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Sample records for chronic helminth infections

  1. Chronic helminth infection does not exacerbate Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

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    Marc P Hübner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infections induce a Th2 immune shift and establish an immunoregulatory milieu. As both of these responses can suppress Th1 immunity, which is necessary for control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection, we hypothesized that chronic helminth infections may exacerbate the course of MTB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Co-infection studies were conducted in cotton rats as they are the natural host for the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and are an excellent model for human MTB. Immunogical responses, histological studies, and quantitative mycobacterial cultures were assessed two months after MTB challenge in cotton rats with and without chronic L. sigmodontis infection. Spleen cell proliferation and interferon gamma production in response to purified protein derivative were similar between co-infected and MTB-only infected animals. In contrast to our hypothesis, MTB loads and occurrence and size of lung granulomas were not increased in co-infected animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that chronic filaria infections do not exacerbate MTB infection in the cotton rat model. While these results suggest that filaria eradication programs may not facilitate MTB control, they indicate that it may be possible to develop worm-derived therapies for autoimmune diseases that do not substantially increase the risk for infections.

  2. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients.

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    Fernando Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection.A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain. Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood, and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae.Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1% patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5% patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021.We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of

  3. Pronounced phenotype in activated regulatory T cells during a chronic helminth infection.

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    Layland, Laura E; Mages, Jörg; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Hoerauf, Achim; Wagner, Hermann; Lang, Roland; da Costa, Clarissa U Prazeres

    2010-01-15

    Although several markers have been associated with the characterization of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their function, no studies have investigated the dynamics of their phenotype during infection. Since the necessity of Tregs to control immunopathology has been demonstrated, we used the chronic helminth infection model Schistosoma mansoni to address the impact on the Treg gene repertoire. Before gene expression profiling, we first studied the localization and Ag-specific suppressive nature of classically defined Tregs during infection. The presence of Foxp3+ cells was predominantly found in the periphery of granulomas and isolated CD4+CD25(hi)Foxp3+ Tregs from infected mice and blocked IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokine secretion from infected CD4+CD25- effector T cells. Furthermore, the gene expression patterns of Tregs and effector T cells showed that 474 genes were significantly regulated during schistosomiasis. After k-means clustering, we identified genes exclusively regulated in all four populations, including Foxp3, CD103, GITR, OX40, and CTLA-4--classic Treg markers. During infection, however, several nonclassical genes were upregulated solely within the Treg population, such as Slpi, Gzmb, Mt1, Fabp5, Nfil3, Socs2, Gpr177, and Klrg1. Using RT-PCR, we confirmed aspects of the microarray data and also showed that the expression profile of Tregs from S. mansoni-infected mice is simultaneously unique and comparable with Tregs derived from other infections.

  4. Evaluation of Allergy Effector Cell Function: Suppression of Basophils in Chronic Helminth Infections

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    2011-01-01

    basophils are probably best known for their participation in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, some studies have suggested...had Schistosoma mansoni infections were then sensitized to Penicillin V. When mice in these groups were challenged with Pen V, body temperature was... hypersensitivity reactions, reduced basophil functionality could be one way helminth infection protects against allergic disease. 2. Determine the

  5. Chronic helminth infections may negatively influence immunity against tuberculosis and other diseases of public health importance

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    Elias, Daniel; Britton, Sven; Kassu, Afework

    2007-01-01

    , studies conducted in animals and humans living in worm-endemic areas have shown that helminths impair resistance against a number of infections of major public health importance, including TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Understanding such interactions could assist in the design of vaccines against...

  6. Helminth infections and intestinal inflammation

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    Li Jian Wang; Yue Cao; Hai Ning Shi

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates an inverse correlation between the incidence of certain immune-mediated diseases,including inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD),and exposure to helminths.Helminth parasites are the classic inducers of Th2 responses.The Th2-polarized T cell response driven by helminth infection has been linked to the attenuation of some damaging Th1 driven inflammatory responses,preventing some Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases in the host,including experimentally induced colitis.Helminth parasites(the porcine whipworm,Trichurissuis)have been tested for treating IBD patients,resulting in clinical amelioration of the disease.As a result,there is a great deal of interest in the research community in exploring the therapeutic use of helminth parasites for the control of immune-mediated diseases,including IBD.However,recent studies have provided evidence indicating the exacerbating effects of helminths on bacterial as well as non-infectious colitis in animal models.Therefore,a better understanding of mechanisms by which helminths modulate host immune responses in the gut may reveal novel,more effective and safer approaches to helminth-based therapy of IBD.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  7. Helminth infections and allergies in Ghana

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    Amoah, Abena Serwaa

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a global rise in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic disorders. Several epidemiological studies conducted in countries endemic for parasitic worms (helminths) have reported an inverse association between the presence of helminth infections and allergic d

  8. Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon.

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    Mara Jana Broadhurst

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity. Here, we show that exposure of affected animals to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura led to clinical improvement in fecal consistency, accompanied by weight gain, in four out of the five treated monkeys. By flow cytometry analysis of pinch biopsies collected during colonoscopies before and after treatment, we found an induction of a mucosal T(H2 response following helminth treatment that was associated with a decrease in activated CD4(+ Ki67+ cells. In parallel, expression profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays and real-time PCR analysis revealed reductions in T(H1-type inflammatory gene expression and increased expression of genes associated with IgE signaling, mast cell activation, eosinophil recruitment, alternative activation of macrophages, and worm expulsion. By quantifying bacterial 16S rRNA in pinch biopsies using real-time PCR analysis, we found reduced bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucosa post-treatment. Finally, deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA revealed changes to the composition of microbial communities attached to the intestinal mucosa following helminth treatment. Thus, the genus Streptophyta of the phylum Cyanobacteria was vastly increased in abundance in three out of five ICD monkeys relative to healthy controls, but was reduced to control levels post-treatment; by contrast, the phylum Tenericutes was expanded post-treatment. These findings suggest that helminth treatment in primates can ameliorate colitis by restoring mucosal barrier functions and reducing overall bacterial attachment, and also by altering the communities of attached bacteria. These results also define ICD in monkeys as a tractable preclinical model for ulcerative colitis in which these effects can be further investigated.

  9. Relationship between carotid intima media thickness and helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia

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    Wiria, A.E.; Wammes, L.J.; Hamid, F.; Dekkers, O.M.; Prasetyani, M.A.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Tamsma, J.T.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between helminth infections and atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infection, which can lead to poor nutritional status and anti-inflammatory response, might protect against the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was perf

  10. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

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    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  11. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Its Inconvenient Truths about Helminth Infections.

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    Briggs, Neima; Weatherhead, Jill; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  12. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

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    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection.

  13. Immunity against Helminths: Interactions with the Host and the Intercurrent Infections

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    Emmanuelle Moreau

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms against tissue-dwelling helminths and helminths localized in the lumen of organs, and their regulation, are reviewed. Helminth infections are characterized by an association of Th2-like and Treg responses. Worms are able to persist in the host and are mainly responsible for chronic infection despite a strong immune response developed by the parasitized host. Two types of protection against the parasite, namely, premune and partial immunities, have been described. Immune responses against helminths can also participate in pathogenesis. Th2/Treg-like immunomodulation allows the survival of both host and parasite by controlling immunopathologic disorders and parasite persistence. Consequences of the modified Th2-like responses on co-infection, vaccination, and inflammatory diseases are discussed.

  14. [Modulation of inflammatory cells in helminth infections].

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    Bruschi, F

    1997-01-01

    In this review, different mechanisms by which helminthic parasites modulate the activities of inflammatory cells are considered. Examples are presented of parasitic products interfering with lymphocytes and their products such as antibodies, then modifying both regulation and effector response of the immune system. Furthermore, examples of interference on the complement system are illustrated. Parasites such as Ancylostoma caninum produce factors such as the neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) capable of inhibiting the neutrophil-endothelium adhesion, whereas Trichinella spiralis produces a glycoprotein, the 45gp, which inhibits different neutrophil functions. Parasites are also able to modulate the function of the monocytes-macrophages which in some infections play a crucial role; the modulation of NO synthesis is also relevant to the host-parasite relationship. Finally, the different anti-oxidant systems of helminthic parasites are described. The comprehension of such evasion mechanisms of the immune response is necessary to develop vaccines and new drugs, but it is also useful to clarify the contribution of parasites to immune system evolution.

  15. [The co-occurence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp. and helminth infections in small rodent populations].

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    Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Kuliś, Karolina; Siński, Edward

    2004-01-01

    During long-term (1998-2000) studies on rodent parasite populations in Mazury lake district there were collected and analyzed data on co-occurrence of intestinal protozoa (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp.) and helminths. There were performed 178 autopsies of common vole Microtus arvalis, 85 autopsies of yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis and 386 autopsies of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. Positive effect of helminth infections was found in C. glareolus. Voles infected with nematode Heligmosomum mixtum showed higher prevalence of C. parvum and Giardia spp. than voles infected with Heligmosomoides glareoli. The host age took part in these interactions and positive effect of co-occurrence was mainly observed in voles older than 3 months. The other intrinsic (host sex) or extrinsic (season and year of study) factors influenced interactions between parasites. Presented results revealed that helminth infections may facilitate chronic infections of intestinal protozoa in rodent populations.

  16. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection

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    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.

  17. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

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    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  18. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

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    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  19. Helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.

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    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Kuhn, Raymond E; Herbert, De'Broski R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. Here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm Taenia crassiceps or the roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of S. pneumoniae (A66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imaging and lung titers. This predisposition to pneumonia appears to be specific to S. pneumoniae, as worm-infected mice did not show evidence of increased morbidity when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus or sublethal doses of Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The defect was also present when worm-infected mice were challenged with a type 2 sepsis-causing strain (D39); an increased rate of pneumonia, decreased survival, and increased lung and blood titers were found. Pneumococcal colonization and immunity against acute otitis media were unaffected. Anti-helminthic treatment in the H. polygyrus model reversed this susceptibility. We conclude that helminth coinfection predisposes mice to fatal pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting increased outgrowth of bacteria in the lungs and blood. These data have broad implications for the prevention and treatment for pneumonia in the developing world, where helminth infections are endemic and pneumococcal pneumonia is common.

  20. Acquired immune heterogeneity and its sources in human helminth infection.

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    Bourke, C D; Maizels, R M; Mutapi, F

    2011-02-01

    Similarities in the immunobiology of different parasitic worm infections indicate that co-evolution of humans and helminths has shaped a common anti-helminth immune response. However, recent in vitro and immuno-epidemiological studies highlight fundamental differences and plasticity within host-helminth interactions. The 'trade-off' between immunity and immunopathology inherent in host immune responses occurs on a background of genetic polymorphism, variable exposure patterns and infection history. For the parasite, variation in life-cycle and antigen expression can influence the effector responses directed against them. This is particularly apparent when comparing gastrointestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths. Furthermore, insights into the impact of anti-helminthic treatment and co-infection on acquired immunity suggest that immune heterogeneity arises not from hosts and parasites in isolation, but also from the environment in which immune responses develop. Large-scale differences observed in the epidemiology of human helminthiases are a product of complex host-parasite-environment interactions which, given potential for exposure to parasite antigens in utero, can arise even before a parasite interacts with its human host. This review summarizes key differences identified in human acquired immune responses to nematode and trematode infections of public health importance and explores the factors contributing to these variations.

  1. Ear infection - chronic

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    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  2. Protozoan and helminth infections in pregnancy. Short-term and long-term implications of transmission of infection from mother to foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eskild

    2007-01-01

    studies the impaired immune response was present as much as two decades after birth. Data from chronic viral infections like Rubella, cytomegalovirus and hepatitis B also show that congenital or perinatal infections may result in a life-long inability to control the infections. Studies of both helminth...

  3. Granulocytes in helminth infection -- who is calling the shots?

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    Makepeace, B L; Martin, C; Turner, J D; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as "worms" due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host's immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections.

  4. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan, RL; Smith, JL; Jasrasaria, R; Brooker, SJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use di...

  5. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...

  6. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

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    AO Egwunyenga

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.

  7. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes.

  8. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

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    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  9. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

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    Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework; Legesse, Mengistu;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. METHOD...

  10. Malaria and helminth co-infections in school and preschool children

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    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem...... particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania....

  11. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of β-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  12. Role of Macrophages in the Repair Process during the Tissue Migrating and Resident Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz-López, Berenice

    2016-01-01

    The Th1/Th2/Th17 balance is a fundamental feature in the regulation of the inflammatory microenvironment during helminth infections, and an imbalance in this paradigm greatly contributes to inflammatory disorders. In some cases of helminthiasis, an initial Th1 response could occur during the early phases of infection (acute), followed by a Th2 response that prevails in chronic infections. During the late phase of infection, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are important to counteract the inflammation caused by the Th1/Th17 response and larval migration, limiting damage and repairing the tissue affected. Macrophages are the archetype of phagocytic cells, with the primary role of pathogen destruction and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, other subtypes of macrophages have been described with important roles in tissue repair and immune regulation. These types of macrophages challenge the classical view of macrophages activated by an inflammatory response. The role of these subtypes of macrophages during helminthiasis is a controversial topic in immunoparasitology. Here, we analyze some of the studies regarding the role of AAMs in tissue repair during the tissue migration of helminths. PMID:27648452

  13. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

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    Gordana Panic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.

  14. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  15. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  16. Epidemiological study of the association between malaria and helminth infections in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Olawale, Temitope; Stensvold, Christen Rune;

    2015-01-01

    period. At the end, all pupils submitted a stool sample for microscopic investigation for helminth eggs. We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one attack of malaria (cases) and children with no malaria episodes during...

  17. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infec

  18. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  19. Effects of Azadirachta indica on Sheep Infected Naturally with Helminthes

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    F. R. Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica on natural helminthes infection in lambs. Forty, four-month-old entire Santa Ines lambs were grazed on pasture, over a 20 week period. They were divided into 4 treatments: Without drenching (ND, 3 g A. indica/animal (A3, 6 g A. indica/animal (A6 and 9 g A. indica/animal (A9 over 5 consecutive days, with an interval of 25 days between drenchings. Faeces were collected weekly and lamb weight and blood collection were carried out fortnightly. Four weeks after the last drenching all lambs were slaughtered, and worm burdens calculated. No significant differences were observed for lamb performance between treatments. Blood parameters highlighted the progress of the worm infections, with sheep on treatments A6 and A9 ending the experiment showing anemia. There was an increase in the total number of worms associated with increasing levels of neem, especially due to the increase in number of H. contortus in detriment to the number of T. colubriformis for highest levels of neem (A6 and A9. The increasing doses of neem did not improve the control of endoparasites in sheep naturally infected.

  20. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

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    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  1. Levels of helminth infection in the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus from north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C H; Ávila, R W; Passos, D C; Zanchi-Silva, D; Galdino, C A B

    2016-11-01

    Parasites represent a great, unknown component of animal biodiversity. Recent efforts have begun to uncover patterns of infection by helminth parasites in several Neotropical lizards. The present study reports, for the first time, levels of helminth infection in a population of the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus. One hundred and thirty-nine lizards were examined and evidence of five intestinal helminth species was found, comprising four species of nematodes, one species of cestode and an unidentified encysted larval nematode. The most frequently occurring species was the intestinal nematode Parapharyngodon alvarengai, which did not exhibit differences in prevalence and intensity of infection relative to host sex or age/body size. Furthermore, helminth species richness was not related to host body size.

  2. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Janssen, Saskia; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Methodology and principle findings Pregnant females (n = 980) were recruited from health centres in rural and peri-urban locations in the central and eastern provinces of Rwanda. Helminth infection was diagnosed using the Kato Katz method whilst the presence of Plasmodium falciparum was identified from blood smears. The prevalence of helminth infections was 34.3%; of malaria 13.3%, and of co-infections 6.6%. Helminth infections were more common in rural (43.1%) than peri-urban (18.0%; p<0.0005) sites. A CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm3 was associated with a higher risk of helminth infections (odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CIs, 2.16–5.33; p<0.0005) and malaria (3.37 [2.11–5.38]; p<0.0005) whilst helminth infection was a risk factor for malaria infection and vice versa. Education and employment reduced the risk of all types of infection whilst hand washing protected against helminth infection (0.29 [0.19–0.46]; p<0.0005);). The TDF-3TC-NVP (3.47 [2.21–5.45]; p<0.0005), D4T-3TC-NVP (2.47 [1.27–4.80]; p<0.05) and AZT-NVP (2.60 [1.33–5.08]; p<0.05) regimens each yielded higher helminth infection rates than the AZT-3TC-NVP regimen. Anti-retroviral therapy had no effect on the risk of malaria. Conclusion/significance HIV-positive pregnant women would benefit from the scaling up of de-worming programs alongside health education and hygiene interventions. The differential effect of certain ART combinations (as observed here most strongly with AZT-3TC-NVP) possibly protecting against helminth infection warrants further

  3. Risk factors for helminth, malaria, and HIV infection in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda.

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    Patrick William Woodburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for both mother and baby. Assessment of risk factors for infections informs planning of interventions and analysis of the impact of infections on health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To describe risk factors for helminths, malaria and HIV in pregnant Ugandan women before intervention in a trial of de-worming in pregnancy. METHODS: The trial recruited 2,507 pregnant women between April 2003 and November 2005. Participants were interviewed and blood and stool samples obtained; location of residence at enrolment was mapped. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and other risk factors were modelled using logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of helminth, malaria and HIV infection, as previously reported. All helminths and malaria parasitemia were more common in younger women, and education was protective against every infection. Place of birth and/or tribe affected all helminths in a pattern consistent with the geographical distribution of helminth infections in Uganda. Four different geohelminths (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris and Trichostrongylus showed a downwards trend in prevalence during the enrolment period. There was a negative association between hookworm and HIV, and between hookworm and low CD4 count among HIV-positive women. Locally, high prevalence of schistosomiasis and HIV occurred in lakeshore communities. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for helminths, malaria and HIV need to target young women both in and out of school. Antenatal interventions for malaria and HIV infection must continue to be promoted. Women originating from a high risk area for a helminth infection remain at high risk after migration to a lower-risk area, and vice versa, but overall, geohelminths seem to be becoming less common in this population. High risk populations, such as fishing communities, require directed effort against schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

  4. Effects of albendazole on the clinical outcome and immunological responses in helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients: a double blind randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, E; Elias, D; Getachew, A; Alemu, S; Diro, E; Britton, S; Aseffa, A; Stendahl, O; Schön, T

    2015-02-01

    Despite several review papers and experimental studies concerning the impact of chronic helminth infection on tuberculosis in recent years, there is a scarcity of data from clinical field studies in highly endemic areas for these diseases. We believe this is the first randomised clinical trial investigating the impact of albendazole treatment on the clinical and immunological outcomes of helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albendazole (400mg per day for 3 days) in helminth-positive tuberculosis patients was conducted in Gondar, Ethiopia. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (ΔTB score) after 2 months. Among secondary outcomes were changes in the levels of eosinophils, CD4+ T cells, regulatory T cells, IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-10 after 3 months. A total of 140 helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients were included with an HIV co-infection rate of 22.8%. There was no significant effect on the primary outcome (ΔTB score: 5.6±2.9 for albendazole versus 5.9±2.5 for placebo, P=0.59). The albendazole-treated group showed a decline in eosinophil cells (P=0.001) and IL-10 (P=0.017) after 3 months. In an exploratory analysis after 12 weeks, the albendazole treated group showed a trend towards weight gain compared with the placebo group (11.2±8.5 kg versus 8.2±8.7 kg, P=0.08)). The reductions in eosinophil counts and IL-10 show that asymptomatic helminth infection significantly affects host immunity during tuberculosis and can be effectively reversed by albendazole treatment. The clinical effects of helminth infection on chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis merit further characterisation.

  5. Progress in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Global health has substantially improved over the past 20 years. In low- and middle-income countries, in particular, great strives have been made in the control of communicable diseases, including helminth infections. Nevertheless, the most marginalised communities still suffer from infectious diseases that are intimately connected with poverty and lack of access to essential commodities and services, such as clean water, improved sanitation and sufficient food. A two-pronged approach is thus necessary: (i) intensifying control in remaining high-endemicity areas and pockets of high transmission; and (ii) moving from morbidity control to interruption of disease transmission in low-endemicity areas with the goal of local elimination. The latter will require new tools and strategies, going hand-in-hand with strong partnerships and new strategic alliances. In this special issue of Acta Tropica, 35 articles are featured that, together, provide an up-to-date overview of the latest progress made in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in East and Southeast Asia. The first 12 articles expound tools and approaches for improved detection, surveillance and monitoring of helminth infections. Control and elimination approaches for the most important helminth infections are revisited in the next 20 articles. The three remaining articles are cross-cutting pieces examining the interface of agriculture, environment and helminth infections and providing a rationale for integrated, multi-sectorial control approaches that are necessary for sustaining helminthiasis control and progressively moving towards elimination. An interesting aspect revealed through an in-depth analysis of the provenance of the 35 contributions is that the People's Republic of China emerges as a key player in global health, which is documented through its prominent role in research and control of helminth infection and networking throughout Asia. Policy implications are discussed and will

  6. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Lell, B.; Ariawan, I.; Uh, H.W.; Wibowo, H.; Djuardi, Y.; Wahyuni, S.; Sutanto, I.; May, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Sartono, E.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Supali, T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infect

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alamneh Abera; Endalkachew Nibret

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren inTilili town, northwestEthiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving385 schoolchildren was conducted betweenNovember2011 toFebruary2012.Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method.Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors.Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique.Data were analyzed usingSPSS16.0 statistical software.Results:Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of44.2%(170 of385 schoolchildren).The predominant parasites wereAscaris lumbricoides(A. lumbricoides)153(39.7%) andTrichuris trichiura(T. trichiura)30(7.8%).One hundred thirty five(35.1%) had single infectionsand35(9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which32(8.4%) were double infections and3(0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables.Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly(P<0.05).Conclusions: intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area.

  8. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

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    A. W. Wekesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.

  9. Multivariate spatially-structured variability of ovine helminth infections

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    Annibale Biggeri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 2004-2005 in the Campania region, southern Italy, to study the multivariate geographical distribution of four different sheep helminths, i.e. Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke, Calicophoron (Paramphistomum daubneyi (rumen fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (lancet fluke, and the gastrointestinal strongyle Haemonchus contortus. A series of multivariate Bayesian hierarchical models based on square root transformation of faecal egg counts were performed. The results were consistent with theoretical knowledge of the biology and epidemiology of the four studied helminths. In particular, the impact of common intermediate hosts (F. hepatica and C. daubneyi share the same intermediate host species was quantified and evidence of previously unknown ecological components was given. D. dendriticum was correlated to F. hepatica and H. contortus was found not to be spatially associated with the previously mentioned helminths.

  10. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Nausch; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Nicholas Midzi; Takafira Mduluza; Francisca Mutapi

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Understanding how immune responses are generated is critical for vaccine development. There are comparatively few studies on the interface between the innate and adaptive immune system in generating protective immune responses. Infections with helminth parasites, a cause of neglected tropical diseases, have a huge collective impact on public health in affected developing countries. Helminths are associated with a complex type 2 immune response mediated by cytokines characterist...

