concomitant pioglitazone treatment. Molecular studies revealed that vascular PPAR-γ expression and activity were reduced in HFD groups, compared with LFD groups, but were reversed by pioglitazone treatment. In addition, CIH elevated vascular expression of NADPH oxidase 4 and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in both LFD and HFD groups, but these increases was significantly greater in HFD group, along with decreased vascular eNOS activity. Pioglitazone treatment of HFD group prevented CIH-induced changes in above molecular markers. The results suggest that HFD-induced obesity down-regulates vascular PPAR-γ, which results in exaggerated oxidative stress and inflammation in response to CIH, contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This finding may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which OSA

  10. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szöko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Grape powder consumption affects the expression of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in rats chronically fed a high-fructose-high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism in the brain is recognized to be associated with cognitive decline. Because grapes are rich in polyphenols that produce antioxidative and blood sugar-lowering effects, we investigated how grape consumption affects the expression and/or phosphorylation of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Wistar rats were maintained on the HFHF diet from the age of 8 weeks to 66 weeks, and then on an HFHF diet containing either 3% or 6% grape powder as an intervention for 12 weeks. Western blotting was performed to measure the expression/phosphorylation levels of several cortical and hippocampal proteins, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Inclusion of up to 6% grape powder in the diet markedly reduced RAGE expression and tau hyperphosphorylation, but upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and BDNF, as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K and ERK, in the brain tissues of aged rats fed the HFHF diet. Thus, grape powder consumption produced beneficial effects in HFHF-diet-fed rats, exhibiting the potential to ameliorate changes in neurodegeneration-related proteins in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prion Infectivity in Fat of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease▿

    OpenAIRE

    Race, Brent; Meade-White, Kimberly; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurodegenerative prion disease of cervids. Some animal prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, can infect humans; however, human susceptibility to CWD is unknown. In ruminants, prion infectivity is found in central nervous system and lymphoid tissues, with smaller amounts in intestine and muscle. In mice, prion infectivity was recently detected in fat. Since ruminant fat is consumed by humans and fed to animals, we determined infectivity t...

  13. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  14. Chronic psychological stress and high-fat high-fructose diet disrupt metabolic and inflammatory gene networks in the brain, liver, and gut and promote behavioral deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Houser, Madelyn C; Chang, Jianjun; Walker, Douglas I; Jones, Dean P; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M P; Barnum, Christopher J; Tansey, Malú G

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between chronic psychological stress, development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and behavioral impairment in obesity are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of mild chronic psychological stress on metabolic, inflammatory, and behavioral profiles in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that (1) high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF) and psychological stress would synergize to mediate the impact of inflammation on the central nervous system in the presence of behavioral dysfunction, and that (2) HFHF and stress interactions would impact insulin and lipid metabolism. C57Bl/6 male mice underwent a combination of HFHF and two weeks of chronic psychological stress. MetS-related conditions were assessed using untargeted plasma metabolomics, and structural and immune changes in the gut and liver were evaluated. Inflammation was measured in plasma, liver, gut, and brain. Our results show a complex interplay of diet and stress on gut alterations, energetic homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and plasma insulin levels. Psychological stress and HFHF diet promoted changes in intestinal tight junctions proteins and increases in insulin resistance and plasma cholesterol, and impacted the RNA expression of inflammatory factors in the hippocampus. Stress promoted an adaptive anti-inflammatory profile in the hippocampus that was abolished by diet treatment. HFHF increased hippocampal and hepatic Lcn2 mRNA expression as well as LCN2 plasma levels. Behavioral changes were associated with HFHF and stress. Collectively, these results suggest that diet and stress as pervasive factors exacerbate MetS-related conditions through an inflammatory mechanism that ultimately can impact behavior. This rodent model may prove useful for identification of possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets to treat metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between regional abdominal fat distribution and both insulin resistance and subclinical chronic inflammation in non-diabetic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with a high risk of insulin resistance (IR) and its metabolic complications. It is still debated that distributions of adipose tissue relate to an excess risk of IR and chronic inflammation in different race. This study was designed to examine the relation between insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and central fat distribution in non-diabetic volunteers in Taiwanese. Methods There were 328 volunteers without family history of diabetes mellitus and with normal oral glucose tolerance test enrolled. Total body fat and abdominal fat were measured. Abdominal fat was categorized into intraperitoneal (IP), retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) fat. The IR index was estimated by homeostatic model assessment. Five inflammatory markers: adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosing factor-α (TNF-α), resistin and high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) were measured. Results IR was related to IP fat (r = 0.23, p fat, SC fat or total body fat. After correcting for age and sex, IP fat was the only significant predictor of IR (r2 = 58%, p = 0.001). Leptin showed the strongest relationship with all fat compartments (IP fat: r = 0.44, p = 0.001; RP fat: r = 0.36, p = 0.005, SC fat: r = 0.54, p fat: r = 0.61, p fat (r = 0.29, p = 0.004; r = -0.29, p = 0.005, respectively), but not RP, or SC fat. TNF-α and resistin were not correlated to any fat compartment. After correcting for age and sex, leptin variance was mostly explained by SC fat (41.3%), followed by IP fat (33.6%) and RP fat (25.3%). The hs-CRP and adiponectin variance were mostly explained by IP fat (40% and 49% respectively). Conclusions IP fat is better predictors of IR and subclinical chronic inflammation in Taiwanese adults. A disproportionate accumulation of abdominal fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24684833

  16. Application of dynamic metabolomics to examine in vivo skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the chronically high-fat fed mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Greg M., E-mail: greg.kowalski@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); De Souza, David P. [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Burch, Micah L. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hamley, Steven [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Kloehn, Joachim [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Selathurai, Ahrathy [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Tull, Dedreia; O' Callaghan, Sean; McConville, Malcolm J. [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bruce, Clinton R. [Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia)

    2015-06-19

    Rationale: Defects in muscle glucose metabolism are linked to type 2 diabetes. Mechanistic studies examining these defects rely on the use of high fat-fed rodent models and typically involve the determination of muscle glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions. While insightful, they do not necessarily reflect the physiology of the postprandial state. In addition, most studies do not examine aspects of glucose metabolism beyond the uptake process. Here we present an approach to study rodent muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism under the dynamic and physiologically relevant setting of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods and results: In vivo muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism was investigated following oral administration of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose. Quadriceps muscles were collected 15 and 60 min after glucose administration and metabolite flux profiling was determined by measuring {sup 13}C mass isotopomers in glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. While no dietary effects were noted in the glycolytic pathway, muscle from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited a reduction in labelling in TCA intermediates. Interestingly, this appeared to be independent of alterations in flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, our findings suggest that TCA cycle anaplerosis is negligible in muscle during an OGTT. Conclusions: Under the dynamic physiologically relevant conditions of the OGTT, skeletal muscle from HFD fed mice exhibits alterations in glucose metabolism at the level of the TCA cycle. - Highlights: • Dynamic metabolomics was used to investigate muscle glucose metabolism in vivo. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle metabolism is altered in muscle of HFD mice. • This defect was not pyruvate dehydrogenase mediated, as has been previously thought. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle anaplerosis in muscle is virtually absent during the OGTT.

  17. Application of dynamic metabolomics to examine in vivo skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the chronically high-fat fed mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Greg M.; De Souza, David P.; Burch, Micah L.; Hamley, Steven; Kloehn, Joachim; Selathurai, Ahrathy; Tull, Dedreia; O'Callaghan, Sean; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bruce, Clinton R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Defects in muscle glucose metabolism are linked to type 2 diabetes. Mechanistic studies examining these defects rely on the use of high fat-fed rodent models and typically involve the determination of muscle glucose uptake under insulin-stimulated conditions. While insightful, they do not necessarily reflect the physiology of the postprandial state. In addition, most studies do not examine aspects of glucose metabolism beyond the uptake process. Here we present an approach to study rodent muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism under the dynamic and physiologically relevant setting of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methods and results: In vivo muscle glucose and intermediary metabolism was investigated following oral administration of [U- 13 C] glucose. Quadriceps muscles were collected 15 and 60 min after glucose administration and metabolite flux profiling was determined by measuring 13 C mass isotopomers in glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. While no dietary effects were noted in the glycolytic pathway, muscle from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited a reduction in labelling in TCA intermediates. Interestingly, this appeared to be independent of alterations in flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, our findings suggest that TCA cycle anaplerosis is negligible in muscle during an OGTT. Conclusions: Under the dynamic physiologically relevant conditions of the OGTT, skeletal muscle from HFD fed mice exhibits alterations in glucose metabolism at the level of the TCA cycle. - Highlights: • Dynamic metabolomics was used to investigate muscle glucose metabolism in vivo. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle metabolism is altered in muscle of HFD mice. • This defect was not pyruvate dehydrogenase mediated, as has been previously thought. • Mitochondrial TCA cycle anaplerosis in muscle is virtually absent during the OGTT

  18. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  19. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Liang, Hanyu; Farese, Robert V; Li, Ji; Musi, Nicolas; Hussey, Sophie E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats. For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus)] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min) or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d) or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD) or a low fat control diet (LFD) for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp. Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18%) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust), suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP. Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo.

  20. Role of PTP1B in POMC neurons during chronic high-fat diet: sex differences in regulation of liver lipids and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdein, Nicola; Dambrino, Robert J; do Carmo, Jussara M; Wang, Zhen; Mitchell, Laura E; Drummond, Heather A; Hall, John E

    2018-03-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling and may contribute to leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity. Although PTP1B inhibition has been suggested as a potential weight loss therapy, the role of specific neuronal PTP1B signaling in cardiovascular and metabolic regulation and the importance of sex differences in this regulation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuronal PTP1B deficiency in cardiometabolic regulation in male and female mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). When compared with control mice (PTP1B flox/flox ), male and female mice deficient in POMC neuronal PTP1B (PTP1B flox/flox /POMC-Cre) had attenuated body weight gain (males: -18%; females: -16%) and fat mass (males: -33%; female: -29%) in response to HFD. Glucose tolerance was improved by 40%, and liver lipid accumulation was reduced by 40% in PTP1B/POMC-Cre males but not in females. When compared with control mice, deficiency of POMC neuronal PTP1B did not alter mean arterial pressure (MAP) in male or female mice (males: 112 ± 1 vs. 112 ± 1 mmHg in controls; females: 106 ± 3 vs. 109 ± 3 mmHg in controls). Deficiency of POMC neuronal PTP1B also did not alter MAP response to acute stress in males or females compared with control mice (males: Δ32 ± 0 vs. Δ29 ± 4 mmHg; females: Δ22 ± 2 vs. Δ27 ± 4 mmHg). These data demonstrate that POMC-specific PTP1B deficiency improved glucose tolerance and attenuated diet-induced fatty liver only in male mice and attenuated weight gain in males and females but did not enhance the MAP and HR responses to a HFD or to acute stress.

  1. Moderate chronic administration of Vineatrol-enriched red wines improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Bresciani, Letizia; Gaillet, Sylvie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Calani, Luca; Bonafos, Béatrice; Vidé, Joris; Rugani, Nathalie; Ramos, Jeanne; Del Rio, Daniele; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2014-06-01

    High-fat (HF) diets contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. This study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of Vineatrol®-enriched red wines on blood lipids, oxidative stress and inflammation, and the role of some metabolic pathway regulatory proteins. Golden Syrian hamsters received an HF diet for 13 wk, in the presence or absence of red wines supplemented with Vineatrol® (RWV) or not. The HF diet increased plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin, which were attenuated by RWV treatment. RWV protected against the HF-induced increase in liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and spared antioxidant enzyme activities. RWV did not reduce either liver steatosis or increased plasma leptin due to the HF diet, but greatly improved adiponectinemia. In the liver, RWV affected the inflammatory response by decreasing polymorphonuclear cell number and lowering TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Moreover, the increase in NF-κB activity in the HF group liver was prevented by RWV. Finally, RWV partially corrected low SIRT1 levels due to the HF diet but had no influence on SIRT3 or p-AMPK protein levels. Our studies suggest that RWV is capable of reversing the atherogenic process induced by an HF diet in hamster tissues. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Desire to eat high- and low-fat foods following a low-fat dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Frederick G; Vander Weg, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    This study examined changes in desires to eat high-fat and low-fat foods across an obesity treatment program. The hypotheses under examination were (1) preferences for low-fat foods would increase across time and (2) preferences for high-fat foods would decrease across time. Single-group, prospective examination of desires to eat 48 foods, categorized according to fat content, before and after the 16-week treatment program. University clinic, Memphis, Tennessee. 118 obese (mean weight = 194.4 lbs) women (mean age = 45.24 years) participating in an obesity treatment program. A 16-week cognitive-behavioral program for obesity. Desires to eat 48 foods varying in fat content and whether or not participants actually ate these foods. Analysis of variance, multiple regression, and paired t tests. The results indicate that during the program, preferences for low-fat foods increased, whereas preferences for high-fat foods decreased. These changes mirrored the changes in consumption of both low-fat and high-fat foods. Within a behavioral economic perspective, the reinforcement value of low-fat foods may increase following a low-fat dietary intervention, whereas the reinforcing properties of high-fat foods may decline. This is desirable as low-fat foods hold many advantages over high-fat foods in terms of weight maintenance.

  3. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  4. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  5. Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  6. Isocaloric high-fat feeding directs hepatic metabolism to handling of nutrient imbalance promoting liver fat deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Van Schothorst, E. M.; Keijer, J.; Palou, A.; Oliver, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Consumption of fat-rich foods is associated with obesity and related alterations. However, there is a group of individuals, the metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) subjects, who present normal body weight but have metabolic features characteristic of the obese status, including fat deposition in critical tissues such as liver, recognized as a major cause for the promotion of metabolic diseases. Our aim was to better understand metabolic alterations present in liver of MONW rats applying whole genome transcriptome analysis. Methods: Wistar rats were chronically fed a high-fat diet isocaloric relative to Control animals to avoid the hyperphagia and overweight and to mimic MONW features. Liver transcriptome analysis of both groups was performed. Results: Sustained intake of an isocaloric high-fat diet had a deep impact on the liver transcriptome, mainly affecting lipid metabolism. Although serum cholesterol levels were not affected, circulating triacylglycerols were lower, and metabolic adaptations at gene expression level indicated adaptation toward handling the increased fat content of the diet, an increased triacylglycerol and cholesterol deposition in liver of MONW rats was observed. Moreover, gene expression pointed to increased risk of liver injury. One of the top upregulated genes in this tissue was Krt23, a marker of hepatic disease in humans that was also increased at the protein level.Conclusion:Long-term intake of a high-fat diet, even in the absence of overweight/obesity or increase in classical blood risk biomarkers, promotes a molecular environment leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and increasing the risk of suffering from hepatic diseases.

  7. Isocaloric high-fat feeding directs hepatic metabolism to handling of nutrient imbalance promoting liver fat deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben

    2016-03-22

    Background/Objectives: Consumption of fat-rich foods is associated with obesity and related alterations. However, there is a group of individuals, the metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) subjects, who present normal body weight but have metabolic features characteristic of the obese status, including fat deposition in critical tissues such as liver, recognized as a major cause for the promotion of metabolic diseases. Our aim was to better understand metabolic alterations present in liver of MONW rats applying whole genome transcriptome analysis. Methods: Wistar rats were chronically fed a high-fat diet isocaloric relative to Control animals to avoid the hyperphagia and overweight and to mimic MONW features. Liver transcriptome analysis of both groups was performed. Results: Sustained intake of an isocaloric high-fat diet had a deep impact on the liver transcriptome, mainly affecting lipid metabolism. Although serum cholesterol levels were not affected, circulating triacylglycerols were lower, and metabolic adaptations at gene expression level indicated adaptation toward handling the increased fat content of the diet, an increased triacylglycerol and cholesterol deposition in liver of MONW rats was observed. Moreover, gene expression pointed to increased risk of liver injury. One of the top upregulated genes in this tissue was Krt23, a marker of hepatic disease in humans that was also increased at the protein level.Conclusion:Long-term intake of a high-fat diet, even in the absence of overweight/obesity or increase in classical blood risk biomarkers, promotes a molecular environment leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and increasing the risk of suffering from hepatic diseases.

  8. Expression and function of the atypical cadherin FAT1 in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valletta, Daniela; Czech, Barbara; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Müller, Martina; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The expression of the atypical cadherin FAT1 is increased in chronic liver disease. ► FAT1 expression goes up during the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. ► FAT1 enhanced NFkB activity and resistance to apoptosis in activated HSCs. ► FAT1 is a new therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis can be considered as wound healing process in response to hepatocellular injury. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event of hepatic fibrosis since activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and reversion of liver fibrosis is accompanied by clearance of activated HSCs by apoptosis. The atypical cadherin FAT1 has been shown to regulate diverse biological functions as cell proliferation and planar cell polarity, and also to affect wound healing. Here, we found increased FAT1 expression in different murine models of chronic liver injury and in cirrhotic livers of patients with different liver disease. Also in hepatic tissue of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FAT1 expression was significantly enhanced and correlated with collagen alpha I(1) expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed no significant differences in staining intensity between hepatocytes in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue but myofibroblast like cells in fibrotic septa of cirrhotic livers showed a prominent immunosignal. Furthermore, FAT1 mRNA and protein expression markedly increased during in vitro activation of primary human and murine HSCs. Together, these data indicated activated HSCs as cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. To gain insight into the functional role of FAT1 in activated HSCs we suppressed FAT1 in these cells by siRNA. We newly found that FAT1 suppression in activated HSCs caused a downregulation of NFκB activity. This

  9. Expression and function of the atypical cadherin FAT1 in chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valletta, Daniela; Czech, Barbara [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang E. [Grosshadern Tissue Bank and Center for Liver Cell Research, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (Germany); Mueller, Martina [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Hellerbrand, Claus, E-mail: claus.hellerbrand@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of the atypical cadherin FAT1 is increased in chronic liver disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 expression goes up during the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 enhanced NFkB activity and resistance to apoptosis in activated HSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 is a new therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis can be considered as wound healing process in response to hepatocellular injury. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event of hepatic fibrosis since activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and reversion of liver fibrosis is accompanied by clearance of activated HSCs by apoptosis. The atypical cadherin FAT1 has been shown to regulate diverse biological functions as cell proliferation and planar cell polarity, and also to affect wound healing. Here, we found increased FAT1 expression in different murine models of chronic liver injury and in cirrhotic livers of patients with different liver disease. Also in hepatic tissue of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FAT1 expression was significantly enhanced and correlated with collagen alpha I(1) expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed no significant differences in staining intensity between hepatocytes in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue but myofibroblast like cells in fibrotic septa of cirrhotic livers showed a prominent immunosignal. Furthermore, FAT1 mRNA and protein expression markedly increased during in vitro activation of primary human and murine HSCs. Together, these data indicated activated HSCs as cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. To gain insight into the functional role of FAT1 in activated HSCs we suppressed FAT1 in these

  10. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  11. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  12. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Vellers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels.Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD or high fat/high sugar (HFHS diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males and 17β-estradiol (females to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity.Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀ were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001 and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001. The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28% and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%. In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat.Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones.

  13. Analysis of visceral fat in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenártová, Petra; Habánová, Marta; Mrázová, Jana; Chlebo, Peter; Wyka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem, which leads to the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is one of the main causes of avoidable death and disability worldwide. The aim of study was analysis and comparison of the visceral fat in the body of the three groups of subjects (non-smokers, smokers and COPD patients) by Tanita Viscan 140. The control group was composed of: (1) non-smokers (n=30), consisted of 13 males (43.4%) and 17 women (56.6%) - the average age was 52 ± 6.51 years and (2) smokers (n=30), consisted of 12 men (40%) and 18 women (60%) - the average age 46.53 ± 9.22 years. Study group consisted of patients with COPD (n=60), which consisted of 48 men (80%) and 12 women (20%). Mean age was 69.25 ± 9.90 years. The measurement of visceral fat by Tanita Viscan device 140, which uses bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure fat in the abdomen of the patient in the supine position. High levels of visceral fat (women from 36.9% to 52.3% and more, men from 27.1% to 40.3% or more) were observed in 19 patients (3 women and 16 men), with 19 smokers (10 women and 9 men) and non-smokers in 22 subjects (10 women and 12 men). The average value of waist circumference measured with a Tanita Viscan 140 was in the group of patients 96.38 ± 12.27 cm, in the group of smokers 95.23 ± 10.12 cm and in group of non-smokers 96.86 ± 10.88 cm. The results of our work are of great importance for the health assessment not only among patients with COPD but also in the group of smokers. Therefore it would be appropriate to remind the general public, eg. by campaign for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its serious complications and reduce the life quality of these patients and thus help protect human health and in particular young people from the harmful effects of tobacco products.

  14. The prevalence of malnutrition and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sinead N; Smyth, Niamh D; O'Sullivan, Maria; Feehan, Sinead; Ridgway, Paul F; Conlon, Kevin C

    2014-06-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of malnutrition and nutrient deficiency due to malabsorption, pain, and poor diet. We sought to examine fat-soluble vitamin levels and malnutrition parameters in patients with chronic pancreatitis. In a prospective controlled cohort study, 128 subjects (62 chronic pancreatitis patients and 66 age-/sex-matched controls) were recruited. Body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength (measure of functional capacity), fat stores (triceps skin fold), muscle stores (mid-arm muscle circumference), exocrine function, and serum levels of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E) were measured. Half of patients in the chronic pancreatitis group were overweight or obese, although the mean BMI was lower in patients than in controls (P = .007). Handgrip strength (P = .048), fat stores (P = .000), and muscle stores (P = .001) were lower in patients than in controls. Of the patients, 14.5% and 24.2% were deficient in vitamins A and E, respectively. Nineteen percent of patients had excess serum vitamin A levels. Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity, patients had lower muscle stores, strength, and abnormal vitamin levels. Detailed nutrition assessment including anthropometry and vitamin status is warranted in chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  16. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  17. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D.; Ackerman, Kate E.; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F.; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associ...

  18. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  19. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  20. Effects of high-fat diet exposure on learning & memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Zachary A; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2015-12-01

    The associations between consumption of a high-fat or 'Western' diet and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have long been recognized and a great deal of evidence now suggests that diets high in fat can also have a profound impact on the brain, behavior, and cognition. Here, we will review the techniques most often used to assess learning and memory in rodent models and discuss findings from studies assessing the cognitive effects of high-fat diet consumption. The review will then consider potential underlying mechanisms in the brain and conclude by reviewing emerging literature suggesting that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet may have effects on the learning and memory of offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High signal intensity of fat on fast spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio; Yamazaki, Masaru; Hongoh, Takaharu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ishikuro, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    The fast spin echo (FSE) technique of producing T 2 -weighted images in greatly reduced imaging times has recently been used for routine clinical study. FSE images show contrast that is very similar in most tissues to that of conventional SE images. However, fat shows a high signal intensity that is influenced by j-coupling and the magnetization transfer effect. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the higher signal intensity of fat is different among MRI systems and to examine the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer on the high signal intensity of fat on FSE. The contrast in signal intensity between fat and water was measured for various echo train lengths (ETL) with and without multislicing on FSE using a contrast phantom. Measurements were obtained with four different MRI systems. In addition, the effective T 2 values of fat were calculated for the above conditions. Results indicated that contrast for fat and water was reduced with increased ETL and by using multislicing and was different among the four MRI systems. The effective T 2 values of fat were extended for increased ETL and were not dependent on multislicing. They also differed among the four MRI systems. The extent of effective T 2 values was affected by j-coupling. In this study, it was indicated that the degree of the high signal intensity of fat on FSE differed for different MRI systems. In addition, the reasons for the high signal intensity of fat on FSE were related to the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer. (author)

  2. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; Marina, Anna; Song, Xiaoling; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition. Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography. The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low- and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: -0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p vs. HFD: -0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = -0.77; p fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00930371.

  3. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance: focus on dietary fat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba ePutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondria play a key role in high fat diet induced insulin resistance. Two opposite views are debated on mechanisms by which mitochondrial function could be involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In one theory, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to cause intramyocellular lipid accumulation leading to insulin resistance. In the second theory, excess fuel within mitochondria in the absence of increased energy demand stimulates mitochondrial oxidant production and emission, ultimately leading to the development of insulin resistance. Noteworthy, mitochondrial bioenergetics is strictly associated with the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology by maintaining the balance between the fusion and fission processes. A shift towards mitochondrial fission with reduction of fusion protein, mainly mitofusin 2, has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance development. However, dietary fat source during chronic overfeeding differently affects mitochondrial morphology. Saturated fatty acids induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation associated with fission phenotype, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and inflammation, associated with a shift toward mitochondrial fusion phenotype. The present minireview focuses on mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, with particular attention to the effect of different dietary fat sources on skeletal muscle mitochondria morphology and fusion/fission balance.

  4. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored...... the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk...... duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed...

  5. Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. One of the candidate factors for determining the increase of fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet is the size of the glycogen storage. Therefore, we studied the effect of low glycogen stores on

  6. Effect of supplementing a high-fat, low-carbohydrate enteral formula in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baiqiang; Zhu, Yuanjue; Ma, Y i; Xu, Zuojun; Zao, Y i; Wang, Jinglan; Lin, Yaoguang; Comer, Gail M

    2003-03-01

    One of the goals in treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and malnutrition is to correct the malnutrition without increasing the respiratory quotient and minimize the production of carbon dioxide. This 3-wk study evaluated the efficacy of feeding a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (CHO) nutritional supplement as opposed to a high-carbohydrate diet in COPD patients on parameters of pulmonary function.S METHODS: Sixty COPD patients with low body weight (diet (15% protein, 20% to 30% fat, and 60% to 70% CHO), or the experimental group, which received two to three cans (237 mL/can) of a high-fat, low-CHO oral supplement (16.7% protein, 55.1% fat, and 28.2% CHO) in the evening as part of the diet. Measurements of lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s or volume of air exhaled in 1 s of maximal expiration, minute ventilation, oxygen consumption per unit time, carbon dioxide production in unit time, and respiratory quotient) and blood gases (pH, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial oxygen tension) were taken at baseline and after 3 wk. Lung function measurements decreased significantly and forced expiratory volume increased significantly in the experimental group. This study demonstrates that pulmonary function in COPD patients can be significantly improved with a high-fat, low-CHO oral supplement as compared with the traditional high-CHO diet.

  7. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  8. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maris Nápolis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and cross-over study. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients were randomly assigned to either home-based, high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation or sham stimulation for six weeks. The training intensity was adjusted according to each subject's tolerance. Fat-free mass, isometric strength, six-minute walking distance and time to exercise intolerance (Tlim were assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen (46.4% patients responded to high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation; that is, they had a post/pre Δ Tlim >10% after stimulation (unimproved after sham stimulation. Responders had a higher baseline fat-free mass and six-minute walking distance than their seventeen (53.6% non-responding counterparts. Responders trained at higher stimulation intensities; their mean amplitude of stimulation during training was significantly related to their fat-free mass (r = 0.65; p<0.01. Logistic regression revealed that fat-free mass was the single independent predictor of Tlim improvement (odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.15 [1.04-1.26]; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved the exercise capacity of COPD patients with better-preserved fat-free mass because they tolerated higher training stimulus levels. These data suggest that early training with high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation before tissue wasting begins might enhance exercise tolerance in patients with less advanced COPD.

  9. Low-fat vs. high-fat bedtime snacks in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darrell; Chase, H Peter; Kollman, Craig; Xing, Dongyuan; Caswell, Kimberly; Tansey, Michael; Fox, Larry; Weinzimer, Stuart; Beck, Roy; Ruedy, Katrina; Tamborlane, William

    2008-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether, in a group of children with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump, a prebedtime snack with a relatively high fat content provides greater protection from nocturnal hypoglycemia than a snack containing the same amount of carbohydrate and protein but a lower fat content. Ten subjects, aged 6 to carbohydrate-low-fat (30 g CHO, 2.5 g protein, and 1.3 g fat; 138 kcal) snack or a carbohydrate-high-fat (30 g CHO, 2 g protein, and 20 g fat; 320 kcal) snack. Subjects used their usual evening snack algorithm to determine the size (in 15-g carbohydrate increments) and insulin dosage. Average glucose on 128 valid study nights before snack was similar in both groups. The proportion of nights with hypoglycemia (a sensor or meter glucose value fat vs. 20% low fat), as was the proportion of nights with hyperglycemia (a glucose >or=200 mg/dL and at least 50 mg/dL above baseline, 35% high fat vs. 30% low fat). There were no statistical differences between the high- and low-fat snacks on the frequency of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. This study highlights the feasibility of web-based research in patients' home environment.