  11. INFECTION RATE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF VARIOUS HELMINTHS IN GOATS IN AND AROUND LAHORE

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    M. IJAZ, M. S. KHAN, M. AVAIS, K. ASHRAF1, M. M. ALI AND SAIMA2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to find out the infection rate of gastrointestinal tract (GIT helminths and its association with diarrhoea in goats in Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, 300 faecal samples from goats suffering from diarrhoea presented at the Outdoor Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UVAS Lahore and various private as well as government hospitals located in Lahore were examined coprologically for the presence of helminths. The result revealed that an overall infection rate of GIT helminths was 63.33% in goats. When compared the class wise infection rate, highest infection rate of nematodes (42.67% was observed, followed by trematodes (16.67% and cestodes (4%. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was observed to be 62, 96 and 98% at day 3, 7 and 14 of treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was higher than Albendazole (46, 83 and 94% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. Lowest efficacy of garlic powder against helminth parasites was observed (13, 28 and 34% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. It was concluded that Ricobendazole is the most effective drugs against helminths in goats.

  12. Coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or

  13. Prevalence and clinical relevance of helminth co-infections among tuberculosis patients in urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hella, Jerry; Said, Khadija; Kamwela, Lujeko; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Maroa, Thomas; Chiryamkubi, Magreth; Mhalu, Grace; Schindler, Christian; Reither, Klaus; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Background Helminth infections can negatively affect the immunologic host control, which may increase the risk of progression from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease and alter the clinical presentation of TB. We assessed the prevalence and determined the clinical relevance of helminth co-infection among TB patients and household contact controls in urban Tanzania. Methodology Between November 2013 and October 2015, we enrolled adult (≥18 years) sputum smear-positive TB patients and household contact controls without TB during an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We used Baermann, FLOTAC, Kato-Katz, point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen, and urine filtration to diagnose helminth infections. Multivariable logistic regression models with and without random effects for households were used to assess for associations between helminth infection and TB. Principal findings A total of 597 TB patients and 375 household contact controls were included. The median age was 33 years and 60.2% (585/972) were men. The prevalence of any helminth infection among TB patients was 31.8% (190/597) and 25.9% (97/375) among controls. Strongyloides stercoralis was the predominant helminth species (16.6%, 161), followed by hookworm (9.0%, 87) and Schistosoma mansoni (5.7%, 55). An infection with any helminth was not associated with TB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.80, p = 0.22), but S. mansoni infection was (aOR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.03–4.45, p = 0.040). Moreover, S. mansoni infection was associated with lower sputum bacterial load (aOR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.38–5.26, p = 0.004) and tended to have fewer lung cavitations (aOR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.12–1.16, p = 0.088). Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni infection was an independent risk factor for active TB and altered the clinical presentation in TB patients. These findings suggest a role for schistosomiasis in modulating the pathogenesis of human TB

  14. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  15. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

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    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  16. Cross-sectional survey on helminth infections of chickens in the Samsun region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, M; Acici, M

    2008-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%).

  17. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  18. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    OpenAIRE

    L. Makepeace, B.; Martin, C; D. Turner, J.; Specht, S.

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen...

  19. Helminth Infections in Rattus ratus and Rattus norvigicus in Tehran, Iran.

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    Meral Meshkekar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in Rattus rodents in Tehran Iran.Overall, 306 traps were put in 39 different regions in Tehran from 2009 to 2010. Rodents, including R. rattus and R. norvegicus were caught by live-traps. They become unconscious and the spinal cords were cut, afterwards the body was dissected and the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and cecum were studied separately. The dominant type and the prevalence rate of parasites in the rodents were determined based on the infected parts of their body.After recognition of the helminthes' types, among the 120 total number of rodents, 39 belonged to males, while among the infected rodents, 57(47.5% were female and 18(15% were male. The prevalence of infection in Tehran was 62.5%. Seventy cases (58.33% of helminth infections were observed in R. rattus and 5 cases (4.16% were observed in R. norvegicus. The maximum prevalence (15.5% was seen in the center and east part of Tehran, while the minimum (9.16% was in the north part of the city. The helminthes types and the corresponding percentages were Hymenolepis nana fraterna (35.8%, Heterakis spumosa (17.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (7.5% and Capillaria annulosa (1.6%. The dominant rodent was Rattus rattus and among the identified helminthes, Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana fraterna are zoonotic ones.The information presented here improves our understanding of the major parasitic infections that rodents harbor and can transmit to human and animal populations in Iran. To prevent infectivity of human, the hazard of the identified zoonotic species needs to be contemplated.

  20. Human helminth co-infection: analysis of spatial patterns and risk factors in a Brazilian community.

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    Rachel L Pullan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1% and/or S. mansoni (50.3% infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by

  1. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the oc

  2. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  3. THE IMPORTANCE AND INCIDENCE OF FOOD BORN HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN MAN, IN IRAN

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    H.A. Neshat

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of helminth parasite, which is quite prevalent in Iran, can infect man by the oral route. The main sources of infections are meat, vegetables and water. Some of these parasites, e.g. Cysticercus bovis, C. cellulose, Trichinella spairalis and Anisakis larvae, are present in the tissue of food animal. Human infection establish by consuming raw or inadequately cooked pork, beef or fish. The infective stages of some helminths, e.g. Trichostrongylus spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura, Fasciola spp. Dicrocelium dendriticum and Dracuncwlus medinensis may infect man through vegetable and drinking water. Using human and animal manure as fertilizer of the soil, facilitate the transmission of these parasites to man. Contaminated food materials can pay also a role in, human hydatidosis. Hygiene is a key factor in the control of all conditions and both medical and veterinary professions have an important function in this field.

  4. Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Parakkal Jovvian George

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB. However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity in TB is not known.We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB with or without Ss infection.Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection.Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease.

  5. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management...... and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16...... access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when...

  6. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections, multiparasitism and risk factors in Champasack province, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Somphou Sayasone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detailed investigations of multiparasitism are scarce in the Mekong River basin. We assessed helminth (trematode, nematode, and cestode, and intestinal protozoa infections, and multiparasitism in random population samples from three different eco-epidemiological settings in Champasack province, southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, and determined underlying risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Two stool samples were collected from 669 individuals aged ≥ 6 months over consecutive days and examined for helminth infections using the Kato-Katz method. Additionally, one stool sample per person was subjected to a formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for hepato-biliary and intestinal parasitic infections and multiparasitism were determined using multiple logistic regressions analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MULTIPLE SPECIES INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS WERE COMMON: 86.6% of the study participants harbored at least two and up to seven different parasites concurrently. Regarding nematode infections, hookworm was the most prevalent species (76.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (31.7% and Trichuris trichiura (25.0%. Regarding trematodes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma mekongi infections were found in 64.3% and 24.2% of the participants, respectively. Infections with intestinal protozoa were rare. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a pressing need to intensify and sustain helminth control interventions in the southern part of Lao PDR. Given the high prevalence with nematode and trematode infections and the extent of multiparasitism, preventive chemotherapy is warranted. This intervention should be coupled with health education and improved access to clean water and adequate sanitation to consolidate morbidity

  7. An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa

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    Karanja Peris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of

  8. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

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    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  9. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections.

  10. Urban/rural differences in prevalence and risk factors for intestinal helminth infection in southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, K; Whitty, C J; Graham, S M; Ssembatya-Lule, G

    2000-06-01

    Urbanization may increase the risk of human infection with intestinal helminths. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence, intensity and potential risk factors of acquiring such infection, among children aged 3-14 years in similar urban and rural communities in southern Malawi. Stool samples were collected from 553 children (273 urban and 280 rural). The overall prevalence of helminth infection was significantly higher in the urban subjects than in the rural (16.5% v. 3.6%; P urban community was associated with a significantly higher risk of infection [odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.6-12.1], even after controlling for potential confounding factors. In the urban community, risk factors included having pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.4-6.5), not wearing shoes (OR = 7.1; CI = 2.7-19.2), not attending school (OR = 2.8; CI = 1.2-6.5), having mothers with 4-8 years of education (OR = 5.2; CI = 2.0-14.0), and having mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09; CI = 1.39-16.28). In this part of Africa, efforts to reduce helminth infections may best be focused on reducing geohelminth burden in urban areas.

  11. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Stephanie A. Amici; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Lindsay M Webb; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity o...

  12. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  13. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (Pmice compared to subadults (Pmice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths.

  14. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

  15. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  16. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell proportions are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by curative anti-helminthic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Nausch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium.In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6-9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels.This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis.

  17. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan Rachel L; Brooker Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookwo...

  18. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  19. The effects of local medicinal knowledge and hygiene on helminth infections in an Amazonian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susan; Chuquimia-Choque, Maria E; Huanca, Tomás; McDade, Thomas W; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Social science has long recognized the importance of understanding how interactions between culture and behavior shape disease patterns, especially in resource-poor areas where individuals draw on multiple medical treatments to maintain health. While global health programs aimed at controlling high infection rates of soil-transmitted helminthes among indigenous groups often acknowledge the value of local culture, little research has been able to examine this value. This study investigates the association between parental ethnomedical knowledge, parental biomedical knowledge, and household sanitation behavior and childhood soil-transmitted helminth infections among a group of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). During 2007, a parasitological survey was completed for 329 children (≤ 16 years of age) from 109 households in combination with a comprehensive survey of both of the child's parents to assess biomedical and ethnomedical knowledge and household sanitary environment. Soil-transmitted helminthes were found to be common with 67% of sample positive for hookworm species. Indices that capture a household's relative state of risky and preventive hygienic behavior were significantly associated with risk of hookworm infection. Mother's but not father's ethnomedical knowledge was also negatively associated with a child's probability of being positive for hookworm infection. The effect was stronger for young children and boys. Like many rural populations, Tsimane' actively draw upon multiple medical systems to respond to health challenges. Integration into markets and national societies is likely to affect local medical systems by increasing the use of biomedicine as formal education prioritizes biomedical over ethnomedical systems. This study underscores the value of considering both ethnomedical knowledge systems and household hygiene in public health campaigns to treat and control soil-transmitted helminths. There is no question that providing

  20. Helminth infections, allergic disorders and immune responses : studies in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Sitti

    2006-01-01

    The studies present in this thesis fall into two broad areas: the first focusing on filarial infection, Ig (immunoglobulin)E levels and risk factors for infection, while the second deals with the possible associations between nematode infection and allergy. Compared to ELISA, RAST is superior in det

  1. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

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    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  2. Mapping and modelling helminth infections in ruminants in Europe: experience from GLOWORM

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    Laura Rinaldi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and modelling helminth infections in cattle and sheep in Europe through advanced geospatial research was one of the main task of GLOWORM, a three year project (2012-2014 funded under the European Commission’s (EC seventh framework programme (FP7. Liver flukes as Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus were chosen for the project since these parasites constitute a major cause of lost productivity in small and large ruminants. The output of the GLOWORM project delivered guidelines for standardized and harmonized cross-sectional surveys of helminth parasites in ruminants allowing the development of updated prevalence maps and multi-scale, spatial models for the European area.

  3. Counter-regulatory anti-parasite cytokine responses during concurrent Plasmodium yoelii and intestinal helminth infections in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical areas. While concomitant infection is common, mechanisms contributing to altered disease outcomes during co-infection remain poorly defined. We have previously reported exacerbation of normally non-lethal ...

  4. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere.

  5. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

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    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  6. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  7. Conceptual framework for analysing farm-specific economic effects of helminth infections in ruminants and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Mariska; Charlier, Johannes; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Meensel, Jef

    2013-05-01

    Helminth infections are considered to be an important constraint on livestock productivity worldwide. The economic impact of these infections or their control strategies has traditionally been assessed by their effect on animal performance indicators or traditional economic calculation methods (e.g. budgeting and cost-benefit analysis). Because the impact of helminth infections has become more subtle and is farm-specific, one needs more refined economic evaluations of actions meant to increase or maintain the health of livestock on individual farms. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary framework that combines the developments in the veterinary control of helminth infections with economic performance measurements to identify farm-specific and profitable anthelmintic management decisions. Our framework positions individual farms' performance against performance benchmarks and is based on the farms' efficiency in transforming input(s) into output(s). We show how this positioning makes it possible to establish a linkage between input and output transformation, helminth infection levels and effects of control strategies. Furthermore, the framework allows for the identification of improvement paths that are not necessarily related to the helminth infection, but which may lead to other management improvements. We discuss the epidemiological information required and which complementary methods (e.g. efficiency analysis and budgeting techniques) can be used to make the framework operational.

  8. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

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    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  9. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  10. Helminth infections in British troops following an operation in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M S; Thomas, R; Green, A D; Bailey, J W; Beeching, N J

    2006-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-three British soldiers and 86 Royal Air Force (RAF) personnel were deployed on a hostage rescue operation in Sierra Leone. For 3 days they were exposed to various infection risks and 6 weeks later some of the soldiers presented with gastrointestinal complaints. Both groups were screened with structured questionnaires, blood investigations and (where indicated) faecal microscopy and charcoal culture for helminths. Definite and probable cases of helminth infection were treated with albendazole and all soldiers were screened again after 3 months. Among the soldiers investigated, 73/145 (50%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 70/139 (50%) had eosinophilia. Among these, 17/66 (26%) had hookworm infection, 6/66 (9%) had Strongyloides stercoralis infection and 1/66 (2%) had Giardia lamblia infection. Eosinophilia was most strongly associated with entering the enemy camp and being in the platoon that attacked the area around the camp latrines. Among RAF personnel, who were not involved in activities on the ground, 3/86 (3%) had borderline eosinophilia. Treatment of 105/153 (69%) soldiers with albendazole was well tolerated and, on follow-up screening 3 months later, 23/124 soldiers (19%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 18/121 (15%) had eosinophilia. Faecal investigations and schistosomiasis serology tests were all negative at this stage.

  11. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...

  12. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  13. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  14. The impact of asymptomatic helminth co-infection in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in north-west Ethiopia.

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    Ebba Abate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112, their household contacts (n = 71 and community controls (n = 112 were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. RESULTS: Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3 where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32 at week 0 to 9% (3/32 at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV-/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45 vs. 22.2% (10/45. This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. CONCLUSION: One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV-/TB group.

  15. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China

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    Yi Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S. japonicum, Ascaris (A. lumbricoides and Trichuris (T. trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level, 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%, and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%, respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  16. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  17. Pattern of intestinal helminth infections among school chil-dren in an urban community in Ibadan,Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatiregun AA; Oluwatoba OA

    2008-01-01

    Despite a substantial reduction in the incidence and prevalence of parasitic diseases in the industrialized world, they continue to be an important public health problem in many developing African countries,including Nigeri-a.However,estimates of the prevalence of such infections among school age children,who bear the greatest health burden due to these diseases,are hard to come by.The objective of this study was therefore to deter-mine the prevalence and type of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils.The study was cross-sectional in design.The participants included 266 pupils recruited from three government primary schools in the Mokola area of Ibadan,Nigeria.The pupils were interviewed and their stool samples examined for eggs of common helminths.The mean age of the pupils was 9.8 ±2.6 years,and 128 (48.1%)were males.Nine-teen pupils (7.1%)had intestinal helminth infestations.Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 17 pupils (6. 4%)and was the most prevalent helminth among the children,while Trichuris trichiura was found in only two subjects (0.8%).Previous infestations and the use of public toilets were found to be significantly associated with current infections (P <0.05).This study demonstrated that the prevalence of intestinal infections was low among the pupils studied,and that Ascaris infection was the commonest infestation.

  18. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  19. Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

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    Fürst Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expert opinion-derived disability weights are widely employed for estimating the global burden of diseases and injuries. For chronic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, it has been suggested that a patient-based quality of life (QoL approach should be considered for a more accurate appraisal of disability weights. Methods and Results We carried out a cross-sectional survey and assessed the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as self-rated QoL indicators among 252 students attending grades 5-8 in two schools (Bulangshan and Pu'er in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Each student provided a single stool sample, which was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear readings and a single FLOTAC examination for parasitological diagnosis. Prevalence rates for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were high in Bulangshan (75.9%, 70.0% and 68.2%, while the respective prevalence rates in Pu'er were 66.9%, 56.5% and 9.2%. Students were interviewed with two standardised questionnaires, the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and ShortForm-12 (SF-12 Health Survey. Impairment in any of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D was reported by 87% of the students. However, no clear differences could be observed between individuals with and those without helminth infections, and there were discrepancies between the two schools. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed no differences between students with varying infection status in the domains of the SF-12 (odds ratio close to 1.0. Somewhat more pronounced, yet not statistically significant differences were observed when end-of-school-term marks were compared with students' helminth infection status: infected individuals had lower marks in Chinese, English and mathematics, but not in sports, compared to their helminth-free counterparts. Conclusions Our results point to unresolved issues and challenges

  20. The gastro-intestinal helminth infections of domestic fowl in Dschang, western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpoame, M; Agbede, G

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty one chickens purchased from the Dschang animal market were examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. Ten species were found with the following prevalences: Heterakis brevispiculum (59.3%), Ascaridia galli (51.6%), Hymenolepis carioca (48.4%), Dispharynx spiralis (20.8%), Tetrameres americana (17.1%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (15.1%), Raillietina tetragona (14.5%), Syngamus trachea (13.7%), Hymenolepis cantaniana (5.7%) and Capillaria contorta (2.0%). Infections were predominantly mixed (93.5%). The infection rates were not influenced by host sex except for A. galli which was more prevalent in cocks. Older chickens showed some resistance to A. cuneata and S. trachea. Parasite prevalence and/or worm burdens were generally higher during the rainy season (April to October).

  1. Status of intestinal helminthic infections of borderline residents in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyu; Shen, Chenghua; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Yoon, Hiwon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2006-09-01

    The present authors investigated intestinal parasitic infections among North Korean residents and refugees in China in 2003. The Kato-Katz method was applied to 236 residents and soldiers in a town on the North Korea-China border and to 46 people at a refugee camp in China. Only eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were detected, with egg positive rates of 41.1% and 37.6%, respectively. The total egg positive rate was 55.0% and most of those who were egg positive were only lightly infected. Women of 61.2% and men of 53.1% were egg positive. The refugees from rural areas showed higher egg positive rates than those from urban areas. The present investigation confirmed high prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths in rural borderline areas of North Korea.

  2. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus in the Belgrade area (Serbia: the effect of sex, age and habitat*

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    Kataranovski M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control. Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna. The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7% and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%. Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  3. Hygiene, sanitation and the soil transmitted helminths (STH infection among elementary school students in West Lombok

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    Rahmawati Soeyoko Sri Sumarni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalenses of soil transmitted helminths (STH infection in Lombok are relatively high. It isclosley associated with poor environmetal hygiene, non healthy sanitation status, poverty andimproper health services. The highest prevalences is normally observed in elementary school children.The aim of this study was to evalaute the relationship between hygiene, sanitation and STH infectionamong elementary school children in West Lombok. An observational study with cross-sectionaldesign was performed involving 197 elementary school children in Terong Tawah Village, LabuapiSub District, West Lombok District and 197 children in Ampenan, Mataram City as control. Thestool specimen of the children were collected and processed using Kato-Katz technique. Hygieneand sanitation of each subject that consisted nail hygiene, hand washing, using footwear, latrine,clean water availability, house floor, soil around the house were taken by questionnaire and directobservation. The result showed that the prevalences of STH among elementary school children inTerong Tawah (81.7% was higher than that in Ampenan (12.7%.Trichuris trichiura was thepredominant helminth both in Terong Tawah (36.0% and Ampenan (7.0% followed by A.lumbricoides (20.4% in Terong Tawah and 4.5% in Ampenan. The mix infections between T.trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the children in Terong Tawah (24.4% and Ampenan (1.0%were also found. A significant relationship between hygiene and sanitaion i.e. nail cleaniness, washinghands, contaminated soil around the house and STH infection among elementary school children inTerong Tawah and Ampenan (p<0.05. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship betweenpersonal hygiene, environmental sanitation and STH infections among elementary school children.

  4. Helminthes could influence the outcome of vaccines against TB in the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Akuffo, H; Britton, S

    2006-01-01

    Helminthes, infections widespread in the tropics, are known to elicit a wide range of immunomodulation characterized by dominant Th2 type immune responses, chronic immune activation as well as up-regulated regulatory T cell activity. Such a wide range of immunomodulation caused by helminthes may ...

  5. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN CHILDREN WITH CLINICA L SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

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    Rudramuneswara Swamy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of s oil-transmitted helminths (STH in children aged 1-14 years attending outpati ents and inpatients from both urban and rural background. Out of the 550 stool samples exami ned, 450 were from the study group and 100 from the control group. All the 450 children of the study group presented one or more of the classical symptoms like abdominal pain, low grade fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation and pica. Hundred children from the control group did not have any classical symptoms. Thirty five per cent from the study group and 21 per cent fro m the control group were found positive for one or more of the helminthic infection. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris tr ichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale & Necator americanus (hookworm, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis were 27%, 15%, 0.4%, 2% and 0.22%, respectively in the study g roup and 15%, 10%, 4%, 2%, and 2%, respectively in the control group. Strongyloides ster coralis was not found either in the study or control groups. Helminthic infections were more comm on in 7-9 years of age group, urban children with low socio-economic strata, and with m ale preponderance. Majority of children who harboured STH were suffering from abdominal pain and low grade fever. Total 450 clinical samples (control group examined b y direct wet mount, saturated salt floatation, and formalin-ether sedimentation; and o nly 391 samples examined by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniques. Twenty six per cent posi tive by direct wet mount, 35% by both saturated salt floatation and formalin-ether sedime ntation whereas 38% of the samples were found positive by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniq ue. In conclusion, concentration techniques like saturated salt floatation and forma lin-ether sedimentation are the best diagnostic tools to get authentic and reliable resu lts and to rule out fallacious inference caused by relying only on direct wet mount

  6. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

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    Assoumou Aka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%. Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003. The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the

  7. Helminth infection impairs the immunogenicity of a Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine, but not irradiated sporozoites, in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of an effective vaccine against malaria remains a priority. However, a significant number of individuals living in tropical areas are also likely to be co-infected with helminths, which are known to adversely affect immune responses to a number of different existing vaccines. Here we com...

  8. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

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    Adriana Echazú

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home.Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9. Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7.Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations

  9. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

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    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  10. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

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    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  11. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  12. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  13. Parasitic Infections (Helminth and Protozoa in Cases Referring to Yazd Central Laboratory, 2002-2004

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    AA Dehghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.

  14. Development of fatal intestinal inflammation in MyD88 deficient mice co-infected with helminth and bacterial enteropathogens.

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    Libo Su

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To determine whether and how an intestinal helminth parasite, Heligomosomoides polygyrus, might impact the TLR signaling pathway during the response to a bacterial enteropathogen, MyD88 knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. polygyrus, the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, or both. We found that MyD88 knockout mice co-infected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium developed more severe intestinal inflammation and elevated mortality compared to the wild-type mice. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium, intestinal injury and mortality of the co-infected MyD88 knockout mice were found to be associated with markedly reduced intestinal phagocyte recruitment, decreased expression of the chemoattractant KC, and a significant increase in bacterial translocation. Moreover, the increase in bacterial infection and disease severity were found to be correlated with a significant downregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal tissue in co-infected MyD88 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role for host defense and survival during helminth and enteric bacterial co-infection.

  15. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    -malignant change has taken place. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group 1 carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with cancer of the urinary bladder and the food-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini...... associated with cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. Reducing the level of infection and the risk of getting (re)infected will reduce the risk of cancer development later in life. Helminth infections are thus a preventable cause of cancer, emphasizing the need for sustainable helminth control in endemic areas...