  10. Growth rate of sheep fed high fat ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating high amount of fats into the ration for ruminants will affect the rumen microbes adversely and will reducefiber digestion potential. To correct such negative effects, the free fatty acids used for feed should be bond with Ca++, so it canpassing through the rumen savely (rumen by-pass fat. To test the Ca-fat utilization biologically, 20 growing male Garut shee pwere used and fed with 4 type of isocaloric-isoprotein concentrate feed which were allotted based on a randomized block desig nwith 5 replications. The concentrate (C-A was a positive control diet, while C-B was substituted with 10% free fatty acids (negative control, C-C was substituted with 10% Ca-fat, and C-D with 15% Ca-fat. The concentrate feed was fed at 500 g/d, while forage (King grass was 4 kg/d. Results of the experiment showed that the negative effect of free fatty acids can be corrected if it was given in the form of Ca-fat. Growth rate curve indicating a good growing pattern, with average daily gain was 100.18, 87.68, 112.86, and 115.00 g/d (P0.05. Carcass production was relatively good, where for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D were 14.84, 14.68, 16.34, and 15.72 kg (P<0.05 respectively, with final live weights of 34.00, 31.74, 34.58, and 34.30 kg (P<0.05. It can be concluded that Ca-fat (rumen by-pass fat can be used as an energy source component for growing sheep diet, and give the best result at 10% substitution rate in concentrate feed.

  11. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-12-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( P corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.

  12. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  13. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  14. Chronic consumption of trans fat can facilitate the development of hyperactive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Kuhn, F T; Dias, V T; Roversi, K; Vey, L T; Antoniazzi, C T; Barcelos, R C S; Bürger, M E

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, the increased consumption of processed foods, which are rich in hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), has led to a decreased consumption of fish and oilseed, rich in omega-3 fatty acids. This eating habit provides an increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which may be related to neuropsychiatric conditions, including inattention and hyperactivity. In this study, we evaluated the potential connection between prolonged trans fat consumption and development of hyperactivity-like symptoms in rats using different behavioral paradigms. Trans fat intake for 10 months (Experiment 1), as well as during pregnancy and lactation across two sequential generations of rats, (Experiment 4) induced active coping in the forced swimming task (FST). In addition, HVF supplementation was associated with increased locomotion before and after amphetamine (AMPH) administration (Experiment 2). Similarly, HVF supplementation during pregnancy and lactation were associated with increased locomotion in both young and adult rats (Experiment 3). Furthermore, trans fat intake across two sequential generations increased locomotor and exploratory activities following stressors (Experiment 4). From these results, we suggest that chronic consumption of trans fat is able to enhance impulsiveness and reactivity to novelty, facilitating hyperactive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal high fat diet promotion of mammary tumor risk in adult progeny is associated with early expansion of mammary cancer stem-like cells and increased maternal oxidative environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many adult chronic diseases might be programmed during early life by maternal nutritional history. Here, we evaluated effects of maternal high fat diet on mammary gland development and tumor formation in adult progeny. Female Wnt-1 transgenic mice exposed to high fat (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or control C...

  16. Chronic treatment of (R)-α-lipoic acid reduces blood glucose and lipid levels in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Hardik; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Nammi, Srinivas

    2017-06-01

    (R)- α -lipoic acid ( ALA ), an essential cofactor in mitochondrial respiration and a potential antioxidant, possesses a wide array of metabolic benefits including anti-obesity, glucose lowering, insulin-sensitizing, and lipid-lowering effects. In this study, the curative effects of ALA (100 mg/kg) on a spectrum of conditions related to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes ( T2D ) were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome and T2D . The marked rise in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and VLDL-cholesterol in the blood of HFD-fed and low-dose STZ-injected rats were significantly reduced by ALA treatment. Furthermore, ALA treatment significantly increased the serum HDL-cholesterol levels and tended to inhibit diabetes-induced weight reduction. Mathematical computational analysis revealed that ALA also significantly improved insulin sensitivity and reduced the risk of atherosclerotic lesions and coronary atherogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence to substantiate the use of ALA to mitigate the glucose and lipid abnormality in metabolic syndrome and T2D .

  17. Development of hepatocellular cancer induced by long term low fat-high carbohydrate diet in a NAFLD/NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Mastroiaco, Valentina; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pompili, Simona; Cicciarelli, Germana; Barnabei, Remo; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Capalbo, Carlo; Alesse, Edoardo

    2017-08-08

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.

  18. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie R. Wilburn; Jeffrey Bourquin; Andrea Wysong; Christopher L. Melby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight ...

  19. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  20. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT.We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status.The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8 or eumenorrheic (n = 8.We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition.Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002, higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01 and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09. BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively. We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02.BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02, and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones.Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female

  1. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D; Ackerman, Kate E; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT. We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status. The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes) between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8) or eumenorrheic (n = 8).We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition. Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002), higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01) and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09). BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively). We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02).BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones. Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female athletes

  2. Inhibition of the Inflammasome NLRP3 by Arglabin Attenuates Inflammation, Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from Apoptosis, and Prevents Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Development in ApoE2Ki Mice on a Chronic High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrazak, Amna; El Hadri, Khadija; Bosc, Elodie; Blondeau, Bertrand; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Büchele, Berthold; Simmet, Thomas; Couchie, Dominique; Rouis, Mustapha

    2016-06-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of arglabin (2.5 ng/g of body weight, twice daily, 13 weeks) into female human apolipoprotein E2 gene knock-in (ApoE2Ki) mice fed a high-fat Western-type diet (HFD) reduced plasma levels of glucose and insulin by ∼20.0% ± 3.5% and by 50.0% ± 2.0%, respectively, in comparison with vehicle-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of active caspase-3 in islet sections from ApoE2Ki mice fed a HFD and treated with arglabin. In addition, arglabin reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in a concentration-dependent manner in Langerhans islets isolated from ApoE2Ki mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with cholesterol crystals. This inhibitory effect is specific for the inflammasome NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) because IL-1β production was abolished in Langerhans islets isolated from Nlrp3(-/-) mice. In the insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, arglabin inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maturation of pro-IL-1β into biologically active IL-1β probably through the inhibition of the maturation of procaspase-1 into active capsase-1. Moreover, arglabin reduced the susceptibility of INS-1 cells to apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 levels. Similarly, autophagy activation by rapamycin decreased apoptosis susceptibility while autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenin treatment promoted apoptosis. Arglabin further increased the expression of the autophagic markers Bcl2-interacting protein (Beclin-1) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, arglabin reduces NLRP3-dependent inflammation as well as apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells in vivo and in the INS-1 cell line in vitro, whereas it increases autophagy in cultured INS-1 cells, indicating survival-promoting properties of the compound in these cells. Hence, arglabin may represent a new promising compound to treat inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus development

  3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects differential lipid composition in mammary glands on low fat, high animal fat versus high fructose diets.

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    Dianning He

    Full Text Available The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1 SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12 were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD, high animal fat diet (HAFD, and high fructose diet (HFruD. MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9.4 T scanner after 8 weeks on the diet. 1H spectra were acquired using point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS from two 1 mm3 boxes on each side of inguinal mammary gland with no cancers, lymph nodes, or lymph ducts. High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS images were also acquired from nine 1-mm slices. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions was used to fit the spectra. The percentages of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, and saturated fatty acids (SFA were calculated from each fitted spectrum. Water and fat peak height images (maps were generated from HiSS data. The results showed that HAFD mice had significantly lower PUFA than both LFD (p < 0.001 and HFruD (p < 0.01 mice. The mammary lipid quantity calculated from 1H spectra was much larger in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.03 but similar to HFruD mice (p = 0.10. The average fat signal intensity over the mammary glands calculated from HiSS fat maps was ~60% higher in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.04 mice. The mean or median of calculated parameters for the HFruD mice were between those for LFD and HAFD mice. Therefore, PRESS spectroscopy and HiSS MRI demonstrated water and fat composition changes in mammary glands due to a Western diet, which was low in potassium, high in sodium, animal fat, and simple carbohydrates. Measurements of PUFA with MRI could be used to evaluate cancer risk, improve cancer detection and diagnosis, and guide preventative

  4. Enhanced preference for high-fat foods following a simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Sean W; Filtness, Ashleigh J; Phillips, Craig L; Anderson, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers are prone to obesity and associated co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Sleep restriction associated with shift work results in dramatic endocrine and metabolic effects that predispose shift workers to these adverse health consequences. While sleep restriction has been associated with increased caloric intake, food preference may also play a key role in weight gain associated with shift work. This study examined the impact of an overnight simulated night shift on food preference. Sixteen participants [mean 20.1, standard deviation (SD) 1.4 years; 8 women] underwent a simulated night shift and control condition in a counterbalanced order. On the following morning, participants were provided an opportunity for breakfast that included high- and low-fat food options (mean 64.8% and 6.4% fat, respectively). Participants ate significantly more high-fat breakfast items after the simulated night shift than after the control condition [167.3, standard error of the mean (SEM 28.7) g versus 211.4 (SEM 35.6) g; P=0.012]. The preference for high-fat food was apparent among the majority of individuals following the simulated night shift (81%), but not for the control condition (31%). Shift work and control conditions did not differ, however, in the total amount of food or calories consumed. A simulated night shift leads to preference for high-fat food during a subsequent breakfast opportunity. These results suggest that food choice may contribute to weight-related chronic health problems commonly seen among night shift workers.

  5. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  6. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

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    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  7. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Tangeretin and 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone decrease insulin resistance, fat accumulation and oxidative stress in mice fed high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeretin and heptamethoxyflavone were investigated for their ability to repair metabolic damage caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. In the first four weeks, induction of obesity was performed and the mice received standard diet (11% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat). After ...

  9. Effects of overfeeding and high-fat diet on cardiosomatic parameters and cardiac structures in young and adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a complex global health problem because it is a risk factor for multiple chronic pathologies such as cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. It is considered a multicausal disease, and one of the determining factors is nutritional imbalances, which include high-fat diets. In this paper, we use the zebrafish model to assess the impact of overfeeding and a high-fat diet in somatic and cardiac parameters in young and adult zebrafish. The results show that fish receiving a high-fat diet showed greater weight gain compared to fish receiving a standard fat diet. Additionally, changes in the heart, including increases in size, a change in the triangular shape of the ventricle to a globular shape, and an increase in the thickness of the trabeculae of the spongy myocardium were observed. These changes could be indicators of cardiovascular overload. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the intake of a high-fat diet and obesity, which in turn can induce cardiac changes, supporting the hypothesis of the relationship between high-fat diets and cardiovascular risk factors. Given the genetic similarity between zebrafish and humans, these results could be extrapolated to human beings, and the findings similarly highlight the importance of incorporating a balanced diet from the early life stages to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Effects of vitamin D deficient and high-fat diets in the diabetic brain: focus on insulin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Guilherme Alvarinhas de Assis

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Bioquímica, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disorder that reached epidemic proportions, affecting almost 390 million people around the globe. Most cases of T2D result from unhealthy eating habits. In fact, consumption of high-fat diets and high intake of saturated fat are associated with an increased risk of obesity, meta...

  11. Consumption of a High-Fat Diet Induces Central Insulin Resistance Independent of Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Deborah J.; Gotoh, Koro; Kemp, Christopher; Wortman, Matthew D.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Brown, Lynda M.; D’Alessio, David; Tso, Patrick; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma insulin enters the CNS where it interacts with insulin receptors in areas that are related to energy homeostasis and elicits a decrease of food intake and body weight. Here, we demonstrate that consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet impairs the central actions of insulin. Male Long-Evans rats were given chronic (70-day) or acute (3-day) ad libitum access to HF, low-fat (LF), or chow diets. Insulin administered into the 3rd-cerebral ventricle (i3vt) decreased food intake and body weight of LF and chow rats but had no effect on HF rats in either the chronic or the acute experiment. Rats chronically pair-fed the HF diet to match the caloric intake of LF rats, and with body weights and adiposity levels comparable to those of LF rats, were also unresponsive to i3vt insulin when returned to ad lib food whereas rats pair-fed the LF diet had reduced food intake and body weight when administered i3vt insulin. Insulin’s inability to reduce food intake in the presence of the high-fat diet was associated with a reduced ability of insulin to activate its signaling cascade, as measured by pAKT. Finally, i3vt administration of insulin increased hypothalamic expression of POMC mRNA in the LF-but not the HF-fed rats. We conclude that consumption of a HF diet leads to central insulin resistance following short exposure to the diet, and as demonstrated by reductions in insulin signaling and insulin-induced hypothalamic expression of POMC mRNA. PMID:21241723

  12. Increased epicardial fat is independently associated with the presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation and radiofrequency ablation outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Gross, Barry H.; Patel, Smita [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, UH B1-132 Taubman/Box 0302, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sinno, Mohamad; Oral, Hakan [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Watcharotone, Kuanwong [University of Michigan, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR), Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To determine whether intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment outcome. IRB approval was obtained and patient consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. 169 patients with AF (75 non-paroxysmal and 94 paroxysmal) and 62 control patients underwent cardiac CT examination. Extrapericardial (EPFV) and epicardial fat volumes (EFV) were measured on CT, the sum of which is the total intrathoracic fat volume. Associations between these three fat volumes and presence and chronicity of AF, and outcome after RFA, were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. EFV was significantly associated with presence [OR 1.01 (95 % CI 1.003-1.03), p = 0.01], chronicity of AF [1.008 (1.001-1.020), p = 0.03] and AF recurrence after RFA [1.009 (1.001-1.01), p = 0.02] after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. Patients with a larger EFV had a shorter time to AF recurrence (p = 0.017) and a higher rate of recurrence (54 % vs 46 %) (p = 0.002) after RFA. EPFV had no significant associations. Increased epicardial fat is associated with the presence and chronicity of AF, a higher probability of AF recurrence after RFA and a shorter AF-free interval. (orig.)

  13. Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets on hepatic lipogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Damiano, Fabrizio; Siculella, Luisa; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is influenced by several nutritional and hormonal factors. In this study, we have investigated the effects of distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrate or in fat on hepatic lipogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrates (70% w/w) or in fat (20 and 35% w/w). Activity and expression of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were analyzed through the study with assessments at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Liver lipids and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were assayed in parallel. Whereas the high-carbohydrate diet moderately stimulated hepatic lipogenesis, a strong inhibition of this anabolic pathway was found in animals fed high-fat diets. This inhibition was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. Moreover, whereas the high-carbohydrate diet induced an increase in plasma triglycerides, the high-fat diets determined an accumulation of triglycerides in liver. An increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and insulin was observed in all cases. The excess of sucrose in the diet is converted into fat that is distributed by bloodstream in the organism in the form of circulating triglycerides. On the other hand, a high amount of dietary fat caused a strong inhibition of lipogenesis and a concomitant increase in the level of hepatic lipids, thereby highlighting, in these conditions, the role of liver as a reservoir of exogenous fat.

  14. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  15. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  16. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  17. Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet. Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18-24.9 kg/m 2 ), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  19. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J van Dijk

    Full Text Available The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA. Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma triglycerides (TAG, glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00977262.

  20. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Meziri, Fayçal; Devaux, Sylvie; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet induces obesity. We investigated whether exercise would reverse the cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity without it being necessary to change from a high- to normal-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 12 wk. HFD rats were then divided into four groups: sedentary HFD (HFD-S), exercise trained (motor treadmill for 12 wk) HFD (HFD-Ex), modified diet (HFD to CD; HF/CD-S), and exercise trained with modified diet (HF/CD-Ex). Cardiovascular risk parameters associated with metabolic syndrome were measured, and contents of aortic Akt, phospho-Akt at Ser (473), total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and phospho-eNOS at Ser (1177) were determined by Western blotting. Chronic consumption of HFD induced a metabolic syndrome. Exercise and dietary modifications reduced adiposity, improved glucose and insulin levels and plasma lipid profile, and exerted an antihypertensive effect. Exercise was more effective than dietary modification in improving plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance and in correcting the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and insulin. Furthermore, independent of the diet used, exercise increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. Metabolic syndrome induced by HFD is reversed by exercise and diet modification. It is demonstrated that exercise training induces these beneficial effects without the requirement for dietary modification, and these beneficial effects may be mediated by shear stress-induced Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Thus, exercise may be an effective strategy to reverse almost all the atherosclerotic risk factors linked to obesity, particularly in the vasculature.

  1. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  2. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  3. Effect of high fat and high sugar diet on insulin binding and insulin action in isolated rat adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑,悟

    1987-01-01

    To clarify on a cellular basis the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of the westernized diet, insulin binding, insulin stimulated 3-o-methylglucose uptake and glucose oxidation were studied in isolated adipocytes from rats fed experimental diets : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the westernized diet), low fat-high sugar diet (10% fat, 50% starch, 20% s...

  4. A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces plasma total adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet with no impact on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Kestin, Mark; Schwarz, Yvonne; Yang, Pamela; Hu, Xiaojun; Lampe, Johanna W; Kratz, Mario

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of a eucaloric moderate-fat diet (18% protein, 36% fat, and 46% carbohydrate), a eucaloric low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (18% protein, 18% fat, and 64% carbohydrate), and a low-calorie (33% reduced) low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on biomarkers of systemic inflammation. We randomly assigned 102 participants (age 21-76 years and BMI 19.2-35.5 kg/m(2)) to the three different diets for 6 weeks in a parallel design intervention trial. All foods were provided. Ninety-three participants completed all study procedures; 92 were included in the analyses. Endpoints included plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFRI and II), and adiponectin. In the unadjusted primary analyses, none of the endpoints were differentially affected by the dietary interventions despite the significantly greater reductions in body weight and fat mass in participants consuming the low-calorie low-fat diet compared to the eucaloric diets (p loss (time × weight change interaction, p = 0.051). Adjusted for weight change, adiponectin was reduced in the groups consuming the low-fat diets relative to the moderate-fat diet (p = 0.008). No effect of the intervention diets or weight loss on CRP, IL-6, or sTNFRI and II was seen in these secondary analyses. In relatively healthy adults, moderate weight loss had minimal effects on systemic inflammation, and raised plasma adiponectin only modestly. A lower dietary fat and higher carbohydrate content had little impact on measures of systemic inflammation, but reduced adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet. The latter may be of concern given the consistent and strong inverse association of plasma adiponectin with many chronic diseases.

  5. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  6. High fat diet accelerates pathogenesis of murine Crohn's disease-like ileitis independently of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with a more severe disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and epidemiological data identified dietary fats but not obesity as risk factors for the development of IBD. Crohn's disease is one of the two major IBD phenotypes and mostly affects the terminal ileum. Despite recent observations that high fat diets (HFD impair intestinal barrier functions and drive pathobiont selection relevant for chronic inflammation in the colon, mechanisms of high fat diets in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease are not known. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of HFD on the development of chronic ileal inflammation in a murine model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. METHODS: TNF(ΔARE/WT mice and wildtype C57BL/6 littermates were fed a HFD compared to control diet for different durations. Intestinal pathology and metabolic parameters (glucose tolerance, mesenteric tissue characteristics were assessed. Intestinal barrier integrity was characterized at different levels including polyethylene glycol (PEG translocation, endotoxin in portal vein plasma and cellular markers of barrier function. Inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well as immune cell infiltration into ileal tissue were determined and related to luminal factors. RESULTS: HFD aggravated ileal inflammation but did not induce significant overweight or typical metabolic disorders in TNF(ΔARE/WT. Expression of the tight junction protein Occludin was markedly reduced in the ileal epithelium of HFD mice independently of inflammation, and translocation of endotoxin was increased. Epithelial cells showed enhanced expression of inflammation-related activation markers, along with enhanced luminal factors-driven recruitment of dendritic cells and Th17-biased lymphocyte infiltration into the lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS: HFD feeding, independently of obesity, accelerated disease onset of small intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease

  7. High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet-Induced Subendothelial Matrix Stiffening is Mitigated by Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julie C; Azar, Julian; Seta, Francesca; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet and sedentary lifestyle are correlated with bulk arterial stiffening. While measurements of bulk arterial stiffening are used to assess cardiovascular health clinically, they cannot account for changes to the tissue occurring on the cellular scale. The compliance of the subendothelial matrix in the intima mediates vascular permeability, an initiating step in atherosclerosis. High-fat, high-sugar diet consumption and a sedentary lifestyle both cause micro-scale subendothelial matrix stiffening, but the impact of these factors in concert remains unknown. In this study, mice on a high-fat, high-sugar diet were treated with aerobic exercise or returned to a normal diet. We measured bulk arterial stiffness through pulse wave velocity and subendothelial matrix stiffness ex vivo through atomic force microscopy. Our data indicate that while diet reversal mitigates high-fat, high-sugar diet-induced macro- and micro-scale stiffening, exercise only significantly decreases micro-scale stiffness and not macro-scale stiffness, during the time-scale studied. These data underscore the need for both healthy diet and exercise to maintain vascular health. These data also indicate that exercise may serve as a key lifestyle modification to partially reverse the deleterious impacts of high-fat, high-sugar diet consumption, even while macro-scale stiffness indicators do not change.

  8. High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population.

  9. High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Gao

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population.

  10. Effects of Enzymatically Synthesized Glycogen and Exercise on Abdominal Fat Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shohei; Honda, Kazuhisa; Morinaga, Ryoji; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.

  11. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress the cardiovascular system, and when modeled experimentally, may be useful in identifying latent effects of air pollution exposure. For example, a single high fat (HF) meal can cause transient vascular endothelial dysfunction and increases in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oxidative stress, and inflammation. Given the prevalence of HF meals in western diets, the goal of this study was to develop a HF meal challenge in rats to see if air pollution primes the body for a subsequent stress-induced adverse response. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto rats were fasted for six hours and then administered a single oral gavage of isocaloric lard-based HF or low fat (LF) suspensions, or a water vehicle control. We hypothesized that rats given a HF load would elicit postprandial changes in cardiopulmonary function that were distinct from LF and vehicle controls. One to four hours after gavage, rats underwent whole body plethysmography to assess breathing patterns, cardiovascular ultrasounds, blood draws for measurements of systemic lipids and hormones and a test for sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. HF gavage caused an increase in circulating TG relative to LF and vehicle controls and an incre

  12. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  13. Voluntary exercise improves high-fat diet-induced leptin resistance independent of adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczewski Carhuatanta, Kimberly A; Demuro, Giovanna; Tschöp, Matthias H; Pfluger, Paul T; Benoit, Stephen C; Obici, Silvana

    2011-07-01

    The efficacy of exercise as primary prevention of obesity is the subject of intense investigation. Here, we show that voluntary exercise in a mouse strain susceptible to diet-induced obesity (C57B6J) decreases fat mass and increases energy expenditure. In addition, exercise attenuates obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Using FosB immunoreactivity as a marker of chronic neuronal activation, we found that exercise activates leptin receptor-positive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, involved in homeostatic control of energy balance. FosB immunoreactivity in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus is decreased in sedentary mice exposed to HFD but is increased in exercised mice independent of adiposity. To determine whether the antiobesity effects of voluntary exercise improve central nervous system (CNS) leptin action, we measured the anorectic and weight reducing effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin in sedentary and exercised mice exposed to HFD (EH), as well as in sedentary mice that have been calorie restricted (SR) to match the fat mass of EH mice. ICV leptin was ineffective in lowering food intake and body weight (BW) in sedentary mice exposed to HFD mice. The anorectic potency of leptin was partially restored in EH and SR groups. However, ICV leptin significantly lowered BW in EH but not SR mice. Thus, exercise leads to the maintenance of a lower BW and leaner composition, as well as to improved CNS leptin action, independent of fat mass. These results support the notion that physical exercise directly influences the responsiveness of the CNS circuits involved in energy homeostasis by allowing the defense of a lowered BW.

  14. Aged interleukin-10tm1Cgn chronically inflamed mice have substantially reduced fat mass, metabolic rate, and adipokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan M Westbrook

    Full Text Available Interleukin 10tm1Cgn (IL 10tm mice have been utilized as a model of chronic inflammation and declining health span because of their propensity to develop chronic activation in NFkB pathways, skeletal muscle and cardiac changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that older IL 10tm frail mice would have alterations similar to frail, older humans in measured parameters of glucose metabolism, oxygen consumption (VO2, respiratory quotient (RQ, spontaneous locomotor activity, body composition and plasma adipokine levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated these metabolic parameters in cohorts of 3, 10, and 20 month old IL 10tm female mice and age and gender matched C57Bl/6 mice. Insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, locomotor activity and RQ were not significantly altered between the two strains of mice. Interestingly, old IL 10tm mice had significantly decreased VO2 when normalized by lean mass, but not when normalized by fat mass or the lean/fat mass ratio. NMR based body composition analysis and dissection weights show that fat mass is decreased with age in IL 10tm mice compared to controls. Further, plasma adiponectin and leptin were also decreased in IL 10tm.These findings suggest that frailty observed in this mouse model of chronic inflammation may in part be driven by alterations in fat mass, hormone secretion and energy metabolism.

  15. Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-induced mouse model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaqin; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xiang, Rong

    2016-06-08

    Obesity, which is characteristic by chronic inflammation, is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese state and is known to be strongly associated with chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ER stress on adipokine secretion in obese mice and explore the potential mechanisms. In this study, we found high-fat diet induced-obesity contributed to strengthened ER stress and triggered chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Chemical chaperones, 4-PBA and TUDCA, modified metabolic disorders and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The alleviation of ER stress is in accordance with the decrease of free cholesterol in adipose tissue. Furthermore chemical chaperones suppress NF-κB activity in adipose tissue of obese mice in vivo. In vitro studies showed IKK/NF-κB may be involved in the signal transduction of adipokine secretion dysfunction induced by ER stress. The present study revealed the possibility that inhibition of ER stress may be a novel drug target for metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Further studies are now needed to characterize the initial incentive of sustained ER stress in obese.

  16. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan L.; Garvican‐Lewis, Laura A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A.; Forbes, Sara G.; Mirtschin, Joanne G.; Cato, Louise E.; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P.; Hawley, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support.Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole‐body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities.The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real‐life race performance in elite race walkers.In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. Abstract We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world‐class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg−1 day−1: 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (diets providing chronic or periodised high‐CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in V˙O2 peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part due to reduced exercise economy. PMID:28012184

  17. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  18. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces changes in arcuate neuropeptide expression that support hyperphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.; van Rozen, A. J.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Groeneweg, F.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms for how saturated fat and sugar-based beverages contribute to human obesity are poorly understood. This paper describes a series of experiments developed to examine the response of hypothalamic neuropeptides to diets rich in sugar and fat, using three different diets: a high-fat

  19. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However...

  20. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  1. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Peri-Vesical Fat Interposition Flap Reinforcement in High Vesico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: The urinary bladder becomes small, contracted and is associated with excess pelvic fat in long standing cases of vesico-vaginal fistulas (VVFs). The aim of this new technique was to use this excess pelvic fat for harvesting an interposition flap. Materials and Methods: An interposition flap of peri-vesical ...

  3. High fat diet accelerates cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wu; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs; Kops, Nicole; Bos, Pieter K; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zuurmond, Anne-Marie; Dell'Accio, Francesco; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for osteoarthritis, but it is unknown what it does on cartilage repair. Here we investigated whether a high fat diet (HFD) influences cartilage repair in a mouse model of cartilage repair. We fed DBA/1 mice control or HFD (60% energy from fat). After 2 weeks, a full thickness cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove. Mice were sacrificed, 1, 8, and 24 weeks after operation. Cartilage repair was evaluated on histology. Serum glucose, insulin and amyloid A were measured 24 h before operation and at endpoints. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on synovium and adipose tissue to evaluate macrophage infiltration and phenotype. One week after operation, mice on HFD had defect filling with fibroblast-like cells and more cartilage repair as indicated by a lower Pineda score. After 8 weeks, mice on a HFD still had a lower Pineda score. After 24 weeks, no mice had complete cartilage repair and we did not detect a significant difference in cartilage repair between diets. Bodyweight was increased by HFD, whereas serum glucose, amyloid A and insulin were not influenced. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype in adipose tissue and synovium were not influenced by HFD. In contrast to common wisdom, HFD accelerated intrinsic cartilage repair in DBA/1 mice on the short term. Resistance to HFD induced inflammatory and metabolic changes could be associated with accelerated cartilage repair. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1258-1264, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafine, Katherine M; Labay, Caitlin; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to obesity, chronic metabolic disease, and increased inflammation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dietary supplements that are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce or prevent these negative health consequences in rats. Eating high fat chow also increases the sensitivity of rats to behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems (e.g., cocaine), and this effect is greatest in adolescent females. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat chow induced increases in sensitivity to cocaine in adolescent female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 25-27) ate standard laboratory chow (5.7% fat), high fat chow (34.4% fat), or high fat chow supplemented with fish oil (20% w/w). Cocaine dose dependently (1-17.8mg/kg) increased locomotion and induced sensitization across 6 weeks of once-weekly testing in all rats; however, these effects were greatest in rats eating high fat chow. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented enhanced locomotion and sensitization in rats eating high fat chow. There were no differences in inflammatory markers in plasma or the hypothalamus among dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish oil can prevent high fat diet-induced sensitization to cocaine, but they fail to support the view that these effects are due to changes in proinflammatory cytokines. These data add to a growing literature on the relationship between diet and drug abuse and extend the potential health benefits of fish oil to stimulant drug abuse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  7. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet

  8. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  9. Effect of a high monounsaturated vs high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, R; de Luis, D A; Izaola, O; de la Fuente, B; Bachiller, R

    2014-01-01

    Hyperaminotransferasemia is an important problem in obese patients. We decide to examine the changes in hyperaminotransferasemia after weight reduction in obese patients with and without NAFLD secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs. a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets. A population of 306 obese patients was randomly allocated to two groups: Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). Patients were classified as group I (obese subjects; n=262) when serum ALT activity was normal or group II (NAFLD patients; n=44) when serum ALT activity was (≥ 43 UI/L). In NAFLD group with diet M, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol), insulin and HOMA-R decreased. In NAFLD group with diet P, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol), insulin and HOMA-R decreased, too. In NAFLD group, alanine aminotransferase [(diet M) -20.3±19.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -14.2±20.1 UI/L], aspartate aminotransferase [(diet M) -11.3±12.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -11.1±10.1 UI/L], and gammaglutamyl transferase [(diet M) -18.1±12.2 UI/L vs. (diet P) -10.9±20.1 UI/L] improved with both diets. We showed that weight reduction secondary to two hypocaloric diets was associated with improvement in hypertransaminasemia and insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

  10. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Renata Attademo, E-mail: luizronaldoa@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1{sup st} week) and end (18{sup th} week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  11. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1 st week) and end (18 th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  12. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet....... The findings suggest that high-fat diets increase non-fasting FVII:C, and consequently may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20...

  13. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. High fat diet-induced obesity reduces bone formation through activation of ppar gamma to suppress wnt/beta-catenin signaling in prepubertal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a high fat diet (HFD) and of obesity on skeletal development, maturation and remodeling remain largely unclear particularly in children. In this report, we utilized a total enteral nutrition (TEN) model to examine the direct effect of HFD feeding on bone prior to puberty. We chronical...

  15. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  16. The Metabolic Implications of Glucocorticoids in a High-Fat Diet Setting and the Counter-Effects of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Dunford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are steroid hormones, naturally produced by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, that mediate the immune and metabolic systems. Synthetic GCs are used to treat a number of inflammatory conditions and diseases including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Generally, chronic or high dose GC administration is associated with side effects such as steroid-induced skeletal muscle loss, visceral adiposity, and diabetes development. Patients who are taking exogenous GCs could also be more susceptible to poor food choices, but the effect that increasing fat consumption in combination with elevated exogenous GCs has only recently been investigated. Overall, these studies show that the damaging metabolic effects initiated through exogenous GC treatment are significantly amplified when combined with a high fat diet (HFD. Rodent studies of a HFD and elevated GCs demonstrate more glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, visceral adiposity, and skeletal muscle lipid deposition when compared to rodents subjected to either treatment on its own. Exercise has recently been shown to be a viable therapeutic option for GC-treated, high-fat fed rodents, with the potential mechanisms still being examined. Clinically, these mechanistic studies underscore the importance of a low fat diet and increased physical activity levels when individuals are given a course of GC treatment.

  17. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-weaning high-fat diet results in growth cartilage lesions in young male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S Haysom

    Full Text Available To determine if a high-fat diet (HF from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX or cage only activity (SED after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise. No abnormal features were detected in the hyaline articular cartilage or in the metaphyseal growth plate in all four groups. However, collagen type X- positive regions of retained epiphyseal growth cartilage (EGC was present in all HF-fed animals and significantly greater than that observed in Chow-fed sedentary rats. Most lesions were located in the lateral posterior aspect of the tibia and/or femur. The severity of lesions was greater in HF-fed animals. Although exercise had a significantly greater effect in reducing adiposity and associated systemic inflammation in HF-fed rats, it had no effect on lesion incidence or severity. Lesion incidence was also significantly associated with indices of obesity and plasma markers of chronic inflammation. Clinically, EGC lesions induced by HF feeding in rats from very early in life, and possibly by insufficient activity, is typical of osteochondrosis in animals. Such lesions may be the precursor of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans requiring surgery in children/adolescents, conservative management of which could benefit from improved understanding of early changes in cellular and gene expression.

  19. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  20. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available There are two independent serotonin (5-HT systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  1. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nakano, Tatsuya; Saito, Ryo; Akasaka, Daisuke; Saito, Kazuki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Minashima, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Inoue, Nao; Ikeda, Ikuo; Chen, Xiangning; Miyake, Masato; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Kan; Tahara, Kohji; Nagasawa, Yuya; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    There are two independent serotonin (5-HT) systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR) 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  2. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  3. Increased expression of PPARγ in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mitsutaka; Ohtake, Takaaki; Motomura, Wataru; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hosoki, Yayoi; Miyoshi, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yasuaki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine a hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is implicated in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis. Mice were fed with control or high fat diet containing approximately 10% or 80% cholesterol, respectively. Macroscopic and microscopic findings demonstrated that lipid accumulation in the liver was observed as early as 2 weeks after high fat diet and that high fat diet for 12 weeks developed a fatty liver phenotype, establishing a novel model of diet-induced liver steatosis. Gene profiling with microarray and real-time PCR studies demonstrated that among genes involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis-related genes, PPARγ and its targeted gene, CD36 mRNA expression was specifically up-regulated in the liver by high fat diet for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical study revealed that PPARγ protein expression is increased in the nuclei of hepatocytes by high fat diet. It was also shown that protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), an upstream molecule of PPARγ, in the liver was drastically suppressed by high fat diet. All these results suggest for the first time that the CREB-PPARγ signaling pathway may be involved in the high fat diet-induced liver steatosis

  4. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  5. Reversal of dopamine system dysfunction in response to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jesselea; Hill-Smith, Tiffany E; Lucki, Irwin; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-12-01

    To test whether high-fat diet (HFD) decreases dopaminergic tone in reward regions of the brain and evaluate whether these changes reverse after removal of the HFD. Male and female mice were fed a 60% HFD for 12 weeks. An additional group was evaluated 4 weeks after removal of the HFD. These groups were compared with control fed, age-matched controls. Sucrose and saccharin preference was measured along with mRNA expression of dopamine (DA)-related genes by Real Time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA methylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter was measured by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and RT-qPCR. After chronic HFD, sucrose preference was reduced, and then normalized after removal of the HFD. Decreased expression of DA genes, decreased DA content and alterations in DAT promoter methylation, was observed. Importantly, response to HFD and the persistence of changes depended on sex and brain region. These data identify diminished DA tone after early-life chronic HFD with a complex pattern of reversal and persistence that varies by both sex and brain region. Central nervous system changes that did not reverse after HFD withdrawal may contribute to the difficulty in maintaining weight-loss after diet intervention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  6. Hepatic FGF21 mediates sex differences in high-fat high-fructose diet-induced fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukijrungroat, Natsasi; Khamphaya, Tanaporn; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Songserm, Thaweesak; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon

    2017-08-01

    The role of gender in the progression of fatty liver due to chronic high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD) has not been studied. The present investigation assessed whether HFFD induced hepatic perturbations differently between the sexes and examined the potential mechanisms. Male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or HFFD for 12 wk. Indexes of liver damage and hepatic steatosis were analyzed biochemically and histologically together with monitoring changes in hepatic gene and protein expression. HFFD induced a higher degree of hepatic steatosis in females, with significant increases in proteins involved in hepatic lipogenesis, whereas HFFD significantly induced liver injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress only in males. Interestingly, a significant increase in hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) protein expression was observed in HFFD-fed males but not in HFFD-fed females. Ovarian hormone deprivation by itself led to a significant reduction in FGF21 with hepatic steatosis, and HFFD further aggravated hepatic fat accumulation in OVX rats. Importantly, estrogen replacement restored hepatic FGF21 levels and reduced hepatic steatosis in HFFD-fed OVX rats. Collectively, our results indicate that male rats are more susceptible to HFFD-induced hepatic inflammation and that the mechanism underlying this sex dimorphism is mediated through hepatic FGF21 expression. Our findings reveal sex differences in the development of HFFD-induced fatty liver and indicate the protective role of estrogen against HFFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ruisong; DiMarco, Diana M; Putt, Kelley K; Martin, Derek A; Gu, Qinlei; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; White, Heather M; Scarlett, Cameron O; Bruno, Richard S; Bolling, Bradley W

    2017-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5-27 and 30-40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.

  8. High-fat diet reprograms the epigenome of rat spermatozoa and transgenerationally affects metabolism of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Ingerslev, Lars R; Alm, Petter S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic and high consumption of fat constitutes an environmental stress that leads to metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally remodels the epigenome of spermatozoa and metabolism of the offspring. METHODS: F0-male rats fed either HFD or chow diet......1 male offspring showed common DNA methylation and small non-coding RNA expression signatures. Altered expression of sperm miRNA let-7c was passed down to metabolic tissues of the offspring, inducing a transcriptomic shift of the let-7c predicted targets. CONCLUSION: Our results provide insight...... into mechanisms by which HFD transgenerationally reprograms the epigenome of sperm cells, thereby affecting metabolic tissues of offspring throughout two generations....

  9. Formulation of Zero-Trans Crystalized Fats Produced from Palm Stearin and High Oleic Safflower Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia E. Buitimea-Cantúa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High intake of trans fat is associated with several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Fat blends, produced by direct blending process of palm stearin (PS with high oleic safflower oil (HOSO in different concentrations, were investigated. The effects of the PS addition (50, 70, or 90% and the rate of agitation (RA (1000, 2000, or 3000 rpm on physical properties, fatty acid profile (FAP, trans fatty acids (TFA, crystal structure, and consistency were researched. The blend containing 50% of each sort of oil (50% PS/50% HOSO showed that melting point and features were similar to the control shortening. The saturated fatty acids (SFA were higher followed by monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Significant differences in the content of palmitic and oleic acids among blends were observed. The 50% PS/50% HOSO blend contained higher oleic acid (42.9% whereas the 90% PS/10% HOSO was higher in palmitic acid (56.9%. The blending of PS/HOSO promoted the β crystal polymorphic forms. The direct blending process of equal amounts of PS and HOSO was an adequate strategy to formulate a new zero-trans crystallized vegetable fats with characteristics similar to commercial counterparts with well-balanced fats rich in both omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.

  10. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  11. Edible fat structures at high solid fat concentrations: Evidence for the existence of oil-filled nanospaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Pink, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the surfaces of grain boundaries in edible oils with high solid fat content by combining ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) with theoretical modelling and computer simulation. Our results will lead to understand the solid structures formed at the time of manufacturing fats like confectionery fats as well as pave the way for the engineering of innovative fat products. Edible fats are complex semi-solid materials where a solid structure entraps liquid oil. It was not until USAXS combined with modelling was used that the nano- to meso-structures for systems with less than 20% solids were understood. The interpretation of those results utilized models of crystalline nanoplatelets represented by rigid close-packed flat aggregates made of spheres and was allowed to aggregate using the Metropolis Monte Carlo technique. Here, we report on systems containing between 50% and 90% solids. We modelled the solid phase as being formed from seeds onto which solids condensed thereby giving rise to oil-filled nanospaces. The models predicted that the system (a) exhibits structures with fractal dimensions approximately 2, (b) a broad peak somewhat masking that slope, and (c) for smaller values of q, indications that the structures with fractal dimension approximately 2 are uniformly distributed in space. The interpretation of the experimental data was completely driven by these results. The computer simulation predictions were used in conjunction with the USAXS observations to conclude that the systems studied scattered from oil-cavities with sizes between ˜800 and ˜16 000 Å and possessed rough 2-dimensional walls.

  12. Inflammatory and metabolic alterations of Kager's fat pad in chronic achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Petersen, Marie Christine Helby; Fredberg, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Kager's fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager's fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression...

  13. Administration of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol liposomes partially reconstitutes fat absorption in chronically bile-diverted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishioka, T; Havinga, R; Tazuma, S; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Verkade, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Intestinal bile deficiency in cholestatic patients leads to fat malabsorption. We addressed the potency of model bile, bile salts and phosphatidylcholine (PC)-cholesterol (CH) liposomes to reconstitute fat absorption in permanently bile-diverted (BD) rats. Methods: The plasma

  14. Effects of High Fat Diet and Physical Exercise on Glucose Tolelance and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    福田,哲也

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the interrelationships between the westernized diet and physical exercise as they affect the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin response to an intraperitoneal glucose load (1.5g/kg bw) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg bw) were studied in spontaneously exercised and sedentary rats fed either a high fat diet (40% fat, modern western type) or a low fat diet (10% fat, traditional Japanese typ...

  15. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  16. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jessie R; Bourquin, Jeffrey; Wysong, Andrea; Melby, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years) participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1) EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2) (~600 kcal) and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2) EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3) CON: no exercise control. The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes) and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes), respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL × 360 minutes) (P < 0.05). A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  17. Ellagic acid attenuates high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Ward, Leigh; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    Fruits and nuts may prevent or reverse common human health conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension; together, these conditions are referred to as metabolic syndrome, an increasing problem. This study has investigated the responses to ellagic acid, present in many fruits and nuts, in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. Eight- to nine-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups for 16-week feeding with cornstarch diet (C), cornstarch diet supplemented with ellagic acid (CE), high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet supplemented with ellagic acid (HE). CE and HE rats were given 0.8 g/kg ellagic acid in food from week 8 to 16 only. At the end of 16 weeks, cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic parameters along with protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1 in the heart and the liver were characterised. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats developed cardiovascular remodelling, impaired ventricular function, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with increased protein levels of NF-κB and decreased protein levels of Nrf2 and CPT1 in the heart and the liver. Ellagic acid attenuated these diet-induced symptoms of metabolic syndrome with normalisation of protein levels of Nrf2, NF-κB and CPT1. Ellagic acid derived from nuts and fruits such as raspberries and pomegranates may provide a useful dietary supplement to decrease the characteristic changes in metabolism and in cardiac and hepatic structure and function induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  18. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  19. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  20. Differential effects of restricted versus unlimited high-fat feeding in rats on fat mass, plasma hormones and brain appetite regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J

    2009-07-01

    The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.

  1. Dietary D-psicose reduced visceral fat mass in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Mee; Hyun Lee, Joo; Youl Kim, Deuk; Hwang, Se-Hee; Hong, Young-Ho; Kim, Seong-Bo; Jin Lee, Song; Hye Park, Chi

    2012-02-01

    D-Psicose, a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, has shown promise in reducing body fat accumulation in normal rats and plasma glucose level in genetic diabetic mice. Effects of D-psicose on diet-induced obesity are not clearly elucidated, and we investigated food intake, body weight, and fat accumulation in rats fed high-fat (HF) diet. Sprague-Dawley rats became obese by feeding HF diet for 4 wk, and were assigned either to normal or HF diet supplemented with or without D-psicose, sucrose, or erythritol for 8 wk. Changing HF to normal diet gained less body weight and adipose tissue due to different energy intake. D-psicose-fed rats exhibited lower weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and fat accumulation than erythritol- and sucrose-fed rats. This effect was more prominent in D-psicose-fed rats with normal diet than with HF diet, suggesting combination of psicose and calorie restriction further reduced obesity. There was no difference in serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C/HDL-C ratios between D-psicose group and other groups. Liver weight in 5% psicose group with normal diet was higher than in other groups, but histopathological examination did not reveal any psicose-related change. D-Psicose inhibited the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to adipose tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that D-psicose produces a marked decrease, greater than erythritol, in weight gain and visceral fat in an established obesity model by inhibiting MSC differentiation to adipocyte. Thus, D-psicose can be useful in preventing and reducing obesity as a sugar substitute and food ingredient. We can develop D-psicose as a sugar substitute and food ingredient since it can prevent obesity in normal people, but also suppress adiposity as a sugar substitute or food ingredients with antiobesity effect in obese people. D-psicose can be unique functional sweetener because of its function of reducing visceral

  2. Effects of high fat diet on incidence of spontaneous tumors in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KRISTIANSEN, E.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    In a 2.5-year carcinogenicity study, two groups, both including male and female Wistar rats, were fed two different diets with 4% and 16% fat. In addition to 4% soybean oil, the high-fat diet contained 12% mono- and diglycerides, of which 85% was stearic acid and 13% palmitic acid...

  3. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  4. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  5. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  6. Tissue Specific Expression Of Sprouty1 In Mice Protects Against High Fat Diet Induced Fat Accumulation, Bone Loss, And Metabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J.; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    We recently characterized Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signaling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss, and associated lipid abnormalities and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high caloric diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter (aP2)-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1 null mice, high fat diet increased body fat by 40%, impaired glucose regulation, and led to liver steatosis. However, over-expression of Spry1 led to 35% lower body fat, reduced bone loss, and normal metabolic function compared to single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70%) and leptin (54%) compared to controls on a high fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45%. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss. PMID:22142492

  7. High serum enalaprilat in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L

    2001-01-01

    renal failure. METHODS: Fifty nine out-patients with plasma creatinine >150 micromol/L and chronic antihypertensive treatment with enalapril were investigated, in a cross-sectional design. RESULTS: Median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 23(range 6-60) ml/minute/1.73 m2. The daily dose of enalapril......-68) ml/minute and correlated linearly with GFR (r=0.86, p=0.003). Intra-subject day-to-day variation in trough concentrations was 19.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic renal failure given small or moderately high doses of enalapril may thus have markedly elevated levels of serum enalaprilat. Whether...

  8. Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamping, KL; Nuno, DW; Coppey, LJ; Holmes, AJ; Hu, S; Oltman, CL; Norris, AW; Yorek, MA

    2013-01-01

    Aims The ability of dietary enrichment with monounsaturated (MUFA), n-3, or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reverse glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction resulting from excessive dietary saturated fatty acids is not resolved. We hypothesized that partial replacement of dietary saturated fats with n-3 PUFA enriched menhaden oil (MO) would provide greater improvement in glucose tolerance and vascular function compared to n-6 enriched safflower oil (SO) or MUFA-enriched olive oil (OO). Material and Methods We fed mice a high saturated fat diet (60% kcal from lard) for 12 weeks before substituting half the lard with MO, SO or OO for an additional 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, we assessed glucose tolerance, insulin signaling and reactivity of isolated pressurized gracilis arteries. Results After 12 weeks of saturated fat diet, body weights were elevated and glucose tolerance abnormal compared to mice on control diet (13% kcal lard). Diet substituted with MO restored basal glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and indices of insulin signaling (phosphorylated Akt) to normal whereas restoration was limited for SO and OO substitutions. Although dilation to acetylcholine was reduced in arteries from mice on HF, OO and SO diets compared to normal diet, dilation to acetylcholine was fully restored and constriction to phenylephrine reduced in MO fed mice compared to normal. Conclusion We conclude that short term enrichment of an ongoing high fat diet with n-3 PUFA rich MO but not MUFA rich OO or n-6 PUFA rich SO reverses glucose tolerance, insulin signaling, and vascular dysfunction. PMID:22950668

  9. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  10. Effects of preoperative exposure to a high-fat versus a low-fat diet on ingestive behavior after gastric bypass surgery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Florian; Miras, Alexander D; Bueter, Marco; Prechtl, Christina G; Spector, Alan C; le Roux, Carel W

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of high fat and sugar diets is decreased after gastric bypass surgery (GB). The mechanisms remain unclear, with tests of motivated behavior toward fat and sugar producing conflicting results in a rat model. These discrepancies may be due to differences in presurgical maintenance diets. The authors used their GB rat model to determine whether the fat content of preoperative maintenance diets affects weight loss, calorie intake, and macronutrient selection after surgery. Male Wistar rats were either low-fat diet fed (LFDF) with normal chow or high-fat diet fed (HFDF) before randomization to GB or sham surgery. In food preference test 1, the animals were offered the choice of a vegetable drink (V8) or a high-calorie liquid (Ensure), and in food preference test 2, they could choose normal chow or a solid high-fat diet. The GB groups did not differ significantly in terms of body weight loss or caloric intake. In food preference test 1, both groups responded similarly by reducing their preference for Ensure and increasing their preference for V8. In food preference test 2, the HFDF-GB rats reduced their preference for a solid high-fat diet gradually compared with the immediate reduction observed in the LFDF-GB rats. The consumption of presurgical maintenance diets with different fat contents did not affect postoperative weight loss outcomes. Both the LFDF-GB and HFDF-GB rats exhibited behaviors consistent with the possible expression of a conditioned taste aversion to a high-fat stimulus. These results suggest that for some physiologic parameters, low-fat-induced obesity models can be used for the study of changes after GB and have relevance to many obese humans who consume high-calorie but low-fat diets.

  11. Impact of maternal high fat diet on hypothalamic transcriptome in neonatal Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Barrand

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window. We explored the effects of maternal high fat diet consumption on hypothalamic gene expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring at postnatal day 10. RNA-sequencing enabled discovery of differentially expressed genes between offspring of dams fed a high fat diet and offspring of control diet fed dams. Female high fat diet offspring displayed altered expression of 86 genes (adjusted P-value<0.05, including genes coding for proteins of the extra cellular matrix, particularly Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, and the imprinted Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2 gene. Male high fat diet offspring showed significant changes in collagen genes (Col1a1 and Col3a1 and significant upregulation of two genes involved in regulation of dopamine availability in the brain, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th and dopamine reuptake transporter Slc6a3 (also known as Dat1. Transcriptional changes were accompanied by increased body weight, body fat and body length in the high fat diet offspring, as well as altered blood glucose and plasma leptin. Transcriptional changes identified in the hypothalamus of offspring of high fat diet mothers could alter neuronal projection formation during early development leading to abnormalities in the neuronal circuitry controlling appetite in later life, hence priming offspring to the development of obesity.

  12. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    Background The mother?s consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Methods Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in a...

  13. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Tetri, Laura H.; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Yerian, Lisa M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fr...

  14. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal, and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group. Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  15. High Phenolics Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Armas, Isabel; Johnson, William D.; Oren, Andrew; Ribnicky, David; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Scope The ability of high phenolic Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) to attenuate metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis was studied in very high fat diet (VHFD)-fed mice. Phenolic absorption was assessed in vivo and in a gastrointestinal tract model. Methods and results Mice were fed VHFD, VHFD supplemented with RSL (RSL-VHFD) or store-purchased green lettuce (GL-VHFD), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 13 weeks. Compared to VHFD or GL-VHFD-fed groups, RSL-VHFD group showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (p<0.05). Comparison of VHFD, RSL-VHFD, and GL-VHFD groups revealed no significant differences with respect to insulin tolerance, hepatic lipids, body weight gain, fat mass, plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acid, and lipopolysaccharide levels, as well as relative abundances of major bacterial phyla from 16S rDNA amplicon data sequences (from fecal and cecal samples). However, RSL and GL-supplementation increased abundance of several taxa involved in plant polysaccharide degradation/fermentation. RSL phenolics chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside were bioaccessible in the TIM-1 digestion model, but had relatively low recovery. Conclusions RSL phenolics contributed to attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia. Changes in gut microbiota were likely due to microbiota accessible carbohydrates in RSL and GL rather than RSL phenolics, which may be metabolized, absorbed, or degraded before reaching the colon. PMID:27529448

  16. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet is associated with increased immune cell entry into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Laura B; Hasty, Alyssa H; Flaherty, David K; Buckman, Christopher T; Thompson, Misty M; Matlock, Brittany K; Weller, Kevin; Ellacott, Kate L J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in peripheral tissues caused, in part, by the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes into adipose tissue. Studies in rodent models have also shown increased inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) during obesity. The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the CNS. To do this we used a bone marrow chimerism model to track the entry of green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled peripheral immune cells into the CNS. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the number of GFP(+) immune cells recruited into the CNS of mice fed a high-fat diet compared to standard chow fed controls. High-fat feeding resulted in obesity associated with a 30% increase in the number of GFP(+) cells in the CNS compared to control mice. Greater than 80% of the GFP(+) cells recruited to the CNS were also CD45(+) CD11b(+) indicating that the GFP(+) cells displayed characteristics of microglia/macrophages. Immunohistochemistry further confirmed the increase in GFP(+) cells in the CNS of the high-fat fed group and also indicated that 93% of the recruited cells were found in the parenchyma and had a stellate morphology. These findings indicate that peripheral immune cells can be recruited to the CNS in obesity and may contribute to the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Abdominal Fat Using High-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Radaideh, Ali; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Fayomi, Kholoud; Nimer, Nisreen; Malkawi, Amer; Al-Zu Bi, Rana; Agraib, Lana; Athamneh, Imad; Hijjawi, Nawal

    2016-12-01

    To measure the abdominal subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) volumes using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate their association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters among obese and nonobese apparently healthy participants. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 167 healthy participants. Abdominal scans were acquired at 3T MRI, and the SF and VF were segmented and their volumes were calculated. Selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements were also determined. A significant difference (P abdominal fat volumes, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and waist circumference. Waist circumferences were measured by tape and MRI. Findings revealed that MRI-measured fat volumes were different between males and females and had a significant (P fat volumes were found to correlate moderately with interleukin-6 and weakly with cholesterol, serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein. Except for cholesterol, all measured biochemical variables and abdominal fat volumes in the current study were significantly associated with body mass index. All anthropometric and biochemical parameters showed weak-to-strong associations with the MRI-measured fat volumes. Abdominal fat distribution was different between males and females and their correlations with some lipid profiles were found to be sex dependent. These findings revealed that MRI can be used as an alternative tool for obesity assessment. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  19. Maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation affects hepatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... pregnancy, several studies suggest that maternal obesity might lead to insulin ... High-fat food consumption by maternal dams during re- stricted periods ..... Our findings might be of significance in uncovering the association of.

  20. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, John D.; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E. Dale; Pereira, Troy J.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-...

  1. Impaired fat oxidation after a single high-fat meal in insulin-sensitive nondiabetic individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronn, Leonie K; Gregersen, Søren; Shirkhedkar, Deepali; Hu, Dachun; Campbell, Lesley V

    2007-08-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have an impaired ability to switch appropriately between carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation. However, whether this is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance is unclear, and the mechanism(s) involved in this response is not completely elucidated. Whole-body fat oxidation and transcriptional regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle were measured after a prolonged fast and after consumption of either high-fat (76%) or high-carbohydrate (76%) meals in individuals with no family history of type 2 diabetes (control, n = 8) and in age- and fatness-matched individuals with a strong family history of type 2 diabetes (n = 9). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and 3 h after each meal. Insulin sensitivity and fasting measures of fat oxidation were not different between groups. However, subjects with a family history of type 2 diabetes had an impaired ability to increase fatty acid oxidation in response to the high-fat meal (P FAT)/CD36 (P fat meal in both groups, but it was not changed after the high-carbohydrate meal. In conclusion, an impaired ability to increase fatty acid oxidation precedes the development of insulin resistance in genetically susceptible individuals. PGC1alpha and FAT/CD36 are likely candidates in mediating this response.