  16. Helminths infecting Mabuya dorsivittata (Lacertilia, Scincidae) from a high-altitude habitat in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    We analysed the helminth fauna associated with the lizard Mabuya dorsivittata (Scincidae) from a high-altitude area in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Of the 16 lizards examined, 12 (75%) were infected by at least one helminth. Only two helminth species were found: Physaloptera retusa and Skrjabinodon spinosulus (Nematoda), the former with a prevalence of 68.8% and a mean infection intensity of 3.6 ± 2.8 and the latter with a prevalence of 56.3% and a mean infection inte...

  17. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

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    Pullan Rachel L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in 2010. Methods A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated. Results High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children lived in areas of unstable

  18. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

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    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  19. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  20. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

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    Miguel Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT, Tuberculin (PPD skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3% took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2% of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028, as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6% of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033. After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7% were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1% became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001, and while 55/126 (43.7% were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7% became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001. A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001. These results show that: a Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  1. Infection and co-infection with helminths and Plasmodium among school children in Cote d'Ivoire: results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Richard B Yapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty, and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d'Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: More

  2. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2-mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Christoph; Harrison, Oliver J; Schmitt, Vanessa; Pelletier, Martin; Spencer, Sean P; Urban, Joseph F; Ploch, Michelle; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Siegel, Richard M; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2016-07-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction.

  3. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis.

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    Agathe Nkouawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3% with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%, 72 (42.8%, and 19 (11.3% persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%, 25 (14.9% and 2 (1.2% of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients without HIV infection in a rural county in P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-09-01

    Although co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites, including protozoa and helminths, in humans has been widely studied globally, very little of this phenomenon is known in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural county of China to investigate such co-infections. Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTB) treatment were surveyed by questionnaires, and their feces and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths, routine blood examination and HIV detection. The χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors. A total of 369 patients with PTB were included and all of them were HIV negative. Overall, only 7.3% of participants were infected with intestinal protozoa, among which prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp. and Trichomonas hominis were 6.0%, 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively; 7.0% were infected with intestinal helminths, among which prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis were 4.3%, 1.9%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively; and 0.5% were simultaneously infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. Among patients with PTB, body mass index (BMI)≤18 (OR=3.30, 95% CI=1.44-7.54) and raised poultry or livestock (e.g., chicken, duck, pig) (OR=3.96, 95% CI=1.32-11.89) were significantly associated with harboring intestinal protozoan infection, while BMI≤18 (OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.39-7.91), anemia (OR=3.40, 95% CI=1.44-8.02) and laboring barefoot in farmlands (OR=4.54, 95% CI=1.88-10.92) were significantly associated with having intestinal helminth infection. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between duration of anti-MTB treatment and infection rates of intestinal parasites including protozoa and helminths. Therefore, preventing malnutrition, avoiding unprotected contact with reservoirs of protozoa, and improving health education for good

  5. Spatial modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Kenya: a disease control planning tool.

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    Rachel L Pullan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implementation of control of parasitic diseases requires accurate, contemporary maps that provide intervention recommendations at policy-relevant spatial scales. To guide control of soil transmitted helminths (STHs, maps are required of the combined prevalence of infection, indicating where this prevalence exceeds an intervention threshold of 20%. Here we present a new approach for mapping the observed prevalence of STHs, using the example of Kenya in 2009. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Observed prevalence data for hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were assembled for 106,370 individuals from 945 cross-sectional surveys undertaken between 1974 and 2009. Ecological and climatic covariates were extracted from high-resolution satellite data and matched to survey locations. Bayesian space-time geostatistical models were developed for each species, and were used to interpolate the probability that infection prevalence exceeded the 20% threshold across the country for both 1989 and 2009. Maps for each species were integrated to estimate combined STH prevalence using the law of total probability and incorporating a correction factor to adjust for associations between species. Population census data were combined with risk models and projected to estimate the population at risk and requiring treatment in 2009. In most areas for 2009, there was high certainty that endemicity was below the 20% threshold, with areas of endemicity ≥ 20% located around the shores of Lake Victoria and on the coast. Comparison of the predicted distributions for 1989 and 2009 show how observed STH prevalence has gradually decreased over time. The model estimated that a total of 2.8 million school-age children live in districts which warrant mass treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bayesian space-time geostatistical models can be used to reliably estimate the combined observed prevalence of STH and suggest that a quarter of Kenya's school-aged children live in

  6. Polyclonal and Specific Antibodies Mediate Protective Immunity against Enteric Helminth Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, Kathy D.; Stoel, Maaike; Stettler, Rebecca; Merky, Patrick; Fink, Katja; Senn, Beatrice M.; Schaer, Corinne; Massacand, Joanna; Oderrnatt, Bernhard; Oettgen, Hans C.; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.; Hengartner, Hans; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-helminth immunity involves CD4(+) T cells, yet the precise effector mechanisms responsible for parasite killing or expulsion remain elusive. We now report an essential role for antibodies in mediating immunity against the enteric helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp), a natural murine parasit

  7. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

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    Santos Fred Luciano Neves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  8. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

    2002-05-01

    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  9. Fingernail biting increase the risk of soil transmitted helminth (STH infection in elementary school children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar  belakang:  Infeksi  cacing  usus  yang  ditularkan melalui tanah  (Soil  Transmitted  Helminth-STH merupakan infeksi tersering dan terbanyak di antara infeksi-infeksi parasit. Kunci pemberantasan kecacingan adalah memperbaiki higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mengidentifikasi faktor risiko yang meningkatkan infeksi STH pada anak sekolah dasar (SD.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan sampel purposif. Penelitian ini dilakukan di  suatu SD di  wilayah kerja  Puskesmas  di Yogyakarta  pada  bulan Oktober  sampai Desember 2009. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan survei tinja dan wawancara. Pemeriksaan tinja menggunakan metode Kato Katz dan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Hasil:  Di antara  211  subjek,  52  (24,6%  murid  mengidap cacingan dan  yang  terbanyak  adalah  Trichusis trihiura, sedangkan cacingan  Ascaris  lumbricoides,  sedangkan infeksi campuran Trichuris  trichiura  dan Hookworm sangat jarang. Risiko tertinggi (2,8 kali lipat terjadi di antara murid yang mempuyai kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari dibandngkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai kebiasan ini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 2,80; 95% interval kepercayaan  (CI = 1,22-4,04]. Subjek yang tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan atau tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun setelah buang air besar mempunyai risiko 2,2 kali terhadap terinfeksi cacingan.Kesimpulan: Kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari, tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan dan tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun  setelah buang  air  besar mempertinggi  risiko infeksi cacingan.  (Health Science Indones 2011;2:81-6.AbstractBackground: Intestinal worm infections transmitted through the soil are the most common infection among parasitic infections. The key to worm eradication is to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation. This study aimed to identify several risk factors related to occurrence of Soil

  10. Nitazoxanide compared with quinfamide and mebendazole in the treatment of helminthic infections and intestinal protozoa in children.

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    Davila-Gutierrez, Cesar E; Vasquez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernandez, Benjamin; Huerta, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of nitazoxanide compared with that of quinfamide, mebendazole, or both in the treatment of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections. A total of 677 stool specimens from children aged 2-12 years living in 3 communities of Colima, México, were analyzed in order to detect the presence of cysts, trophozoites, eggs, or larvae of intestinal protozoa or helminths. A total of 275 infected children were enlisted in a double-blind controlled study and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups: Group A, nitazoxanide (200 mg for 3 days) and Group B, quinfamide (100 mg for 1 day), mebendazole (200 mg for 3 days), or both. A posttreatment fecal examination was conducted on Day 14 from treatment initiation. In Group A (n = 143), the parasitosis eradication rate was superior to that of Group B (n = 132). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).

  11. A slaughter slab survey for extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, H A; Kassuku, A A; Maeda, G E M; Boa, M E; Willingham, A L

    2004-05-01

    A survey on extra-intestinal porcine helminths was conducted at three slaughter slabs that receive pigs from Mbulu, a district endemic for porcine cysticercosis in northern Tanzania. Seventy carcases of pigs between 1 and 2 years old were examined between December 1997 and March 1998. The examination involved ante-mortem lingual examination for Taenia solium cysticercosis followed by post-mortem inspection. In addition, a laboratory procedure was performed to determine whether any of these domestic pigs were infected with Trichinella species. Parasites detected were Ascaris suum (44.3%), Echinococcus granulosus (4.3%) and Taenia hydatigena (1.4%). The lack of cases of porcine cysticercosis in this study compared to previous studies suggests that pig traders are conducting their own ante-mortem lingual examinations before purchasing pigs in the rural communities where the parasite is still highly prevalent. It is concluded that improved meat inspection could prove useful in reducing the local population's risk of infection with these parasites. The results of this study have revealed the parasites of agricultral and public health importance in the targeted communities. Further epidemiological investigations are required to better determine parasite prevalence and impact in order to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for control.

  12. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  13. Helminths infecting Mabuya dorsivittata (Lacertilia, Scincidae) from a high-altitude habitat in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Cunha-Barros, M

    2003-02-01

    We analysed the helminth fauna associated with the lizard Mabuya dorsivittata (Scincidae) from a high-altitude area in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Of the 16 lizards examined, 12 (75%) were infected by at least one helminth. Only two helminth species were found: Physaloptera retusa and Skrjabinodon spinosulus (Nematoda), the former with a prevalence of 68.8% and a mean infection intensity of 3.6 +/- 2.8 and the latter with a prevalence of 56.3% and a mean infection intensity of 2.6 +/- 2.6. The helminth fauna of the studied population of Mabuya dorsivittata was considerably poorer than those of other previously studied populations of congeners.

  14. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes...... originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum...

  15. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

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    Chadukura Vivian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3% while other

  16. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E; Terrazas, César A; Reyes, Jose L; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins.

  17. Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope ( Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C S

    2011-03-01

    The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.

  18. Helminth infections coincident with active pulmonary tuberculosis inhibit mono- and multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in a process dependent on IL-10.

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    Parakkal Jovvian George

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasive helminth infections and tuberculosis (TB are co-endemic in many parts of the world and can trigger immune responses that might antagonize each other. We have previously shown that helminth infections modulate the Th1 and Th17 responses to mycobacterial-antigens in latent TB. To determine whether helminth infections modulate antigen-specific and non-specific immune responses in active pulmonary TB, we examined CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses as well as the systemic (plasma cytokine levels in individuals with pulmonary TB with or without two distinct helminth infections-Wuchereria bancrofti and Strongyloides stercoralis infection. By analyzing the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells and their component subsets (including multifunctional cells, we report a significant diminution in the mycobacterial-specific frequencies of mono- and multi-functional CD4(+ Th1 and (to a lesser extent Th17 cells when concomitant filarial or Strongyloides infection occurs. The impairment in CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell cytokine responses was antigen-specific as polyclonal activated T cell frequencies were equivalent irrespective of helminth infection status. This diminution in T cell responses was also reflected in diminished circulating levels of Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2- and Th17 (IL-17A and IL-17F-associated cytokines. Finally, we demonstrate that for the filarial co-infections at least, this diminished frequency of multifunctional CD4(+ T cell responses was partially dependent on IL-10 as IL-10 blockade significantly increased the frequencies of CD4(+ Th1 cells. Thus, co-existent helminth infection is associated with an IL-10 mediated (for filarial infection profound inhibition of antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell responses as well as protective systemic cytokine responses in active pulmonary TB.

  19. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Cote d'Ivoire.

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    Thomas Schmidlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo

  20. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.

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    Marley, C L; Cook, R; Keatinge, R; Barrett, J; Lampkin, N H

    2003-02-28

    Conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. However, several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches to parasite control. Studies in New Zealand have shown that some alternative forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. In the current study, it was found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). Twelve pure-bred Lleyn male lambs grazed replicated 0.5ha plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass/white clover for 5 weeks. Liveweight and faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined weekly and eight lambs per forage were slaughtered at the end of the trial to determine total helminth intensities. Lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil had a lower FEC on day 7 (P<0.05) and fewer total adult helminths than those grazing the other forages on day 35 (P<0.01). Lambs grazing chicory did not have significantly lower FEC than lambs grazing other forages but these lambs were found to have fewer total adult abomasal helminths than lambs grazing ryegrass/white clover (P<0.001). As the performance of grazing lambs is inversely correlated with the intensity of helminth parasites, these alternative forages could be used to improve the liveweight gain of lambs produced in the UK. Overall, the results support the contention that alternative forages could have a positive role in the control of helminth parasites in sheep, subject to successful agronomic development and integration of these forages into whole farm systems.

  1. The prevalence, intensity and ecological determinants of helminth infection among children in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi.

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    Phiri, K S

    2001-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation and poor town planning in Malawi has been associated with poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, intensity and some potential risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children aged 3 - 14 years in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi. A randomised cross-sectional survey was conducted in July, 1998. Data were collected through questionnaire interview regarding socio-demographic and environmental conditions from households in both areas. Stool samples were collected from 273 children in the urban community and 280 in the rural. There was a significant difference (purban and rural communities, 16.5% and 3.6% respectively. Most of the infections were light (93.2% for Ascaris lumbricodes, 85.7% for hookworm). Large variance to mean ratios of egg intensity within age groups and the total study population suggested a high degree of aggregation of the parasites in the communities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that certain groups of children in the urban community were much more likely to develop helminth infection. They included children who had pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 ñ 6.5), did not wear shoes (OR a 7.1, 95% CI = 2.7 - 19.2), did not attend school (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 ñ 6.5), had mothers who had 4 to 8 years of education (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 2.0 - 14.0), had mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.39 - 16.28) and living in an urban community (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.6 - 12.1). Efforts to reduce helminth infections should focus on reducing exposures.

  2. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird, Mus musculus (House Mice and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster: A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

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    Zabiholah ZAREI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran.Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites.Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8 %, Capillaria hepatica (18.1%, Syphacia frederici (14.2%, Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%, Trichuris rhombomidis (2%, Heligmosomom sp. (2%, Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%, Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%; Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6% Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3% tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%, Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%, Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%, Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%, and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%.Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health.

  3. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird), Mus musculus (House Mice) and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster): A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

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    ZAREI, Zabiholah; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; HEIDARI, Zahra; DAVOODI, Jaber; SHABESTARI, Afshin; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites. Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8%), Capillaria hepatica (18.1%), Syphacia frederici (14.2%), Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%), Trichuris rhombomidis (2%), Heligmosomom sp. (2%), Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%), Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%); Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6%) Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3%) tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%), Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%), and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%). Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health. PMID:28096855

  4. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

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    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  5. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

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    Xin-Xu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and intestinal helminth infection (IHI affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of

  6. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

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    Yap Peiling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique, haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test. Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005. Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004. Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002 and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001 compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs.

  7. Helminths infection patterns in a lizard (Tropidurus hispidus) population from a semiarid neotropical area: associations between female reproductive allocation and parasite loads.

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    Galdino, Conrado A B; Ávila, Robson W; Bezerra, Castiele H; Passos, Daniel C; Melo, Gabriela C; Zanchi-Silva, Djan

    2014-12-01

    This study reports helminth infection patterns of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus from an area of semiarid caatinga in northeastern Brazil (Ceará state). The lizard population was parasitized by 8 helminth species, and the species composition of the component community resembles that found for other Neotropical lizards. The prevalence of parasites was higher for males compared with females, whereas no relation was found between intensity of infection of 2 parasites (Parapharyngodon alvarengai and Physaloptera lutzi) and the lizards body size. For reproductive females, parasite infection intensity was negatively correlated to reproductive investment.

  8. Malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia:a cross sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Aklilu Ambachew; Halima Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross section study was conducted among febrile patients attending Azezo health center from February-March 30, 2011. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 384 individuals. Both capillary blood and stool were collected. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood film were prepared for identification of Plasmodium species and stool sample was examined by direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration technique for detection of intestinal helminthes parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable haemoglobin spectrophotometer, Hemocue Hb 201 analyzer. Results:Out of 384 febrile patients examined for malaria parasites, 44 (11.5%) individuals were positive for malaria parasites, of which Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75.0%(33), Plasmodium falciparum for 20.5%(9) infectious, whereas two person (4.5%) had mixed species infection. Prevalence of malaria was higher in males (28) when compared with prevalence in females (16). More than half (207, 53.9%) of study participants had one or more infection. Prevalence was slightly higher in females (109, 52.7%) than in males (98, 47.3%). About helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (62.1%) followed by hookworms (18.4%). Only 22 participants were co-infected with malaria parasite and helminths and co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant (45.0%). The prevalence of anemia was 10.9%and co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites was significantly associated with (P< 0.000 1) higher aneamia prevalence compared to individuals without any infection. Conclusions:Prevalence of malaria and soil transmitted helminths is high and the disease is still major health problem in the study area. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve

  9. Prevalence of Helminth Infections in Dairy Animals of Nestle Milk Collection Areas of Punjab (Pakistan

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    M.K. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research project was to document the prevalent helminths of dairy animals of Nestle milk collection areas of Punjab (Pakistan. For this purpose, seven high milk-producing areas of Punjab province including Farooqa, Kot Adu, Dunya Pur, Layyah, Mor Mandi, Shorkot and Jalapur were selected. The animals were randomly selected and screened for parasitic eggs through standard coprological examination procedures. The helminth species found prevalent in the study areas included; Ascaris vitulorum, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Ostertagia circumcinta, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichostrongylus spp. The possible determinants associated with the prevalence of these parasites were also studied in this project. The results of this study provided a basic epidemiological data for planning a wide scaled helminth control program in the above-mentioned high producing areas of Pakistan.

  10. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIC INFECTION AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC LEVEL (THE PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF INFECTION

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    Liliana Kurniawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyelidikan tentang prevalensi dan intensitas dari "Soil transmitted helminthic infection" pada tiga golongan penduduk dengan perbedaan tingkat ekonomi-sosial telah dilakukan di Mundu, Cirebon, Jawa Barat. Dimulai dari penduduk dengan golongan ekonomi-sosial yang relatif terbaik sampai yang terburuk, maka prevalensi untuk Ascaris lumbricoides adalah: 31,5 persen, 59,0 persen dan 80,0 persen; Trichuris trichiura: 43,8 persen, 74,9 persen dan 98,5 persen; cacing tambang 21,7 persen, 44,1 persen dan 81,5 persen, sedang Stronglyloides stercoralis ditemukan hanya 0 persen, 0 persen dan 5.1 persen. Intensitas infeksi dari A. lumbricoides menunjukkan angka-angka: 8935, 18514 dan 20581; T. trichiura; 348,993 dan 2225 dan pada cacing tambang 407,677 dan 1461 telur per satu gram tinya. A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura menunjukkan prevalensi maupun intensitas yang lebih tinggi pada wanita, sedang cacing tambang baik prevalensi maupun intensitasnya adalah lebih tinggi pada pria. Berdasarkan pembagian menurut umur, maka prevalensi dan intensitas A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura didapatkan tertinggi pada umur-umur dibawah 14 tahun, sedang cacing tambang pada umur lebih tinggi dari 15 tahun.

  11. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  12. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

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    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination.

  13. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1–89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7–70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3–36.6%), 29.4% (25–31%) and 3.1% (1.8–5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1–18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place. PMID:27203749

  14. Soil-transmitted helminth infections among plantation sector schoolchildren in Sri Lanka: prevalence after ten years of preventive chemotherapy.

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    Kithsiri Gunawardena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plantation sector in Sri Lanka lags behind the rest of the country in terms of living conditions and health. In 1992, a sector-wide survey of children aged 3-12 years and women of reproductive age showed >90% prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Biannual mass de-worming targeting children aged 3-18 years started in 1994 and was continued until 2005. The present study was carried out to assess the status of infection four years after cessation of mass de-worming. METHODS/FINDINGS: A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out. Faecal samples from approximately 20 children from each of 114 schools in five districts were examined using the modified Kato-Katz technique. Data regarding the school, the child's family and household sanitation were recorded after inspection of schools and households. Multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression, to identify risk factors for infection. Faecal samples were obtained from 1890 children. In 4/5 districts, >20% were infected with one or more helminth species. Overall combined prevalence was 29.0%; 11.6% had infections of moderate-heavy intensity. The commonest infection was Ascaris lumbricoides, present in all five districts, as was Trichuris trichiura. Hookworm was not detected in two districts. Multivariate analysis identified low altitude and maternal under-education as risk factors for all three infections. Poor household sanitation was identified as a risk factor for A. lumbricoides and hookworm, but not T. trichiura infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that regular mass de-worming of plantation sector children should be resumed along with more emphasis on better sanitation and health education. They show that even after 10 years of mass chemotherapy, prevalence can bounce back after cessation of preventive chemotherapy, if the initial force of transmission is strong and other long-term control measures are not concomitantly

  15. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Aschalew Afework Bitew

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method.The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 82.1-89%. STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7-70.2%. The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3-36.6%, 29.4% (25-31% and 3.1% (1.8-5.4%, respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1-18.1%. Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5-5.5. Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13% and 18 (4.9% of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively.The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place.

  16. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given.

  17. Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Cote d'Ivoire.

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    Ivan Müller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max as a proxy for physical fitness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1, respectively. The VO(2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1 min(-1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001 and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001, but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children

  18. Helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia : associations with communicable and non-communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, Aprilianto Eddy

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we reported our investigations of the relationship between soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and a number of outcomes, in particular malaria, insulin resistance (a marker for type-2 diabetes (T2D)) and atherosclerosis (a marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)) on Flores island, Indon

  19. STUDIES ON THE HELMINTHS INFECTION IN A KURDISH POPULATION IMMIGRATED FROM NORTHERN PART OF IRAQ TO IRAN

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    J. Massoud

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available During 1979-77 a large number of Kurdish populations in northern part of Iraq temporarily immigrated to Iran and settled in Dezful area of Khuzestan province, south-west Iran. Faecal examination of 3,263 samples for intestinal metazoan parasites and 1,154 urine samples for detecting Schistosoma haematobium, infection were performed in different sex and age groups. The percentages of prevalent intestinal helminthes infection were: Ascaril11umbricoides 25%, Trichuris trichiura 16.3%, Hymenolepis nana 14%, Trichostrongylus spp. 2.5% and Hookworm 0.8%. Out of 1,154 urine samples only one infected case of S. haematobium from a 10 ears old male child were detected.

  20. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  1. Chronic filarial infection provides protection against bacterial sepsis by functionally reprogramming macrophages.

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    Fabian Gondorf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminths immunomodulate their hosts and induce a regulatory, anti-inflammatory milieu that prevents allergies and autoimmune diseases. Helminth immunomodulation may benefit sepsis outcome by preventing exacerbated inflammation and severe pathology, but the influence on bacterial clearance remains unclear. To address this, mice were chronically infected with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis (L.s. and the outcome of acute systemic inflammation caused by i.p. Escherichia coli injection was determined. L.s. infection significantly improved E. coli-induced hypothermia, bacterial clearance and sepsis survival and correlated with reduced concentrations of associated pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and a less pronounced pro-inflammatory macrophage gene expression profile. Improved sepsis outcome in L.s.-infected animals was mediated by macrophages, but independent of the alternatively activated macrophage subset. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that are present in most human pathogenic filariae, as well as L.s., signal via TLR2 and modulate macrophage function. Here, gene expression profiles of peritoneal macrophages from L.s.-infected mice revealed a downregulation of genes involved in TLR signaling, and pulsing of macrophages in vitro with L.s. extract reduced LPS-triggered activation. Subsequent transfer improved sepsis outcome in naïve mice in a Wolbachia- and TLR2-dependent manner. In vivo, phagocytosis was increased in macrophages from L.s.-infected wild type, but not TLR2-deficient animals. In association, L.s. infection neither improved bacterial clearance in TLR2-deficient animals nor ameliorated E. coli-induced hypothermia and sepsis survival. These results indicate that chronic L.s. infection has a dual beneficial effect on bacterial sepsis, reducing pro-inflammatory immune responses and improving bacterial control. Thus, helminths and their antigens may not only improve the outcome of autoimmune and allergic diseases

  2. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V;

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...