  2. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  3. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission el...

  4. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Potential of Organic and Conventional Grape Juices in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselde Buchner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the chronic use of conventional (CGJ or organic (OGJ grape juice from the Bordeaux variety grape on oxidative stress and cytoarchitecture in the liver of rats supplemented with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. The results demonstrated that HFD induced an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, catalase (CAT activity and 2′,7′-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH oxidation and a decrease in sulfhydryl content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. HFD also induced hepatocellular degeneration and steatosis. These alterations were prevented by CGJ and OGJ, where OGJ was more effective. Therefore, it was concluded that HFD induced oxidative stress and liver damage and that the chronic use of grape juice was able to prevent these alterations.

  5. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  6. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  7. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  8. Effects of High-sugar and High-fat Diet on Fat Deposition and Blood Vessel Wall on Sprague Dawley Rats Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Citra Setiawan Hoei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available People nowadays tend to consume more fast food and sweetened beverages. These foods usually contain high amount sugar and fat that have effects on the body including liver.This study was conducted to explore the effects of extensive intake of sugar and fat on blood glucose and  cholesterol level as well as changes in liver. Research was conducted with experimental method using 20 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 4 groups; 2 controls and 2 treatments. Rats were given 5 ml sugar or lard alternatively every 2 consecutive days for 1-month and 2-month respectively. Data was retrieved include blood glucose and cholesterol level, fatty liver percentage and blood vessel thickening after intervention through HE staining. The results showed that both 1-month and 2-month intervention group has significant increase in blood glucose and cholesterol level. However, the enhancement of fatty liver percentage and number of thickened blood vessels (p<0.05 were only foundsignificant (p<0.05 in 1-month intervention group.  We concluded that high intake of sugar and fat within 1-monthintervention have significant effects on the rat body including liver. Nevertheless, it was not found significant in 2-months intervention. Further studies are still needed to analyze this incongruent result.Key words: high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, fatty liver, atherosclerosis 

  9. Early life adversities or high fat diet intake reduce cognitive function and alter BDNF signaling in adult rats: Interplay of these factors changes these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcego, Danusa Mar; Krolow, Rachel; Lampert, Carine; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Berlitz, Carolina; Lazzaretti, Camilla; Schmitz, Felipe; Rodrigues, André Felipe; Wyse, Angela T S; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Environmental factors, like early exposure to stressors or high caloric diets, can alter the early programming of central nervous system, leading to long-term effects on cognitive function, increased vulnerability to cognitive decline and development of psychopathologies later in life. The interaction between these factors and their combined effects on brain structure and function are still not completely understood. In this study, we evaluated long-term effects of social isolation in the prepubertal period, with or without chronic high fat diet access, on memory and on neurochemical markers in the prefrontal cortex of rats. We observed that early social isolation led to impairment in short-term and working memory in adulthood, and to reductions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the immunocontent of phospho-AKT, in prefrontal cortex. Chronic exposure to a high fat diet impaired short-term memory (object recognition), and decreased BDNF levels in that same brain area. Remarkably, the association of social isolation with chronic high fat diet rescued the memory impairment on the object recognition test, as well as the changes in BDNF levels, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, MAPK, AKT and phospho-AKT to levels similar to the control-chow group. In summary, these findings showed that a brief social isolation period and access to a high fat diet during a sensitive developmental period might cause memory deficits in adulthood. On the other hand, the interplay between isolation and high fat diet access caused a different brain programming, preventing some of the effects observed when these factors are separately applied. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  11. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  12. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher SERIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pogaca is a traditional high-fat bakery product in Turkey. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fat replacement in pogaca formulation by various amounts (5, 10 and 15 g on 100 g wheat flour basis of inulin, polydextrose and maltodextrin on the properties of dough and quality of pogaca. Dough stickiness values were increased by increasing the amount of fat replacer at the all fat reduction levels (20, 30 and 40% studied. Extensibility and resistance to extension values of dough were also significantly changed due to the fat replacement. Sensory analysis of pogaca showed that the formulations prepared by maltodextrin and polydextrose generally received higher scores than the formulation prepared by inulin. Overall, it was observed that up to 30% of the fat can be replaced in pogaca formulation without any decrease in the physical, textural and sensory quality of pogaca.

  13. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher SERIN

    Full Text Available Abstract Pogaca is a traditional high-fat bakery product in Turkey. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fat replacement in pogaca formulation by various amounts (5, 10 and 15 g on 100 g wheat flour basis of inulin, polydextrose and maltodextrin on the properties of dough and quality of pogaca. Dough stickiness values were increased by increasing the amount of fat replacer at the all fat reduction levels (20, 30 and 40% studied. Extensibility and resistance to extension values of dough were also significantly changed due to the fat replacement. Sensory analysis of pogaca showed that the formulations prepared by maltodextrin and polydextrose generally received higher scores than the formulation prepared by inulin. Overall, it was observed that up to 30% of the fat can be replaced in pogaca formulation without any decrease in the physical, textural and sensory quality of pogaca.

  14. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor vii in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Bladbjerg, E. M.; Kornerup Hansen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In humans, high fat meals cause postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), but human studies have not provided definite evidence for a prothrombotic effect of dietary FVII activation. An animal model would be an attractive way to pursue this question and therefore we tested...... the LEW/Mol rat. We gavaged 3 mL of a fat emulsion (n = 42) or 3 mL isotonic glucose (n = 42). Blood was sampled by heart puncture 2, 4 and 6 h (n = 14/group at each time) after the fat/glucose load. Furthermore, blood was sampled from 16 untreated rats to determine the baseline levels. Triglyceride...

  15. Neonatal overfeeding attenuates acute central pro-inflammatory effects of short-term high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eCai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal obesity predisposes individuals to obesity throughout life. In rats, neonatal overfeeding also leads to early accelerated weight gain that persists into adulthood. The phenotype is associated with dysfunction in a number of systems including paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN responses to psychological and immune stressors. However, in many cases weight gain in neonatally overfed rats stabilizes in early adulthood so the animal does not become more obese as it ages. Here we examined if neonatal overfeeding by suckling rats in small litters predisposes them to exacerbated metabolic and central inflammatory disturbances if they are also given a high fat diet in later life. In adulthood we gave the rats normal chow, 3 days, or 3 weeks high fat diet (45% kcal from fat and measured peripheral indices of metabolic disturbance. We also investigated hypothalamic microglial changes, as an index of central inflammation, as well as PVN responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Surprisingly, neonatal overfeeding did not predispose rats to the metabolic effects of a high fat diet. Weight changes and glucose metabolism were unaffected by the early life experience. However, short term (3 day high fat diet was associated with more microglia in the hypothalamus and a markedly exacerbated PVN response to LPS in control rats; effects not seen in the neonatally overfed. Our findings indicate neonatally overfed animals are not more susceptible to the adverse metabolic effects of a short-term high fat diet but may be less able to respond to the central effects.

  16. Association of habitual high-fat intake and desire for protein and sweet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatano, Hiroshi; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Zhou, Bei; Adachi, Chisaki; Kawakami, Yuka; Katayama, Takafumi; Masuda, Masashi; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Reducing dietary calorie density (CD) is useful in body weight management. This study investigates the association between dietary habits and preferences for different CDs. We conducted a randomized crossover study of 232 healthy subjects who consumed packed lunch boxes containing a control, high-meat and low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat and low-vegetable, high-fat, and high-fat and low-vegetable meals over six sessions. The subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using a visual analog scale and the area under the curve. Subjects were assessed for dietary habits using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and were divided into two groups based on a daily fat energy ratio ≥ 25% (high fat [HF], n=116) and kcal low-CD meals, a high-protein meal provided greater fullness and satisfaction and lower prospective consumption in the HF group than in the normal group. Therefore, our study demonstrates that postprandial appetite sensation is associated with dietary habits of fat intake. J. Med. Invest. 63: 241-247, August, 2016.

  17. Functional Deficits Precede Structural Lesions in Mice With High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rithwick; Bligard, Gregory W; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Li; Lukasiewicz, Peter; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity predisposes to human type 2 diabetes, the most common cause of diabetic retinopathy. To determine if high-fat diet-induced diabetes in mice can model retinal disease, we weaned mice to chow or a high-fat diet and tested the hypothesis that diet-induced metabolic disease promotes retinopathy. Compared with controls, mice fed a diet providing 42% of energy as fat developed obesity-related glucose intolerance by 6 months. There was no evidence of microvascular disease until 12 months, when trypsin digests and dye leakage assays showed high fat-fed mice had greater atrophic capillaries, pericyte ghosts, and permeability than controls. However, electroretinographic dysfunction began at 6 months in high fat-fed mice, manifested by increased latencies and reduced amplitudes of oscillatory potentials compared with controls. These electroretinographic abnormalities were correlated with glucose intolerance. Unexpectedly, retinas from high fat-fed mice manifested striking induction of stress kinase and neural inflammasome activation at 3 months, before the development of systemic glucose intolerance, electroretinographic defects, or microvascular disease. These results suggest that retinal disease in the diabetic milieu may progress through inflammatory and neuroretinal stages long before the development of vascular lesions representing the classic hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, establishing a model for assessing novel interventions to treat eye disease. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol on cutaneous repair: A systematic review of murine experimental models.

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    Daiane Figueiredo Rosa

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol intake associated with an inappropriate diet can cause lesions in multiple organs and tissues and complicate the tissue repair process. In a systematic review, we analyzed the relevance of alcohol and high fat consumption to cutaneous and repair, compared the main methodologies used and the most important parameters tested. Preclinical investigations with murine models were assessed to analyze whether the current evidence support clinical trials.The studies were selected from MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases, according to Fig 1. All 15 identified articles had their data extracted. The reporting bias was investigated according to the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of in Vivo Experiments strategy.In general, animals offered a high-fat diet and alcohol showed decreased cutaneous wound closure, delayed skin contraction, chronic inflammation and incomplete re-epithelialization.In further studies, standardized experimental design is needed to establish comparable study groups and advance the overall knowledge background, facilitating data translatability from animal models to human clinical conditions.

  19. Effects of high fat diet, ovariectomy, and physical activity on leptin receptor expression in rat brain and white fat tissue.

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    Blažetić, Senka; Labak, Irena; Viljetić, Barbara; Balog, Marta; Vari, Sandor G; Krivošíková, Zora; Gajdoš, Martin; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Vuković, Rosemary; Puljak, Livia; Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Heffer, Marija

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate in a rat animal model whether ovariectomy, high fat diet (HFD), and physical activity in the form of running affect leptin receptor (Ob-R) distribution in the brain and white fat tissue compared to sham (Sh) surgery, standard diet (StD), and sedentary conditions. The study included 48 female laboratory Wistar rats (4 weeks old). Following eight weeks of feeding with standard or HFD, rats were subjected to either OVX or Sh surgery. After surgery, all animals continued StD or HFD for the next 10 weeks. During these 10 weeks, ovariectomy and Sh groups were subjected to physical activity or sedentary conditions. Free-floating immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods were carried out to detect Ob-R in the brain and adipose tissue. StD-ovariectomy-sedentary group had a greater number of Ob-R positive neurons in lateral hypothalamic nuclei than StD-Sh-sedentary group. There was no difference in Ob-R positive neurons in arcuatus nuclei between all groups. Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex was higher in HFD group than in StD group. Ob-R presence in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was decreased in StD-ovariectomy group. HFD and ovariectomy increased Ob-R distribution in lateral hypothalamic nuclei, but there was no effect on arcuatus nuclei. Our results are first to suggest that HFD, ovariectomy, and physical activity affect Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex, which might be correlated with the role of Ob-R in election of food in rats.

  20. Effects of resveratrol on gut microbiota and fat storage in a mouse model with high-fat-induced obesity.

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    Qiao, Yi; Sun, Jin; Xia, Shufang; Tang, Xue; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have investigated the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol, but the pathways through which resveratrol resists obesity are not clear. In the present study, we hypothesize that resveratrol exerts anti-obesity effects that are likely mediated by mechanisms of regulating gut microbes, and in turn, improving fat storage and metabolism. Gut microbes, glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HF) mice in vivo are investigated after resveratrol treatment. Several biochemical markers are measured. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry are used to monitor and quantify the changes in gut microbiota. The key genes related to fat storage and metabolism in the liver and visceral adipose tissues are measured by real-time PCR. The results show that resveratrol (200 mg per kg per day) significantly lowers both body and visceral adipose weights, and reduces blood glucose and lipid levels in HF mice. Resveratrol improves the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by the HF diet, including increasing the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratios, significantly inhibiting the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, and increasing the growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increases the fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf, a key gene negatively regulated by intestinal microbes) expression in the intestine. Resveratrol significantly decreases mRNA expression of Lpl, Scd1, Ppar-γ, Acc1, and Fas related to fatty acids synthesis, adipogenesis and lipogenesis, which may be driven by increased Fiaf expression. The Pearson's correlation coefficient shows that there is a negative correlation between the body weight and the ratios of Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes. Therefore, resveratrol mediates the composition of gut microbes, and in turn, through the Fiaf signaling pathway, accelerates the development of obesity.

  1. Effects of high-fat diet and physical activity on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 in mouse skeletal muscle

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    Rinnankoski-Tuikka Rita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of PDK4 is elevated by diabetes, fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. It is previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of energy metabolism, coactivates in cell lines pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4 gene expression via the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα. We investigated the effects of long-term high-fat diet and physical activity on the expression of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα and the amount and function of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. Methods Insulin resistance was induced by a high-fat (HF diet for 19 weeks in C57BL/6 J mice, which were either sedentary or with access to running wheels. The skeletal muscle expression levels of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα were measured and the quality and quantity of mitochondrial function was assessed. Results The HF mice were more insulin-resistant than the low-fat (LF -fed mice. Upregulation of PDK4 and ERRα mRNA and protein levels were seen after the HF diet, and when combined with running even more profound effects on the mRNA expression levels were observed. Chronic HF feeding and voluntary running did not have significant effects on PGC-1α mRNA or protein levels. No remarkable difference was found in the amount or function of mitochondria. Conclusions Our results support the view that insulin resistance is not mediated by the decreased qualitative or quantitative properties of mitochondria. Instead, the role of PDK4 should be contemplated as a possible contributor to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

  2. High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

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    Meeran, Syed M.; Singh, Tripti; Nagy, Tim R.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases. We formulated the hypothesis that a high-fat diet may influence the UV-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet or control diet and exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) three times/week for 10 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed and skin and plasma samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. We found that the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were increased in the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the control diet. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers of early responses to UVB exposure (e.g., myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E 2 ), proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in high-fat-diet-fed mouse skin than control-diet-fed mouse skin. The plasma levels of insulin growth factor-1 were greater in the UVB-irradiated mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-irradiated mice fed the control diet, whereas the levels of plasma adiponectin were significantly lower. This pronounced exacerbation of the UVB-induced inflammatory responses in the skin of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that high-fat diet may increase susceptibility to inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  3. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

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    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  4. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

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    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

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    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Parental High-Fat Diet Promotes Inflammatory and Senescence-Related Changes in Prostate

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    Kulbhushan Tikoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and dietary habits are associated with increased incidences of aging-related prostatic diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate transgenerational effects of chronic high-fat diet (HFD feeding on inflammation and senescence-related changes in prostate. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were kept on either normal or HFD one. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal activity, inflammation, and cellular proliferation were determined in the prostate. Results. Increased SA β-gal activity, expression of p53, and cell proliferation marker PCNA were observed in ventral prostate of HFD-fed rats. Immunostaining for p53 and PCNA revealed that the p53 immunopositive cells were primarily in stroma while PCNA immunopositive cells were epithelial cells. An increase in expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB was observed in prostate of weaning pups HFD-fed parents. However, in adult pups, irrespective of dietary habit, a significant increase in the expression of COX-2, PCNA, phosphorylation of NF-kB, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and SA β-gal activity was observed. Conclusions. Present investigation reports that HFD feeding promotes accumulation of p53 expressing cells, proliferation of epithelial cells, and senescence-related changes in prostate. Further, parental HFD-feeding upholds inflammatory, proliferative, and senescence-related changes in prostate of pups.

  8. Macrophage JAK2 deficiency protects against high-fat diet-induced inflammation.

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    Desai, Harsh R; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Revelo, Xavier S; Schroer, Stephanie A; Luk, Cynthia T; Rikkala, Prashanth R; Metherel, Adam H; Dodington, David W; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Min Jeong; Rapps, Joshua A; Besla, Rickvinder; Robbins, Clinton S; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Bazinet, Richard P; Winer, Daniel A; Woo, Minna

    2017-08-09

    During obesity, macrophages can infiltrate metabolic tissues, and contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation, and mediate insulin resistance and diabetes. Recent studies have elucidated the metabolic role of JAK2, a key mediator downstream of various cytokines and growth factors. Our study addresses the essential role of macrophage JAK2 in the pathogenesis to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. During high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, macrophage-specific JAK2 knockout (M-JAK2 -/- ) mice gained less body weight compared to wildtype littermate control (M-JAK2 +/+ ) mice and were protected from HFD-induced systemic insulin resistance. Histological analysis revealed smaller adipocytes and qPCR analysis showed upregulated expression of some adipogenesis markers in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of HFD-fed M-JAK2 -/- mice. There were decreased crown-like structures in VAT along with reduced mRNA expression of some macrophage markers and chemokines in liver and VAT of HFD-fed M-JAK2 -/- mice. Peritoneal macrophages from M-JAK2 -/- mice and Jak2 knockdown in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 also showed lower levels of chemokine expression and reduced phosphorylated STAT3. However, leptin-dependent effects on augmenting chemokine expression in RAW 264.7 cells did not require JAK2. Collectively, our findings show that macrophage JAK2 deficiency improves systemic insulin sensitivity and reduces inflammation in VAT and liver in response to metabolic stress.

  9. Ghrelin increases the rewarding value of high-fat diet in an orexin-dependent manner.

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    Perello, Mario; Sakata, Ichiro; Birnbaum, Shari; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Rovinsky, Sherry A; Woloszyn, Jakub; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Lutter, Michael; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic hormone that likely impacts eating via several mechanisms. Here, we hypothesized that ghrelin can regulate extra homeostatic, hedonic aspects of eating behavior. In the current study, we assessed the effects of different pharmacological, physiological, and genetic models of increased ghrelin and/or ghrelin-signaling blockade on two classic behavioral tests of reward behavior: conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant conditioning. Using both CPP and operant conditioning, we found that ghrelin enhanced the rewarding value of high-fat diet (HFD) when administered to ad lib-fed mice. Conversely, wild-type mice treated with ghrelin receptor antagonist and ghrelin receptor-null mice both failed to show CPP to HFD normally observed under calorie restriction. Interestingly, neither pharmacologic nor genetic blockade of ghrelin signaling inhibited the body weight homeostasis-related, compensatory hyperphagia associated with chronic calorie restriction. Also, ghrelin's effects on HFD reward were blocked in orexin-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate an obligatory role for ghrelin in certain rewarding aspects of eating that is separate from eating associated with body weight homeostasis and that requires the presence of intact orexin signaling. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet

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    Glastras, Sarah J.; Chen, Hui; Tsang, Michael; Teh, Rachel; McGrath, Rachel T.; Zaky, Amgad; Chen, Jason; Wong, Muh Geot; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease. Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32. Results HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity. PMID:28225809

  11. Hypothalamic PGC-1α Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ERα

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    Eugenia Morselli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diets (HFDs lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS. Estrogens and estrogen receptor α (ERα protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1α regulates ERα and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased palmitic acid (PA and sphingolipids in the CNS of male mice when compared to female mice. PA, in vitro, and HFD, in vivo, reduced PGC-1α and ERα in hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes of male mice and promoted inflammation. PGC-1α depletion with ERα overexpression significantly inhibited PA-induced inflammation, confirming that ERα is a critical determinant of the anti-inflammatory response. Physiologic relevance of ERα-regulated inflammation was demonstrated by reduced myocardial function in male, but not female, mice following chronic HFD exposure. Our findings show that HFD/PA reduces PGC-1α and ERα, promoting inflammation and decrements in myocardial function in a sex-specific way.

  12. Hypothalamic PGC-1α protects against high-fat diet exposure by regulating ERα.

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    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P; Li, Dan L; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F; Tschöp, Matthias H; Clegg, Deborah J

    2014-10-23

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor α (ERα) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1α regulates ERα and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased palmitic acid (PA) and sphingolipids in the CNS of male mice when compared to female mice. PA, in vitro, and HFD, in vivo, reduced PGC-1α and ERα in hypothalamic neurons and astrocytes of male mice and promoted inflammation. PGC-1α depletion with ERα overexpression significantly inhibited PA-induced inflammation, confirming that ERα is a critical determinant of the anti-inflammatory response. Physiologic relevance of ERα-regulated inflammation was demonstrated by reduced myocardial function in male, but not female, mice following chronic HFD exposure. Our findings show that HFD/PA reduces PGC-1α and ERα, promoting inflammation and decrements in myocardial function in a sex-specific way.

  13. The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet.

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    Sarah J Glastras

    Full Text Available Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease.Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p. or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32.HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity.Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice

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    Nikul K. Soni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM. Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (HFD-ED, a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4 protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  15. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

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    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  16. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

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    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  17. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

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    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P < 0·05) lower body fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P < 0·005) compared with controls on a high-fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  18. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation.To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks.Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks.Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  19. Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

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    Romeo B. Batacan, Jr

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: LIT induced positive adaptations on fat accumulation and cardiac conduction, and HIIT induced a positive effect on fat accumulation, mesenteric artery contraction, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. No other differences were observed between groups. These findings suggest that few positive health effects can be achieved through LIT and HIIT when consuming a chronic and sustained HFHC diet.

  20. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy dense, high-fat snacks. Twenty, healthy women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed the randomized crossover design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hunger vs. chocolate (p snack also delayed eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers (p = 0.08) and chocolate (p snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.

  2. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

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    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  3. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  4. Role of high-fat diet in stress response of Drosophila.

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    Erilynn T Heinrichsen

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with many diseases, one of the most common being obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which in turn leads to blood gas disturbances, including intermittent hypoxia (IH. Obesity, OSA and IH are associated with metabolic changes, and while much mammalian work has been done, mechanisms underlying the response to IH, the role of obesity and the interaction of obesity and hypoxia remain unknown. As a model organism, Drosophila offers tremendous power to study a specific phenotype and, at a subsequent stage, to uncover and study fundamental mechanisms, given the conservation of molecular pathways. Herein, we characterize the phenotype of Drosophila on a high-fat diet in normoxia, IH and constant hypoxia (CH using triglyceride and glucose levels, response to stress and lifespan. We found that female flies on a high-fat diet show increased triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a shortened lifespan in normoxia, IH and CH. Furthermore, flies on a high-fat diet in normoxia and CH show diminished tolerance to stress, with decreased survival after exposure to extreme cold or anoxia (p<0.001. Of interest, IH seems to rescue this decreased cold tolerance, as flies on a high-fat diet almost completely recovered from cold stress following IH. We conclude that the cross talk between hypoxia and a high-fat diet can be either deleterious or compensatory, depending on the nature of the hypoxic treatment.

  5. Eating high-fat chow enhances sensitization to the effects of methamphetamine on locomotion in rats.

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    McGuire, Blaine A; Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2011-05-11

    Eating high-fat chow can modify the effects of drugs acting directly or indirectly on dopamine systems and repeated intermittent drug administration can markedly increase sensitivity (i.e., sensitization) to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists (e.g., methamphetamine). This study examined whether eating high-fat chow alters the sensitivity of male Sprague Dawley rats to the locomotor stimulating effects of acute or repeated administration of methamphetamine. The acute effects of methamphetamine on locomotion were not different between rats (n=6/group) eating high-fat or standard chow for 1 or 4 weeks. Sensitivity to the effects of methamphetamine (0.1-10mg/kg, i.p.) increased progressively across 4 once per week tests; this sensitization developed more rapidly and to a greater extent in rats eating high-fat chow as compared with rats eating standard chow. Thus, while eating high-fat chow does not appear to alter sensitivity of rats to acutely-administered methamphetamine, it significantly increases the sensitization that develops to repeated intermittent administration of methamphetamine. These data suggest that eating certain foods influences the development of sensitization to drugs acting on dopamine systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

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    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  7. Interleukin-6 deficiency facilitates myocardial dysfunction during high fat diet-induced obesity by promoting lipotoxicity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Dandan; Zhao, Xinmei; Yang, Shuai; Li, Zhe; Sanchis, Daniel; Jin, Liang; Qiang, Xizhe; Wang, Kaiye; Xu, Yitao; Zhang, Yubin; Ye, Junmei

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic disorder and chronic inflammation that plays a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. IL-6 is involved in regulating obesity-related lipid metabolism and inflammation. In this study, we sought to determine the role of IL-6 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiomyopathy and explore the signaling pathway. Female, 5-week-old IL-6 knockout (KO) and littermate mice were fed a normal diet (ND, 10% fat) or HFD (45% fat) for 14 weeks. At the end of treatment, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Adipose tissues and plasma were collected for further measurement. Immunohistology of CD68 was performed to detect inflammation in the heart. Masson's trichrome staining and Oil Red O staining was applied to evaluated cardiac fibrosis and lipid accumulation. Real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting analyses on heart tissue were used to explore the underlying mechanism. IL-6 KO mice displayed increased insulin resistance compared to WT mice at baseline. When fed HFD, IL-6 KO mice showed decreased gains in body weight and fat mass, increased insulin resistance relative to IL-6 KO mice feed ND. Furthermore, IL-6 KO mice developed cardiac dysfunction during HFD-induced obesity. Histological analysis suggested increased lipid accumulation, fibrosis and inflammation without affecting cardiac morphology during HFD treatment in the heart of IL-6 KO mice. Finally, IL-6 deficiency increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in the heart during HFD-induced obesity. Our results suggest that IL-6 contributes to limit lipid metabolic disorder, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and myocardium lipotoxicity during HFD-induced obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Singh, Rana Gopal; Alok, Kumar; Singh, Shivendra

    2014-07-01

    Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL) and at 12 months (TM) for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutritional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record) and clinical characteristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC) and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  9. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  10. GDF-3 is an adipogenic cytokine under high fat dietary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yang Yan; Meng Ying; Shi Yanggu

    2004-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) is structurally a bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor subfamily member of the TGF-β superfamily. GDF-3 exhibits highest level of expression in white fat tissue in mice and is greatly induced by high fat diet if fat metabolic pathway is blocked. To identify its biological function, GDF-3 was overexpressed in mice by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Mice transduced with GDF-3 displayed profound weight gain when fed with high fat diet. The phenotypes included greatly expanded adipose tissue mass, increased body adiposity, highly hypertrophic adipocytes, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma leptin. GDF-3 stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression in adipocytes, a master nuclear receptor that controls adipogenesis. However, GDF-3 was not involved in blood glucose homeostasis or insulin resistance, a condition associated with obesity. In contrast, similar phenotypes were not observed in GDF-3 mice fed with normal chow, indicating that GDF-3 is only active under high lipid load. Thus, GDF-3 is a new non-diabetic adipogenic factor tightly coupled with fat metabolism

  11. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  12. Eating high fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to 8-OH-DPAT-induced lower lip retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Xu; Ju, Shutian; Baladi, Michelle G; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    Eating high fat food can alter sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems; this study examined whether eating high fat food alters sensitivity to a drug acting on serotonin (5-HT) systems. Sensitivity to (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 5-HT1A receptor agonist)-induced lower lip retraction was examined in separate groups (n=8-9) of rats with free access to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3% fat) chow; sensitivity to quinpirole (dopamine D3/D2 receptor agonist)-induced yawning was also examined. Rats eating high fat chow gained more body weight than rats eating standard chow and, after 6 weeks of eating high fat chow, they were more sensitive to 8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.1 mg/kg)-induced lower lip retraction and quinpirole (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg)-induced yawning. These changes were not reversed when rats that previously ate high fat chow were switched to eating standard chow and sensitivity to 8-OH-DPAT and quinpirole increased when rats that previously ate standard chow ate high fat chow. These data extend previous results showing changes in sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems in animals eating high fat chow to a drug acting at 5-HT1A receptors and they provide support for the notion that eating certain foods impacts sensitivity to drugs acting on monoamine systems.

  13. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  15. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Celastrol ameliorates liver metabolic damage caused by a high-fat diet through Sirt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Celastrol was recently identified as a potential novel treatment for obesity. However, the effect of Celastrol on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Celastrol in NAFLD. Methods: Functional studies were performed using wild-type C57BL/6J (WT mice and liver specific Sirt1-deficient (LKO mice. The molecular mechanism was explored in primary mouse liver and primary hepatocytes. Results: When WT mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD were treated with Celastrol, reductions in body weight, subcutaneous and visceral fat content, and liver lipid droplet formation were observed, along with reduced hepatic intracellular triglyceride and serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, and ALT concentrations. Furthermore, Celastrol decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebp-1c expression, enhanced the phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα, and increased the expression of hepatic serine–threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1. Additionally, Celastrol treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in WT mice fed the HFD. Celastrol administration also improved the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative status by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB activity and the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increasing mitochondrial DNA copy number and anti-oxidative stress genes expression in WT mice liver, in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Celastrol induced hepatic Sirt1 expression in WT mice, in vivo and in vitro. These Celastrol-mediated protective effects in WT mice fed a HFD were abolished in LKO mice fed a HFD. It was more interesting that Celastrol aggravated HFD-induced liver damage in LKO mice fed a HFD by inhibiting the phosphorylation of AMPKα and boosting the translocation of NFκB into the nucleus, thereby resulting in the increase of Srebp-1c expression and the mRNA levels of liver proinflammatory cytokines

  17. Centrally administered urocortin 2 decreases gorging on high-fat diet in in both diet induced obesity-prone and -resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Nagy, Tim R.; Coscina, Donald V.; Levin, Barry E.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a costly, deadly public health problem for which new treatments are needed. Individual differences in meal pattern have been proposed to play a role in obesity risk. The present study tested the hypothesis that i) the microstructure of chronic high-fat diet intake differs between genetically selected Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) and Diet Resistant (DR) rats, and ii) central administration of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 (CRF2) agonist, decreases high-fat diet intake not only in lean DR rats, but also in obese DIO rats. Design Male, selectively bred DIO and DR rats (n=10/genotype) were chronically fed a high-fat diet. Food and water intake as well as ingestion microstructure were then compared under baseline conditions and following third intracerebroventricular injection of Ucn 2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 µg). Results Irrespective of genotype, Ucn 2 reduced nocturnal food intake with a minimum effective dose of 0.3 µg, suppressing high-fat diet intake by ~40% at the 3 µg dose. Ucn 2 also made rats of both genotypes eat smaller and briefer meals, including at doses that did not reduce drinking. Obese DIO rats ate fewer but larger meals than DR rats, which they ate more quickly and consumed with 2/3rd less water. Conclusions Unlike leptin and insulin, Ucn 2 retains its full central anorectic efficacy to reduce high-fat diet intake even in obese, genetically-prone DIO rats, which otherwise show a “gorging” meal pattern. These results open new opportunities of investigation towards treating some forms of diet-induced obesity. PMID:23478425

  18. Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Are Deconditioned and Have An Increased Body Fat Percentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare data on the level of aerobic capacity and body composition of nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with normative data matched for sex, age and level of sporting activity. The study population consisted of 101 outpatients with nonspecific CLBP who had entered a rehabilitation…

  19. Nonspecific chronic low back pain patients are deconditioned and have an increased body fat percentage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare data on the level of aerobic capacity and body composition of nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with normative data matched for sex, age and level of sporting activity. The study population consisted of 101 outpatients with

  20. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  1. Prompting one low-fat, high-fiber selection in a fast-food restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J L; Winett, R A

    1988-01-01

    Evidence increasingly links a high-fat, low-fiber diet to coronary heart disease and certain site cancers, indicating a need for large-scale dietary change. Studies showing the effectiveness of particular procedures in specific settings are important at this point. The present study, using an A-B-A-B design and sales data from computerized cash registers, replicated and extended previous work by showing that inexpensive prompts (i.e., signs and fliers) in a national fast-food restaurant could increase the sales of salads, a low-fat, high-fiber menu selection. Suggestions also are made pertinent to more widespread use of the procedures.

  2. Impaired mTORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons exaggerates high fat diet-induced hyperphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Dadalko

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data support a model in which mTORC2 signaling within catecholaminergic neurons constrains consumption of a high-fat diet, while disruption causes high-fat diet-specific exaggerated hyperphagia. In parallel, impaired mTORC2 signaling leads to aberrant striatal DA neurotransmission, which has been associated with obesity in human and animal models, as well as with escalating substance abuse. These data suggest that defects localized to the catecholaminergic pathways are capable of overriding homeostatic circuits, leading to obesity, metabolic impairment, and aberrant DA-dependent behaviors.

  3. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Céline

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH features. Rats fed coconut (86% of saturated fatty acid or butter (51% of saturated fatty acid had an increased caloric intake (+143% and +30%. At the end of the study period, total lipid ingestion in term of percentage of energy intake was higher in both coconut (45% and butter (42% groups than in the standard (7% diet group. No change in body mass was observed as compared with standard rats at the end of the experiment. However, high fat fed rats were fattier with enlarged white and brown adipose tissue (BAT depots, but they showed no liver steatosis and no difference in triglyceride content in hepatocytes, as compared with standard rats. Absence of hepatic lipid accumulation with high fat diets was not related to a higher lipid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes (unchanged ketogenesis and oxygen consumption or hepatic mitochondrial respiration but was rather associated with a rise in BAT uncoupling protein UCP1 (+25–28% vs standard. Conclusion Long term high saturated fat feeding led to increased "peripheral" fat storage and BAT thermogenesis but did not induce hepatic steatosis and NASH.

  4. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ching-Hsiu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2 and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY. Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  5. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Hung, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Yang, Ching-Hsiu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2) and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY). Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:18822121

  6. High-energy, high-fat lifestyle challenges an Arctic apex predator, the polar bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, A M; Durner, G M; Rode, K D; Atwood, T C; Atkinson, S N; Peacock, E; Costa, D P; Owen, M A; Williams, T M

    2018-02-02

    Regional declines in polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) populations have been attributed to changing sea ice conditions, but with limited information on the causative mechanisms. By simultaneously measuring field metabolic rates, daily activity patterns, body condition, and foraging success of polar bears moving on the spring sea ice, we found that high metabolic rates (1.6 times greater than previously assumed) coupled with low intake of fat-rich marine mammal prey resulted in an energy deficit for more than half of the bears examined. Activity and movement on the sea ice strongly influenced metabolic demands. Consequently, increases in mobility resulting from ongoing and forecasted declines in and fragmentation of sea ice are likely to increase energy demands and may be an important factor explaining observed declines in body condition and survival. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat

  8. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ... to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin.......05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P glucose and insulin concentrations...

  9. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents...... to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P high-fat diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P ...-density lipoprotein decreased (P high-fat diet in young pigs is similar to that of humans in terms of increased fatty acid oxidation whereas the liver response to diet restriction is similar to humans...

  10. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  11. Maternal High-Fat and High-Salt Diets Have Differential Programming Effects on Metabolism in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl, high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl, high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet and were culled on postnatal day 130 for plasma and tissue collection. Adipocyte histology and adipose tissue, liver, and gut gene expression were examined in adult male offspring. HF offspring had significantly greater body weight, impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia compared to CD offspring, but these increases were blunted in HFSD offspring. HF offspring had moderate adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of the pre-adipocyte marker Dlk1. There was a significant effect of maternal salt with increased hepatic expression of Dgat1 and Igfb2. Gut expression of inflammatory (Il1r1, Tnfα, Il6, and Il6r and renin–angiotensin system (Agtr1a, Agtr1b markers was significantly reduced in HFSD offspring compared to HF offspring. Therefore, salt mitigates some adverse offspring outcomes associated with a maternal HF diet, which may be mediated by altered adipose tissue morphology and gut inflammatory and renin–angiotensin regulation.

  12. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Madeline Rose; Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes.

  13. Maternal high-fat diet associated with altered gene expression, DNA methylation, and obesity risk in mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Rabab; Shah, Shyam; Oakley, M. Elsa; Pavlatos, Cassondra; El Idrissi, Samir; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Daofeng; Wang, Ting; Cheverud, James M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed the expression of 3,908 genes in the liver. Although the offspring were more affected by their own diet, their maternal diet had epigenetic effects lasting through adulthood, and in the daughters these effects were accompanied by phenotypic changes relevant to obesity and diabetes. PMID:29447215

  14. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high......-fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  15. High fat diet and exercise lead to a disrupted and pathogenic DNA methylome in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Hlady, Ryan A; Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Liu, Chen; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Miller, Jordan D; Roberts, Lewis R; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Robertson, Keith D

    2017-01-02

    High-fat diet consumption and sedentary lifestyle elevates risk for obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Exercise training conveys health benefits in populations with or without these chronic conditions. Diet and exercise regulate gene expression by mediating epigenetic mechanisms in many tissues; however, such effects are poorly documented in the liver, a central metabolic organ. To dissect the consequences of diet and exercise on the liver epigenome, we measured DNA methylation, using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and transcription, using RNA-seq, in mice maintained on a fast food diet with sedentary lifestyle or exercise, compared with control diet with and without exercise. Our analyses reveal that genome-wide differential DNA methylation and expression of gene clusters are induced by diet and/or exercise. A combination of fast food and exercise triggers extensive gene alterations, with enrichment of carbohydrate/lipid metabolic pathways and muscle developmental processes. Through evaluation of putative protective effects of exercise on diet-induced DNA methylation, we show that hypermethylation is effectively prevented, especially at promoters and enhancers, whereas hypomethylation is only partially attenuated. We assessed diet-induced DNA methylation changes associated with liver cancer-related epigenetic modifications and identified significant increases at liver-specific enhancers in fast food groups, suggesting partial loss of liver cell identity. Hypermethylation at a subset of gene promoters was associated with inhibition of tissue development and promotion of carcinogenic processes. Our study demonstrates extensive reprogramming of the epigenome by diet and exercise, emphasizing the functional relevance of epigenetic mechanisms as an interface between lifestyle modifications and phenotypic alterations.

  16. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  17. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (Pdevelopment of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  18. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: insights from the high-fat diet experimental rabbit animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Annamaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Maggi, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is complex and involves the interplay between environmental, lifestyle and genetic determinants. MetS in men can be associated with a biochemical pattern of partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). A similar pattern has been noted in both men and women with a variety of acute illnesses and chronic diseases, and there is ongoing debate regarding whether this phenomenon might adaptive (e.g. diverting resources from reproduction into survival), or maladaptive (e.g. anemia, sarcopenia, osteopenia and fatigue of androgen-deficiency amplify and widen the adverse consequences of the original disease-trigger). In women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA-HH secondary to chronic bioenergetic deficit from dietary restriction and/or intensive exercise), a genetic link to congenital HH (CHH) was recently established; women carrying monoallelic CHH gene mutations will typically not develop CHH, but are significantly more susceptible to HA. However, the male reproductive axis seems to be more resistant to similar environmental insults. In contrast, MetS-associated HH (mHH) is specifically a male phenomenon; the reproductive phenotype of females with MetS tending instead towards hyperandrogenism, rather than hypogonadism. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms responsible for mHH have not been clearly identified and, as yet, there has been no investigation of a potential role for CHH mutation carriage in its etiology. Over the decades, the use of either genetic- or diet-induced obesity and/or MetS animal models has greatly helped to illuminate the complex etiology of metabolic dysregulation, but the strong relationship between obesity/MetS and mHH in males has been largely neglected, with little or no information about the regulation of reproductive function by metabolic factors under conditions of bioenergetic excess. However, the pathogenic link between MetS and HH in males has been recently investigated in an animal model of high fat

  19. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To-Wei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective: In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE in vivo. Method: Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD, HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results: Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity.

  20. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, To-Wei; Chang, Chia-Ling; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Lin, Jenq-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE) in vivo. Method Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group) and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity. PMID:26475512

  1. Central nervous system mechanisms linking the consumption of palatable high-fat diets to the defense of greater adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Karen K; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2012-02-08

    The central nervous system (CNS) plays key role in the homeostatic regulation of body weight. Satiation and adiposity signals, providing acute and chronic information about available fuel, are produced in the periphery and act in the brain to influence energy intake and expenditure, resulting in the maintenance of stable adiposity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) does not result from a failure of these central homeostatic circuits. Rather, the threshold for defended adiposity is increased in environments providing ubiquitous access to palatable, high-fat foods, making it difficult to achieve and maintain weight loss. Consequently, mechanisms by which nutritional environments interact with central homeostatic circuits to influence the threshold for defended adiposity represent critical targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproducibility of ultrasonography for assessing abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, A; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2013-01-01

    the reproducibility of this method have been published.Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of ultrasonography in the assessment of abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.Design and Methods:Ultrasonography was used to estimate visceral......- and interobserver variation, and Bland-Altman plots were drawn for all three substudies.Results:Coefficients of variation for intra- and interobserver variation were in the range 3.4-6.1%, except for interobserver variation for subcutaneous fat (9.5%). Short-term variation over a median of 35 days had a coefficient...

  3. Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Wing-Gaia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure.

  4. One-year high fat diet affects muscle-but not brain mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Tenna; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that few weeks of high fat (HF) diet may induce metabolic disturbances and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletalmuscle. However, little is known about the effects of long-term HF exposure and effects on brain mitochondria are unknown. Wistarrats were fed either chow (13E% fat......) or HF diet (60E% fat) for 1 year. The HF animals developed obesity, dyslipidemia, insulinresistance, and dysfunction of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria: state 3 and state 4 were 30% to 50% increased (P .... Adding also succinate in state 3 resulted in ahigher substrate control ratio (SCR) with PC, but a lower SCR with pyruvate (P mitochondria from the same animal showed no changes with the substrates relevant...

  5. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat....../cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high......-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHS: 20 % fat, 15 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) or a high-fat/very high-sucrose diet (HFvHS: 20 % fat, 25 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) for 16 and 25 weeks. Results All three high-fat diets induced dyslipidemia with increased concentrations of plasma cholesterol (p 

  6. Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  8. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  9. Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yu-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-11-04

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) has a considerable medicinal reputation in most parts of Asia as a potent medicine in the treatment of Endocrine disorders, inflammation and hypertension. Water extract of A. paniculata and its active constituent andrographolide are known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Our aim is to identify whether A. paniculata extract could protect myocardial damage in high-fat diet induced obese mice. The test mice were divided into three groups fed either with normal chow or with high fat diet (obese) or with high fat diet treated with A. paniculata extract (2g/kg/day, through gavage, for a week). We found that the myocardial inflammation pathway related proteins were increased in the obese mouse which potentially contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis. But feeding with A. paniculata extract showed significant inhibition on the effects of high fat diet. Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of A. paniculata extract can be used for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  11. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slight decrease in hepatic α-amylase gene expression was observed only in. E1. Conclusion: Besides its sweetening properties, inulin may also find use as a potential anti-obesity compound. Keywords: High-fat diet, Inulin, Obesity, Blood glucose, Biochemical profile. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ...

  12. Impairment of mitochondrial function of rat hepatocytes by high fat diet and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garnol, T.; Endlicher, R.; Kučera, O.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Červinková, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2014), s. 271-274 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) PRVOUK P37/02 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hepatocytes * high fat diet * mitochondrial activities * ROS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  13. Osteoarthritis and a high-fat diet: the full 'OA syndrome' in a small animal model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the main risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) and due to the global rise in obesity this will increasingly contribute to OA development. The article of Griffin and co-workers in this issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy shows that a high-fat diet leads to obesity and OA in the

  14. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  15. Exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Al-Massadi, Omar; Donelan, Elizabeth; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Trivedi, Chitrang; Müller, Timo D.; Woods, Stephen C.; Hofmann, Susanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a potentially important process in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders that has recently received significant attention. Microglia are macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system which are activated by pro-inflammatory signals causing

  16. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  17. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  18. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  19. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  20. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on mitochondrial biogenesis in a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6J mice were divided in two groups: high-fat diet HFD and high-fat diet + guarana (HFD-GUA. Both groups received HFD and water ad libitum and the HFD-GUA group also received a daily gavage of guarana (1 g/kg weight. Body weight and food intake was measured weekly. Glycemic, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels were determined. VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were determined by indirect calorimetry. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and protein content by western blotting. The HFD-GUA group presented lower body weight, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, visceral, and epididyimal adipose tissue depots, and glycemic and triglyceride levels, with no change in food intake and cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in VO2 and basal energy expenditure (EE, as well as Pgc1α, Creb1, Ampka1, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Sirt1 expression in the muscle and brown adipose tissue. In addition, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in mtDNA (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content in the muscle when compared to the HFD group. Thus, our data showed that guarana leads to an increase in energetic metabolism and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, contributing to control of weight gain, even when associated with high-fat diet.

  1. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high...

  2. Osteoarthritis-like pathologic changes in the knee joint induced by environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is potentiated by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Summa, Keith C; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Tryniszewska, Beata; Keshavarzian, Ali; Turek, Fred W; Meng, Qing-Jun; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-11-20

    A variety of environmental factors contribute to progressive development of osteoarthritis (OA). Environmental factors that upset circadian rhythms have been linked to various diseases. Our recent work establishes chronic environmental circadian disruption - analogous to rotating shiftwork-associated disruption of circadian rhythms in humans - as a novel risk factor for the development of OA. Evidence suggests shift workers are prone to obesity and also show altered eating habits (i.e., increased preference for high-fat containing food). In the present study, we investigated the impact of chronic circadian rhythm disruption in combination with a high-fat diet (HFD) on progression of OA in a mouse model. Our study demonstrates that when mice with chronically circadian rhythms were fed a HFD, there was a significant proteoglycan (PG) loss and fibrillation in knee joint as well as increased activation of the expression of the catabolic mediators involved in cartilage homeostasis. Our results, for the first time, provide the evidence that environmental disruption of circadian rhythms plus HFD potentiate OA-like pathological changes in the mouse joints. Thus, our findings may open new perspectives on the interactions of chronic circadian rhythms disruption with diet in the development of OA and may have potential clinical implications.

  3. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride...

  4. Pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome: The onset of natural recovery on withdrawal of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Chandra Boruah, Dulal; Chandra Kalita, Mohan; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-10-01

    Chronic consumption of high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet induces metabolic syndrome (MetS) and markedly impairs the ultra-structure of organs. To our knowledge, no scientific study has yet to report the effect of withdrawal of an HCHF diet on MetS-associated ultra-structural abnormalities in affected organs and tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic withdrawal of the HCHF diet, specifically with a pathophysiological approach. Wister albino rats (N = 72) were divided into three groups: Groups A and B were fed a standard basal diet and an HCHF diet, respectively, for 16 wk. Group C was on an HCHF diet for the initial 12 wk and then returned to basal diet for 4 wk. Histopathological changes in the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidney, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and hippocampus of the brain were monitored at 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk. Lipid droplets (LDs) in liver, fibrosis in the pancreas, abnormalities in the glomerulus of the kidney, and an increase in the size of adipocytes were observed in groups B and C at week 12. Withdrawal of the HCHF diet in group C showed the onset of regenerative features at the ultra-structural level. HCHF diet-fed rats in group B had higher body weights; raised lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance than basal diet-fed rats in group A and HCHF to basal diet-fed rats in group C at week 16. An HCHF diet induces ultra-structural abnormalities, which are significantly reversed by subchronic withdrawal of a MetS-inducing HCHF diet, indicating the onset of natural recovery at the ultra-structural level of affected organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of keto amino acids on asymmetric dimethyl arginine, muscle and fat tissue in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Teplan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD and may contribute to vascular complications. In this study we tested the hypothesis that elevated ADMA can be reduced in CKD patients by long-term administration of low-protein diet (LPD supplemented with keto amino acids (KA. In a long-term prospective double blind placebo controlled randomized trial, we evaluated a total of 120 CKD patients (62/58F aged 22-76 yrs with creatinine clearance 22-40mL/min/1.73m2 for a period of 36 months. All patients were on low-protein diet containing 0.6 protein/kg/IBW/day and 120-125/kJ/kg/IBW/day. LPD was randomly supplemented with KA at dosage of 100 mg/kg/IBW/day (61 patients, Group I while 59 patients (Group II received placebo. During the study period, glomerular filtration rate (GFR slightly decreased (Ccr from 34.2±11.6 to 29.9±9.2 mL/min and 33.5±11.6 to 22.2±10.4 mL/min in Group I and II, respectively; this however was more marked in Group II (p<0.01. Fat in muscle measured by MR spectroscopy (MRS, m.tibialis anterior significantly decreased in Group I and was linked to reduced volume of visceral fat measured by MRI (p<0.01. Reduction of fat in Group II was not significant. In Group I, there was a significant decrease in the plasma level of ADMA (from 2.4±0.4 to 1.2±0.3 μmol/L, p<0.01, but ADMA remained unchanged in Group II. A further remarkable finding was reduction in the plasma concentration of pentosidine (from 486±168 to 325±127 μg/L, p<0.01 and decrease of proteinuria (from 3.7±2.20 to 1.6±1.2 g/24hrs, p<0.01 in Group I. Plasma adiponectin (ADPN in Group I rose (p<0.01. Analysis of lipid spectrum revealed a mild yet significant decrease in total cholesterol and LPD-cholesterol (p<0.01, more pronounced in Group I. In Group I, there was a decrease in plasma triglycerides (from 3.8±1.5 down to 2.3±0.5 mmol/L, p<0.01, whereas glycated hemoglobin (HbAc1

  6. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  7. Effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat dietary treatments on measures of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Richard M; Austin, Rachel E; Bond, Vernon; Faruque, Mezbah; Goring, Kim L; Hickey, Brian M; Blakely, Raymond; Demeersman, Ronald E

    2009-07-17

    We tested the hypothesis that respiratory quotient (RQ) determines sympathovagal balance associated with metabolism of stored and dietary energy substrates. Six 18-20 year-old African-American males were studied after two control pretreatments of fasting and post-treatments of metabolizing high-fat and high-carbohydrate beverages. RQ, heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded at rest and repeated 1 h-3 h after ingesting isocaloric high-carbohydrate and high-fat beverages. Sympathovagal modulation of HR was quantified by the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio from fast Fourier transform (spectral) analysis of the electrocardiogram RR intervals during paced breathing at 0.2 Hz. Significance of differences of peak post-treatment values from controls was evaluated by analysis of covariance and of correlations by linear regression at Pcarbohydrate and high-fat treatments increased RQ, EE, HR and LF/HF with significant interactions between covariates. LF/HF values were not significant after eliminating covariance of RQ, EE and HR for the control vs. high-fat and for the high-fat vs. high-carbohydrate and after eliminating covariance of EE and HR for the control vs. high-carbohydrate treatments. Across the RQ values, correlations were significant for EE and LF/HF. These findings imply that high RQ and sympathetic modulation produced by metabolizing carbohydrate is associated with high resting energy expenditure. We conclude that respiratory quotient may be an important determinant of the LF/HF ratio in the heart rate variability spectrum, likely, by a respiratory chemosensory mechanism.

  8. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL and at 12 months (TM for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutri-tional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record and clinical charac-teristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P <0.05 and e-GFR (P <0.01 while CRP was elevated both at BL and TM. The dietary intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P <0.05. The intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P <0.001. There was a significant association between change in BFP and change in BMI (P <0.005. During follow-up, there was no significant change in biochemical parameters and BFP as well as stage of CKD of the study patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  9. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  10. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  11. High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Marie A; Hoffmann, Christian; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Hamady, Micah; Chen, Ying-Yu; Knight, Rob; Ahima, Rexford S; Bushman, Frederic; Wu, Gary D

    2009-11-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by host phenotype, genotype, immune function, and diet. Here, we used the phenotype of RELMbeta knockout (KO) mice to assess the influence of these factors. Both wild-type and RELMbeta KO mice were lean on a standard chow diet, but, upon switching to a high-fat diet, wild-type mice became obese, whereas RELMbeta KO mice remained comparatively lean. To investigate the influence of diet, genotype, and obesity on microbiome composition, we used deep sequencing to characterize 25,790 16S rDNA sequences from uncultured bacterial communities from both genotypes on both diets. We found large alterations associated with switching to the high-fat diet, including a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in both Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. This was seen for both genotypes (ie, in the presence and absence of obesity), indicating that the high-fat diet itself, and not the obese state, mainly accounted for the observed changes in the gut microbiota. The RELMbeta genotype also modestly influenced microbiome composition independently of diet. Metagenomic analysis of 537,604 sequence reads documented extensive changes in gene content because of a high-fat diet, including an increase in transporters and 2-component sensor responders as well as a general decrease in metabolic genes. Unexpectedly, we found a substantial amount of murine DNA in our samples that increased in proportion on a high-fat diet. These results demonstrate the importance of diet as a determinant of gut microbiome composition and suggest the need to control for dietary variation when evaluating the composition of the human gut microbiome.

  12. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

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    Mohd Nazri Abu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC, and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO. After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%, adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L, total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L, triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L, blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L, resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL, and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet.

  13. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus.

  14. Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  15. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  16. The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derrick M; Antony, Kathleen M; Ma, Jun; Prince, Amanda L; Showalter, Lori; Moller, Michelle; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2016-08-09

    Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life. A representative cohort was prospectively enrolled either in the early third trimester or intrapartum (n = 163), with a subset consented to longitudinal sampling through the postpartum interval (n = 81). Multiple body site samples, including stool and meconium, were collected from neonates at delivery and by 6 weeks of age. A rapid dietary questionnaire was administered to estimate intake of fat, added sugars, and fiber over the past month (National Health and Examination Survey). DNA was extracted from each infant meconium/stool sample (MoBio) and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. On average, the maternal dietary intake of fat ranged from 14.0 to 55.2 %, with an average intake of 33.1 % (σ = 6.1 %). Mothers whose diets significantly differed from the mean (±1 standard deviation) were separated into two distinct groups, a control group (n = 13, μ = 24.4 %) and a high-fat group (n = 13, μ = 43.1 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the microbiome of the neonatal stool at birth (meconium) clustered differently by virtue of maternal gestational diet (PERMANOVA p = 0.001). LEfSe feature selection identified several taxa that discriminated the groups, with a notable relative depletion of Bacteroides in the neonates exposed to a maternal high-fat gestational diet (Student's t-test, p < 0

  17. Berberine improves insulin resistance induced by high fat diet in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Libin; Yang Ying; Shang Wenbin; Li Fengying; Tang Jinfeng; Wang Xiao; Liu Shangquan; Yuan Guoyue; Chen Mingdao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of berberine on insulin resistance induced by high fat diet in rats. Methods: Normal male SD rats (8 weeks old) were divided into two groups taking either normal chow (NC, n=9) or high fat diet (HF, n=20). After fourteen weeks, HF rats were divided into two groups. Ten rats continued to take high fat diet. Another ten rats took additional berberine gavage (HF+B, 150mg/kg weight once a day). Six weeks later, oral glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed for estimating insulin sensitivity. Results: The body weight, liver weight and epididyaml fat pads weight of HF group were significantly higher than those of HF+B group and NC group (all P<0.01). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and plasma glucose, insulin 2h after taking glucose in HF+B rats were significantly lower than those in HF rats (all P<0.01). Plasma glucose and insulin levels at all time points in HF rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. Homa-IR of HF group was markedly higher than that of HF+B group (P<0.01). The glucose-lowering effects after the administration of insuin (0.5u/kg intrapenitoneally) at all time points in HF+B rats were stronger than those in HF rats with 23% and 7% reduction at 15min respectively. Conclusion: Long term high fat diet resulted in insulin resistance. Berberine was able to reverse insulin resistance through promoting peripheral tissue up taking of glucose and decreasing insulin, which would be quite ideal for the intervention of IGT. (authors)

  18. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low

  19. Gamma delta T cells promote inflammation and insulin resistance during high fat diet-induced obesity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma delta T cells are resident in adipose tissue and increase during diet-induced obesity. Their possible contribution to the inflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice after a 5-10 week high milk fat diet. The high milk fat diet resulted in significant in...