  3. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

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    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  4. Helminthes and Coccidia Infection of Wild Sheep (Ovis Ammon Orintalis in Kabodan Island of National Park of Urmia Lake, Iran

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    Habib Khoshvaghti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one wild sheep (Ovis ammon orintalis from Kabodan Island of National Park of UrmiaLake (North-West of Iran, were examined during a period of six months from October 2002 toMarch 2003, for helminthes and coccidian infection. The numbers of oocyst and eggs per gram offaeces (OPG & EPG were determined by the centrifuge flotation technique using saturated sugarsolution. The rate of infection for Strongylid form, Marshalagia, Trichuris eggs, and lung wormlarvae were 8 (19.5%, 12 (29.5%, 17 (41.5% and 14 (34.1%, respectively. Thirty-three(80.48% of the examined wild animals were infected to one or more Eimeria species including E.parva, E. ahsata, E. ovinoidalis and E. faurei. This study suggested that the rate of parasiticinfection in wild sheep were very low but it would seem that in unsuitable condition such asdrought and starvation, parasitic infection can be cause a serious problem in wild sheep population.

  5. Multiple helminth infection of the skin causes lymphocyte hypo-responsiveness mediated by Th2 conditioning of dermal myeloid cells.

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    Peter C Cook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the mammalian host by schistosome larvae occurs via the skin, although nothing is known about the development of immune responses to multiple exposures of schistosome larvae, and/or their excretory/secretory (E/S products. Here, we show that multiple (4x exposures, prior to the onset of egg laying by adult worms, modulate the skin immune response and induce CD4(+ cell hypo-responsiveness in the draining lymph node, and even modulate the formation of hepatic egg-induced granulomas. Compared to mice exposed to a single infection (1x, dermal cells from multiply infected mice (4x, were less able to support lymph node cell proliferation. Analysis of dermal cells showed that the most abundant in 4x mice were eosinophils (F4/80(+MHC-II(-, but they did not impact the ability of antigen presenting cells (APC to support lymphocyte proliferation to parasite antigen in vitro. However, two other cell populations from the dermal site of infection appear to have a critical role. The first comprises arginase-1(+, Ym-1(+ alternatively activated macrophage-like cells, and the second are functionally compromised MHC-II(hi cells. Through the administration of exogenous IL-12 to multiply infected mice, we show that these suppressive myeloid cell phenotypes form as a consequence of events in the skin, most notably an enrichment of IL-4 and IL-13, likely resulting from an influx of RELMα-expressing eosinophils. We further illustrate that the development of these suppressive dermal cells is dependent upon IL-4Rα signalling. The development of immune hypo-responsiveness to schistosome larvae and their effect on the subsequent response to the immunopathogenic egg is important in appreciating how immune responses to helminth infections are modulated by repeated exposure to the infective early stages of development.

  6. Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease

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    Song YanXia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR in dendritic cells (DCs and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.

  7. Prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and assessment of sanitary conditions of pig slaughter slabs in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs.

  8. Chronic infection drives expression of the inhibitory receptor CD200R, and its ligand CD200, by mouse and human CD4 T cells.

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    Stefano Caserta

    Full Text Available Certain parasites have evolved to evade the immune response and establish chronic infections that may persist for many years. T cell responses in these conditions become muted despite ongoing infection. Upregulation of surface receptors with inhibitory properties provides an immune cell-intrinsic mechanism that, under conditions of chronic infection, regulates immune responses and limits cellular activation and associated pathology. The negative regulator, CD200 receptor, and its ligand, CD200, have been shown to regulate macrophage activation and reduce pathology following infection. We show that CD4 T cells also increase expression of inhibitory CD200 receptors (CD200R in response to chronic infection. CD200R was upregulated on murine effector T cells in response to infection with bacterial, Salmonella enterica, or helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, pathogens that respectively drive predominant Th1- or Th2-responses. In vitro chronic and prolonged stimuli were required for the sustained upregulation of CD200R, and its expression coincided with loss of multifunctional potential in T effector cells during infection. Importantly, we show an association between IL-4 production and CD200R expression on T effector cells from humans infected with Schistosoma haematobium that correlated effectively with egg burden and, thus infection intensity. Our results indicate a role of CD200R:CD200 in T cell responses to helminths which has diagnostic and prognostic relevance as a marker of infection for chronic schistosomiasis in mouse and man.

  9. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  10. Anurans as Intermediate and Paratenic Hosts of Helminth Infections in the Rainforest and Derived Savanna Biotopes of Southern Nigeria

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    Abigail A. Imasuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anurans from the rainforest (Okomu National Park and derived savanna (Agbede locations in Nigeria were investigated for their role either as intermediate or paratenic hosts of helminth infections. A total of 269 anuran specimens (157 from the Okomu National Park and 112 from Agbede were examined. Metacercariae of a strigeoid trematode, two nematode species, a proteocephalid cestode, and an acanthocephalan were recovered from infected hosts. Except for the strigeoid trematode, which was only recorded in the rainforest, there was no ecological dichotomy in the distribution of the larval parasites recorded. Tree frogs from the rainforest only served as second intermediate hosts for the strigeoid trematode. The two nematode larvae (type I and type II found in the body cavity of the infected host are believed to use them as paratenic hosts. Tree frogs were the predominant intermediate hosts of the proteocephalid cestode larvae in the rainforest, while Ptychadena and Phrynobatrachus spp. served this function in the derived savanna. The occurrence of cystacanths in the anurans from both biotopes confirms their known role as paratenic host for acanthocephalans. Afrixalus dorsalis is a new host record for the ascaridoid nematode while the finding of the strigeoid trematode, the proteocephalid cestode larvae and acanthocephalan cystacanths in the anurans investigated represents new geographical records.

  11. Low efficacy of single-dose albendazole and mebendazole against hookworm and effect on concomitant helminth infection in Lao PDR.

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    Phonepasong Ayé Soukhathammavong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg and mebendazole (500 mg for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples were randomly assigned to albendazole (n=100 and mebendazole (n=100. Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment, and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline at 21-23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.8; P=0.01, and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001.

  12. 581 Chronic Urticaria and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Nadia; Lugo-Reyes, Saul; Segura Mendez, Nora Hilda; Mendieta, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic Urticaria (CU) is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. The remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Objective To describe the infections found in chronic urticaria patients in our service, by performing a complete medical history, physical examination, laboratory studies and cultures. Methods Universe: Consecutive patients with chronic urticaria, with a detailed history, physical examination, laboratory studies underwent clinical viral panel, cultures, biopsy for detection of H. Pylori. Results A total of 50 patients, mostly women 82% and 18% men, mean age 41 years. 42% of the total population had salmonella, proteus infection in 20% and 8% brucellosis. Crossed with urinary tract infection 6% of the population. Five patients had positive stool in 3 patients Endolimax nana was isolated and 2 patients reported Giardia lamblia, 5 patients (10%) women had undergone cervicovaginitis 2 of them infected with S. haemolyticus, the rest was cultivated E. faecalis, and T. Gardenella vaginalis, respectively. Was isolated in 2 patients and one patient H.pilory HCV infection. Conclusions Infections may play a causal role of UC in some cases. Were identified in 42% of cases and gastrointestinal infections by most common cause Salmonellosis. As for genitourinary tract infections, intestinal parasites, Helicobacter pylori, were treated appropriately with antibiotic therapy, found a successful resolution of urticaria mainly in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. There is growing evidence that persistent infections in chronic urticaria are important triggers, particularly in the case of infection by Helicobacter pylori, so If an infection is identified, it should be appropriately

  13. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh.

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    Jade Benjamin-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors.We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630 in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32% of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71, but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44 or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08. PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24, 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27 for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97 but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45 or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33. Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures.We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest

  14. Helicobacter Infection and Chronic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recentHelicobacter infection associated with chronic liver disease. The bacteriology, prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis were reviewed. Future work should be conducted on the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease.

  15. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  16. Mapping helminth co-infection and co-intensity: geostatistical prediction in ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Soares Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections is marked in those with intense co-infections by these parasites. The development of a spatial predictive decision-support tool is crucial for targeting the delivery of integrated mass drug administration (MDA to those most in need. We investigated the co-distribution of S. haematobium and hookworm infection, plus the spatial overlap of infection intensity of both parasites, in Ghana. The aim was to produce maps to assist the planning and evaluation of national parasitic disease control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national cross-sectional school-based parasitological survey was conducted in Ghana in 2008, using standardized sampling and parasitological methods. Bayesian geostatistical models were built, including a multinomial regression model for S. haematobium and hookworm mono- and co-infections and zero-inflated Poisson regression models for S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity as measured by egg counts in urine and stool respectively. The resulting infection intensity maps were overlaid to determine the extent of geographical overlap of S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity. In Ghana, prevalence of S. haematobium mono-infection was 14.4%, hookworm mono-infection was 3.2%, and S. haematobium and hookworm co-infection was 0.7%. Distance to water bodies was negatively associated with S. haematobium and hookworm co-infections, hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. Land surface temperature was positively associated with hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. While high-risk (prevalence >10-20% of co-infection was predicted in an area around Lake Volta, co-intensity was predicted to be highest in foci within that area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach, based on the combination of co-infection and co-intensity maps allows the identification of communities at increased risk of

  17. Elimination of iron deficiency anemia and soil transmitted helminth infection: evidence from a fifty-four month iron-folic acid and de-worming program.

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    Gerard J Casey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming are effective initiatives to reduce anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and soil transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age. However, few studies have assessed the long-term effectiveness of population-based interventions delivered in resource-constrained settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objectives were to evaluate the impact of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and de-worming on mean hemoglobin and the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, and soil transmitted helminth infection in a rural population of women in northern Vietnam and to identify predictive factors for hematological outcomes. A prospective cohort design was used to evaluate a population-based supplementation and deworming program over 54 months. The 389 participants were enrolled just prior to commencement of the intervention. After 54 months 76% (95% CI [68%, 84%] were taking the iron-folic acid supplement and 95% (95% CI [93%, 98%] had taken the most recently distributed deworming treatment. Mean hemoglobin rose from 122 g/L (95% CI [120, 124] to 131 g/L (95% CI [128, 134] and anemia prevalence fell from 38% (95% CI [31%, 45%] to 18% (95% CI [12%, 23%]; however, results differed significantly between ethnic groups. Iron deficiency fell from 23% (95% CI [17%, 29%] to 8% (95% CI [4%, 12%], while the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was reduced to 4% (95% CI [1%, 7%]. The prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced from 76% (95% CI [68%, 83%] to 11% (95% CI [5%, 18%]. The level of moderate or heavy infestation of any soil-transmitted helminth was reduced to less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Population-based interventions can efficiently and effectively reduce anemia and practically eliminate iron deficiency anemia and moderate to heavy soil transmitted helminth infections, maintaining them below the level of public health concern.

  18. Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infect-ed Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds

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    Adekayode Olarinwaju SONIBARE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds.Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1 low energy low protein, group 2 (G2 low energy high protein, group 3 (G3 high energy low protein and group 4 (G4 high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC, worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (Hb and red blood cell count (RBC were determined using standard methods.Results: Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309 among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups, while haematological parameters increased significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups.Conclusion: Lambs in G2 followed by G4 showed improved parameters and superior performance when compared to the other groups. It is therefore recommended that feed high in protein content is capable of mitigating deleterious effect of gastrointestinal helminth parasitism.

  19. Contrasting patterns in the small-scale heterogeneity of human helminth infections in urban and rural environments in Brazil.

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    Brooker, Simon; Alexander, Neal; Geiger, Stefan; Moyeed, Rana A; Stander, Julian; Fleming, Fiona; Hotez, Peter J; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2006-09-01

    Marked heterogeneity exists in the patterns of parasitic infection between individuals, households and communities. Analysis of parasite distributions within populations is complicated by the fact that parasite distributions are highly aggregated and few studies have explicitly incorporated this distribution when investigating small-scale spatial heterogeneities. This study aimed to quantify the small-scale (within- and between-household) heterogeneity of helminth infection in an area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with rural and urban sectors. Parasitological data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,249 individuals aged 0-86 years from 242 households were analysed. Within-household clustering of infection was assessed using random effect logistic regression models and between-household spatial heterogeneity was assessed using a Bayesian negative binomial spatial model. The overall prevalence of hookworm (Necator americanus) was 66.9%, the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni was 44.9% and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 48.8%. Statistical analysis indicated significant (within) household and (between household) spatial clustering of hookworm in both rural and urban areas and of S. mansoni in rural areas. There was no evidence of either household or spatial clustering of S. mansoni in urban areas. The spatial correlation of S. mansoni was estimated to reduce by half over a distance of 700 m in the rural area. Rural hookworm had a much smaller half-distance (28 m) and urban hookworm showed an even smaller half-distance (12 m). We suggest that such species-specific differences in patterns of infection by environment are primarily due to variation in exposure and parasite life cycle, although host genetic factors cannot be ruled out.

  20. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

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    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  1. 蠕虫感染与过敏性和自身免疫性疾病%Effect of helminth infection on allergic and autoimmune diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维平; 田芳; 胡雪莉

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Many studies show that helminth‐derived molecules can induce immunoregulatory cells to form immune net‐work‐mediated immune ,thereby inhibiting allergic and autoimmune diseases .Helminth parasites can induce immune cell activa‐tion and produce cytokine .And parasites play an inhibitory effect to affect other immune related diseases .However ,the associ‐ation between helminths infections and immune related diseases does not always have an unequivocal outcome .While some hel‐minths infections protect against allergic diseases ,other helminth can exacerbate this immunopathology .%许多研究发现蠕虫感染后虫源性分子诱导免疫细胞形成免疫调节网络,介导免疫抑制,从而抑制过敏性和自身免疫性疾病。寄生虫可以通过诱导免疫调节细胞活化和产生细胞因子发挥抑制效应,从而影响其他免疫相关疾病。然而,蠕虫感染与免疫相关疾病之间的调节机制尚无明确的结论。一些蠕虫感染可以保护和控制过敏性疾病,而另一些蠕虫却加剧疾病的免疫病理损害。

  2. Chronic Infection and Venous Thromboembolic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epaulard, Olivier; Foote, Alison; Bosson, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease often arises as a complication of another pathological condition and/or triggering event. Infectious diseases result from both the direct action of the pathogens themselves and their effect on the immune system. The resulting inflammatory process and the coagulation and fibrinolysis processes share common pathways, explaining why infection is associated with thrombosis. In this brief overview, besides certain chronic infectious diseases, we also consider some acute infections, as the mechanisms are likely to be similar, particularly in the initial infective stage or the more acute episodes of a chronic infection. The infectious agent can be viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic. However, the literature on the link between infections and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uneven, favoring infections that are found in more developed countries where physicians have access to VTE diagnostic tools. Thus, large epidemiological studies in this field are restricted to a limited number of the common chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, while for other infections, particularly parasitic and fungal infections, the link with VTE is only evoked in a few scattered case reports.

  3. Parasite-Derived MicroRNAs in Host Serum As Novel Biomarkers of Helminth Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Anna M.; Lundie, Rachel J.; Ivens, Alasdair; Quintana, Juan F.; Nausch, Norman; Forster, Thorsten; Jones, Frances; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Dunne, David W.; Mutapi, Francisca; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Buck, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNA that play important roles in disease processes in animals and are present in a highly stable cell-free form in body fluids. Here, we examine the capacity of host and parasite miRNAs to serve as tissue or serum biomarkers of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methods/Principal Findings We used Exiqon miRNA microarrays to profile miRNA expression in the livers of mice infected with S. mansoni at 7 weeks post-infection. Thirty-three mouse miRNAs were differentially expressed in infected compared to naïve mice (>2 fold change, p<0.05) including miR-199a-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-214 and miR-21, which have previously been associated with liver fibrosis in other settings. Five of the mouse miRNAs were also significantly elevated in serum by twelve weeks post-infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from serum confirmed the presence of these miRNAs and further revealed eleven parasite-derived miRNAs that were detectable by eight weeks post infection. Analysis of host and parasite miRNA abundance by qRT-PCR was extended to serum of patients from low and high infection sites in Zimbabwe and Uganda. The host-derived miRNAs failed to distinguish uninfected from infected individuals. However, analysis of three of the parasite-derived miRNAs (miR-277, miR-3479-3p and bantam) could detect infected individuals from low and high infection intensity sites with specificity/sensitivity values of 89%/80% and 80%/90%, respectively. Conclusions This work identifies parasite-derived miRNAs as novel markers of S. mansoni infection in both mice and humans, with the potential to be used with existing techniques to improve S. mansoni diagnosis. In contrast, although host miRNAs are differentially expressed in the liver during infection their abundance levels in serum are variable in human patients and may be useful in cases of extreme pathology but likely hold limited value for detecting prevalence of infection. PMID:24587461

  4. Parasite-derived microRNAs in host serum as novel biomarkers of helminth infection.

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    Anna M Hoy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNA that play important roles in disease processes in animals and are present in a highly stable cell-free form in body fluids. Here, we examine the capacity of host and parasite miRNAs to serve as tissue or serum biomarkers of Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Exiqon miRNA microarrays to profile miRNA expression in the livers of mice infected with S. mansoni at 7 weeks post-infection. Thirty-three mouse miRNAs were differentially expressed in infected compared to naïve mice (>2 fold change, p<0.05 including miR-199a-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-214 and miR-21, which have previously been associated with liver fibrosis in other settings. Five of the mouse miRNAs were also significantly elevated in serum by twelve weeks post-infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from serum confirmed the presence of these miRNAs and further revealed eleven parasite-derived miRNAs that were detectable by eight weeks post infection. Analysis of host and parasite miRNA abundance by qRT-PCR was extended to serum of patients from low and high infection sites in Zimbabwe and Uganda. The host-derived miRNAs failed to distinguish uninfected from infected individuals. However, analysis of three of the parasite-derived miRNAs (miR-277, miR-3479-3p and bantam could detect infected individuals from low and high infection intensity sites with specificity/sensitivity values of 89%/80% and 80%/90%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This work identifies parasite-derived miRNAs as novel markers of S. mansoni infection in both mice and humans, with the potential to be used with existing techniques to improve S. mansoni diagnosis. In contrast, although host miRNAs are differentially expressed in the liver during infection their abundance levels in serum are variable in human patients and may be useful in cases of extreme pathology but likely hold limited value for detecting prevalence of infection.

  5. Impact of six rounds of mass drug administration on Brugian filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in eastern Indonesia.

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    Taniawati Supali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effect of MDA using DEC and albendazole on B. timori and soil transmitted helminths (STH in a cross-sectional study of a sentinel village on Alor Island annually over a period of 10 years. Pre-MDA the microfilaria (MF prevalence was 26% and 80% of the residents had filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies. In 2010, 34 months after the 6(th round of MDA, MF and antibody rates were only 0.17% and 6.4%, respectively. The MDA campaign had also a beneficial effect on STH. Baseline prevalence rates for Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were 34%, 28%, and 11%, respectively; these rates were reduced to 27%, 4%, and 2% one year after the 5(th round of MDA. Unfortunately, STH rates rebounded 34 months after cessation of MDA and approached pre-MDA rates. However, the intensity of STH infection in 2009 was still reduced, and no heavy infections were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MDA with DEC/albendazole has had a major impact on B. timori MF and IgG4 antibody rates, providing a proof of principle that elimination is feasible. We also documented the value of annual DEC/albendazole as a mass de-worming intervention and the importance of continuing some form of STH control after cessation of MDA for filariasis.

  6. Gender-Associated Differential Expression of Cytokines in Specific Areas of the Brain During Helminth Infection

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    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O.; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host–parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network. PMID:25495255

  7. Bacterial colonization or infection in chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandak, Nenad; Pajić-Penavić, Ivana; Sekelj, Alen; Tomić-Paradžik, Maja; Cabraja, Ivica; Miklaušić, Božana

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of bacteria present in maxillary and ethmoid cavities in patients with chronic sinusitis and to correlate these findings with bacteria simultaneously present in their nasopharynx. The purpose of this correlation was to establish the role of bacteria found in chronically inflamed sinuses and to evaluate if the bacteria present colonized or infected sinus mucosa. Nasopharyngeal and sinus swabs of 65 patients that underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery were cultivated and at the same time the presence of leukocytes were determined in each swab. The most frequently found bacteria in nasopharynx were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus viridans and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Maxillary or ethmoidal sinus swabs yielded bacterial growth in 47 (72.31%) patients. The most frequently found bacteria in sinuses were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp. and Streptococci (pneumoniae, viridans and spp.). The insignificant number of leukocytes was present in each sinus and nasopharyngeal swab. Every published microbiology study of chronic sinusitis proved that sinus mucosa were colonized with bacteria and not infected, yet antibiotic therapy was discussed making no difference between infection and colonization. Chronic sinusitis should be considered a chronic inflammatory condition rather than bacterial infection, so routine antibiotic therapy should be avoided. Empiric antibiotic therapy should be prescribed only in cases when the acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis occurs and the antibiotics prescribed should aim the usual bacteria causing acute sinusitis. In case of therapy failure, antibiotics should be changed having in mind that under certain circumstances any bacteria colonizing sinus mucosa can cause acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis.

  8. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC with albendazole

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    I P Sunish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One third of the world′s population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Albendazole (ALB is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu s0 tate h0 ealth d0 epartment, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB. Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%. Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns.

  9. Effect of Mass Stool Examination and Mass Treatment For Decreasing Intestinal Helminth and Protozoan Infection Rates in Bolivian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Còrdova Vidal, Claudia; Strauss, Wilma; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the countries with a high intestinal helminth and protozoan infection rate. Despite the high prevalence of the parasitic infection, nationwide preventive measures for Bolivian children have not yet been implemented. We evaluated the effect of mass stool examination and treatment as a strategy for decreasing the infection rate. This study was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in children aged 2–18 years. A total of 2,033 stool samples (575 in 2013, 815 in 2014 and 642 in 2015) were collected and examined using the formalin-ether medical sedimentation method. As an anthelminthic medicine, nitazoxanide was given to all infected children within 2 months post-examination, each year. The effect of mass stool examination and treatment was evaluated based on the changes in the overall or individual parasitic infection rates during the study period. The overall parasitic infection rate decreased significantly from 65.2% in 2013 to 43.0% in 2015; a 22.2 percentage point decrease (PHymenolepis nana, decreased significantly from 9.0% in 2013 to 6.4% in 2014 to 3.4% in 2015 (P<0.001). Prevalence of the most common pathogenic protozoan infection, Entamoeba histolytica, decreased significantly from 19.0% in 2013 to 3.0% in 2015 (P<0.001). Conversely, the rate of Giardia intestinalis increased significantly from 16.5% in 2013 to 21.2% in 2015 (P<0.01). Mass stool examination and treatment for intestinal helminth and protozoan infections was effective for decreasing the overall parasitic infection rate in the study population, excluding Giardia intestinalis. Further studies on the long-term effect of mass stool examination and treatment for decreasing all intestinal parasitic infection rates in Bolivian children are needed. PMID:27923058

  10. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Mallia; Joseph Footitt; Rosa Sotero; Annette Jepson; Marco Contoli; Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo; Tatiana Kebadze; Julia Aniscenko; Gregory Oleszkiewicz; Katrina Gray; Message, Simon D.; Kazuhiro Ito; Peter J Barnes; Ian M Adcock; Alberto Papi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections.