  20. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  1. Exercise as a mean to reverse the detrimental effect of high-fat diet on bone’s fracture characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Doulamis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether exercise can reverse some of the adverse effects of high-fat-diet-induced obesity on lipid metabolism and bone biomechanical properties. A total of 26 adult male C57bl/6J mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (A Control group (n=6, (B High-fat diet group (n=10, (C High-fat diet and exercise group (n=10. Body mass and relevant biochemical parameters were measured for the duration of the experimental protocol (37 weeks. Mechanical strength of both femurs of each animal was assessed in-vitro based on three point bending tests. It was re¬vealed that exposure to high-fat diet led to significant increase of body mass and cholesterol levels and also to substantial changes in bone mor-phology and strength. Ultimate stress for the animals exposed to high-fat diet and those exposed to high-fat-diet and exercise was 25% and 24% lower compared to control, respectively. Exercise increased bone thickness by 15% compared to animals that were not exposed to exer¬cise. It was concluded that high-fat-diet ap¬pears to have a detrimental effect on bone biomechanics and strength. Exer¬cise reversed the reduction in bone thickness that appears to be induced by high-fat diet. However no statistically significant increase in bone strength was observed.

  2. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding on glucose and insulin metabolism in young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B.; Storgaard, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    A high-fat, high-calorie diet is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the relative contribution of metabolic defects to the development of hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes is controversial. Accumulation of excess fat in muscle and adipose tissue in insulin resistance and type 2...

  3. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

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    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  4. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of 14 C-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( 14 C-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from 14 C-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of 14 C-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of 14 C-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides

  5. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sihui; Huang, Qingyi; Yada, Koichi; Liu, Chunhong; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2018-05-25

    Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  6. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  7. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  8. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  9. Non-invasive assessment of hepatic fat accumulation in chronic hepatitis C by {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krssak, Martin [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hofer, Harald [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wrba, Fritz [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Meyerspeer, Martin [MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brehm, Attila [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center of Diabetes Research and Department of Medicine/Metabolic Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lohninger, Alfred [Department of Medical Chemistry, Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Steindl-Munda, Petra [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Moser, Ewald [MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Ferenci, Peter [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Roden, Michael, E-mail: michael.roden@ddz.uni-duesseldorf.d [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center of Diabetes Research and Department of Medicine/Metabolic Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Background: Liver biopsy is the standard method for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, but is invasive and carries some risk of morbidity. Aims and methods: Quantification of hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) with non-invasive single voxel {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 T was compared with histological grading and biochemical analysis of liver biopsies in 29 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Body mass index, indices of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment index, HOMA-IR), serum lipids and serum liver transaminases were also quantified. Results: HCL as assessed by {sup 1}H MRS linearly correlated (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) with histological evaluation of liver biopsies and was in agreement with histological steatosis staging in 65% of the patients. Biochemically assessed hepatic triglyceride contents correlated with HCL measured with {sup 1}H MRS (r = 0.63, p < 0.03) and allowed discriminating between none or mild steatosis versus moderate or severe steatosis. Patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 had a higher prevalence of steatosis (62%) which was not explained by differences in body mass or whole body insulin resistance. When these patients were excluded from correlation analysis, hepatic fat accumulation positively correlated with insulin resistance in the remaining hepatitis C patients (HCL vs. HOMA-IR, r = 0.559, p < 0.020, n = 17). Conclusion: Localized {sup 1}H MRS is a valid and useful method for quantification of HCL content in patients with chronic hepatitis C and can be easily applied to non-invasively monitoring of steatosis during repeated follow-up measurements in a clinical setting.

  10. Dietary whey proteins shield murine cecal microbiota from extensive disarray caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Naice E S; Roquetto, Aline R; de Pace, Fernanda; Moura, Carolina S; Santos, Andrey Dos; Yamada, Aureo T; Saad, Mário José A; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    High-fat diets are used to induce adverse alterations in the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, generalized inflammation and metabolic stress, which ultimately may lead to obesity. The influence of dietary whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce stress. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to test if dietary milk-whey proteins, both in the intact form and hydrolyzed, could have an effect on the compositional changes of the cecal microbiota that can be induced in mice when receiving a high-fat diet in combination with the standard casein. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control casein diet (AIN 93-G); high-fat-casein (HFCAS); high-fat-whey protein concentrate (HFWPC) and high-fat whey-protein hydrolysate (HFWPH) for 9weeks. The intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S-rRNA of the invariant (V1-V3) gene, potentially endotoxemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was determined colorimetrically, and liver fat infiltration assessed by light microscopy. The high-fat diet proved to induce dysbiosis in the animals by inverting the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes, promoted the increase of LPS and resulted in liver fat infiltration. The whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, resisted the installation of dysbiosis, prevented the surge of circulating LPS and prevented fat infiltration in the liver. It is concluded that dietary whey proteins exert metabolic actions that tend to preserve the normal microbiota profile, while mitigating liver fat deposition in mice consuming a high-fat diet for nine weeks. Such beneficial effects were not seen when casein was the dietary protein. The hydrolyzed whey protein still differed from the normal whey protein by selectively protecting the Bacteroidetes phylum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  12. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  13. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja N Heinritz

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF, or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P0.05. Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05, while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447.

  14. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood.

  15. Coenzyme Q Metabolism Is Disturbed in High Fat Diet-Induced Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Botham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the effects of high fat diet-induced NAFLD on Coenzyme Q (CoQ metabolism and plasma oxidative stress markers in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolizable energy as fat for 18 weeks. The concentrations of total (reduced + oxidized CoQ9 were increased by > 2 fold in the plasma of animals fed the high fat diet, while those of total CoQ10 were unchanged. Reduced CoQ levels were raised, but oxidized CoQ levels were not, thus the proportion in the reduced form was increased by about 75%. A higher percentage of plasma CoQ9 as compared to CoQ10 was in the reduced form in both control and high fat fed rats. Plasma protein thiol (SH levels were decreased in the high fat-fed rats as compared to the control group, but concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated dienes were unchanged. These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with altered CoQ metabolism and increased protein, but not lipid, oxidative stress.

  16. Loss of NHE1 activity leads to reduced oxidative stress in heart and mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Miller, Marian L; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Nieman, Michelle L; Wang, Yigang; Shull, Gary E

    2013-12-01

    Acute inhibition of the NHE1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic inhibition attenuates development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. To determine the cardiac effects of chronic inhibition of NHE1 under non-pathological conditions we used NHE1-null mice as a model of long-term NHE1 inhibition. Cardiovascular performance was relatively normal in Nhe1(-/-) mice although cardiac contractility and relaxation were slightly improved in mutant mice of the FVB/N background. GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratios were elevated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts indicating an enhanced redox potential. Consistent with a reduced need for antioxidant protection, expression of heat shock proteins Hsp60 and Hsp25 was lower in Nhe1(-/-) hearts. Similarly, expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 was reduced, with no increase in expression of other ROS scavenging enzymes. GLUT1 levels were increased in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, the number of lipid droplets in myocytes was reduced, and PDK4 expression was refractory to high-fat diet-induced upregulation observed in wild-type hearts. High-fat diet-induced stress was attenuated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, as indicated by smaller increases in phosphorylation of Hsp25 and α-B crystallin, and there was better preservation of insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were lower and high-fat diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation was reduced in Nhe1(-/-) mice, demonstrating extracardiac effects of NHE1 ablation. These data indicate that long-term ablation of NHE1 activity increases the redox potential, mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress and fatty liver disease, leads to better preservation of insulin sensitivity, and may alter both cardiac and systemic metabolic substrate handling in mice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fat suppression techniques for obtaining high resolution dynamic contrast enhanced bilateral breast MR images at 7 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Tijl A; Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    contained 3D T1-weighted gradient echo images obtained with both WSE fat suppression, multi echo Dixon fat suppression, and without fat suppression. Images were acquired at a (0.8mm)(3) or (0.7mm)(3) isotropic resolution with equal field of view and optimized such to obtain a maximal SNR. Image quality...... was scored qualitatively on overall image quality, sharpness of anatomical details, presence of artefacts, inhomogeneous fat suppression and the presence of water-fat shift. A quantitative scoring was obtained from the signal to noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio. RESULTS: WSE scored significantly...... better in terms of overall image quality and the absence of artefacts. No significant difference in contrast to noise ratio was found between the two fat suppression methods. CONCLUSION: When maximizing temporal and spatial resolution of high resolution DCE MRI of the breast, water selective excitation...

  18. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  19. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  20. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  1. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; Vries, de Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  2. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty ac...

  3. Decreases in High-Fat and/or High-Added-Sugar Food Group Intake Occur when a Hypocaloric, Low-Fat Diet Is Prescribed Within a Lifestyle Intervention: A Secondary Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie A

    2016-10-01

    When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. To examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Secondary cohort analysis. One hundred sixty-nine participants (aged 52.0±8.6 years, body mass index 34.9±4.5, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% women) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. From three 24-hour telephone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from Nutrition Data System for Research software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher-fat and/or added-sugar food groups vs naturally lower-fat and/or added-sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of nonmodified vs fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Significant reductions (Phypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added-sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreases in high-fat and/or high added sugar food group intake occur when a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed within a lifestyle intervention: a secondary cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshani, Vaishali Deepak; Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. Objective Examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake, and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Design Secondary cohort analysis. Participants One hundred sixty-nine participants (52.0 ± 8.6 years, 34.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% female) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. Main Outcome Measures From 3, 24-hr phone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from NDSR software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher fat and/or added sugar food groups vs. naturally lower fat and/or added sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of non-modified vs. fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Statistical Analyses Performed Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Results Significant reductions (p hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. PMID:27436530

  5. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  6. Modulation of cAMP levels by high fat diet and curcumin and regulatory effects on CD36/FAT scavenger receptor/fatty acids transporter gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of f...

  7. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  8. Deregulation of arginase induces bone complications in high-fat/high-sucrose diet diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Sangani, Rajnikumar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Toque, Haroldo A; Cain, Michael; Wong, Abby; Howie, Nicole; Shinde, Rahul; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yao, Lin; Chutkan, Norman; Hunter, Monty; Caldwell, Ruth B; Isales, Carlos; Caldwell, R William; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-02-15

    A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular function due to decreases in nitric oxide formation. We hypothesized that diabetes may also elevate arginase activity in bone and bone marrow, which could lead to bone-related complications. To test this we determined the effects of diabetes on expression and activity of arginase, in bone and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We demonstrated that arginase 1 is abundantly present in the bone and BMSCs. We also demonstrated that arginase activity and expression in bone and bone marrow is up-regulated in models of diabetes induced by HFHS diet and streptozotocin (STZ). HFHS diet down-regulated expression of healthy bone metabolism markers (BMP2, COL-1, ALP, and RUNX2) and reduced bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular thickness. However, treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH) prevented these bone-related complications of diabetes. In-vitro study of BMSCs showed that high glucose treatment increased arginase activity and decreased nitric oxide production. These effects were reversed by treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH). Our study provides evidence that deregulation of l-arginine metabolism plays a vital role in HFHS diet-induced diabetic complications and that these complications can be prevented by treatment with arginase inhibitors. The modulation of l-arginine metabolism in disease could offer a novel therapeutic approach for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal related diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD 10 dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 ± 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 ± 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-α2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3

  10. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Müller, Timo D; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of β-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat, but also low in protein contents to be clearly ketogenic. Independent of the macronutrient composition, LC-HFD-induced weight loss is not due to increased EE and LA.

  11. Nitrosamine exposure exacerbates high fat diet-mediated type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and neurodegeneration with cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Monte Suzanne M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and Alzheimer's disease (AD all represent insulin-resistance diseases. Previous studies linked insulin resistance diseases to high fat diets or exposure to streptozotocin, a nitrosamine-related compound that causes T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that low-level exposure to nitrosamines that are widely present in processed foods, amplifies the deleterious effects of high fat intake in promoting T2DM, NASH, and neurodegeneration. Methods Long Evans rat pups were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA by i.p. Injection, and upon weaning, they were fed with high fat (60%; HFD or low fat (5%; LFD chow for 6 weeks. Rats were evaluated for cognitive impairment, insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration using behavioral, biochemical, molecular, and histological methods. Results NDEA and HFD ± NDEA caused T2DM, NASH, deficits in spatial learning, and neurodegeneration with hepatic and brain insulin and/or IGF resistance, and reductions in tau and choline acetyltransferase levels in the temporal lobe. In addition, pro-ceramide genes, which promote insulin resistance, were increased in livers and brains of rats exposed to NDEA, HFD, or both. In nearly all assays, the adverse effects of HFD+NDEA were worse than either treatment alone. Conclusions Environmental and food contaminant exposures to low, sub-mutagenic levels of nitrosamines, together with chronic HFD feeding, function synergistically to promote major insulin resistance diseases including T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. Steps to minimize human exposure to nitrosamines and consumption of high-fat content foods are needed to quell these costly and devastating epidemics.

  12. Jinlida reduces insulin resistance and ameliorates liver oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixuan; Song, An; Zang, Shasha; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Li, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yajun; Yu, Xian; Li, Ling; Wang, Yun; Duan, Liyuan

    2015-03-13

    Jinlida (JLD) is a compound preparation formulated on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine and is officially approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of JLD treatment, in comparison to metformin treatment, on ameliorating insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats and to reveal its anti-oxidant properties. Rats were fed with standard or high-fat diet for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the high-fat fed rats were subdivided into five groups and orally fed with JLD or metformin for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin, blood lipid and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique were carried out to measure insulin sensitivity. Gene expression of the major signaling pathway molecules that regulate glucose uptake, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT), and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The totle and phosphorylation expression of IRS-1, AKT, JNK and p38MAPK were determined by Western blot. Treatment with JLD effectively ameliorated the high-fat induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia. Similar to metformin, the high insulin resistance in high-fat fed rats was significantly decreased by JLD treatment. JLD displayed anti-oxidant effects, coupled with up-regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. The attenuation of hepatic oxidative stress by JLD treatment was associated with reduced phosphorylation protein levels of JNK and p38MAPK. Treatment with JLD could moderate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as reduce hepatic oxidative stress, most likely through the JNK and p38MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal high-fat diet intensifies the metabolic response to stress in male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Zardooz, Homeira; Khodagholi, Fariba; Dargahi, Leila; Salimi, Mina; Rashidi, FatemehSadat

    2017-01-01

    The mother's consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in accordance with their given diets from pre-pregnancy to the end of lactation. The offspring were divided into control (NC and HFC) and stress (NS and HFS) groups based on their mothers' diet and exposure to stress in adulthood. After the two-week stress induction period was over, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed and plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed. The pancreas was then removed for measuring insulin secretion from the isolated islets as well as glucose transporter 2 mRNA expression and protein levels. According to the results obtained, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased significantly on days 1 and 14 of the stress induction period and were lower on the last day compared to on the first day. In both the NS and HFS groups, stress reduced plasma insulin concentration in the IPGTT without changing the plasma glucose concentration, suggesting an increased insulin sensitivity in the NS and HFS groups, although more markedly in the latter. Stress reduced insulin secretion (at high glucose concentrations) and increased glucose transporter 2 mRNA and protein expression, especially in the HFS group. Mothers' high-fat diet appears to intensify the stress response by changing the programming of the neuroendocrine system in the offspring.

  14. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  15. Prolonged decrease of adipocyte size after rosiglitazone treatment in high- and low-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julia A; Trasino, Steven E; Ferrante, Anthony W; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2007-11-01

    The anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) stimulate adipocyte differentiation and decrease mean adipocyte size. However, whether these smaller, more insulin-sensitive adipocytes maintain their size after TZD therapy is discontinued has not been studied. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (10% fat) diet or, to elevate body weight (BW), a high-fat (HF) diet (45% fat) for 6 weeks. Rats were initially randomized to groups (n = 12) fed either low-fat or HF diets, with or without the TZD rosiglitazone (ROSI; 5 mg/kg per day), for 6 weeks. ROSI was then discontinued, and all animals were fed HF for another 6 weeks before sacrifice. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipose tissue morphology was determined from tissue collected by serial biopsies before and after 6 weeks of ROSI treatment and at sacrifice. Measures of BW and adiposity did not differ among groups 6 weeks after stopping ROSI treatment. However, during treatment, ROSI in both diets significantly decreased RP adipocyte size and increased RP DNA content, and these effects continued to be observed after discontinuing treatment. ROSI administration also decreased circulating insulin, leptin, and triglycerides and increased circulating adiponectin levels; however, these effects were reversed on stopping treatment. These results demonstrated that TZD-induced effects on adipocyte size and number were maintained after discontinuing treatment, even with consumption of an obesigenic diet. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether TZD-treated animals eventually achieve an adipocyte size similar to that of untreated animals at the expense of a higher BW.

  16. Lipid droplet-associated proteins in high-fat fed mice with the effects of voluntary running and diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Reunanen, Hilkka; Kujala, Urho M; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2014-08-01

    The relation between lipid accumulation and influence of exercise on insulin sensitivity is not straightforward. A proper balance between lipid droplet synthesis, lipolysis, and oxidative metabolism would ensure low local intramyocellular fatty acid levels, thereby possibly protecting against lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance. This study investigated whether the accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets in response to high availability of fatty acids after high-fat feeding would parallel the abundance of intramyocellular perilipin proteins, especially PLIN5. The effects on these variables after diet change or voluntary running exercise intervention in skeletal muscle were also investigated. During a 19-week experiment, C57BL/6J mice were studied in six different groups: low-fat diet sedentary, low-fat diet active, high-fat diet sedentary, high-fat diet active and two groups which were high-fat sedentary for nine weeks, after which divided into low-fat sedentary or low-fat active groups. Myocellular triglyceride concentration and perilipin protein expression levels were assessed. We show that, concurrently with impaired insulin sensitivity, the expression level of PLIN5 and muscular triglyceride concentration increased dramatically after high-fat diet. These adaptations were reversible after the diet change intervention with no additional effect of exercise. After high-fat diet, lipid droplets become larger providing more surface area for PLIN5. We suggest that PLIN5 is an important regulator of lipid droplet turnover in altered conditions of fatty acid supply and consumption. Imbalances in lipid droplet metabolism and turnover might lead to lipotoxicity-related insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  18. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P

  19. Equisetum sylvaticum base reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-He Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We identify an Equisetum sylvaticum alkaloid (ESA derived from E. hyemale, which has robust antihyperlipidemic effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. ESA was isolated from E. hyemale and identified by IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. Rats were induced to hyperlipidemia and subjected to ESA treatment. In hyperlipidemic model, fed with a high-fat diet, the blood levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were increased. The administration of ESA (20 or 40 mg/kg to those rats significantly improved the HDL-C level and reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C. The atherosclerosis index and atherosclerosis risk of these rats were significantly reduced by ESA. In addition, the administration of ESA in rats increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA. These results reveal the antihyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative effects of ESA in vivo.

  20. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Hypolipidemic activity of Piper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...

  2. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: ...

  3. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rauckhorst, Adam J.; Gray, Lawrence R.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D.; Feddersen, Charlotte R.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Cox, James E.; Burgess, Shawn C.; Taylor, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. T...

  4. Maternal deprivation exacerbates the response to a high fat diet in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Mela

    Full Text Available Maternal deprivation (MD during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including affectation of metabolism. Indeed, MD for 24 hours during the neonatal period reduces body weight throughout life when the animals are maintained on a normal diet. However, little information is available regarding how this early stress affects the response to increased metabolic challenges during postnatal life. We hypothesized that MD modifies the response to a high fat diet (HFD and that this response differs between males and females. To address this question, both male and female Wistar rats were maternally deprived for 24 hours starting on the morning of postnatal day (PND 9. Upon weaning on PND22 half of each group received a control diet (CD and the other half HFD. MD rats of both sexes had significantly reduced accumulated food intake and weight gain compared to controls when raised on the CD. In contrast, when maintained on a HFD energy intake and weight gain did not differ between control and MD rats of either sex. However, high fat intake induced hyperleptinemia in MD rats as early as PND35, but not until PND85 in control males and control females did not become hyperleptinemic on the HFD even at PND102. High fat intake stimulated hypothalamic inflammatory markers in both male and female rats that had been exposed to MD, but not in controls. Reduced insulin sensitivity was observed only in MD males on the HFD. These results indicate that MD modifies the metabolic response to HFD intake, with this response being different between males and females. Thus, the development of obesity and secondary complications in response to high fat intake depends on numerous factors.

  5. Swimming training induces liver adaptations to oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in rats submitted to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Aline Cruz; Barbosa, Maria Andrea; Guerra-Sá, Renata; De Castro, Uberdan Guilherme Mendes; Bezerra, Frank Silva; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Cardoso, Leonardo M; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; Alzamora, Andréia Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress, physical inactivity and high-fat (FAT) diets are associated with hepatic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MS). The therapeutic effects of physical training (PT) were evaluated in rats with MS induced by FAT diet for 13 weeks, on oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the liver, during the last 6 weeks. FAT-sedentary (SED) rats increased body mass, retroperitoneal fat, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and total cholesterol, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose and insulin. Livers of FAT-SED rats increased superoxide dismutase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl and oxidized glutathione (GSSG); and decreased catalase activity, reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio, and the mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and serine/threonine kinase 2. FAT-PT rats improved in fitness and reduced their body mass, retroperitoneal fat, and glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, MAP and HR; and their livers increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, the reduced glutathione/GSSG ratio and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor compared to FAT-SED rats. These findings indicated adaptive responses to PT by restoring the oxidative balance and insulin signaling in the liver and certain biometric and biochemical parameters as well as MAP in MS rats.

  6. Effect of perilipin-5 on apoptosis of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells induced by high fat and high glucose in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin DU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of perilipin-5 (Plin5 on the apoptosis of mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells induced by high fat and high glucose. Methods The mouse cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (MCMECs cultured with high glucose medium were respectively given 0, 100, 300 and 500μmol/L palmitic acid for 24 hours. In order to explore the effects and mechanisms of Plin5 on MCMECs injuries induced by high fat and high glucose, MCMECs exposed to 300μmol/L palmitic acid for 24 hours were divided into control group, Scra siRNA group and Plin5 siRNA group. The control group was only treated with transfection reagent, the Scra siRNA group was given treatment of transfection reagent and garbled RNA, the Plin5 siRNA group was given treatment of transfection reagent and Plin5 specific siRNA. In order to further confirm the specific mechanism of Plin5 in high fat/glucose inducing MCMECs injury, MCMECs in Plin5 siRNA group were divided into vehicle group and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC group, and given the same intervention of high fat. The apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blotting were respectively used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of Plin5, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level was tested by DHE staining and ELISA kit. Results The apoptotic rate of MCMECs was increased in a fat concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05. Compared with 0μmol/L palmitic acid group, the intracellular ROS content and the expression of Plin5 increased significantly in 300μmol/L palmitic acid group (P<0.05. Compared with the control group and the Scra siRNA group, the intracellular ROS content and apoptotic rate increased significantly in Plin5 siRNA group under the action of 300μmol/L palmitic acid (P<0.05. Compared with the vehicle group, the intracellular ROS content and apoptotic rate decreased remarkably in NAC group (P<0.05. Conclusion With inhibition of oxidative stress

  7. Voluntary exercise improves murine dermal connective tissue status in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Kende; Haluszka, Dóra; Kiss, Norbert; Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Szipőcs, Róbert; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Its influence on the skin is less obvious, yet certain negative effects of adipose tissue inflammation on the dermis have been suggested. Excess weight is closely associated with sedentary behavior, so any increase in physical activity is considered beneficial against obesity. To investigate the effects of obesity and physical exercise on the skin, we established a mouse model in which mice were kept either on a high-fat diet or received standard chow. After the two groups achieved a significant weight difference, physical exercise was introduced to both. Animals were given the opportunity to perform voluntary exercise for 40 min daily in a hamster wheel for a period of 8 weeks. We evaluated the status of the dermis at the beginning and at the end of the exercise period by in vivo nonlinear microscopy. Obese mice kept on high-fat diet lost weight steadily after they started to exercise. In the high-fat diet group, we could detect significantly larger adipocytes and a thicker layer of subcutaneous tissue; both changes started to normalize after exercise. Nonlinear microscopy revealed an impaired collagen structure in obese mice that improved considerably after physical activity was introduced. With the ability to detect damage on collagen structure, we set out to address the question whether this process is reversible. With the use of a novel imaging method, we were able to show the reversibility of connective tissue deterioration as a benefit of physical exercise.

  8. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Du, Wenhua; Shao, Shanshan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhou, Lingyan; Jing, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27%) and liver triglycerides (314.75%) compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  9. Vildagliptin Can Alleviate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Liver Induced by a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD, high fat diet (HFD, and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg (V-HFD. After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels. ER stress was induced in HepG2 cells with palmitic acid and the effects of vildagliptin were investigated. Results. HFD mice showed increased liver weight/body weight (20.27% and liver triglycerides (314.75% compared to CD mice, but these decreased by 9.27% and 21.83%, respectively, in V-HFD mice. In the liver, HFD induced the expression of ER stress indicators significantly, which were obviously decreased by vildagliptin. In vitro, the expressions of molecular indicators of ER stress were reduced in HepG2 when vildagliptin was administered. Conclusions. Vildagliptin alleviates hepatic ER stress in a mouse high fat diet model. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin directly reduced ER stress. Therefore, vildagliptin may be a potential agent for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  10. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  11. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Ahsan; Alwar, M C; Shenoy, Preethi J; Gokul, P

    2016-04-01

    The medicinal value of Morinda citrifolia L. (commonly known as Noni) has been explored in ancient folk remedies with a wide range of therapeutic utility, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumour, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Noni fruit juice on serum lipid profile in high fat diet induced murine model of dyslipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Noni fruit juice administered at 50mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The p juice treated group showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol at both the doses when compared to the disease control (pjuice at the 50mg/kg dose employed, failed to show a statistical significance when compared to atorvastatin. The present study provides evidence for the hypolipidemic activity of Noni fruit juice in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  12. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  13. Lessons from Mouse Models of High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Terauchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of diseases ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, the more aggressive form of fatty liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD, including NASH, is also increasing in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes. However, the causal relationships between obesity and/or diabetes and NASH or liver tumorigenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. Animal models of NAFLD/NASH provide crucial information, not only for elucidating the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH, but also for examining therapeutic effects of various agents. A high-fat diet is widely used to produce hepatic steatosis and NASH in experimental animals. Several studies, including our own, have shown that long-term high-fat diet loading, which can induce obesity and insulin resistance, can also induce NASH and liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/6J mice. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for NAFLD and subsequent NAFLD-related complications such as NASH and liver tumorigenesis, mainly based on lessons learned from mouse models of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD/NASH.

  14. Amyloid Precursor Protein and Proinflammatory Changes Are Regulated in Brain and Adipose Tissue in a Murine Model of High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Kendra L.; Floden, Angela M.; Adhikari, Ramchandra; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Combs, Colin K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Middle age obesity is recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) although a mechanistic linkage remains unclear. Based upon the fact that obese adipose tissue and AD brains are both areas of proinflammatory change, a possible common event is chronic inflammation. Since an autosomal dominant form of AD is associated with mutations in the gene coding for the ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and recent evidence demonstrates increased APP levels in adipose tissue during obesity it is feasible that APP serves some function in both disease conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether diet-induced obesity produced proinflammatory changes and altered APP expression in brain versus adipose tissue, 6 week old C57BL6/J mice were maintained on a control or high fat diet for 22 weeks. Protein levels and cell-specific APP expression along with markers of inflammation and immune cell activation were compared between hippocampus, abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral pericardial fat. APP stimulation-dependent changes in macrophage and adipocyte culture phenotype were examined for comparison to the in vivo changes. Conclusions/Significance Adipose tissue and brain from high fat diet fed animals demonstrated increased TNF-α and microglial and macrophage activation. Both brains and adipose tissue also had elevated APP levels localizing to neurons and macrophage/adipocytes, respectively. APP agonist antibody stimulation of macrophage cultures increased specific cytokine secretion with no obvious effects on adipocyte culture phenotype. These data support the hypothesis that high fat diet-dependent obesity results in concomitant pro-inflammatory changes in brain and adipose tissue that is characterized, in part, by increased levels of APP that may be contributing specifically to inflammatory changes that occur. PMID:22276186

  15. Effects of Acute Active Video Games on Endothelial Function Following a High-Fat Meal in Overweight Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernall, Bo; Jae, Sae Young

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an active video game following a high-fat meal would partially prevent the unfavorable effect of a high-fat meal on vascular function in overweight adolescents. Twenty-four overweight adolescents were randomized to either a 60-minute active video game (AVG) group (n = 12) or seated rest (SR) as a control group (n = 12) after a high-fat meal. Blood parameters were measured, and vascular function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 3 hours after a high-fat meal. No significant interaction was found in any blood parameter. A high-fat meal significantly increased blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations in both groups in a similar manner. Brachial artery FMD significantly decreased in the SR group (13.8 ± 3.2% to 11.8 ± 2.5), but increased in the AVG group (11.4 ± 4.0% to 13.3 ± 3.5), with a significant interaction (P = .034). These findings show that an active video game attenuated high-fat meal-induced endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that an active video game may have a cardioprotective effect on endothelial function in overweight adolescents when exposed to a high-fat meal.