  11. Management of chronic Giardia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Angel A; Hanevik, Kurt; Almirall, Pedro; Cimerman, Sérgio; Alfonso, Maydel

    2014-09-01

    Advances in our understanding of chronic giardiasis (CG) may improve our care of patients in this stage of the disease. This review proposes a new concept of CG and highlights the recent advances in our understanding and management of this condition. According to this review, management requires, initially, an accurate diagnosis, which may exclude several conditions that can mimic CG. Optimal treatment requires a tailored approach which includes the recognition of the known modifiable causes of this health condition, assessment of symptoms and potential complications, their treatment utilizing, if necessary, a multidisciplinary team, and an ongoing monitoring for the effect of therapy - weighing the efficacy of individual drugs - all of these together may lead to a successful treatment of CG.

  12. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  13. Species spectrum, diversity profile and infection indices of helminth parasite fauna of Chirruh snowtrout, Schizothorax esocinus (Heckel) in lake ecosystems of Kashmir Himalayas-Do similarity and host-parasite associations arise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, U R; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2013-09-01

    In order to assess the species richness and diversity profile of helminth parasite fauna in an endemic fish, an investigation was carried out in two urban and two rural lakes of Kashmir. Overall nine species of helminth parasites were observed in four lakes. Of these three were autogenic and six were allogenic. Heteroxenous parasite species were more in number than monoxenous species. Results showed significant differences in heteroxenous / monoxenous ratio between different lakes. Core species (Prevalence > 20) were only found in hypertrophic lake (Anchar Lake). Overall, majority of helminth species were either secondary or satellite species. Prevalence of some helminth parasites showed significant differences in different lakes. In addition mean intensity showed significant differences between autogenic and allogenic parasites (P fauna showed significant differences in species richness and infection indices between different lakes. Diversity profile was higher in Anchar Lake in comparison to other three lakes. The results clearly show that environmental features of lake ecosystems have got an impact on distribution pattern of helminth parasites in S. esocinus. We suggest comparative parasitological study should be taken between different species of fish in order to have a clear picture regarding the species composition of helminth species in this region. Also we need to characterize the species spectrum of parasitic worms in fish of freshwater bodies of this region as well as other similar type of climatic zones because parasite fauna is an integral part of the inventory of biodiversity and as possible regulators of host populations in aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Uncovering the Pathogenic Landscape of Helminth (Opisthorchis viverrini) Infections: A Cross-Sectional Study on Contributions of Physical and Social Environment and Healthcare Interventions

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    Ong, Xueyuan; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Namsanor, Jutamas; Taylor, David; Laithavewat, Luxana

    2016-01-01

    Background Helminth infections have proven recalcitrant to control by chemotherapy in many parts of Southeast Asia and indeed farther afield. This study isolates and examines the influence of different aspects of the physical and social environment, and uneven intervention effort contributing to the pathogenic landscape of human Opisthorchis viverrini infections. Methodology A cross-sectional survey, involving 632 participants, was conducted in four villages in northeast Thailand to examine the impact on prevalence and parasite burden of the reservoir dam environment, socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors, and health center intervention efforts. Formalin-ether concentration technique was used for diagnoses, and multivariate models were used for analyses. Principal Findings The importance attributed to O. viverrini infections varied among health centers in the four study villages. Villages where O. viverrini infections were not prioritized by the health centers as the healthcare focus were at a higher risk of infection (prevalence) with odds ratio (risk factor) of 5.73 (3.32–10.27) and p-value viverrini infections in the study area, was 11.4% higher in villages that prioritized O. viverrini infections than those that did not (p-value = 0.01). Landscape variation, notably proximity to reservoir, affects vulnerability of local population to infection. Infection intensity was higher in population located closer to the reservoir with risk ratio of 2.09 (1.12–4.02) and p-value < 0.01. Patterns of infection intensities among humans were found to match fish infection intensity, where higher infection intensities were associated with fish obtained from the reservoir waterbody type (p-value = 0.023). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated the importance of environmental influence and healthcare focus as risk factors of infections in addition to the socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors commonly explored in existing studies. The

  15. 替代性活化的巨噬细胞在蠕虫感染中的作用%Alternatively Activated Macrophages in Helminth Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪; 于建立; 王峰; 赵颖; 刘明远; 王光明

    2011-01-01

    巨噬细胞不仅可以启动、调节免疫应答,也可作为最终的效应细胞.但相关研究表明巨噬细胞不仅与γ干扰素(IFN-γ)主导的Th1型反应相关,而且在Th2型反应中也发挥重要的作用,其活化途径与Th1型应答中经典活化途径的巨噬细胞存在明显不同,因此,该途径活化的巨噬细胞被称为替代性活化的巨噬细胞(AAMΦ).AAMΦ在蠕虫感染中发挥多种作用,包括控制炎症反应、促进损伤部位纤维化并进行修复,以及有效地抵抗蠕虫感染.本文综述了蠕虫感染过程中AAMΦ对疾病的发展和宿主保护方面的最新研究进展.%Macrophages not only initiate and modulate immune responses, but also are the final effector cells. Recent studies suggested that macrophages conventionally associated with IFN--y dominant Thl-type responses and also playing an essential role in the Th2-type inflammatory response, exhibit a quite different activation from the classically activated macrophages (CAM4>) stimulated during Till-type responses, therefore named as alternatively activated macrophages (AAM3>). AAM have multiple effects during helminth infection, including control of inflammatory reaction, contribution to fibrosis and repair at the site of injury, and anti-helminth effect. This article reviews recent findings regarding the role of AAM<& in the development of disease and host protection following helminth infection.[

  16. [Chronic hepatitis and occult HCV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowala-Piaskowska, Arleta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona; Pham, Tram N Q; Michalak, Tomasz I

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989. HCV is a positive single-strand RNA. We all have thought, that HCV can replicate only in liver tissue, but now we know, that HCV can replicate in extrahepatic tissue as well. In about 48-86% of HCV infected patients, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has been noticed and eventually, after tens of years, liver insufficiency, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The current recommended treatment for CHC is a combination of pegylated-interferon alpha and Ribavirin. Presently it is known, that HCV infection can persist as an occult infection. RNA HCV can be detected in patients after successful treatment for CHC or spontaneous elimination. Persistent HCV replication in hepatocytes or lymphoid cells would likely lead to continuous antigenic stimulation of the immune system. This prolonged replication may contribute to the immune tolerance of HCV, impairment of immune response and even further virus persistence. This occult infection grows more important in transplantation.

  17. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in Madagascar. Involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus), red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer), common brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus), crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), and Sclater's black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). At site 1 (Tsimbazaza Zoological Park), lemurs were kept in small enclosures with daily cleaning of the cement soiling and without routine anthelmintic program, whereas at site 2 (Ivoloina Zoological Park), lemurs received routine anthelmintic prophylaxis and were housed in small enclosure with daily cleaning of sandy soil enclosures. A total of five genera of nematode eggs from the orders Strongylida, Oxyurida, and Enoplida were recovered and identified from 198 out of 240 samples (83%) at site 1 and 79% (189 out of 240) at site 2 with the use of a modified McMaster technique. Significant differences were found for parasites from the order Strongylida between the two sites. The differences may be due to climate conditions and the presumed life cycle of these parasites. No significant differences were found for parasites from the other orders. No significant differences were noted between sexes or between seasons. No clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in either lemur collection.

  18. Risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infections during the first 3 years of life in the tropics; findings from a birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie K Menzies

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador.Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrollment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children and T. trichiura (21.2%. Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk.Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children.

  19. [Prevalence of infection by intestinal helminths and protozoa in school children from a coastal locality in the province of Valdivia, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, N; Torres, P

    1994-01-01

    During July-August 1989, 219 coprological samples from primary school children from Niebla and Los Molinos localities (39 degrees 52'S, 73 degrees 26'W) in the coast of province of Valdivia, Chile, were analysed. Prevalence % (in parentheses) of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths were the followings: Entamoeba histolytica: (18.0), Entamoeba coli (34.0), Endolimax nana (34.4), Iodamoeba buetschlii (7.4), Blastocystis hominis (64.3), Giardia intestinalis (27.9) Chilomastix mesnili (0.8), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.7), Trichuris trichiura (32.0), Trichostronqylidea gen. sp. (0.8), Enterobius vermicularis (1.6), Hymenolepis nana (0.4) Diphyllobothrium sp. (0.4). No sanitary conditions, water, faeces and garbage disposal were detected in the 55.5%, 86.4% and 52.7% of 110 houses from the sector, respectively. The high prevalence of protozoa and helminths intestinal infections in the sector are related to no sanitary conditions of houses and fecal contamination of the estuary of the Valdivia river.

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

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    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  1. The burden of moderate-to-heavy soil-transmitted helminth infections among rural malaysian aborigines: an urgent need for an integrated control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, among the most common neglected tropical diseases, continue to be a major threat to the health and socioeconomic wellbeing of infected people especially children in developing countries. Methods A cross-sectional study among 254 aboriginal schoolchildren was conducted in order to determine the current prevalence and intensity of infections and to investigate the potential risk factors associated with moderate-to-heavy burden of STH infections among these children. Results Overall, 93.7% of children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Almost half of the participants had heavy trichuriasis, one-quarter had heavy ascariasis whereas all hookworm infections were light infections. Overall, moderate-to-heavy STH infections accounted for 56.7% of the total infections. Univariate analysis revealed that those using untreated water supply (P = 0.013, living in houses without toilets (P = 0.027 and having domestic animals in the houses (P = 0.044 had significantly higher prevalence of moderate-to-heavy infections than others. Logistic regression analysis confirmed using untreated water for drinking (P = 0.001 and the absence of a toilet in the house (P = 0.003 as significant risk factors of moderate-to-heavy STH infections among these children. Conclusion The high proportion of moderate-to-heavy STH infections further confirms the need for serious attention towards these devastating diseases that has put lives and the future of aboriginal children in jeopardy. Introduction of more poverty alleviation schemes, proper sanitation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, health education, as well as the introduction of periodic school-based deworming programmes are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by STH.

  2. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, E Liana; Petts, Jennifer R; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L; de la Morena, M Teresa; Greenberg, David E; Zerbe, Christa S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis.

  3. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  4. Mapping the risk of anaemia in preschool-age children: the contribution of malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Soares Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood anaemia is considered a severe public health problem in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the geographical distribution of prevalence of anaemia and mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb in children aged 1-4 y (preschool children in West Africa. The aim was to estimate the geographical risk profile of anaemia accounting for malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections, the risk of anaemia attributable to these factors, and the number of anaemia cases in preschool children for 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: National cross-sectional household-based demographic health surveys were conducted in 7,147 children aged 1-4 y in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mali in 2003-2006. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict the geographical distribution of mean Hb and anaemia risk, adjusting for the nutritional status of preschool children, the location of their residence, predicted Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in the 2- to 10-y age group (Pf PR(2-10, and predicted prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections. In the four countries, prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia was 21%, 66%, and 13% in Burkina Faso; 28%, 65%, and 7% in Ghana, and 26%, 62%, and 12% in Mali. The mean Hb was lowest in Burkina Faso (89 g/l, in males (93 g/l, and for children 1-2 y (88 g/l. In West Africa, severe malnutrition, Pf PR(2-10, and biological synergisms between S. haematobium and hookworm infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk; an estimated 36.8%, 14.9%, 3.7%, 4.2%, and 0.9% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria, S. haematobium infections, hookworm infections, and S. haematobium/hookworm coinfections, respectively. A large spatial cluster of low mean Hb (95% was predicted for an area shared by Burkina Faso and Mali. We estimate that in 2011, approximately 6.7 million children aged 1-4 y are anaemic in the three study countries. CONCLUSIONS: By

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Kadanali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A growing pile of evidence supports the notion that pulmonary involvement is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and vice versa.Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed: 1. A prevalence study of HCV infection among patients with COPD; 2. A prevalence study of COPD among patients with chronic HCV infection. COPD was diagnosed according to ATS/ERS guidelines. The prevalence of HCV infection in COPD group was compared with the result of a previous study which determined the prevalence of HCV infection in general population. Prevalence of COPD in patients with chronic HCV infection was also compared to those with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection.Results: The study included 108 patients with COPD, 68 patients with chronic HCV infection, and 60 patients with chronic HBV infection. HCV infection was observed in 8.3% of patients with COPD, and 1.2% of the control subjects (P= 0.000. The prevalence of COPD among patients with chronic HCV and HBV infection was 17.6%, and 5%, respectively (P=0.03. Comparing COPD-positive and -negative chronic HCV patients for risk factors for COPD revealed that only the mean age was higher in COPD-positive patients (60.8±9.1 years vs. 46.5±11.5 years, P=0.000. In multivariate analysis, age was found to be the only independent predictor of COPD in HCV group.Conclusions: Patients with COPD have increased prevalence of HCV infection, and patients with HCV infection, have increased prevalence of COPD. COPD may be an extrahepatic disease associated with HCV infection.

  6. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 2: Knowledge, attitude, and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first part of this study, we investigated the prevalence and associated key factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia; an alarming high prevalence and five key factors significantly associated with infections were reported. Part 2 of this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP on STH infections among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Demographic and socioeconomic information of the participants and their KAP on STH were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 61.4% of the participants had prior knowledge about intestinal helminths with a lack of knowledge on the transmission (28.8%, signs and symptoms (29.3% as well as the prevention (16.3%. Half of the respondents considered STH as harmful, while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, educational and employment status, family size, and household monthly income were reported. Moreover, significantly lower prevalence of STH infections was reported among children of respondents who wear shoes/slippers when outside the house (72.8%; 95% CI= 62.6, 80.5 vs 87.0%; 95% CI= 81.4, 91.1, wash their hands before eating (32.4%; 95% CI= 24.3, 42.2 vs 51.4%; 95% CI= 44.7, 60.1, and wash their hands after defecation (47.8%; 95% CI= 35.7, 57.1 vs 69.2%; 95% CI= 63.7, 78.7 as compared to their counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of the respondents was the most important factor significantly associated with the KAP on STH among this population. Conclusion This study reveals inadequate knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Hence, there is a great need for a proper health education

  7. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study

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    Sutanto Inge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infections might either exacerbate or reduce the severity of malaria attacks. The same discrepancies have been reported for parasitemia. Methods/Design To determine the effect of geohelminth infections and their treatment on malaria infection and disease outcome, as well as on immunological parameters, the area of Nangapanda on Flores Island, Indonesia, where malaria and helminth parasites are co-endemic was selected for a longitudinal study. Here a Double-blind randomized trial will be performed, incorporating repeated treatment with albendazole (400 mg or placebo at three monthly intervals. Household characteristic data, anthropometry, the presence of intestinal helminth and Plasmodium spp infections, and the incidence of malaria episodes are recorded. In vitro cultures of whole blood, stimulated with a number of antigens, mitogens and toll like receptor ligands provide relevant immunological parameters at baseline and following 1 and 2 years of treatment rounds. The primary outcome of the study is the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection. The secondary outcome will be incidence and severity of malaria episodes detected via both passive and active follow-up. The tertiary outcome is the inflammatory cytokine profile in response to parasite antigens. The project also facilitates the transfer of state of the art methodologies and technologies, molecular diagnosis of parasitic diseases, immunology and epidemiology from Europe to Indonesia. Discussion The study will provide data on the effect of helminth infections on malaria. It will also give information on anthelminthic treatment efficacy and effectiveness and could help

  8. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists.......Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists....

  9. Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2015-02-01

    By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can

  10. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age, using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members, not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. Conclusion This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help

  11. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Amici, Stephanie A.; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Webb, Lindsay M.; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show two distinct populations of AAMϕs, based on the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 molecules, resulting upon T. crassiceps infection. Adoptive transfer of Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to PD-L1+/PD-L2+, but not PD-L1+/PD-L2− cells in T. crassiceps-infected mice, demonstrating that the PD-L1+/PD-L2+ subpopulation of AAMϕs originates from blood monocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of PD-L1+/PD-L2+ AAMϕs into EAE induced mice reduced disease incidence, delayed disease onset, and diminished the clinical disability, indicating the critical role of these cells in the regulation of autoimmune disorders. PMID:28094319

  12. Molecular characteristics and stages of chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Hui Shi; Chang-He Shi

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common viral pathogen that causes a substantial health burden worldwide. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of the natural stages of chronic HBV infection. A dynamic balance between viral replication and host immune response is pivotal to the pathogenesis of liver disease. Knowledge of the HBV genome organization and replication cycle can unravel HBV genotypes and molecular variants, which contribute to the heterogeneity in outcome of chronic HBV infection. Most HBV infections are spontaneously resolved in immunocompetent adults, whereas they become chronic in most neonates and infants at a great risk of developing complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Those with chronic HBV infection may present in one of the four phases of infection: immune tolerance, immune clearance [hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB)], inactive carrier state, and reactivation (HBeAg-negative CHB). Understanding the dynamic nature of chronic HBV infection is crucial in the management of HBV carriers. Long-term monitoring and optimal timing of antiviral therapy for chronic HBV infection help to prevent progression of HBV-related liver disease to its later stage, particularly in patients with higher risk markers of HCC, such as serum DNA concentration, HBeAg status, serum aminotransferase, HBV genotypes, and pre-core or core mutants.

  13. Polyphasic innate immune responses to acute and chronic LCMV infection: Innate immunity to acute & chronic viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Brian A; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Price, Aryn A; Grakoui, Arash; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of acute and chronic viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. Here we report that infection with acute Armstrong (ARM) or chronic Clone 13 (C13) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to two distinct phases of innate immune response. During the first 72hr of infection, dendritic cells upregulated activation markers, and stimulated anti-viral CD8+ T cells, independent of viral strain. Seven days after ...

  14. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    treatment depends on accurate and fast diagnosis. However, in cases where the bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often turns out to be untreatable and will develop into a chronic state. The important hallmarks of chronic biofilm-based infections are extreme resistance...... to antibiotics and many other conventional antimicrobial agents, and an extreme capacity for evading the host defences. In this thesis, I will assemble the current knowledge on biofilms with an emphasis on chronic infections, guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of these infections, before relating this to my...... previous research into the area of biofilms. I will present evidence to support a view that the biofilm lifestyle dominates chronic bacterial infections, where bacterial aggregation is the default mode, and that subsequent biofilm development progresses by adaptation to nutritional and environmental...

  15. Chronic hepatitis B infection in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    There are no standard guidelines to follow when apatient with chronic hepatitis B infection becomespregnant or desires pregnancy. Topics to considerinclude which patients to treat, when to start treatment,what treatment to use and when to stop treatment.Without any prophylaxis or antiviral therapy, a hepatitisB surface antigen and E antigen positive mother has upto a 90% likelihood of vertical transmission of hepatitisB virus (HBV) to child. Standard of care in the UnitedStates to prevent perinatal transmission consists ofadministration of hepatitis B immune globulin andHBV vaccination to the infant. The two strongest riskfactors of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBVinfection despite immunoprophylaxis are high maternalHBV viral load and high activity of viral replication.The goal is to prevent transmission of HBV at birthby decreasing viral load and/or decreasing activity ofthe virus. Although it is still somewhat controversial,most evidence shows that starting antivirals in thethird trimester is effective in decreasing MTCT withoutaffecting fetal development. There is a growing body ofliterature supporting the safety and efficacy of antiviraltherapies to reduce MTCT of hepatitis B. There areno formal recommendations regarding which agent tochoose. Tenofovir, lamivudine and telbivudine have allbeen proven efficacious in decreasing viral load at birthwithout known birth defects, but final decision of whichantiviral medication to use will have to be determinedby physician and patient. The antivirals may bediscontinued immediately if patient is breastfeeding, orwithin first four weeks if infant is being formula fed.

  16. High prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Carreño, Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the absence of detectable antibodies against HCV and of viral RNA in serum is called occult HCV infection. Its prevalence and clinical significance in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is unknown. HCV RNA was tested for in the liver samples of 52 patients with chronic HBV infection and 21 (40 %) of them were positive for viral RNA (occult HCV infection). Liver fibrosis was found more frequently and the fibrosis score was significantly higher in patients with occult HCV than in negative ones, suggesting that occult HCV infection may have an impact on the clinical course of HBV infection.

  17. [Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Young; Park, Eui Ju

    2013-09-01

    Occult HBV infection is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing negative for HBsAg. Studies on occult HBV infection in hepatitis C patients have reported highly variable prevalence, because the prevalence of occult HBV infection varies depending on the hepatitis B risk factors and methodological approaches. The most reliable diagnostic approach for detecting occult HBV detection is through examination of liver DNA extracts. HCV has been suspected to strongly suppress HBV replication up to the point where it may be directly responsible for occult HBV infection development. However, more data are needed to arrive at a definitive conclusion regarding the role of HCV in inducing occult HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients is a complex biological entity with possible relevant clinical implications. Influence of occult HBV infection on the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C may be considered negative. However, recent studies have shown that occult HBV infection could be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the worsening of the course of chronic liver disease over time in chronic hepatitis C patients. Nevertheless, the possible role of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C is still unresolved and no firm conclusion has been made up until now. It still remains unclear how occult HBV infection affects the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Therefore, in order to resolve current controversies and understand the pathogenic role and clinical impacts of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients, well-designed clinical studies are needed.

  18. Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-Lucas, M; Morchon, R; Simon, F; Manzano-Roman, R

    2015-04-01

    Chronic diseases associated with inflammation show fast annual increase in their incidence. This has been associated with excessive hygiene habits that limit contacts between the immune system and helminth parasites. Helminthic infections induce regulation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) leading to atypical Th2 type immune responses, with downregulation of the inflammatory component usually associated with these type of responses. Many cells, including those of the immune system, produce extracellular vesicles called exosomes which mediate either immune stimulation (DCs) or immune modulation (T cells). The transfer of miRNAs contained in T-cell exosomes has been shown to contribute to downregulate the production of inflammatory mediators. It has been recently described the delivery to the host-parasite interface of exosomes containing miRNAs by helminths and its internalization by host cells. In this sense, helminth microRNAs transported in exosomes and internalized by immune host cells exert an important role in the expansion of Treg cells, resulting in the control of inflammation. We here provide relevant information obtained in the field of exosomes, cell-cell communication and miRNAs, showing the high potential of helminth miRNAs delivered in exosomes to host cells as new therapeutic tools against diseases associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses.