  16. Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri-Anne Lyons

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO resistant (SWR/J and susceptible (C57BL/6 mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+/CD44(hi and CD8(+/CD44(hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.

  17. Phloretin Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Metabolic Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, Sary; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated as a by-product in metabolism play a central role in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic complications. The objective of the current study is to explore the possibility to block obesity and improve metabolic homeostasis via phloretin, a natural antioxidant product from apple tree leaves and Manchurian apricot. Both preventive and therapeutic activities of phloretin were assessed using a high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. Phloretin was injected intraperitoneally twice weekly into regular and obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects of phloretin treatment on body weight and composition, fat content in the liver, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance were monitored and compared to the control animals. Phloretin treatment significantly blocks high-fat diet-induced weight gain but did not induce weight loss in obese animals. Phloretin improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation. RT-PCR analysis showed that phloretin treatment suppresses expression of macrophage markers (F4/80 and Cd68) and pro-inflammatory genes (Mcp-1 and Ccr2) and enhances adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue. In addition, phloretin treatment elevated the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a and 1b (Cpt1a and Cpt1b) and reduced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1), de novo lipogenesis transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (Pparγ2), and its target monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (Mgat-1) genes. These results provide direct evidence to support a possible use of phloretin for mitigation of obesity and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.

  18. Profile of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Flexibility and Fat Percentage of Junior High School Students in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemuruh Putra Akbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable disease and global mortality in adolescent. Lack of physical activity will lead the condition into poor physical fitness, measured by cardio respiratory fitness (maximum oxygen volume, VO2 max, and other components such as flexibility. The study aimed to describe VO2 max, flexibility and fat percentage among junior high school students in Jatinangor. Methods: The study was a descriptive observational study using descriptive analysis.  VO2 max was assessed using Astrand Ryhming step test, flexibility was measured using flexometer sit and reach test, and fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. The subjects were junior high school students who were study in 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade in Jatinangor Junior High School based on stratification sampling method. It was conducted from September–October 2013. Results: Total subjects were 110 students consisted of male (n=52 and female (n=58.  The VO2 max were in good and above category, 57.69% of male (50.37 ± 9.80 ml/kg/min, and 60.34% of female (37.66±7.03 ml/kg/min. The flexibility for both males and females were within excellent category (67.31%, 26.56 ±7.14 cm and 67.24%, 27.29±6.64 cm respectively. The fat percentage in females were within healthy category (67.24%, 25.28 ± 6.85 %, meanwhile male were within underfat category (48.08%, 11.66 ± 5.83 %. Conclusions: The majority of VO2 max, and flexibility both in male and female were good. The fat percentages were good in female students, while in male students were under normal range. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1085

  19. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  20. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

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    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  1. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

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    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  3. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  4. Effect of equipotent doses of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in high-fat diet fed neonatal rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ying-Dong; Chen, Zong-Xiang; Zhu, Kang-Ru; Sun, Shu-Yin; Zhu, Li-Ping

    The increase in the prevalence of obesity presents a significant health and economic problem. Obesity has been reported to be a major contributor to variety of chronic diseases. Childhood obesity has been rising over the past decades leading to various complications in health. Millions of infants and children undergo surgery every year on various health grounds. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spinal anesthesia of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine on over-weight neonatal rats. The Sprague-Dawley rat pups were overfed on high fat diet to induce obesity. Behavioral assessments for sensory and motor blockade was made by evaluating thermal and mechanical withdrawal latencies at various time intervals following intrathecal injections of bupivacaine (5.0mg·kg -1 ) and ropivacaine (7.5mg·kg -1 ) in P14 rats. Spinal tissue was analyzed for apoptosis by determination of activated caspase-3 using monoclonal anti-activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade C staining. Long-term spinal function in P30 rat pups was evaluated. Exposure to intrathecal anesthesia in P14 increased thermal and mechanical latencies and was observed to increase apoptosis as presented by increase in activated caspase-3 and Fluro-Jade C positive cells. Significant alterations in spinal function were observed in high fat diet-fed pups as against non-obese control pups that were on standard diet. Bupivacaine produced more pronounced apoptotic effects on P14 pups; ropivacaine however produced long lasting effects as evidenced in motor function tests at P30. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine induced spinal toxicity that was more pronounced in over-fed rat pups as against normal controls. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of equipotent doses of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in high-fat diet fed neonatal rodent model

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    Ying-Dong Lian

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: The increase in the prevalence of obesity presents a significant health and economic problem. Obesity has been reported to be a major contributor to variety of chronic diseases. Childhood obesity has been rising over the past decades leading to various complications in health. Millions of infants and children undergo surgery every year on various health grounds. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spinal anesthesia of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine on over-weight neonatal rats. Methods: The Sprague-Dawley rat pups were overfed on high fat diet to induce obesity. Behavioral assessments for sensory and motor blockade was made by evaluating thermal and mechanical withdrawal latencies at various time intervals following intrathecal injections of bupivacaine (5.0 mg·kg-1 and ropivacaine (7.5 mg·kg-1 in P14 rats. Spinal tissue was analyzed for apoptosis by determination of activated caspase-3 using monoclonal anti-activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade C staining. Long-term spinal function in P30 rat pups was evaluated. Results: Exposure to intrathecal anesthesia in P14 increased thermal and mechanical latencies and was observed to increase apoptosis as presented by increase in activated caspase-3 and Fluro-Jade C positive cells. Significant alterations in spinal function were observed in high fat diet-fed pups as against non-obese control pups that were on standard diet. Bupivacaine produced more pronounced apoptotic effects on P14 pups; ropivacaine however produced long lasting effects as evidenced in motor function tests at P30. Conclusion: Ropivacaine and bupivacaine induced spinal toxicity that was more pronounced in over-fed rat pups as against normal controls.

  6. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

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    Virginie Lecomte

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001, this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  7. Anthropometric midarm measurements can detect systemic fat-free mass depletion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    F.F. Sanchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether anthropometric measurements of the midarm (MA could identify subjects with whole body fat-free mass (FFM depletion. Fifty-five patients (31% females; age: 64.6 ± 9.3 years with mild/very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 18 smokers without COPD (39% females; age: 49.0 ± 7.3 years and 23 never smoked controls (57% females; age: 48.2 ± 9.6 years were evaluated. Spirometry, muscle strength and MA circumference were measured. MA muscle area was estimated by anthropometry and MA cross-sectional area by computerized tomography (CT scan. Bioelectrical impedance was used as the reference method for FFM. MA circumference and MA muscle area correlated with FFM and biceps and triceps strength. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that MA circumference and MA muscle area cut-off points presented sensitivity and specificity >82% to discriminate FFM-depleted subjects. CT scan measurements did not provide improved sensitivity or specificity. For all groups, there was no significant statistical difference between MA muscle area [35.2 (29.3-45.0 cm²] and MA cross-sectional area values [36.4 (28.5-43.3 cm²] and the linear correlation coefficient between tests was r = 0.77 (P < 0.001. However, Bland-Altman plots revealed wide 95% limits of agreement (-14.7 to 15.0 cm² between anthropometric and CT scan measurements. Anthropometric MA measurements may provide useful information for identifying subjects with whole body FFM depletion. This is a low-cost technique and can be used in a wider patient population to identify those likely to benefit from a complete body composition evaluation.

  8. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA...... that a TTA-induced increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis drains fatty acids from blood and extrahepatic tissues and that this contributes significantly to the beneficial effects of TTA on fat mass accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity....

  9. Hyperleptinemia Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Mediated Atrial Fibrosis and Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Akira; Ikebe-Ebata, Yuki; Kondo, Hidekazu; Saito, Shotaro; Aoki, Kohei; Fukunaga, Naoya; Shinohara, Tetsuji; Masaki, Takayuki; Teshima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Naohiko

    2017-06-01

    Obesity including metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although hyperleptinemia is usually a characteristic of obese subjects, the relationship with atrial fibrosis and AF is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperleptinemia exacerbates atrial fibrosis and AF. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 (WT) and leptin-deficient ob/ob (Ob) mice were treated with a normal-fat diet (NFD) or 60% HFD. After 8 weeks, transesophageal burst pacing and electrophysiological study using isolated perfused hearts were performed and left atrial (LA) tissues were collected for histological analysis, hydroxyproline assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HFD treatment increased body weight in both WT and Ob mice compared with NFD (both P atrial fibrosis and AF. Inhibition of leptin signaling may become a novel therapeutic target to prevent obesity-related AF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High fat diet prevents over-crowding induced decrease of sex ratio in mice.

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    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success. In the present study, we tested the effect of housing mice under crowded condition on the sex ratio and whether the fat content of the diet has any influence on the outcome of pregnancies. Three-week-old mice were placed on the control diet (NFD for 3 weeks. Thereafter the mice were allotted randomly to two groups of 7 cages each with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 mice in every cage to create increasing crowding gradient and fed either NFD or high fat diet (HFD. After 4 weeks, dams were bred and outcomes of pregnancy were analyzed. The average dam body weight (DBW at conception, litter size (LS and SR were significantly higher in HFD fed dams. Further, male biased litters declined with increasing crowding in NFD group but not in HFD. The LS and SR in NFD declined significantly with increasing crowding, whereas only LS was reduced in HFD group. We conclude that female mice housed under overcrowding conditions shift offspring SR in favor of daughters in consistent with the TW hypothesis and high fat diet reduces this influence of overcrowding.

  11. Oral insulin improves metabolic parameters in high fat diet fed rats

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    LEANDRO C. LIPINSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction/Aim: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats. Methods: Twelve weeks old Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: control (CTRL standard chow group; high fat diet low carbohydrates group (HFD and HFD plus daily oral 20U insulin gavage (HFD+INS. Weight and food consumption were weekly obtained. After eight weeks, fasting blood samples were collected for laboratorial analysis. After euthanasia gut samples were isolated. Results: Rat oral insulin treatment decreased body weight gain (p<0,001, fasting glucose and triglycerides serum levels (p<0,05 an increased intestinal weight of distal ileum (P<0,05. Animal submitted to high fat diet presented higher levels of HOMA-IR although significant difference to CT was not achieved. HOMA-beta were significantly higher (p<0.05 in HFD+INS. Visceral fat was 10% lower in HFD+INS but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: In non-diabetic obese rats, oral insulin improves metabolic malfunction associated to rescue of beta-cell activity.

  12. Eating high fat chow enhances the locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent and adult female rats.

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    Baladi, Michelle G; Koek, Wouter; Aumann, Megan; Velasco, Fortino; France, Charles P

    2012-08-01

    Dopamine systems vary through development in a manner that can impact drugs acting on those systems. Dietary factors can also impact the effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters locomotor effects of cocaine (1-56 mg/kg) in adolescent and adult female rats. Cocaine was studied in rats (n = 6/group) with free access to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3%) chow or restricted access to high fat chow (body weight matched to rats eating standard chow). After 1 week of eating high fat chow (free or restricted access), sensitivity to cocaine was significantly increased in adolescent and adult rats, compared with rats eating standard chow. Sensitivity to cocaine was also increased in adolescent rats with restricted, but not free, access to high fat chow for 4 weeks. When adolescent and adult rats that previously ate high fat chow ate standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine returned to normal. In adolescent and adult female rats eating high fat chow, but not those eating standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine increased progressively over once weekly tests with cocaine (i.e., sensitization) in a manner that was not statistically different between adolescents and adults. These results show that eating high fat chow alters sensitivity of female rats to acutely administered cocaine and also facilitates the development of sensitization to cocaine. That the type of food consumed can increase drug effects might have relevance to vulnerability to abuse cocaine in the female population.

  13. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  14. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  15. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetri, Laura H; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Yerian, Lisa M; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) equivalent for 1-16 wk were compared with mice fed standard chow or mice with trans fats or HFCS omitted. Cage racks were removed from western diet mice to promote sedentary behavior. By 16 wk, trans fat-fed mice became obese and developed severe hepatic steatosis with associated necroinflammatory changes. Plasma alanine aminotransferase levels increased, as did liver TNF-alpha and procollagen mRNA, indicating an inflammatory and profibrogenic response to injury. Glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose developed within 2 and 4 wk, respectively. Plasma insulin, resistin, and leptin levels increased in a profile similar to that seen in patients with NASH. The individual components of this diet contributed to the phenotype independently; isocaloric replacement of trans fats with lard established that trans fats played a major role in promoting hepatic steatosis and injury, whereas inclusion of HFCS promoted food consumption, obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Combining risk factors for the metabolic syndrome by feeding mice trans fats and HFCS induced histological features of NASH in the context of a metabolic profile similar to patients with this disease. Because dietary trans fats promoted liver steatosis and injury, their role in the epidemic of NASH needs further evaluation.

  16. Do Danes enjoy a high performing chronic care system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Quevedo, Christina; Olejaz, Maria; Juul, Annegrete

    2012-01-01

    The trends in population health in Denmark are similar to those in most Western European countries. Major health issues include, among others, the high prevalence of chronic illnesses and lifestyle related risk factors such as obesity, tobacco, physical inactivity and alcohol. This has pressed...... the health system towards a model of provision of care based on the management of chronic care conditions. While the Chronic Care Model was introduced in 2005, the Danish health system does not fulfil the ten key preconditions that would characterise a high-performing chronic care system. As revealed...... in a recent report, the fragmented structure of the Danish health system poses challenges in providing effectively coordinated care to patients with chronic diseases....

  17. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide combined with pre- and postnatal high-fat diet result in lowered blood pressure and insulin resistance in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Du, Jing-Xia; Li, Yan; Li, Meng; Zhang, Shou-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Adult metabolic syndrome may in part have origins in fetal or early life. This study was designed to explore the effect of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide and high-fat diet on metabolic syndrome in offspring rats. 32 pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups, including Control group; LPS group (pregnant rats were injected with LPS 0.4 mg/kg intraperitoneally on the 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) day of pregnancy); High-fat group (maternal rats had high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation period, and their pups also had high-fat diet up to the third month of life); LPS + High-fat group (rats were exposed to the identical experimental scheme with LPS group and High-fat group). Blood pressure elevated in LPS group and High-fat group, reduced in LPS+High-fat group, accompanied by the increase of serum leptin level in LPS and High-fat group and increase of serum IL-6, TNF-a in High-fat group; both serum insulin and cholesterol increased in High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, as well as insulin in LPS group. HOMA-IR value increased in LPS, High-fat and LPS+High-fat group, and QUICKI decreased in these groups; H-E staining showed morphologically pathological changes in thoracic aorta and liver tissue in the three groups. Increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase suggest impaired liver function in LPS+High-fat group. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide combined with pre- and postnatal high-fat diet result in lowered blood pressure, insulin resistance and impaired liver function in three-month old offspring rats. The lowered blood pressure might benefit from the predictive adaptive response to prenatal inflammation.

  18. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

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    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  19. Effect of High Fat and High Sugar Diet on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Response to Glucose Load and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑, 悟

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the precipitating effects of the westernized diet on diabetes mellitus, glucose tolerance and insulin response to oral glucose load (1.5g/kg body weight) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg) were studied in rats fed an experimental diet for 8 weeks. Four experimental diets were used : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the we...

  20. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

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    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  1. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

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    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  2. Characterization of fat metabolism in the fatty liver caused by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet: A study under equal energy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Yuka; Shiroya, Yoko; Yamauchi, Hideki; Kitamura, Hiromi; Minato, Kumiko

    2017-05-20

    The pathology of fatty liver due to increased percentage of calories derived from fat without increased overall caloric intake is largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize fat metabolism in rats with fatty liver resulting from consumption of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet without increased caloric intake. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control (Con) and HFLC groups, and rats were fed the corresponding diets ad libitum. Significant decreases in food intake per gram body weight were observed in the HFLC group compared with that in the Con group. Thus, there were no significant differences in body weights or caloric intake per gram body weight between the two groups. Marked progressive fat accumulation was observed in the livers of rats in the HFLC group, accompanied by suppression of de novo lipogenesis (DNL)-related proteins in the liver and increased leptin concentrations in the blood. In addition, electron microscopic observations revealed that many lipid droplets had accumulated within the hepatocytes, and mitochondrial numbers were reduced in the hepatocytes of rats in the HFLC group. Our findings confirmed that consumption of the HFLC diet induced fatty liver, even without increased caloric intake. Furthermore, DNL was not likely to be a crucial factor inducing fatty liver with standard energy intake. Instead, ultrastructural abnormalities found in mitochondria, which may cause a decline in β-oxidation, could contribute to the development of fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Keogh, Jennifer B; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter M

    2005-04-01

    When substituted for carbohydrate in an energy-reduced diet, dietary protein enhances fat loss in women. It is unknown whether the effect is due to increased protein or reduced carbohydrate. We compared the effects of 2 isocaloric diets that differed in protein and fat content on weight loss, lipids, appetite regulation, and energy expenditure after test meals. This was a parallel, randomized study in which subjects received either a low-fat, high-protein (LF-HP) diet (29 +/- 1% fat, 34 +/- 0.8% protein) or a high-fat, standard-protein (HF-SP) diet (45 +/- 0.6% fat, 18 +/- 0.3% protein) during 12 wk of energy restriction (6 +/- 0.1 MJ/d) and 4 wk of energy balance (7.4 +/- 0.3 MJ/d). Fifty-seven overweight and obese [mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 33.8 +/- 0.9] volunteers with insulin concentrations >12 mU/L completed the study. Weight loss (LF-HP group, 9.7 +/- 1.1 kg; HF-SP group, 10.2 +/- 1.4 kg; P = 0.78) and fat loss were not significantly different between diet groups even though the subjects desired less to eat after the LF-HP meal (P = 0.02). The decrease in resting energy expenditure was not significantly different between diet groups (LF-HP, -342 +/- 185 kJ/d; HF-SP, -349 +/- 220 kJ/d). The decrease in the thermic effect of feeding with weight loss was smaller in the LF-HP group than in the HF-SP group (-0.3 +/- 1.0% compared with -3.6 +/- 0.7%; P = 0.014). Glucose and insulin responses to test meals improved after weight loss (P loss and the improvements in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors did not differ significantly between the 2 diets, and neither diet had any detrimental effects on bone turnover or renal function.

  4. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D

    2004-03-01

    Although popular and effective for weight loss, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diets have been associated with adverse changes in blood and renal biomarkers. High-protein diets low in fat may represent an equally appealing diet plan but promote a more healthful weight loss. Healthy adults (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 low-fat (vs. the high-carbohydrate diet (3.9 +/- 1.4 and 0.7 +/- 1.7 g N/d, respectively, P low-fat, energy-restricted diets of varying protein content (15 or 30% energy) promoted healthful weight loss, but diet satisfaction was greater in those consuming the high-protein diet.

  5. Chronic diseases are not being managed effectively in either high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic diseases are not being managed effectively in either high-risk or low-risk populations in South Africa. M Brand, AJ Woodiwiss, F Michel, HL Booysen, OHI Majane, MJ Maseko, MG Veller, GR Norton ...

  6. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  7. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

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    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  8. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla on Glucose Homeostasis in Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

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    Pallavi S. Kanthe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emblica officinalis contains many biological active components which are found to have some medicinal properties against diseases. Aim and Objectives: To assess hypolipidemic and glucose regulatory actions of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO on High Fat Diet (HFD fed experimental rats. Material and Methods: Twenty four rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I- Control (20% fat; Group II (EEO 100 mg/kg/b w; Group III (30% fat and Group IV (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w. The treatment was continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, fasting and postprandial glucose and fasting insulin levels were estimated. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. Statistical analysis was done. Results: Significant alteration in serum lipid profile, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and fasting insulin level were observed in rats of Group III fed with high fat diet. Supplementation of EEO improved both of glycemic and lipid profiles in rats of Group IV fed with high fat diet. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate the beneficial role of EEO on dyslipidemia and glucose homeostasis in rats treated with high fat diet.

  9. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

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    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  10. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts daytime overeating induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Kek, Huiling Calvina; Lim, Joy; Gelling, Richard Wayne; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet, 1 week of HFD (60% of energy) and 3 months of HFD (diet-induced obesity (DIO)) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet. EGCG had no effect on feeding behavior in normal chow diet group. Increased daytime feeding induced by HFD was selectively corrected by EGCG treatment in HFD groups, including reversed food intake, feeding frequency and meal size in HFD + EGCG group, and reduced food intake and feeding frequency in DIO + EGCG group. Moreover, EGCG treatment altered diurnally oscillating expression pattern of key appetite-regulating genes, including AGRP, POMC, and CART, and key circadian genes Clock and Bmal1 in hypothalamus of DIO mice, indicating its central effect on feeding regulation. Our study demonstrates that EGCG supplement specifically counteracts daytime overeating induced by HFD in mice, suggesting its central role in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  12. Effect of weight loss on the postprandial response to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, J; Gruson, E; Dallinga-Thie, G; Pigeyre, M; Gomila, S; Romon, M

    2007-06-01

    To assess the effect of weight loss on the plasma lipid and remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLPc) response to a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate meal in a population of obese women. Nutritional intervention study. Sixteen obese women (mean body mass index (BMI): 37.6+/-5 kg/m(2)). Subjects were asked to follow an energy-restricted diet (800 kcal/day) for 7 weeks, followed by a 1-week maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, each participant was given (in random order) two iso-energetic meals containing either 80% fat and 20% protein (the high-fat meal) or 80% carbohydrate and 20% protein (the high-carbohydrate meal). Blood samples were collected over the following 10-h period. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess the effect of the meal and postprandial time on biological variables and postprandial responses (notably RLPc levels). Weight loss was associated with a significant decrease in fasting triglyceride (P=0.0102), cholesterol (Pfat meal was less intense after weight reduction than before (interaction Pcarbohydrate meal was biphasic (i.e. with two peaks, 1 and 6 h after carbohydrate intake). After adjustment on baseline values, weight reduction was associated with a trend towards a reduction in the magnitude of the second triglyceride peak (interaction Ploss, again after adjustment on baseline levels. Our data suggest that weight loss preferentially affects postprandial triglyceride metabolism.

  13. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

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    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  15. High fat diet alters lactation outcomes: possible involvement of inflammatory and serotonergic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Hernandez

    Full Text Available Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Feeding of HFD diet resulted in increased pup weights compared to pups from LFD fed animals for 4 d post-partum. Lactation was delayed in mothers on HFD but they began to produce copious milk volumes beginning 2 d post-partum, and milk yield was similar to LFD by day 3. Mammary glands collected from lactating animals on HFD diet, displayed a disrupted morphologies, with very few and small alveoli. Consistently, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of milk protein genes, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and keratin 5 (K5, a luminobasal cell marker in the mammary glands of HFD lactating animals. Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin (5-HT biosynthesis, and the 5-HT(7 receptor (HTR7, which regulates mammary gland involution, were significantly increased in mammary glands of HFD animals. Additionally, we saw elevation of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α. These results indicate that consumption of HFD impairs mammary parenchymal tissue and impedes its ability to synthesize and secrete milk, possibly through an increase in 5-HT production within the mammary gland leading to an inflammatory process.

  16. Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Saturated Fats Is High while Dietary Fiber Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Campirano, Fabricio; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was carried out in 2012. Information from the survey is used to design and evaluate food and nutrition policies in Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy and macronutrients in the Mexican population by using the ENSANUT 2012. Twenty-four-hour recall interviews were administered to a nationally representative subsample of 10,096 individuals aged ≥1 y from the ENSANUT 2012. Usual intake distributions and the prevalence of inadequate intakes were estimated by using the Iowa State University method. Student's t tests and tests on the equality of proportions were used to compare usual intakes and prevalence of inadequacy across socioeconomic status, area (rural or urban), and region of residence (North, Center, or South). Energy and macronutrient intakes and indicators of dietary adequacy are presented for children (ages 1-4 y and 5-11 y), adolescents (12-19 y), and adults (≥20 y). At the national level, the estimated mean fiber intake was below the Adequate Intake for all population subgroups, suggesting inadequacies. The estimated proportion with a usual added sugars intake of >10% of total energy intake was >64% in all age groups. The proportion with a usual saturated fat intake of >10% of total energy intake was estimated to be >78% in children, >66% in adolescents, and >50% in adults. Overall, fiber intake was lower and intakes of saturated fat and added sugars were higher in urban compared with rural areas, in the North compared with South regions, and among those with high compared with low socioeconomic status (P 50% of the Mexican population aged ≥1 y. These results highlight the importance of improving the diets of the overall population to reduce the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. High-fat diet-induced plasma protein and liver changes in obese rats can be attenuated by melatonin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Klosen, Paul; Pannengpetch, Supitcha; Kitidee, Kuntida; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm

    2017-06-01

    Obesity triggers changes in protein expression in various organs that might participate in the pathogenesis of obesity. Melatonin has been reported to prevent or attenuate such pathological protein changes in several chronic diseases. However, such melatonin effects on plasma proteins have not yet been studied in an obesity model. Using a proteomic approach, we investigated the effect of melatonin on plasma protein profiles after rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We hypothesized that melatonin would attenuate abnormal protein expression in obese rats. After 10weeks of the HFD, animals displayed increased body weight and fat accumulation as well as increased glucose levels, indicating an obesity-induced prediabetes mellitus-like state. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry revealed 12 proteins whose expression was altered in response to the HFD and the melatonin treatment. The altered proteins are related to the development of liver pathology, such as cirrhosis (α1-antiproteinase), thrombosis (fibrinogen, plasminogen), and inflammation (mannose-binding protein A, complement C4, complement factor B), contributing to liver steatosis or hepatic cell death. Melatonin treatment most probably reduced the severity of the HFD-induced obesity by reducing the amplitude of HFD-induced plasma protein changes. In conclusion, we identified several potential biomarkers associated with the progression of obesity and its complications, such as liver damage. Furthermore, our findings reveal melatonin's beneficial effect of attenuating plasma protein changes and liver pathogenesis in obese rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-fructose diet is as detrimental as high-fat diet in the induction of insulin resistance and diabetes mediated by hepatic/pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, M; Raji, L; Prabhu, D; Sathishkumar, C; Prabu, P; Mohan, V; Balasubramanyam, M

    2016-12-01

    In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet. Investigations include oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, histopathology by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining, mRNA expression by real-time PCR, protein expression by Western blot, and caspase-3 activity by colorimetry. Rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets became glucose intolerant, insulin-resistant, and dyslipidemic. Compared to control animals, rats subjected to different combination of fat/fructose diets showed increased mRNA and protein expression of a battery of ER stress markers both in pancreas and liver. Transcription factors of β-cell function (INSIG1, SREBP1c and PDX1) as well as hepatic gluconeogenesis (FOXO1 and PEPCK) were adversely affected in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. The convergence of chronic ER stress towards apoptosis in pancreas/liver was also indicated by increased levels of CHOP mRNA & increased activity of both JNK and Caspase-3 in rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets. Our study exposes the experimental support in that high-fructose diet is equally detrimental in causing metabolic disorders.