  19. Intestinal helminthes and/or Toxocara infection are unrelated to anti-HBs titers in seven-year-old children vaccinated at birth with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marisa B C L; Fragoso, Roberta; Foletto, Silvio; Lemos, Elenice M; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible effect of nematode infection on anti-HBs antibody levels in the serum of seven-year-old schoolchildren vaccinated at birth with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Anti-HBs and anti HBc antibodies were evaluated in the sera of 100 schoolchildren with at least one intestinal nematode and/or a positive serological reaction for anti-Toxocara antibodies and in 95 schoolchildren without intestinal helminthiasis or serum anti-Toxocara antibodies. Both groups were from public elementary schools located on the urban periphery of Vitória, ES, Brazil. Among these 195 children, the median anti-HBs antibody titer was 31.3 IU/ml and the frequency of titers less than 10 IU/ml was 33.8% (95% CI: 27.1-40.4%). There were no significant differences between the medians of anti-HBs titers or the frequency of titers less than 10 IU/ml between the groups with or without helminthes (29.5 and 32.9 IU/ml and 33 and 34.7%, respectively; p>0.05). Even when the children with intestinal nematodes and/or anti-Toxocara antibodies and with blood eosinophil counts over 600/mm(3) were compared with children without infection from intestinal nematodes and without anti-Toxocara antibodies, with blood eosinophil counts less than 400 eosinophils/mm(3), these differences were not significant. None of the children presented anti-HBc antibodies. In conclusion, infections with intestinal nematodes and/or the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies did not interfere with the anti-HBs antibody titers in seven-year-old children vaccinated at birth with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

  20. The Mannose Receptor (CD206) is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in the detection of the infective stage of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni and modulates IFNγ production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveley, Ross A; Aynsley, Sarah A; Turner, Joseph D; Bourke, Claire D; Jenkins, Stephen J; Cook, Peter C; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Mountford, Adrian P

    2011-11-01

    In this study, infective larvae of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni were shown to contain a large number of glycosylated components specific for the Mannose Receptor (MR; CD206), which is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) of the innate immune system. MR ligands were particularly rich in excretory/secretory (E/S) material released during transformation of cercariae into schistosomula, a process critical for infection of the host. E/S material from carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE)-labelled cercariae showed enhanced binding by cells lines that over-express the MR. Conversely, uptake was significantly lower by bone marrow-derived macrophages (MΦ) from MR(-/-) mice, although they were more active as judged by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and CD40 expression. After natural percutaneous infection of MR(-/-) mice with CFDA-SE-labelled parasites, there were fewer cells in the skin and draining lymph nodes that were CFDA-SE(+) compared with wild-type mice, implying reduced uptake and presentation of larval parasite antigen. However, antigen-specific proliferation of skin draining lymph node cells was significantly enhanced and they secreted markedly elevated levels of IFNγ but decreased levels of IL-4. In conclusion, we show that the MR on mononuclear phagocytic cells, which are plentiful in the skin, plays a significant role in internalising E/S material released by the invasive stages of the parasite which in turn modulates their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the absence of the MR, antigen-specific CD4(+) cells are Th1 biased, suggesting that ligation of the MR by glycosylated E/S material released by schistosome larvae modulates the production of CD4(+) cell specific IFNγ.

  1. Prevalence and effect of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infection on labour input in rice-growing communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are public health problems in communities which lack basic social amenities with poor hygienic conditions. Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence and effect of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths infection on labour input on rice production in 9 rice-growing communities of Ogun State. Parasitological examinations of urine and faecal samples, and structured questionnaires were conducted on 243 consented individuals from May 2009 to March 2010. The results showed an overall prevalence of 17% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for hookworms, 2% for Trichuris trichiura, 1% for Schistosoma haematobium and 1% for Schistosoma mansoni. A. lumbricoides and hookworms were more prevalent in Agbajege (25%, and varied in the other 8 communities. T. trichiura was prevalent in three communities, Agbajege (5%, Akodu (4.2%, and Moloko-Asipa (4.8 %; S. haematobium was prevalent only in Ayedere (2.6% and Lufoko (8%, while S. mansoni was prevalent only in Moloko-Asipa (9.5%. Infections among the gender were varied as 26.3 % of males and 33.8 % of females had an overall prevalence of: A. lumbricoides (16.8%, hookworms (11.8%, T. trichiura (1.6%, S. haematobium (1.1% and S. mansoni (1.1%. On frequency of infection to incapacitation per year, 45% of respondents were incapacitated 1-2 times, 27% 3-4 times and 19% were incapacitated more than 4 times. Understanding the effect of these two diseases will not only improve the health status of residents but also increase their productivity and ensure food security.

  2. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  3. Assessment of Efficacy and Quality of Two Albendazole Brands Commonly Used against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in School Children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

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    Sileshi Belew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a worldwide upscale in mass drug administration (MDA programs to control the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Although anthelminthic drugs which are used for MDA are supplied by two pharmaceutical companies through donation, there is a wide range of brands available on local markets for which the efficacy against STHs and quality remain poorly explored. In the present study, we evaluated the drug efficacy and quality of two albendazole brands (Bendex and Ovis available on the local market in Ethiopia.A randomized clinical trial was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines to assess drug efficacy, by means of egg reduction rate (ERR, of Bendex and Ovis against STH infections in school children in Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition, the chemical and physicochemical quality of the drugs was assessed according to the United States and European Pharmacopoeia, encompassing mass uniformity of the tablets, amount of active compound and dissolution profile. Both drugs were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (>97%, but showed poor efficacy against T. trichiura (~20%. For hookworms, Ovis was significantly (p < 0.05 more efficacious compared to Bendex (98.1% vs. 88.7%. Assessment of the physicochemical quality of the drugs revealed a significant difference in dissolution profile, with Bendex having a slower dissolution than Ovis.The study revealed that differences in efficacy between the two brands of albendazole (ABZ tablets against hookworm are linked to the differences in the in-vitro drug release profile. Differences in uptake and metabolism of this benzimidazole drug among different helminth species may explain that this efficacy difference was only observed in hookworms and not in the two other species. The results of the present study underscore the importance of assessing the chemical and physicochemical quality of drugs before

  4. Loss of the TGFβ-activating integrin αvβ8 on dendritic cells protects mice from chronic intestinal parasitic infection via control of type 2 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Worthington

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal parasite infection is a major global health problem, but mechanisms that promote chronicity are poorly understood. Here we describe a novel cellular and molecular pathway involved in the development of chronic intestinal parasite infection. We show that, early during development of chronic infection with the murine intestinal parasite Trichuris muris, TGFβ signalling in CD4+ T-cells is induced and that antibody-mediated inhibition of TGFβ function results in protection from infection. Mechanistically, we find that enhanced TGFβ signalling in CD4+ T-cells during infection involves expression of the TGFβ-activating integrin αvβ8 by dendritic cells (DCs, which we have previously shown is highly expressed by a subset of DCs in the intestine. Importantly, mice lacking integrin αvβ8 on DCs were completely resistant to chronic infection with T. muris, indicating an important functional role for integrin αvβ8-mediated TGFβ activation in promoting chronic infection. Protection from infection was dependent on CD4+ T-cells, but appeared independent of Foxp3+ Tregs. Instead, mice lacking integrin αvβ8 expression on DCs displayed an early increase in production of the protective type 2 cytokine IL-13 by CD4+ T-cells, and inhibition of this increase by crossing mice to IL-4 knockout mice restored parasite infection. Our results therefore provide novel insights into how type 2 immunity is controlled in the intestine, and may help contribute to development of new therapies aimed at promoting expulsion of gut helminths.

  5. Immune regulation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Nielsen, Nick Schou;

    2016-01-01

    The immunological result of infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on the delicate balance between a vigorous immune response that may clear the infection, but with a risk of unspecific inflammation and, or a less inflammatory response that leads to chronic infection. In general, exhaustion...... and impairment of cytotoxic function of HCV-specific T cells and NK cells are found in patients with chronic HCV infection. In contrast, an increase in immune regulatory functions is found primarily in form of increased IL-10 production possibly due to increased level and function of anti-inflammatory Tregs....... Thus, the major immune players during chronic HCV infection are characterized by a decrease of cytotoxic function and increase of inhibitory functions. This may be an approach to diminish intrahepatic and systemic inflammation. Finally, there has been increasing awareness of regulatory functions...

  6. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2 mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation and tissue repair. To date little is known about the metabolism of ILCs under steady-state conditions and infection, and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response...

  7. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

  8. Landscape features and helminth co-infection shape bank vole immunoheterogeneity, with consequences for Puumala virus epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.

  9. Pathological Studies on the Small Intestine of Wild Rabbit Fish (Siganus Rivulatus) Infected by Helminthes Parasite (Procamallanus Sp) in Red Sea Coast Area, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Eldeen Y.M.H; Omer F. Idris; Murwan K. Sabahelkhier

    2012-01-01

    Wild rabbit fish (Siganus rivulatus) Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) herbivores fish were collected from two sites (Dongnab and Swakin) on Sudanese Red Sea Coast during February 2010 - January 2011 and then examine for helminthes parasites. Microscopic anatomy of intestine with worms and without worms compared to each other. Helminth parasites belong to Procamallanus sp. The abundance of lymphocytes cell, eosinphils, red blood cells and goblet cells in parasitized intestine was significantly ...

  10. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Adding ribavirin to interferon improves treatment response for patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effects of ribavirin monotherapy are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits and harms of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C....

  11. Impact of health education on soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren of the Peruvian Amazon: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W Gyorkos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To control soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, the World Health Organization recommends school-based deworming programs with a health hygiene education component. The effect of such health hygiene interventions, however, has not been adequately studied. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a health hygiene education intervention on the occurrence of STH re-infection four months post-de-worming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An open-label pair-matched cluster-randomized trial was conducted in Grade 5 schoolchildren of 18 primary schools (9 intervention and 9 control in the Peruvian Amazon. Baseline assessment included interview with a pre-tested questionnaire and collection of single stool specimens that were examined using the single Kato-Katz thick smear. All schoolchildren were then treated with single-dose albendazole (400 mg. Schoolchildren in intervention schools then received 1 an initial one hour in-class activity on health hygiene and sanitation and 30-minute refresher activities every two weeks over four months; and 2 a half-day workshop for teachers and principals, while children in control schools did not. Four months later, STH infection was re-assessed in all schools by laboratory technologists blinded to intervention status. From April 21-October 20, 2010, a total of 1,089 schoolchildren (518 and 571 from intervention and control schools, respectively participated in this study. Intervention children scored significantly higher on all aspects of a test of STH-related knowledge compared with control children (aOR = 18·4; 95% CI: 12·7 to 26·6. The intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection at follow-up was statistically significantly lower (by 58% in children in intervention schools compared with children in control schools (aIRR = 0·42; 95% CI = 0·21 to 0·85. No significant changes in hookworm or Trichuris trichiura intensity were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A

  12. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in normal and athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S

    1993-01-01

    We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic change...

  13. Chronic rhinovirus infection in an adult with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flight, William G; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Tilston, Peter; Mutton, Kenneth J; Guiver, Malcolm; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-11-01

    Rhinovirus is a common cause of exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and is usually considered a self-limiting infection. We report a case of chronic infection with rhinovirus A type 33 in a 43-year-old male with CF which has persisted for over 2 years.

  14. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; van den Berg, Arie P.; Porte, Robert J.; Benne, Cornelis A.; Vennema, Harry; Reimerink, Johan H. J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is known to run a self-limiting course. Sporadic cases of acute hepatitis due to infection with HEV genotype 3, present in pig populations, are increasingly recognized. Zoonotic transmission seems infrequent. The entity of unexplained chronic hepatitis after liver t

  15. Invasive fungal infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriet, S.S.V.; Verweij, P.E.; Holland, S.M.; Warris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major threat for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of published invasive fungal infections in the CGD host through an extensive review of epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data. In ad

  16. Chronic hepatitis E infection in lung transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Puchhammer-Stockl, Elisabeth; van der Weide, Hinke Y.; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Jaksch, Peter; Bejvl, Isabella; Niesters, Hubert G.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 has been identified in patients with autochthonous HEV infections in developed countries and is currently being recognized as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. HEV infection may lead to a chronic hepatitis in immune-compromised patients. METHODS: We studie

  17. Generating a detailed protein profile of Fasciola hepatica during the chronic stage of infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haçarız, Orçun; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Akgün, Mete; Kavak, Pınar; Sağıroğlu, Mahmut Şamil; Sayers, Gearóid Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode helminth causing a damaging disease, fasciolosis, in ruminants and humans. Comprehensive proteomic studies broaden our knowledge of the parasite's protein profile, and provide new insights into the development of more effective strategies to deal with fasciolosis. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive profile of F. hepatica proteins expressed during the chronic stage of infection in cattle by building on previous efforts in this area. The approach included an improved sample preparation procedure for surface and internal layers of the parasite, the application of nano-UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS (nano-ultra-performance LC and ESI quadrupole TOF MS) integrated with different acquisition methods and in silico database search against various protein databases and a transcript database including a new assembly of publically available EST. Of a total of 776 identified proteins, 206 and 332 were specific to the surface and internal layers of the parasite, respectively. Furthermore, 238 proteins were common to both layers, with comparative differences of 172 proteins detected. Specific proteins not previously identified in F. hepatica, but shown to be immunomodulatory or potential drug targets for other parasites, are discussed.

  18. Association of Chronic HBV Infection with Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: A Review and Case Report

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    Inna M. Mulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a clinical report on the associated course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection with Castleman's disease (CD. We noticed the reactivation of previously latent chronic hepatitis B (CHB with high replicative activity of HBV DNA during the treatment of lymphoproliferative disease. This clinical case dictates the need for pre-emptive therapy of HBV infection with nucleoside analogues in patients who are receiving chemotherapy.

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of bacteria causing acute exacerbations. Also lung infections like pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema are more often seen in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects. With regard to extrapulmonary infections, it seems that COPD patients are not at higher risk of infection compared with subjects without......This review article focuses on the risk of infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Throughout the years there have been a number of studies describing the risk of pulmonary infections in patients with COPD, whereas only few studies have focused on the risk...... of infection outside the lungs. With increasing severity of COPD the risk of respiratory tract infection also increases. The impairment of the innate immune system is most likely responsible for both the colonization of respiratory tract with bacteria and for an increased risk of infection with new strains...

  20. The Expression of CD2 in Chronic HBV Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Baotai Qi; Ping Chen; Linjing He; Ping Wang; Yuqiang Ji; Ming Xie

    2008-01-01

    It was previously reported that several kinds of intercellular adhesion molecules are closely related to chronic HBV infection. The complex of CD2 and CD58 plays an important role in enhancing the adhesion of T lymphocytes to target cells. and promoting hyperplasia and activation of T lymphocytes. In this study, we detected the level of CD2 expressed on the surface of PBMC, the expression Ievel of CD2 mRNA in PBMC and the percentage of CD2 positive cells in PBMC of patients with chronic HBV infection and compared them with the expression level of normal controls. We also determined the level of serum HBV DNA from patients with chronic HBV infection and from normal controls. The clinical characteristics of hepatic function were tested as well. The results showed that the expression of CD2 significantly increased with the severity of chronic HBV infection, which suggested that CD2 might contribute to the hepatocyte damage in chronic HBV infection. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2008; 5(1):69-73.

  1. Chronic hepatitis caused by persistent parvovirus B19 infection

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    Mogensen Trine H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual

  2. The effect of improved rural sanitation on diarrhoea and helminth infection: design of a cluster-randomized trial in Orissa, India

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    Clasen Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases associated with poor sanitation such as diarrhoea, intestinal worms, trachoma and lymphatic filariasis continue to cause a large disease burden in low income settings and contribute substantially to child mortality and morbidity. Obtaining health impact data for rural sanitation campaigns poses a number of methodological challenges. Here we describe the design of a village-level cluster-randomised trial in the state of Orissa, India to evaluate the impact of an ongoing rural sanitation campaign conducted under the umbrella of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC.We randomised 50 villages to the intervention and 50 villages to control. In the intervention villages the implementing non-governmental organisations conducted community mobilisation and latrine construction with subsidies given to poor families. Control villages receive no intervention. Outcome measures include (1 diarrhoea in children under 5 and in all ages, (2 soil-transmitted helminth infections, (3 anthropometric measures, (4 water quality, (5 number of insect vectors (flies, mosquitoes, (6 exposure to faecal pathogens in the environment. In addition we are conducting process documentation (latrine construction and use, intervention reach, cost and cost-effectiveness analyses, spatial analyses and qualitative research on gender and water use for sanitation. Results Randomisation resulted in an acceptable balance between trial arms. The sample size requirements appear to be met for the main study outcomes. Delays in intervention roll-out caused logistical problems especially for the planning of health outcome follow-up surveys. Latrine coverage at the end of the construction period (55% remained below the target of 70%, a result that may, however, be in line with many other TSC intervention areas in India. Conclusion We discuss a number of methodological problems encountered thus far in this study that may be typical for sanitation trials

  3. Review of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-02-01

    Chronic renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis often encounter gastrointestinal troubles over their long treatment period. Helicobacter pylori infection has close association with development of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, and is thought to be one of the major risk factors for gastrointestinal troubles in dialysis patients. However, it is unclear whether H. pylori infection is directly associated with progression of renal dysfunction and prognosis of chronic renal failure patients. Recent consensus shows that the prevalence of H. pylori infection in chronic renal failure patients is significantly lower than in subjects with normal renal function. In the natural history of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of infection decreases as dialysis periods progressed, in particular within the first four years after the start of treatment. However, the chance of natural eradication becomes rare for patients receiving dialysis treatment for a long time. Moreover, chronic renal failure patients with H. pylori infection have a higher incidence of gastroduodenal diseases, and therefore, are recommended to receive eradication therapies, especially for those receiving treatment for a long time and with higher risks of complication. Intensive endoscopic check-ups for the prevention of gastrointestinal events and the discovery of peptic ulcer and neoplastic diseases at an early phase may be required.

  4. Chronic Gastritis and its Association with H. Pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, J; Khan, A H; Uddin, M J; Rahman, M H; Saha, M; Safwath, S A; Alam, M J; Mamun, M A

    2015-10-01

    This cross sectional study was designed to see association of chronic gastritis including its type with H. pylori infection. Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic examination having histopathological evidence of chronic gastritis were enrolled in the study and was done in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College from July 2011 to June 2012. Biopsies were taken from antrum, body and fundus in all patients. Histopathological examinations were done using H-E stain and for detection of H. pylori, rapid urease test, anti-H.pylori antibody test and histopathological test with modified Giemsa stain were done. Patients having results positive in at least two methods were considered infected by H. pylori. Total 80 dyspeptic patients having chronic gastritis were evaluated. Out of them 67(83.8%) had H. pylori infection and 13(16.2%) were H. pylori negative. Among all patients 57(71.2%) had pangastritis and 23(28.8%) had antral gastritis with female and male predominance respectively. H. pylori infection was present in 49(86.0%) cases of pangastritis and 18(78.3%) cases of antral gastritis. H. pylori infection was a little higher among males (34, 50.7%) females (33, 49.3%). H. pylori infection is the predominant cause of chronic gastritis and pangastritis is the major type.

  5. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Acute infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have been studied extensively for well over 100 years. These infections killed millions of people in previous centuries, but they have been combated effectively by the development of modern vaccines, antibiotics and infection control measures. Most research into bacterial pathogenesis has focused on acute infections, but these diseases have now been supplemented by a new category of chronic infections caused by bacteria growing in slime-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms. Biofilm infections, such as pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients, chronic wounds, chronic otitis media and implant- and catheter-associated infections, affect millions of people in the developed world each year and many deaths occur as a consequence. In general, bacteria have two life forms during growth and proliferation. In one form, the bacteria exist as single, independent cells (planktonic) whereas in the other form, bacteria are organized into sessile aggregates. The latter form is commonly referred to as the biofilm growth phenotype. Acute infections are assumed to involve planktonic bacteria, which are generally treatable with antibiotics, although successful treatment depends on accurate and fast diagnosis. However, in cases where the bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often turns out to be untreatable and will develop into a chronic state. The important hallmarks of chronic biofilm-based infections are extreme resistance to antibiotics and many other conventional antimicrobial agents, and an extreme capacity for evading the host defences. In this thesis, I will assemble the current knowledge on biofilms with an emphasis on chronic infections, guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of these infections, before relating this to my previous research into the area of biofilms. I will present evidence to support a view that the biofilm lifestyle dominates chronic bacterial infections, where bacterial

  6. Faecal egg counts and expulsion dynamics of the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura following self-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E P; Merino Tejedor, Ana; Thamsborg, S M;

    2016-01-01

    More than 400 million humans are estimated to be infected with the intestinal helminth parasite, Trichuris trichiura. The infection is chronic in nature and high-intensity infection can lead to colitis, anaemia, Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome and reduced cognitive performance. Single doses of 400 m...

  7. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection definition: EuroCareCF Working Group report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T; Bohmova, C; Conway, S;

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa develops in most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); by adulthood 80% of patients are infected and chronic P. aeruginosa infection is the primary cause of increased morbidity and mortality in CF. Chronic infection is preceded by an intermittent stage...

  8. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cacoub, Patrice; Comarmond, Cloe; Domont, Fanny; Savey, Léa; Desbois, Anne claire; Saadoun, David

    2016-01-01

    International audience; During hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection, extrahepatic manifestations are frequent and polymorphous. This article reports on a large cohort of patients with HCV-related autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders, from mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis to frank lymphomas. The relationship between HCV infection and such immune-related diseases has been formally demonstrated by epidemiological, clinical, immunological and pathological data, and results of therape...

  9. Chronic infection with Achromobacter xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis patients; a retrospective case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne Hansen, Christine; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels

    2006-01-01

    patients (6 males) with chronic A. xylosoxidans infection were matched by age, FEV(1) and body mass index z-score to 15 controls (7 males) at the time of establishment of chronic infection. Clinical parameters of the groups were compared from the time of establishment of chronic infection until spring 2006...... to a decline in lung function in a subgroup of chronically infected CF patients characterised by a rapid increase in specific precipitating antibodies. Cross-infection may possibly occur....

  10. Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection and impact of four-monthly albendazole treatments in preschool children from semi-urban communities in Nigeria: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children aged between one and five years are particularly vulnerable to disease caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Periodic deworming has been shown to improve growth, micronutrient status (iron and vitamin A, and motor and language development in preschool children and justifies the inclusion of this age group in deworming programmes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and intensity of STH infection and to investigate the effectiveness of repeated four-monthly albendazole treatments on STH infection in children aged one to four years. Methods The study was carried out in four semi-urban villages situated near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Children aged one to four years were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results The results presented here revealed that 50% of the preschool children in these semi-urban communities were infected by one or more helminths, the most prevalent STH being Ascaris lumbricoides (47.6%. Our study demonstrated that repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments with albendazole were successful in reducing prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. At the end of the follow-up period, 12% and 43% of the children were infected with A. lumbricoides and mean epg was 117 (S.E. 50 and 1740 (S.E. 291 in the treatment and placebo groups respectively compared to 45% and 45% of the children being infected with Ascaris and mean epg being 1095 (S.E. 237 and 1126 (S.E. 182 in the treatment and placebo group respectively at baseline. Conclusion Results from this study show that the moderate prevalence and low intensity of STH infection in these preschool children necessitates systematic treatment of the children in child health programmes. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995.

  11. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed. PMID:27092310

  12. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Degarege

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed.