  19. High-Fat and Fat-Enriched Diets Impair the Benefits of Moderate Physical Training in the Aorta and the Heart in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Rodrigues Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AimMillions of people die each year due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. A Western lifestyle not only fuses a significant intake of fat with physical inactivity and obesity but also promotes CVD. Recent evidence suggests that dietary fat intake impairs the benefits of physical training. We investigated whether aerobic training could reverse the adverse effects of a high-fat diet (HFD on the aorta. Then, we explored whether this type of exercise could reverse the damage to the heart that is imposed by fat-enriched diet (FED.MethodsRats were randomly assigned to two experiments, which lasted 8 weeks each. First, rats swam for 60 min and were fed either a regular diet [standard diet (STD] or an HFD. After aortic samples had been collected, the rats underwent a histopathological analysis for different biomarkers. Another experiment subjected rats that were fed either an STD or an FED to swimming for 20 or 90 min.ResultsThe first experiment revealed that rats that were subjected to an HFD-endured increased oxidative damage in the aorta that exercises could not counteract. Together with increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression, an HFD in combination with physical training increased the number of macrophages. A reduction in collagen fibers with an increased number of positive α-actin cells and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 occurred concomitantly. Upon analyzing the second experiment, we found that physically training rats that were given an FED for 90 min/day decreased the cardiac adipose tissue density, although it did not protect the heart from fat-induced oxidative damage. Even though the physical training lowered cholesterol levels that were promoted by the FED, the levels were still higher than those in the animals that were given an STD. Feeding rats an FED impaired the swimming protocol’s effects on lowering triglyceride concentration. Additionally, exercise was unable to reverse the fat-induced deregulation in hepatic

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cheng, Jingjing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Chen, Li [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui 230001 (China); Li, Chaofei; Chen, Guanjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Gui, Li [The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Shen, Bing [Department of Physiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Zhang, Qiu [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

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    Jennifher Góngora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies’ larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species’ fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds.

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  3. Long-term high-fat diet induces pancreatic injuries via pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress in rats with hyperlipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Mingxian; Li Yanqing; Meng Min; Ren Hongbo; Kou Yi

    2006-01-01

    Relations between hyperlipidemia and chronic pancreatitis remain unclear. Microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress are involved in pathogeneses of a high numbers of diseases. The objective of this study was to induce hyperlipidemia in rats by long-term high-fat diet intake, then investigate the biochemical, microcirculatory, and histological alterations in blood and pancreatic tissues of these animals, and discuss their potential significances. Pancreatic blood flow was detected by intravital microscope; malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in pancreatic tissues for assessment of oxidative stress and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. The results showed that the velocity of pancreatic microvascular blood flow of rats with hyperlipidemia decreased significantly as compared to control value (p = 0.008). Pancreatic MDA content increased whereas SOD activity decreased in these rats (p = 0.022; p = 0.039, respectively). Histologically, microvesicles in acinar and islet cells, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondrion and modified vascular endothelial cells were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, α-SMA expression was up-regulated significantly (p < 0.05). These results suggest that long-term high-fat diet can induce chronic pancreatic injuries which could be considered as 'nonalcoholic fatty pancreatic disease', and pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress may play an important part in the underlying pathogenesis

  4. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriani, Dita; Meliala, Andreanyta; Agustiningsih, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leptin and estrogen are the hormone that has an important function in energy homeostasis through anorexic effects on the central nervous system. Leptin and estrogen action can decrease food intake, increases energy expenditure and thermogenesis. However, the administration of long-term high-fat diet can lead to impaired leptin function. In addition, estrogen deficiency is also considered a risk factor that may increase the occurrence of obesity in menopause. Objective: This st...

  5. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  6. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  7. A high fat diet alters metabolic and bioenergetic function in the brain: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Raider, Kayla; Ma, Delin; Harris, Janna L.; Fuentes, Isabella; Rogers, Robert S.; Wheatley, Joshua L.; Geiger, Paige C.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M.; Stanford, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic effects can lead to neurological dysfunction and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite these risks, the effects of a high-fat diet on the central nervous system are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of high fat consumption on brain regions affected by AD and PD, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure neurochemicals in ...

  8. IGF-1 Alleviates High Fat Diet-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Insulin Signaling and Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingmei; Yuan, Ming; Bradley, Katherine M.; Dong, Feng; Anversa, Piero; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with reduced plasma IGF-1 levels, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of IGF-1 on high fat diet-induced oxidative, myocardial, geometric and mitochondrial responses. FVB and cardiomyocyte-specific IGF-1 overexpression transgenic mice were fed a low (10%) or high fat (45%) diet to induce obesity. High fat diet feeding led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma levels of leptin, interleukin-6, insulin and triglyceride as well as reduced circulating IGF-1 levels. Echocardiography revealed reduced fractional shortening, increased end systolic and diastolic diameter, increased wall thickness, and cardiac hypertrophy in high fat-fed FVB mice. High fat diet promoted ROS generation, apoptosis, protein and mitochondrial damage, reduced ATP content, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, contractile and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation, including depressed peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, and dampened intracellular Ca2+ rise and clearance. Western blot analysis revealed disrupted phosphorylation of insulin receptor, post-receptor signaling molecules IRS-1 (tyrosine/serine phosphorylation), Akt, GSK3β, Foxo3a, mTOR, as well as downregulated expression of mitochondrial proteins PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and UCP-2. Intriguingly, IGF-1 mitigated high fat diet feeding-induced alterations in ROS, protein and mitochondrial damage, ATP content, apoptosis, myocardial contraction, intracellular Ca2+ handling and insulin signaling, but not whole body glucose intolerance and cardiac hypertrophy. Exogenous IGF-1 treatment also alleviated high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. Our data revealed that IGF-1 alleviates high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction despite persistent cardiac remodeling, possibly due to preserved cell survival, mitochondrial function and insulin signaling. PMID:22275536

  9. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet con...

  10. Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Chiu

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response.The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B.Fifty-three phenotype B men and postmenopausal women consumed a baseline diet (55%E carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 30%E fat, 8%E saturated fat for 3 weeks, after which they were randomized to either a moderate carbohydrate, very high saturated fat diet (HSF; 39%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 36%E fat, 18%E saturated fat or low saturated fat diet (LSF; 37%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 37%E fat, 9%E saturated fat for 3 weeks.Compared to the LSF diet, consumption of the HSF diet resulted in significantly greater increases from baseline (% change; 95% CI in plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B (HSF vs. LSF: 9.5; 3.6 to 15.7 vs. -6.8; -11.7 to -1.76; p = 0.0003 and medium (8.8; -1.3 to 20.0 vs. -7.3; -15.7 to 2.0; p = 0.03, small (6.1; -10.3 to 25.6 vs. -20.8; -32.8 to -6.7; p = 0.02, and total LDL (3.6; -3.2 to 11.0 vs. -7.9; -13.9 to -1.5; p = 0.03 particles, with no differences in change of large and very small LDL concentrations. As expected, total-cholesterol (11.0; 6.5 to 15.7 vs. -5.7; -9.4 to -1.8; p<0.0001 and LDL-cholesterol (16.7; 7.9 to 26.2 vs. -8.7; -15.4 to -1.4; p = 0.0001 also increased with increased saturated fat intake.Because medium and small LDL particles are more highly associated with cardiovascular disease than are larger LDL, the present results suggest that very high saturated fat intake may

  11. Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sally; Williams, Paul T; Krauss, Ronald M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response. The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B). Fifty-three phenotype B men and postmenopausal women consumed a baseline diet (55%E carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 30%E fat, 8%E saturated fat) for 3 weeks, after which they were randomized to either a moderate carbohydrate, very high saturated fat diet (HSF; 39%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 36%E fat, 18%E saturated fat) or low saturated fat diet (LSF; 37%E carbohydrate, 25%E protein, 37%E fat, 9%E saturated fat) for 3 weeks. Compared to the LSF diet, consumption of the HSF diet resulted in significantly greater increases from baseline (% change; 95% CI) in plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B (HSF vs. LSF: 9.5; 3.6 to 15.7 vs. -6.8; -11.7 to -1.76; p = 0.0003) and medium (8.8; -1.3 to 20.0 vs. -7.3; -15.7 to 2.0; p = 0.03), small (6.1; -10.3 to 25.6 vs. -20.8; -32.8 to -6.7; p = 0.02), and total LDL (3.6; -3.2 to 11.0 vs. -7.9; -13.9 to -1.5; p = 0.03) particles, with no differences in change of large and very small LDL concentrations. As expected, total-cholesterol (11.0; 6.5 to 15.7 vs. -5.7; -9.4 to -1.8; pvs. -8.7; -15.4 to -1.4; p = 0.0001) also increased with increased saturated fat intake. Because medium and small LDL particles are more highly associated with cardiovascular disease than are larger LDL, the present results suggest that very high saturated fat intake may increase cardiovascular disease risk in phenotype B

  12. Effect of Regular Exercise on the Histochemical Changes of d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Renal Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Jin; Suk Kim, Jung; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Renal lipid accumulation exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a high-fat diet (HFD) would accelerate d-galactose-induced aging process in rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of regular exercise on the obese- and oxidative stress-related renal disease. Oxidative stress was induced by an administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally injected) for 9 weeks, and d-galactose-treated rats were also fed with a high-fat diet (60% kcal as fat) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. We investigated the efficacy of regular exercise in reducing renal injury by analyzing Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxygluanine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. When rats were fed with a HFD for 9 weeks in d-galactose-treated rats, an increased CML accumulation, oxidative DNA damage and renal podocyte loss were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, the regular exercise restored all these renal changes in HFD plus d-galactose-treated rats. Our data suggested that long-term HFD may accelerate the deposition of lipoxidation adducts and oxidative renal injury in d-galactose-treated rats. The regular exercise protects against obese- and oxidative stress-related renal injury by inhibiting this lipoxidation burden

  13. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of Kudingcha Nanoparticles in Hyperlipidaemic Rats Induced by a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The herbal medicine Kudingcha has a bitter taste and low bioavailability for lipid reduction. To improve the bioavailability and ameliorate the compliance, we prepared Kudingcha nanoparticles and investigated their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, the safety and lipid-lowering mechanism of the Kudingcha nanoparticles were examined. Methods: Kudingcha nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation and spray-drying. Seventy rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: a normal fat diet group (NF, a high-fat group (HF, a spontaneous recovery group (SR, a Kudingcha group (KDC, a blank nanoparticle group (B-N, and a Kudingcha nanoparticle groups (low, medium and high doses. All groups (except for the normal fat diet group were fed a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidaemia. Different interventions were administered to the treatment groups for four weeks. Serum lipids were measured using commercially available kits according to the recommended protocols. Liver morphology and histopathology were examined by a light microscope. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 and NF-κB were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, acute toxicity was evaluated by the LD50 test. Results: The Kudingcha nanoparticles were spherical and had a smooth surface. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was 100-600 nm. Acute toxicity results revealed that the Kudingcha nanoparticles were a non-toxic substance. Compared with regular Kudingcha, TG and TC decreased distinctly in the Kudingcha nanoparticles, especially for the moderate and high dose groups (p<0.05. Moreover, the Kudingcha nanoparticles were superior in lowering body, liver and adipose tissue weights compared to Kudingcha (p<0.05. With respect to antioxidant properties, the nanoparticles also revealed an outstanding impact on serum SOD and MDA. In addition, liver morphology and histology in the moderate and high dose nanoparticle groups were

  15. Effect of Saffron on Metabolic Profile and Retina in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, Evangelos K; Tzani, Aspasia; Doulamis, Ilias P; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Laskarina-Maria, Korou; Agrogiannis, Georgios; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Moschos, Marilita M; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Perrea, Despina N

    2017-09-22

    Saffron is a spice that has been traditionally used as a regimen for a variety of diseases due to its potent antioxidant attributes. It is well documented that impaired systemic oxidative status is firmly associated with diverse adverse effects including retinal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of saffron administration against the retinal damage in apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, since they constitute a designated experimental model susceptible to oxidative stress. Twenty-one mice were allocated into three groups: Group A (control, n = 7 c57bl/6 mice) received standard chow diet; Group B (high-fat, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet; and Group C (high-fat and saffron, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet and saffron (25 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water. The duration of the study was 20 weeks. Lipidemic profile, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total oxidative capacity (PerOX) were measured in blood serum. Histological analysis of retina was also conducted. Administration of saffron resulted in enhanced glycemic control and preservation of retinal thickness when compared with apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet. The outcomes of the study suggest the potential protective role of saffron against retinal damage induced by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, verification of these results in humans is required before any definite conclusions can be drawn.

  16. A high fat diet alters metabolic and bioenergetic function in the brain: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raider, Kayla; Ma, Delin; Harris, Janna L; Fuentes, Isabella; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Geiger, Paige C; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M; Stanford, John A

    2016-07-01

    Diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic effects can lead to neurological dysfunction and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite these risks, the effects of a high-fat diet on the central nervous system are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of high fat consumption on brain regions affected by AD and PD, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure neurochemicals in the hippocampus and striatum of rats fed a high fat diet vs. normal low fat chow. We detected lower concentrations of total creatine (tCr) and a lower glutamate-to-glutamine ratio in the hippocampus of high fat rats. Additional effects observed in the hippocampus of high fat rats included higher N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid (NAAG), and lower myo-inositol (mIns) and serine (Ser) concentrations. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed lower phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) in the striatum but not in the hippocampus of high fat rats. Hippocampal pAMPK levels correlated significantly with tCr, aspartate (Asp), phosphoethanolamine (PE), and taurine (Tau), indicating beneficial effects of AMPK activation on brain metabolic and energetic function, membrane turnover, and edema. A negative correlation between pAMPK and glucose (Glc) indicates a detrimental effect of brain Glc on cellular energy response. Overall, these changes indicate alterations in neurotransmission and in metabolic and bioenergetic function in the hippocampus and in the striatum of rats fed a high fat diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fat-free muscle mass in magnetic resonance imaging predicts acute-on-chronic liver failure and survival in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praktiknjo, Michael; Book, Marius; Luetkens, Julian

    2018-01-01

    of sarcopenia using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in decompensated cirrhotic patients with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). METHODS: The total erector spinae muscle area and the intramuscular fat tissue area were measured and subtracted to calculate the fat-free muscle area (FFMA) in 116...... in a validation cohort of 45 patients. RESULTS: FFMA correlated with follistatin and TPMT and showed slightly better association with survival than TPMT. Gender-specific cut-off values for FFMA were determined for sarcopenia. Decompensation (ascites, overt hepatic encephalopathy) persisted after TIPS...... in the sarcopenia group but resolved in the non-sarcopenia group. Sarcopenic patients showed no clinical improvement after TIPS as well as higher mortality, mainly due to development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). FFMA was an independent predictor of survival in these patients. CONCLUSION: This study...

  18. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (Pwhey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pwhey group (Pwhey compared to casein (Pwhey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  19. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  20. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  1. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D.; Al Houayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. Methods We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16?weeks) a group of ...

  2. Utility and reliability of non-invasive muscle function tests in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; McLennan, Susan V; Ban, Linda A; Morsch, Marco; Twigg, Stephen M; Tam, Charmaine S

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-invasive muscle function tests have not been validated for use in the study of muscle performance in high-fat-fed mice. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that grip strength, hang wire and four-limb hanging tests are able to discriminate the muscle performance between chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice at different time points, with grip strength being reliable after 5, 10 and 20 weeks of dietary intervention. Non-invasive tests are commonly used for assessing muscle function in animal models. The value of these tests in obesity, a condition where muscle strength is reduced, is unclear. We investigated the utility of three non-invasive muscle function tests, namely grip strength (GS), hang wire (HW) and four-limb hanging (FLH), in C57BL/6 mice fed chow (chow group, n = 48) or a high-fat diet (HFD group, n = 48) for 20 weeks. Muscle function tests were performed at 5, 10 and 20 weeks. After 10 and 20 weeks, HFD mice had significantly reduced GS (in newtons; mean ± SD: 10 weeks chow, 1.89 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.79 ± 0.1; 20 weeks chow, 1.99 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.75 ± 0.1), FLH [in seconds per gram body weight; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 2552 (1337-4964) and HFD, 1230 (749-1994); 20 weeks chow, 2048 (765-3864) and HFD, 1036 (717-1855)] and HW reaches [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 4 (2-5) and HFD, 2 (1-3); 20 weeks chow, 3 (1-5) and HFD, 1 (0-2)] and higher falls [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 0 (0-2) and HFD, 3 (1-7); 20 weeks chow, 1 (0-4) and HFD, 8 (5-10)]. Grip strength was reliable in both dietary groups [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.5-0.8; P tests are valuable and reliable tools for assessment of muscle strength and function in high-fat-fed mice. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  3. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a 2-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a high-fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower-fat diet in sedentary nonlean men. Six participants (healthy males; 18-40 years old; body mass index, 25-37 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar energy content (approximately 6695 kJ) in randomized order with a 10-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both 2-week diet sessions. Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher after the high-fat diet (210.8 ± 27.9 μmol/L) than after a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μmol/L; P = .026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. These results demonstrate that healthy nonlean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  5. Increased Hypothalamic Inflammation Associated with the Susceptibility to Obesity in Rats Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been implicated in the hypothalamic leptin and insulin resistance resulting defective food intake during high fat diet period. To investigate hypothalamic inflammation in dietary induced obesity (DIO and obesity resistant (DIO-R rats, we established rat models of DIO and DIO-R by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Then we switched half of DIO and DIO-R rats to chow food and the other half to high fat diet for the following 8 weeks to explore hypothalamic inflammation response to the low fat diet intervention. Body weight, caloric intake, HOMA-IR, as well as the mRNA expression of hypothalamic TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in DIO/HF rats were significantly increased compared to DIO-R/HF and CF rats, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression was lower in both DIO/HF and DIO-R/HF rats compared with CF rats. Switching to chow food from high fat diet reduced the body weight and improved insulin sensitivity but not affecting the expressions of studied inflammatory genes in DIO rats. Take together, upregulated hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the overeating and development of obesity susceptibility induced by high fat diet. Switching to chow food had limited role in correcting hypothalamic inflammation in DIO rats during the intervention period.

  6. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allick, Gideon; Bisschop, Peter H; Ackermans, Mariette T; Endert, Erik; Meijer, Alfred J; Kuipers, Folkert; Sauerwein, Hans P; Romijn, Johannes A

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients with type 2 diabetes using stable isotopes and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. At basal insulin levels glucose concentrations were 148 +/- 11 and 123 +/- 11 mg/dl (8.2 +/- 0.6 and 6.8 +/- 0.6 mmol/liter) on the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet, respectively (P carbohydrate diet (1.88 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.55 +/- 0.05 mg/kg.min (10.44 +/- 0.33 vs. 8.61 +/- 0.28 micromol/kg.min) (P carbohydrate and high-fat diet, respectively. We conclude that short-term variations in dietary carbohydrate to fat ratios affect basal glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes merely through modulation of the rate of glycogenolysis, without affecting insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  7. Effects of low-stearate palm oil and high-stearate lard high-fat diets on rat liver lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.; Heemskerk, M.M.; van den Berg, S.A.; van Riel, N.A.; Nicolaij, K.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Prompers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excess consumption of energy-dense, high-fat Western diets contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as fatty liver disease. However, not only the quantity but also the composition of dietary fat may play a role in the development of liver steatosis.

  8. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and sub...

  9. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  10. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  11. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. → NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. → Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPARγ coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  12. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  13. Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: from high-fat diets to healthful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Matthew D; Greenwood, Carol E

    2007-10-01

    Human epidemiologic studies provide convincing evidence that dietary patterns practiced during adulthood are important contributors to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. Diets high in fat, especially trans and saturated fats, adversely affect cognition, while those high in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish are associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of dementia. While the precise physiologic mechanisms underlying these dietary influences are not completely understood, modulation of brain insulin activity and neuroinflammation likely contribute. Not surprisingly, deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Special care in food selection at meals should be exercised by those with T2DM since ingestion of rapidly absorbed, high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods further impairs medial temporal lobe function, with food-induced increases in oxidative stress and cytokine release likely explaining the association between food ingestion and reduction in cognitive function in those with T2DM.

  14. Daily Stressors, Past Depression, and Metabolic Responses to High-Fat Meals: A Novel Path to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Habash, Diane L.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Andridge, Rebecca; Peng, Juan; Malarkey, William B.; Belury, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and stress promote obesity. This study addressed the impact of daily stressors and a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on obesity-related metabolic responses to high-fat meals. Methods This double-blind, randomized crossover study included serial assessments of resting energy expenditure (REE), fat and carbohydrate oxidation, triglycerides, cortisol, insulin and glucose before and after two high-fat meals. During two separate 9.5 hour admissions, 58 healthy women (38 breast cancer survivors and 20 demographically-similar controls), mean age 53.1 years, received either a high saturated fat meal or a high oleic sunflower oil meal. Prior day stressors were assessed by the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events and MDD history by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results Greater numbers of stressors were associated with lower post-meal REE (P=.008), lower fat oxidation (P=.04), and higher insulin (P=.01), with nonsignificant effects for cortisol (P=.25) and glucose (P=.33). Women with prior MDD had higher cortisol (P=.008), and higher fat oxidation (P=.004), without significant effects for REE (P=.26), insulin (P=.25), and glucose (P=.38). Women with a depression history who also had more prior day stressors had a higher peak triglyceride response than other participants (P=.01). The only difference between meals was higher postprandial glucose following sunflower oil compared to saturated fat (P=.03). Conclusions The cumulative 6-hour difference between one prior day stressor and no stressors translates into 104 kcal, a difference that could add almost 11 pounds/year. These findings illustrate how stress and depression alter metabolic responses to high-fat meals in ways that promote obesity. PMID:25034950

  15. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  16. Effect of myostatin depletion on weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis during five months of high-fat feeding in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Burgess

    Full Text Available The marked hypermuscularity in mice with constitutive myostatin deficiency reduces fat accumulation and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat feeding, but it is unclear whether the smaller increase in muscle mass caused by postdevelopmental loss of myostatin activity has beneficial metabolic effects during high-fat feeding. We therefore examined how postdevelopmental myostatin knockout influenced effects of high-fat feeding. Male mice with ubiquitous expression of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase were fed tamoxifen for 2 weeks at 4 months of age. This depleted myostatin in mice with floxed myostatin genes, but not in control mice with normal myostatin genes. Some mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% of energy for 22 weeks, starting 2 weeks after cessation of tamoxifen feeding. Myostatin depletion increased skeletal muscle mass ∼30%. Hypermuscular mice had ∼50% less weight gain than control mice over the first 8 weeks of high-fat feeding. During the subsequent 3 months of high-fat feeding, additional weight gain was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice. After 5 months of high-fat feeding, the mass of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat pads was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice even though myostatin depletion reduced the weight gain attributable to the high-fat diet (mean weight with high-fat diet minus mean weight with low-fat diet: 19.9 g in control mice, 14.1 g in myostatin-deficient mice. Myostatin depletion did not alter fasting blood glucose levels after 3 or 5 months of high-fat feeding, but reduced glucose levels measured 90 min after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Myostatin depletion also attenuated hepatic steatosis and accumulation of fat in muscle tissue. We conclude that blocking myostatin signaling after maturity can attenuate some of the adverse effects of a high-fat diet.

  17. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi

    2004-01-01

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24±19.03 cm 2 and 32.55±11.91 cm 2 , respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48±74.43 mm 2 /kg/m 2 in the IPF patients and 137.06±41.76 mm 2 /kg/m 2 in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The hypertrophy of mediastinal and extrapleural

  18. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24{+-}19.03 cm{sup 2} and 32.55{+-}11.91 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48{+-}74.43 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in the IPF patients and 137.06{+-}41.76 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The

  19. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men. The Ohtori study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men. (author)

  20. Imidacloprid Promotes High Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Quancai; Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Yoon, Kyoon Sup; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-12-14

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in agriculture worldwide, has been reported to promote adipogenesis and cause insulin resistance in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and its interaction with dietary fat in the development of adiposity and insulin resistance using male C57BL/6J mice. Imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) was mixed in a low-fat (4% w/w) or high-fat (20% w/w) diet and given to mice ad libitum for 12 weeks. Imidacloprid significantly promoted high fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. In addition, imidacloprid treatment with the high fat diet resulted in impaired glucose metabolism. Consistently, there were significant effects of imidacloprid on genes regulating lipid and glucose metabolisms, including the AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) pathway in white adipose tissue and liver. These results suggest that imidacloprid may potentiate high fat diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice.

  1. Effect of high fat diet on pulmonary expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and its downstream targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Learta Oruqaj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP is involved in lung development and surfactant production. The latter one requires a paracrine interaction between type II alveolar cells and lipofibroblasts in which leptin triggers PTHrP-induced effects. Whether increased plasma leptin levels, as they occur in high fat diet, modify the expression of PTHrP remains unclear. Furthermore, the effect of high fat diet under conditions of forced pulmonary remodelling such as response to post myocardial infarction remains to be defined. Materials and methods: C57 bl/6 mice were randomized to either normal diet or high fat diet at an age of 6 weeks. Seven months later, the mice were euthanized and the lung was removed and frozen in fluid nitrogen until use. Samples were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. Leptin deficient mice were used to investigate the effect of leptin on pulmonary expression of PTHrP more directly. A subgroup of mice with and without high fat diet underwent in vivo ischemia (45 min and reperfusion (4 weeks. Finally, experiments were repeated with prolonged high-fat diet. Key findings: High fat diet increased plasma leptin levels by 30.4% and the pulmonary mRNA expression of PTHrP (1,447-fold, PTH-1 receptor (4.21-fold, and PTHrP-downstream targets ADRP (7.54-fold and PPARγ (5.27-fold. Pulmonary PTHrP expression was reduced in leptin deficient mice by 88% indicating leptin dependent regulation. High fat diet further improved changes in pulmonary adaptation caused by ischemia/reperfusion (1.48-fold increased PTH-1 receptor protein expression. These effects were lost during prolonged high fat diet. Significance: This study established that physiological regulation of leptin plasma levels by high fat diet affects the pulmonary PTHrP expression and of PTHrP downstream targets. Modification of pulmonary expression of PTH-1 receptors by high fat diet after myocardial infarction suggests that the identified interaction may

  2. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Han, Xiuqing; Dong, Ping; Li, Zhaojie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Changhu; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-21

    Obesity has become a worldwide concern in recent years, which may cause many diseases. Much attention has been paid to food components that are considered to be beneficial in preventing chronic metabolic diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of sea cucumber saponin liposomes on certain metabolic markers associated with obesity. C57/BL6 mice fed with high-fat diet were treated with different forms of sea cucumber saponins for eight weeks. The results showed that liposomes exhibited better effects on anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemia activities than the common form of sea cucumber saponins. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes could also effectively alleviate adipose tissue inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine releases and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, sea cucumber saponin liposomes improved insulin resistance by altering the uptake and utilization of glucose. Taken together, our results indicated that the intake of sea cucumber saponin liposomes might be able to ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

  3. Bee Venom Suppresses the Differentiation of Preadipocytes and High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Se-Yun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Roh, Seong-Soo; Cha, Yun-Yeop; An, Hyo-Jin

    2017-12-24

    Bee venom (BV) has been widely used in the treatment of certain immune-related diseases. It has been used for pain relief and in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Despite its extensive use, there is little documented evidence to demonstrate its medicinal utility against obesity. In this study, we demonstrated the inhibitory effects of BV on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and on a high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model through the inhibition of adipogenesis. BV inhibited lipid accumulation, visualized by Oil Red O staining, without cytotoxicity in the 3T3-L1 cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a HFD or a control diet for 8 weeks, and BV (0.1 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) or saline was injected during the last 4 weeks. BV-treated mice showed a reduced body weight gain. BV was shown to inhibit adipogenesis by downregulating the expression of the transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. BV induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the cell line and in obese mice. These findings demonstrate that BV mediates anti-obesity/differentiation effects by suppressing obesity-related transcription factors.

  4. Effects of angiotensin (1-7 on nephrosis of the mice with metabolic syndrome induced by high-salt and high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan ZHU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To establish a metabolic syndrome model of C57BL/6 mice by high-salt and high-fat diet, and investigate the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2 and angiotensin (1-7 on renal damage in mice. Methods Fifty-six male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 7 groups (8 each, and fed with normal diet (0.3% NaCl, 10% fat, high-salt diet (8% NaCl, 10% fat, high-fat diet (0.3% NaCl, 60%