  13. H pylori infection causes chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether chronic H pylori infection has the potential to induce pancreatitis in the Mongolian gerbil model, and whether it is dependent on an intact type Ⅳ secretion system.METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild type (WT) H pyloritype Ⅰ strain B128 or its isogenic mutant B128 Acag Y (defective type Ⅳ secretion). After seven months of infection, H pylori was reisolated from antrum and corpus and H pylori DNA was analyzed by seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inflammation and histological changes were documented in the gastric antrum, corpus, and pancreas by immunohistochemistry.Cytokine mRNA, gastric pH, plasma gastrin, amylase,lipase, and glucose levels were determined.RESULTS: The H pylori infection rate was 95%.Eight infected animals, but none of the uninfected group, developed transmural inflammation and chronic pancreatitis. Extensive interstitial fibrosis and inflammation of the pancreatic lobe adjacent to the antrum was confirmed by trichrome stain, and immunohistochemically. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly increased in the antral mucosa of all infected gerbils. In the corpus, only cytokine levels of WT-infected animals and those developing transmural inflammation and pancreatitis were significantly increased.Levels of lipase, but not glucose or amylase levels, were significantly reduced in the pancreatitis group. H pylori DNA was detected in infected antral and corpus tissue,but not in the pancreas.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection is able to induce chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils independently of the type Ⅳ secretion system, probably by an indirect mechanism associated with a penetrating ulcer.

  14. A case of chronic appendicopathy caused by parasitic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Ramsaransing; R.R. Postema (Roelf); J.L. Simons

    2010-01-01

    textabstractParasitic infection of the appendix is rarely seen, but should be considered in patients with symptoms of chronic appendicitis. It is rarely associated with histological inflammation of the appendix, therefore radiographic imaging, performed during initial workup, remains unremarkable mo

  15. Therapeutic vaccination against chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ip, Peng Peng; Nijman, Hans W.; Wilschut, Jan; Daemen, Toos

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people worldwide are chronic carriers of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). To date, there is no prophylactic vaccine available against HCV. The standard-of-care therapy for HCV infection involves a combination of pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. This therapy, which is commonly

  16. Regulatory T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.N. Stoop (Jeroen Nicolaas)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide 400 million people suffer from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 1 million people die annually from HBV-related disease. To clear HBV, an effective immune response, in which several cell types and cytokines play a role, is important. It is known that p

  17. Chronic cutaneous ulcers secondary to Haemophilus ducreyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Bhatti, Deepak; De Boer, Jim C; Stratov, Ivan; Spelman, Denis W

    2010-03-15

    Haemophilus ducreyi is a well recognised causative agent of genital ulcers and chancroid. We report two unusual cases of non-sexually transmitted H. ducreyi infection leading to chronic lower limb ulcers. Both patients were Australian expatriates visiting Australia from the Pacific Islands--one from Papua New Guinea and the other from Vanuatu.

  18. Antiviral Therapy for Chronic HCV Infection - Tolerability and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Maan (Raoel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the safety and outcome of antiviral therapy for chronic HCV infection. In the first chapters, the authors investigated (hematological) adverse events during interferon-based therapy among patients with compensated cirrhosis. By using a patient-tailored approach, int

  19. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis.

  20. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuff, Donna A; Reese, Tiffany A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Weiss, Leslie A; Song, Christina; Zhang, Xin; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Carrero, Javier A; Boisson, Bertrand; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Israel, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Colonna, Marco; Edelson, Brian T; Sibley, L David; Stallings, Christina L; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the presentation of hereditary immunodeficiencies may be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Patients with mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1) present with amylopectinosis-associated myopathy with or without hyper-inflammation and immunodeficiency. We report that barrier-raised HOIL-1-deficient mice exhibit amylopectin-like deposits in the myocardium but show minimal signs of hyper-inflammation. However, they show immunodeficiency upon acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium. Increased susceptibility to Listeria was due to HOIL-1 function in hematopoietic cells and macrophages in production of protective cytokines. In contrast, HOIL-1-deficient mice showed enhanced control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis or murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), and these infections conferred a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Surprisingly, chronic infection with MHV68 complemented the immunodeficiency of HOIL-1, IL-6, Caspase-1 and Caspase-1;Caspase-11-deficient mice following Listeria infection. Thus chronic herpesvirus infection generates signs of auto-inflammation and complements genetic immunodeficiency in mutant mice, highlighting the importance of accounting for the virome in genotype-phenotype studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04494.001 PMID:25599590

  1. Chronic Ulcerative Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Griffith-Bauer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus infections in HIV-infected individuals can be clinically unusual and difficult to treat due to underlying problems with cell-mediated immunity and the occurrence of antiviral resistance. Additionally, partial or incomplete restoration of immune function may result in chronic ulcerations that require rotational treatments. In this report, we describe the case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman who developed the ulcerative form of chronic herpes simplex infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy and valacyclovir prophylaxis. Repeated intravenous courses of foscarnet and topical cidofovir finally controlled her erosions as her cell-mediated immunity was slowly restored. This case highlights the challenges that still exist in diagnosing and managing this rare presentation of herpes simplex virus

  2. Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminths indigenous to Japan and their treatment historically studied in an attempt to control the diseases in countries where they are still rampant: (1) the Jomon to Edo periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kuwada, Masahiro; Caceres, Armando; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminthes were historically surveyed from the Jomon period to the end of the Edo period in Japan. The parasitic helminthes whose eggs or symptoms were shown in the remains and bibliographies are the roundworm, whipworm, liver fluke, Yokogawa's fluke and the cestode, Diphyllobothrium sp. The first two are soil-transmitted nematodes and the other three parasitic helminths are those with which people are infected following eating raw fish. The infection routes provide valuable information on the environments, life-style and customs in those days. The eggs of the soil-transmitted parasites have the thick shells resistant to the environments. Humans are infected with the parasites after the eggs are orally ingested with soil, dust, vegetables grown with night soil or manure. When the custom of the night soil was started in the history of Japan was discussed with this infection route. In ancient times, feces are thought to have been discarded. In the Medieval Period, they were started to be used as a fertilizer. No mature types of manure were used until the modern times (already in the Edo period). To our idea, no recoveries of eggs of hookworms causing severe anemia do not necessarily mean that people were not infected with the parasites in those days because the eggs are covered with thin shells liable to rupture. The latter fact of the eggs of the platihelminths, C. sinensis, M. yokogawai and D. latum has something to do with Japanese traditional eating customs, unequivocally demonstrating that they ate raw fish from the Nara Period, at latest, until today. Whether eggs of the cestode (D. latum) are found in Jomon remains, Momijiyama Iseki, Hokkaido should be investigated. If no eggs of the cestode are found in their toilet site or elsewhere, it could be concluded that they did not have the custom of eating raw salmon. Such a conclusion would be itself a new fact. One of the effective treatments for the cestode (D. latum

  3. Chronic Mycobacterium marinum Infection Acts as a Tumor Promoter in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An accumulating body of research indicates there is an increased cancer risk associated with chronic infections. The genus Mycobacterium contains a number of species, including M tuberculosis, which mount chronic infections and have been implicated in higher cancer risk. Several ...

  4. Intestinal helminths of four species of skinks (Mabuya) (Sauria: Scincidae) from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S R; Bursey, C R

    2001-06-01

    Intestinal helminths are reported from four species of scincid lizards from southern Africa: Mabuya occidentalis, Mabuya spilogaster, Mabuya striata and Mabuya variegata. The helminth fauna consisted of one species of Cestoda, Oochoristica truncata and five species of Nematoda, Abbreviata paradoxa, Maxvachonia dimorpha, Parapharyngodon rotundatus, Spauligodon petersi and Thubunaea fitzsimonsi. All findings represent new host records. Ascarid larvae were also found. It appears that Mabuya is infected by generalist helminths that occur in other species of African lizards.

  5. Transmammary infection in BALB/c mice with chronic toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Aguiar, Patricia; Furtado, Raquel Dutra; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; de Lima Telmo, Paula; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-04-01

    Human toxocariasis is a neglected public health problem. Infection of humans generally results from the accidental ingestion of embryonated Toxocara canis eggs, but it is important to broaden knowledge about other forms of transmission. This study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of transmammary transmission in mice with chronic toxocariasis. BALB/c mice in groups 1 (G1) and 3 (G3) were inoculated with 1200 T. canis eggs 60days before mating, whereas those of group 2 (G2) were not infected. After delivery, the G1 neonates were transferred to G2 females to be nursed, and vice versa. Thus, the mice generated by G2 females and breastfed by G1 females could be infected only during lactation. In the G3 group, offspring were not exchanged. The search for T. canis larvae in the bodies of the lactating females and their offspring was performed after weaning and at 60days old, respectively. The frequency of transmammary infection in the mice generated by G2 uninfected females and breastfed by G1 infected females was 19.8%, which was similar to that observed (19.6%) in the mice bred and fed by G3 females. The frequency of infection in the mice generated by G1 females and breastfed by G2 females was only 4.2%, which was lower than that of G1 (p=0.0064) and G3 (p=0.0062) groups. Transmammary infection by mice with chronic toxocariasis was found to be more prevalent than congenital infection.

  6. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  7. THE CYTOKINE IP-10 IN CHRONIC HBV AND HCV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S. Nikolova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: IP-10 it has been studied as a predictor of treatment response in chronic HCV infected patients. The data for the HBV infection are not enough.Aim: To compare IP-10 levels in patients with chronic HBV /CHB/ and HCV infection /CHC/ and their relation to liver disease and treatment response. Material and methods: 20 patients - with CHC genotype 1 infection /on standard bi-therapy/ and 32 patients with CHB /21 pts - NUC; 11 pts - IFN/. Results: The IP-10 did not correlate with sex, age, ALT and liver fibrosis. The basal IP-10 were lower in patients with CHB (p=0,017. There was a difference in IP-10 baseline levels among the HCV patients with or without RVR (p=0,007. A negative correlation was found between basal IP-10 and RVR (r= -0,508; p=0,008. Conclusion: IP-10 could predict virological response in patients with CHC on standard bi-therapy, but not in HBV infected patients on standard therapy.

  8. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds.

  9. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  10. ANA testing in the presence of acute and chronic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Christine M; Binder, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibody testing is performed to help diagnose patients who have clinical symptoms suggestive of possible autoimmune diseases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are present in many systemic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, a positive ANA test may also be seen with non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including both acute and chronic infections. When the ANA test is used as an initial screen in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, myalgias, fatigue, rash, or anemia, the likelihood of a positive result due to infection will increase, especially in children. This article identifies acute and chronic infectious diseases that are likely to produce a positive ANA result and summarizes recent literature addressing both the causes and consequences of these findings.

  11. Features of direct implantation in chronic foci of odontogenic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaryan А.А.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the developed therapeutic and prophylactic complex and efficacy of immediate implantation in 66 patients with chronic foci of odontogenic infection in the periapical region. Objective: to increase preventive measures of inflammatory and infectious complications and optimization of osteo-integrative processes in immediate implantation after tooth extraction, with periapical foci of chronic infection. It was found that the use of the developed medical complex of following up direct implantation includes the use of local photodynamic therapy, platelet, rich in fibrin as a injection and membranes; this allowed to create a favorable background for the prevention of inflammatory and infectious complications in the peri-implant area and created a favorable background for the osseo-integration of implants in 97.1% of the investigated.

  12. Breastfeeding and chronic HBV infection: Clinical and social implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihaela; Petrova; Victor; Kamburov

    2010-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is among the most important causes of chronic HBV infection and is the commonest mode of transmission worldwide. Currently, the presence of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in breast milk is confirmed. Several studies have reported that breastfeeding carries no additional risk that might lead to vertical transmission. Beyond some limitations, the surveys have not demonstrated any differences in HBV transmission rate regarding feeding practices in early childho...

  13. Biofilms in chronic infections - a matter of opportunity - monospecies biofilms in multispecies infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Fazli, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    to permanent tissue fillers and chronic wounds) both as to distribution (such as where in the wound bed) and organization (monospecies or multispecies microcolonies). We correlate these biofilm observations to observations of commensal biofilms (dental and intestine) and biofilms in natural ecosystems (soil......). The observations of the chronic biofilm infections point toward a trend of low bacterial diversity and sovereign monospecies biofilm aggregates even though the infection in which they reside are multispecies. In contrast to this, commensal and natural biofilm aggregates contain multiple species that are believed...

  14. Agglutination of Trypanosoma cruzi in infected cells treated with serum from chronically infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Jennifer L; Rowland, Edwin C

    2009-04-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. The chronic stage of infection is characterized by a production of neutralizing antibodies in the vertebrate host. A polyclonal antibody, anti-egressin, has been found to inhibit egress of parasites from the host cell late in the intracellular cycle, after the parasites have transformed from the replicative amastigote into the trypomastigote. It has also been found that BALB/c mouse fibroblasts in the late stages of parasite infection become permeable to molecules as large as antibodies, leading to the possibility that anti-egressin affects the intracellular parasites. This project addresses the fate of the intracellular trypomastigotes that have been inhibited from egressing the host cell. Extended cultures of infected fibroblasts treated with chronic mouse serum reduced parasite egress at all time points measured. Parasites released from infected fibroblasts treated with chronic serum had a reduced ability to infect fibroblasts in culture, yet did not lose infectivity entirely. Absorption of chronic serum with living trypomastigotes removed the anti-egressin effect. The possibility that the target of anti-egressin is a parasite surface component is further indicated by the agglutination of extracellular trypomastigotes by chronic serum. The possibility that cross-linking by antibody occurs intracellularly, thus inhibiting egress, was reinforced by cleaving purified IgG into Fab fragments, which did not inhibit egress when added to infected cultures. From this work, it is proposed that the current, best explanation of the mechanism of egress inhibition by anti-egressin is intracellular agglutination, preventing normal parasite-driven egress.

  15. [The diagnostic of chronic infection Helicobacter pylori in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereschenko, S Yu; Olkhovskiy, I A

    2014-02-01

    The epidemiological studies testify an extremely high prevalence of chronic infection of children with Helicobacter pylori in Russia. The affection consists from 50% to 80% depending on region and age of examined children. The currently in force recommendations "Maastricht IV" concerning diagnostic and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection adult patients are applied not in its fullness to children adolescent population. At the same time recently published joint conciliatory document of the European and North American associations of pediatric gastroenterologists is oriented to populations with low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and particular profile of drug resistance. Hence, an urgent need exists to develop modern local algorithm concerning diagnostic, treatment and control of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection among children and adolescents in Russia. The review presents analysis of admissibility of application in Russia's conditions of the international conciliatory documents concerning diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. The data from conciliatory document of the European (ESPGHAN) and North American (NASPGHAN) associations of pediatric gastroenterologists, particular orginal research studies and one's own clinical experience were used. The advantages and shortcomings of actual methods of laboratory diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection are discussed. The approaches to application of particular diagnostic methods are considered. The enhanced indications to detection of infection and implementation of eradication therapy are proposed.

  16. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  17. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

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    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  18. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Causes Significant Changes in Host Microbiota and Metabolome: Effects Reversed by Pathogen Clearance.

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    Ashley Houlden

    Full Text Available Trichuris species are a globally important and prevalent group of intestinal helminth parasites, in which Trichuris muris (mouse whipworm is an ideal model for this disease. This paper describes the first ever highly controlled and comprehensive investigation into the effects of T. muris infection on the faecal microbiota of mice and the effects on the microbiota following successful clearance of the infection. Communities were profiled using DGGE, 454 pyrosequencing, and metabolomics. Changes in microbial composition occurred between 14 and 28 days post infection, resulting in significant changes in α and β- diversity. This impact was dominated by a reduction in the diversity and abundance of Bacteroidetes, specifically Prevotella and Parabacteroides. Metabolomic analysis of stool samples of infected mice at day 41 showed significant differences to uninfected controls with a significant increase in the levels of a number of essential amino acids and a reduction in breakdown of dietary plant derived carbohydrates. The significant reduction in weight gain by infected mice probably reflects these metabolic changes and the incomplete digestion of dietary polysaccharides. Following clearance of infection the intestinal microbiota underwent additional changes gradually transitioning by day 91 towards a microbiota of an uninfected animal. These data indicate that the changes in microbiota as a consequence of infection were transitory requiring the presence of the pathogen for maintenance. Interestingly this was not observed for all of the key immune cell populations associated with chronic T. muris infection. This reflects the highly regulated chronic response and potential lasting immunological consequences of dysbiosis in the microbiota. Thus infection of T. muris causes a significant and substantial impact on intestinal microbiota and digestive function of mice with affects in long term immune regulation.

  19. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Causes Significant Changes in Host Microbiota and Metabolome: Effects Reversed by Pathogen Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlden, Ashley; Hayes, Kelly S; Bancroft, Allison J; Worthington, John J; Wang, Ping; Grencis, Richard K; Roberts, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris species are a globally important and prevalent group of intestinal helminth parasites, in which Trichuris muris (mouse whipworm) is an ideal model for this disease. This paper describes the first ever highly controlled and comprehensive investigation into the effects of T. muris infection on the faecal microbiota of mice and the effects on the microbiota following successful clearance of the infection. Communities were profiled using DGGE, 454 pyrosequencing, and metabolomics. Changes in microbial composition occurred between 14 and 28 days post infection, resulting in significant changes in α and β- diversity. This impact was dominated by a reduction in the diversity and abundance of Bacteroidetes, specifically Prevotella and Parabacteroides. Metabolomic analysis of stool samples of infected mice at day 41 showed significant differences to uninfected controls with a significant increase in the levels of a number of essential amino acids and a reduction in breakdown of dietary plant derived carbohydrates. The significant reduction in weight gain by infected mice probably reflects these metabolic changes and the incomplete digestion of dietary polysaccharides. Following clearance of infection the intestinal microbiota underwent additional changes gradually transitioning by day 91 towards a microbiota of an uninfected animal. These data indicate that the changes in microbiota as a consequence of infection were transitory requiring the presence of the pathogen for maintenance. Interestingly this was not observed for all of the key immune cell populations associated with chronic T. muris infection. This reflects the highly regulated chronic response and potential lasting immunological consequences of dysbiosis in the microbiota. Thus infection of T. muris causes a significant and substantial impact on intestinal microbiota and digestive function of mice with affects in long term immune regulation.

  20. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacoub, Patrice; Gragnani, Laura; Comarmond, Cloe; Zignego, Anna Linda

    2014-12-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients are known to be at risk of developing liver complications i.e. cirrhosis and liver cancer. However, the risks of morbidity and mortality are underestimated because they do not take into account non-liver consequences of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Numerous extrahepatic manifestations have been reported in up to 74% of patients, from perceived to disabling conditions. The majority of data concern hepatitis C virus-related autoimmune and/or lymphoproliferative disorders, from mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis to frank lymphomas. More recently, other hepatitis C virus-associated disorders have been reported including cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. This review aims to outline most of the extrahepatic manifestations that are currently being investigated, including some of autoimmune and/or lymphoproliferative nature, and others in which the role of immune mechanisms appears less clear. Beyond the liver, hepatitis C virus chronic infection should be analyzed as a multifaceted systemic disease leading to heavy direct and indirect costs. The accurate consideration of extrahepatic consequences of such a systemic infection significantly increases the weight of its pathological burden. The need for effective viral eradication measures is underlined.

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered from 254 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from 8 different localities in Greenland. Prevalences of infection with the helminth species differed from area to area: Toxascaris leonina (3968%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0-14%), Mesocestoides...... of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...

  2. Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris......, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam....

  3. Determinants of survival among HIV-infected chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Mendelson, Michael; O'Hare, Ann M; Hsu, Ling Chin; Schoenfeld, Patricia

    2003-05-01

    Over 100 HIV-infected patients have initiated chronic dialysis at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) since 1985. This study employed retrospective analysis to identify determinants of and trends in survival among HIV-infected patients who have initiated chronic dialysis at SFGH from January 1, 1985 to November 1, 2002 (n = 115). Cohort patient survival was compared with survival after an AIDS-opportunistic illness in all HIV-infected patients in San Francisco during the study period. Higher CD4 count (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86 per 50 cells/mm(3) increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.93) and serum albumin (HR, 0.53 per 1 g/dl increase; CI, 0.36 to 0.78) at initiation of dialysis were strongly associated with lower mortality. Survival for those initiating dialysis during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 16.1 mo versus 9.4 mo for those initiating dialysis before this time, but this difference was not statistically significant. In adjusted analysis, only a non-statistically significant trend toward improved survival during the HAART era was noted (HR, 0.59; CI, 0.34 to 1.04). By comparison, survival for all HIV-infected patients after an AIDS-opportunistic illness in San Francisco increased from 16 mo in 1994 to 81 mo in 1996. The dramatic improvement in survival that has occurred since the mid-1990s for patients with HIV appears to be greatly attenuated in the sub-group undergoing dialysis. Although this may partly reflect confounding by race, injection drug use and HCV co-infection, future attempts to improve survival among HIV-infected dialysis patients should focus on barriers to the effective use of HAART in this group.

  4. Effect of chronic FIV infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on Mycoplasma haemofelis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Caney, Sarah M A; Day, Michael J; Dean, Rachel S; Helps, Chris R; Knowles, Toby G; Lait, Philippa J P; Pinches, Mark D G; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2006-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on Mycoplasma haemofelis infection. Six cats chronically infected with FIV-Glasgow8 (Group X) and six FIV-free cats (Group Y) were infected with M. haemofelis on Day 0 by intravenous blood inoculation. From Day 0 until Day 86 post-infection (pi), blood samples were collected for M. haemofelis and FIV provirus quantitative real-time PCR and haematology. Three of the six cats in each of Groups X and Y were randomly selected to receive marbofloxacin treatment (2 mg/kg PO q24 h) from Day 16 to 43 pi, with the remaining cats being untreated controls with no antibiotic treatment. The M. haemofelis copy numbers and haematological data were compared between Groups X and Y, and between marbofloxacin-treated and control cats using a Mann-Whitney U-test. M. haemofelis infection was associated with development of macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. In some cats, marked variation in M. haemofelis copy number over time (>100,000-fold difference within 48 h in some cats) and/or cycling of copy number was seen. No correlation was found between FIV provirus copy number and M. haemofelis copy number or haematological variables. No significant effect of chronic FIV infection on M. haemofelis copy number kinetics or haematological changes due to M. haemofelis infection was found, other than MCHC (P=0.03). Marbofloxacin treatment was associated with a significant decrease in M. haemofelis copy number (P=0.002), although consistent clearance of infection was not demonstrated. This study reveals the presence of marked fluctuations in M. haemofelis copy number kinetics in vivo and a significant response to marbofloxacin antibiotic treatment.

  5. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection

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    Vogel Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

  6. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  7. Analysis of human intestinal helminth infections in Yancheng City,Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2015%2006-2015年盐城市人群肠道蠕虫感染监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学艳; 孙伯超

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析2006-2015年盐城市人群肠道蠕虫感染的流行趋势,为制定防治策略提供科学依据。方法对2006-2015年盐城市人群肠道蠕虫感染监测资料进行分析。结果2006-2015年盐城市累计进行肠道蠕虫感染监测110746人次,检出肠道蠕虫阳性者1732人次。2006年人群感染率最高,达4.59%(410/8941),2013年最低,为0.19%(23/12165),人群感染率总体呈逐年下降趋势,且有统计学意义(χ2=27.78,P<0.001)。2006-2015年人群蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫感染率降幅分别为96.57%、92.31%和96.47%,其随时间推移均呈显著下降趋势(Z=-27.75、-22.23和-16.17,P均<0.001)。蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫感染者平均EPG分别为2534、360和154,1694例(占97.81%)为轻度感染。12岁以下儿童共检出蛲虫感染阳性儿童1174例,病例数呈逐年下降趋势(χ2=12.46,P<0.001)。结论2006-2015年盐城市人群各类肠道蠕虫感染呈下降趋势,防治效果明显。今后应加强对重点人群的防控,加强环境治理及健康宣教。%Objective To investigate the epidemiological trend of human intestinal helminth infections in Yancheng City,Ji⁃angsu Province from 2006 to 2015,so as to provide the evidence for formulating further control strategies. Methods The sur⁃veillance data of human intestinal helminth infections were collected and analyzed in Yancheng City from 2006 to 2015. Re⁃sults From 2006 to 2015,110 746 person⁃times of residents in Yancheng City were surveyed in Yancheng City,and 1 732 samples were positive of human intestinal helminth infections. The infection rate of human intestinal helminthes was highest in 2006[4.59%(410/8 941)],and lowest in 2013[0.19%(23/12 165)]. The infection rate of human intestinal helminthes was significantly decreased over time(χ2=27.78,P<0.001). The human infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides,hook worm and Trichuris trichura were all decreased over time(Z=-27

  8. Helminth genomics: The implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Brindley

    Full Text Available More than two billion people (one-third of humanity are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings.

  9. Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Castañé, Ignasi; Ortuño, Anna; Marco, Ignasi; Castellà, Joaquim

    2015-12-01

    The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.

  10. Actinomyces and Nocardia infections in chronic granulomatous disease

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    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an inherited disorder of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase complex characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Disseminated infection by combination of opportunistic agents is being increasingly reported in CGD patients. We presented in the retrospective review of medical records, the etiology, presentation, clinical characteristics the infections detected, predisposing condition and outcome of nocardiosis and actinomycosis involved in a group of pediatric patients diagnosed with CGD. Materials and Methods: The clinical presentation of CGD-related infections was reviewed retrospectively from the medical records of all 12 patients with CGD. We studied respectively 12 patients between 2001 and 2008, and we analyzed two pediatric patients with CGD who acquired Nocardia and Actinomyces infections, and their clinical and microbiological characteristics were described. The material for investigations was collected from scrapings, crusts, pus from subcutaneous abscesses or exudation from sinus tracts, surgical debridement, and biopsy specimens. The microbiological diagnosis was determined by biochemical tests, histology, microscopy, and culture of clinical samples. Results: The medical records of 12 diagnosed CGD patients with suspected nocardiosis or actinomycosis were reviewed. One patient was diagnosed with actinomycosis and one patient with nocardiosis. Patients consisted of seven males and five females with ranging ages of 3 to 18 years. Nocardiosis and actinomycosis isolated in the two patients were confirmed by histology and culture methods. Neutrophil oxidative burst were absent (NBT=0 in both patients. The most common manifestations of CGD due to fungal infections, actinomycosis, and nocardiosis were osteomyelitis (42.8%, pulmonary infections (28.6%, lymphadenopathy (14.3%, and skin involvement (14.3% during their illness. Conclusion: Nocardiosis

  11. 77 FR 30293 - Recommendations for the Identification of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...) announces draft recommendations for identification of persons with HCV chronic infection, available for public comment. The recommendations are intended to increase the proportion of persons with chronic...

  12. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease.

  13. Helminth Parasites and the Modulation of Joint Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea E. Matisz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop better therapeutics for autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, of which musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are particularly prevalent and debilitating. Helminth parasites are accomplished masters at modifying their hosts' immune activity, and so attention has focused on rodent-helminth model systems to uncover the workings of the mammalian immune response to metazoan parasites, with the hope of revealing molecules and/or mechanisms that can be translated into better treatments for human autoimmune and idiopathic disorders. Substantial proof-of-principal data supporting the concept that infection with helminth parasites can reduce the severity of concomitant disease has been amassed from models of mucosal inflammation. Indeed, infection with helminth parasites has been tried as a therapy in inflammatory bowel disease, and there are case reports relating to other conditions (e.g., autism; however, the impact of infection with parasitic helminths on musculoskeletal diseases has not been extensively studied. Here, we present the view that such a strategy should be applied to the amelioration of joint inflammation and review the literature that supports this contention.

  14. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira N, M S; Zeehaida, M

    2012-12-01

    Trichuris dysentery syndrome is caused by Trichuris trichiura which contributes to one of the most common helminthic infections in the world. It is associated with heavy colonic infection that manifests as mucoid diarrhoea, rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse, iron deficiency anaemia, and finger clubbing. Here, we report a case of trichuris dysentery syndrome complicated with severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia in a 4-year-old girl who required blood transfusion. The nematode was visualized on stool microscopic and colonoscopic examination. A longer duration of anti-helminthic treatment is required to achieve effective and better outcome.

  15. Chronic cutaneous varicella zoster virus infection complicating dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesly, Fridolin J; Sluzevich, Jason C

    2014-04-01

    Chronic cutaneous varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has not been previously reported or characterized as a complication of dermatomyositis. Two patients with non-malignancy-associated dermatomyositis, treated with long-term prednisone and methotrexate, developed persistent, painless ulcers ultimately established to be secondary to chronic VZV. The absence of pain or a history suggestive of acute VZV, and the lack of characteristic histopathology, resulted in a lengthy delay in diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction and tissue immunohistochemistry were positive for VZV, and treatment with valacyclovir resulted in complete clearance. Diagnostic testing for VZV should thus be considered in the evaluation of ulcerative lesions in patients with dermatomyositis. The increased incidence of acute VZV in combination with the nature and duration of immunosuppressive treatment in this patient population may be contributory.

  16. Giardia duodenalis and soil-transmitted helminths infections in children in São Tomé and Príncipe: do we think Giardia when addressing parasite control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Baptista-Fernandes, Teresa; Oliveira, Dinamene; Rodrigues, Rúben; Neves, Edgar; Lima, António; Garrido, Eduardo; Afonso, Guilherme; Zaky, Ahmed; Telles de Freitas, Paulo; Atouguia, Jorge; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis prevalence is commonly as high as soil-transmitted helminths (STH), nevertheless is not considered for large-scale chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA) due to its short incubation period and frequent reinfections, its control being associated to improving access to water and sanitation. A study enrolling 444 children attending preschools was conducted in May 2011 during a deworming campaign. Faecal samples were obtained and analysed through microscopy of wet mounting and after Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques. The majority of children were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite (86.7%, 385 of 444). Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (56.3%, 250 of 444 and 52.5%, 233 of 444, respectively) were the most frequent parasites followed by G. duodenalis infecting 41.7% (185 of 444) of the children. The present work aimed at obtaining updated information concerning intestinal parasite infections in children attending preschools in São Tomé and Príncipe and to contribute for the adequate management of the enteric infections.

  17. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola Deborah Adedipe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6% of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode, with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%. In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150. Furthermore, female animals (OR=1.1; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84 and animals with moderate body condition (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79 are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria.

  18. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in an adult with no detectable immune deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M. de; Mol, M.J.T.M.; Bogman, M.J.J.T.; Galama, J.M.D.; Raymakers, R.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes lifelong latent infection. In some patients the host-virus balance is disturbed, resulting in a chronic active EBV infection. The following case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing and treating chronic EBV infection. CASE: A 30-year-old woman w

  19. Aureobasidium pullulans infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saprophytic fungi are being increasingly recognized as etiologic agents of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of subcutaneous infiltration by Aureobasidium pullulans, likely due to traumatic inoculation, in a neutropenic patient during chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate but was subsequently switched to itraconazole, which improved the lesion. This case highlights the importance of considering unusual fungal infections in critically ill patients such as those who are immunosuppressed due to chemotherapy. Diagnostic techniques and effective antifungal therapy have improved the prognosis of these cases.

  20. Chronic Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qing; De Luca, Andrea; Smith, Colette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common AIDS-defining condition in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Whether chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promote NHL in HIV-infected patients is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether chronic HB...

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infection. Disruption of the microbiome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are complex, and microbiome technology has provided us with a new research tool for its better understanding. There is compartmentalization of the microbiota in the various parts of the lung. Studies of the lower airway lumen microbiota in COPD have yielded confusing results, and additional studies with scrupulous attention to prevent and account for upper airway contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage samples are required. Lung tissue microbiota has been examined in three studies, which also demonstrate varied results based on the site of sampling (bronchial mucosa, lung parenchyma), and this variation extends to sampling sites within a lobe of the lung. The Vicious Circle Hypothesis embodies how an altered lung microbiome could contribute to COPD progression. Relating microbiota composition to airway and systemic inflammation and clinical outcomes are important research questions. Although various obstacles need to be surmounted, ultimately lung microbiome studies will provide new insights into how infection contributes to COPD.

  2. Manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection beyond the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ira M; Cacoub, Patrice; Dal Maso, Luigino; Harrison, Stephen A; Younossi, Zobair M

    2010-12-01

    In addition to its effects in the liver, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can have serious consequences for other organ systems. Extrahepatic manifestations include mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) vasculitis, lymphoproliferative disorders, renal disease, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, sicca syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis-like polyarthritis, and autoantibody production; reductions in quality of life involve fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment. MC vasculitis, certain types of lymphoma, insulin resistance, and cognitive function appear to respond to anti-HCV therapy. However, treatments for HCV and other biopsychosocial factors can reduce quality of life and complicate management. HCV treatment has a high overall cost that increases when extrahepatic manifestations are considered. HCV appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of MC vasculitis, certain types of lymphoma, and insulin resistance. Clinicians who treat patients with HCV infections should be aware of potential extrahepatic manifestations and how these can impact and alter management of their patients.

  3. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection--immune modulation or viral suppression?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.C.J. Buster (Erik); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe availability of nucleoside analogues has broadened treatment options for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV ) infection. Registered treatment for chronic hepatitis B currently consists of (pegylated) interferon, lamivudine and adefovir, while entecavir is expected to be

  4. Baylisascaris procyonis: An Emerging Helminthic Zoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Lawrence R.; Berlin, O.G.W.; Yatabe, JoAnne; Degiorgio, Chris; Morse, Stephen A.

    2002-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis, a roundworm infection of raccoons, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis, principally affecting young children. Raccoons have increasingly become peridomestic animals living in close proximity to human residences. When B. procyonis eggs are ingested by a host other than a raccoon, migration of larvae through tissue, termed larval migrans, ensues. This larval infection can invade the brain and eye, causing severe disease and death. The prevalence of B. procyonis infection in raccoons is often high, and infected animals can shed enormous numbers of eggs in their feces. These eggs can survive in the environment for extended periods of time, and the infectious dose of B. procyonis is relatively low. Therefore, the risk for human exposure and infection may be greater than is currently recognized. PMID:11971766

  5. Pathogenesis of occult chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio Aller de la Fuente; María L Gutiérrez; Javier Garcia-Samaniego; Conrado Fernández-Rodriguez; Jose Luis Lledó; Gregorio Castellano

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) presenting HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc positive serological patterns. Occult HBV status is associated in some cases with mutant viruses undetectable by HBsAg assays; but more frequently it is due to a strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression. OBI is an entity with world-wide diffusion. The failure to detect HBsAg, despite the persistence of the viral DNA, is due in most cases to the strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression that characterizes this "occult" HBV infection; although the mechanisms responsible for suppression of HBV are not well understood. The majority of OBI cases are secondary to overt HBV infection and represent a residual low viremia level suppressed by a strong immune response together with histological derangements which occurred during acute or chronic HBV infection. Much evidence suggests that it can favour the progression of liver fibrosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Occult hepatitis B infection and its possible impact on chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollahi Peiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a well-recognized clinical phenomenon, persistent detectable viral genome in liver or sera in the absence of other serological markers for active hepatitis B virus (HBV replication is called occult HBV infection. The main mechanism through which occult infection occurs is not completely understood and several possible explanations, such as integration into human genome and maintenance in peripheral mononuclear cells, exist. Occult HBV infection has been reported in different populations, especially among patients with Hepatitis C (HCV related liver disease. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients with chronic HCV infection has been previously investigated and the evidence suggests a possible correlation with lower response to anti-viral treatment, higher grades of liver histological changes, and also developing hepatocellular carcinoma. However, in the absence of conclusive results, further studies should be conducted to absolutely assess the impact of occult HBV contamination on the HCV related liver disease.

  7. Effects of conspecifics and heterospecifics on individual worm mass in four helminth species parasitic in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, R; Giari, L; Simoni, E; Dezfuli, B S

    2003-06-01

    Intraspecific and interspecific effects on the growth and body size of helminths are rarely studied in natural situations, yet knowing what determines helminth sizes and thus fecundity is crucial to our understanding of helminth ecology and epidemiology. The determinants of average individual worm mass were investigated in four common species of helminths parasitic in trout, Salmo trutta. In the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae, there was a negative relationship between the intensity of infection by conspecifics and average individual worm size. However, in the acanthocephalans Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae and in the cestode Cyathocephalus truncatus, the relationship was positive: individual worms were larger on average when co-occurring with many conspecifics than when co-occurring with very few. In addition, the average mass of individual C. truncatus in a host decreased as the total mass of other helminth species in the same host increased. This interspecific effect involves the whole helminth community, as the combined effect of all other helminth species is a better predictor of reduced mass in C. truncatus than the mass of any other species taken on its own. These results illustrate the importance of considering helminth interactions and helminth growth in a natural setting.

  8. Effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Caney, Sarah M A; Day, Michael J; Dean, Rachel S; Helps, Chris R; Knowles, Toby G; Lait, Philippa J P; Pinches, Mark D G; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection. Six cats chronically infected with FIV-Glasgow8 (group A) and six FIV-free cats (group B) were infected with 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' on day 0 by intravenous inoculation of blood. From day 0 to 105 post-infection (pi), blood samples were collected for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and FIV provirus quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and haematological examination. Three of the six cats in each of the groups were randomly selected to receive marbofloxacin treatment (2mg/kg PO SID) from day 49 to day 76 pi, with the remaining cats being untreated controls. Maximum 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number was reached around day 30 pi. No overt cycling or marked variation in copy number was observed. No significant effect of FIV infection on 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number kinetics or anaemia indices was found. No correlation was found between FIV provirus copy number and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number or haematological variables. Although marbofloxacin treatment was associated with a significant decrease in 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number, the copy number plateaued during treatment, with no negative PCR results. Additionally, after termination of marbofloxacin treatment the copy numbers of the treated cats increased to reach levels similar to those of the untreated cats within 7-10 days. This study documents, for the first time, the infection kinetics and antibiotic responsiveness of 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' infection.

  9. Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilma Araújo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection leads to a type 2-immune response with increased production of interleukin (IL-10. Evidence indicates chronic exposure to S. mansoni down regulates the type 1 immune response and prevents the onset of Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus and Cronh's disease. Furthermore, our own studies have revealed that chronic exposure to S. mansoni also down regulates atopic disease, Th2-mediated diseases. Our studies show an inverse association between the skin prick test reactivity and infection with S. mansoni and show the severity of asthma is reduced in subjects living in an endemic area of S. mansoni. Moreover, we hypothesize the mechanisms involved in the modulation of inflammatory response in atopic individuals, is likely dependent on IL-10 production, an anti-inflammatory cytokine elevated during helminth infections. Patients with asthma and helminth infections produced less IL-5 than patients with asthma without helminth infections, and this down regulation could, in part, be mediated by IL-10. In conclusion, helminthic infections, through induction of regulatory mechanisms, such as IL-10 production, are able to modulate the inflammatory immune response involved in the pathology of auto-immune and allergic disease.

  10. Helminth parasites of the bufflehead duck, Bucephala albeola, wintering in the Chihuahua Desert with a checklist of helminth parasites reported from this host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Beverly W; Canaris, A G

    2009-02-01

    The bufflehead duck (Bucephala albeola) (Mergini) ranges from Alaska and Canada to the United States and Mexico. Buffleheads ingest invertebrates as a major component of their food throughout life. Puddle ducks (Anatinae) change mainly to vegetable foods at an early age. Loss of helminth parasite species and abundance in the fall migration has been reported for puddle ducks. This change in food has been hypothesized to cause some of the parasite loss. Nothing was known about helminth community dynamics in wintering buffleheads, including possible loss of helminths evident in puddle ducks. Helminth communities of the buffleheads were compared between wintering localities in the Chihuahua Desert of Texas and Mexico and to results from a nesting locality in Manitoba, Canada. There were no significant differences for average helminth species richness, prevalence, or abundance between the nesting and wintering grounds. Replenishment of helminths occurred in wintering buffleheads, and abundance of some helminth species increased significantly over time. The majority of helminth life cycles were indirect. These results were mostly related to the bufflehead's continued ingestion of invertebrate foods. Seven of the 41 helminth species present in buffleheads were in common to the 3 localities. Helminth community similarities between Manitoba and Texas and Manitoba and Mexico were much lower than similarity between Texas and Mexico. The dissimilarities were mostly attributable to differences in habitats but may also indicate loss of helminth species with subsequent infections with other species. The component community of the bufflehead from the Chihuahua Desert in Texas (n = 41) consisted of 23 species of helminths (10 species of cestodes, 7 trematodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) for a total of 4,008 individual specimens. Cestodes accounted for 69% of the total abundance. The component community of B. albeola from the Chihuahua Desert in Mexico (n = 26) consisted

  11. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host.

  12. Altered T cell costimulation during chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luisa; Salmen, Siham; Peterson, Darrell L; Montes, Henry; Colmenares, Melisa; Hernández, Manuel; Berrueta-Carrillo, Leidith E; Berrueta, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    T-cell response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) is vigorous, polyclonal and multi-specific in patients with acute hepatitis who ultimately clear the virus, whereas it is narrow and inefficient in patients with chronic disease, where inappropriate early activation events could account for viral persistence. We investigated the induction of activation receptors and cytokine production in response to HBcAg and crosslinking of CD28 molecules, in CD4+ cells from a group of chronically infected patients (CIP) and naturally immune subjects (NIS). We demonstrated that CD4+ cells from CIP did not increase levels of CD40L and CD69 following stimulation with HBcAg alone or associated to CD28 crosslinking, in contrast to subjects that resolved the infection (p<0.01). Furthermore, CD4+ cells from CIP produced elevated levels of IL-10 in response to HBcAg. These results suggest that a predominant inhibitory environment may be responsible for altered T cell costimulation, representing a pathogenic mechanism for viral persistence.

  13. [Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, K P; Berg, T

    2009-05-01

    Current data suggest that HCV infection should be regarded as a systemic infectious disease with multiorgan involvement. More than 50 % of HCV-positive patients develop during the course of the disease at least one extrahepatic manifestation (EHM). The EHMs are often the first and only clinical signs of a chronic hepatitis C. Evidence of HCV infection should always be sought out in cases of unspecific chronic fatigue and/or rheumatic, haematological, endocrine or dermatological disorders. Key pathogenetic factors for the development of EHM are undisputably the HCV lymphotropism and cryoglobulinaemia. Nevertheless, the exact pathogenesis of many EHM still remains unclear. The therapeutic approach to EHM should concentrate on the eradication of HCV. Antiviral therapy in the form of peg-interferon and ribavirin should be regarded as the first-line therapy. Viral response leads mostly to a consecutive clinical response. However, in the case of HCV-related cytopaenias or neuropathies, antiviral therapy may trigger an aggravation of these conditions. Thus, organ-involvement, severity and course of the EHM should be always taken into account when choosing the appropriate therapeutic strategy. Immunosuppressive drugs, plasmapheresis and lately rituximab are counted among therapies that can be applied complementarly or alternatively to the antiviral therapy.

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ling Tao; Xue-mei Li; Xue-wang Li; Jie Ma; Guang-li Ge; Li-meng Chen; Hang Li; Bao-tong Zhou; Yang Sun; Wen-ling Ye; Qi Miao

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endo-carditis.Methods The clinical features of six such patients admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hos-pital during the year 1990 to 2009 were analyzed. All of them were diagnosed based on Chinese Children Diagnostic Criteria for Infective Endocarditis.Results The average age of the six patients was 52.3±19.3 years old. Four were males. Vascular ac-cesses at the onset of infective endocarditis were as follows: permanent catheters in three, temporary cathe-ters in two, and arteriovenous fistula in one. Three were found with mitral valve involvement, two with aor-tic valve involvement, and one with both. Five vegetations were found by transthoraeic echocardiography, and one by transesophageal echocardiography. Four had positive blood culture results. The catheters were all removed. Four of the patients were improved by antibiotics treatment, in which two were still on hemodialy-sis in the following 14-24 months and the other two were lost to follow-up. One patient received surgery, but died of heart failure after further hemodialysis for three months. One was well on maintenance hemodi-alysis for three months after surgery.Conclusions Infective endocarditis should be suspected when hemodialysis patients suffer from long-term fever, for which prompt blood culture and transthoracic echocardiography confirmation could be performed. Transesophageal echocardiography could be considered even when transthoracic echocardiogra-phy produces negative findings. With catheters removed, full course of appropriate sensitive antibiotics and surgery if indicated could improve the outcome of chronic hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endocarditis.

  15. Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.

  16. Changes in HIV RNA and CD4 cell count after acute HCV infection in chronically HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, L.; Wolf, F. de; Smit, C.; Prins, M.; Meer, J.T. van der; Vanhommerig, J.W.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Schinkel, J.; Geskus, R.B.; Warris, A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV-1 disease progression. We investigated CD4 cell count and HIV RNA concentration changes after HCV infection in individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. METHODS: We selected individuals that had the l

  17. Chronic hepatitis B infection presenting with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS): a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Ching-Fu; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chen, Ya-Fang; Liu, Fei-Chih; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids is a brainstem disorder characterized by perivascular pathologic reaction with lymphocyte infiltration and leading to diplopia, facial palsy, dysarthria, and gait ataxia. It was thought to be an autoimmune disorder without distinct pathogenesis. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection has been proposed in correlation with autoimmune diseases, including central nervous system demyelinating di...

  18. Function of monocytes in chronic HCV infection: Role for IL-10 and interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Liu (Bi Sheng)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistent infection in about 80% of the infected individuals. The symptoms are initially mild in those persistently infected patients, and it may take decades before the serious consequences of chronic HCV infection become apparent. Up to 20% of infec

  19. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S.; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Stauffer, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. Methods An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) “No Program,” 2) U.S. “Domestic Screening and Treatment,” 3) “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” presumptive treatment, and 4) “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides”. Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The “No Program” option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” option ($418,824) is less expensive than “Domestic Screening and Treatment” ($3,832,572) or “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides” ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin,” which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to “No Program”. Discussion Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost

  20. IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G

    1996-08-01

    This paper analyses the association between infection with helminth parasites, the elevated production of IgE and the expression of allergies. Interpretations of this interaction have taken place in a scientific environment whose most secure element is the immunochemistry of allergic reactions resulting in a substantial body of literature that has sought a biological role for allergic reactivity in protective immunity directed against helminth parasites. While the association between helminth infections and elevated levels of IgE, mast cells and eosinophils is well established, a functional role for allergic reactions in protection against helminths has eluded experimental proof. Instead of this hypothesis, it is proposed that allergic reactivity is rarely present in helminth-infected individuals because allergic reactions do not function to regulate helminth infections. Data from many sources are used to establish that the 'normal' state of all mammals is to be infected with helminth parasites from shortly after birth until well into adulthood. Only in the last 100 years or so have people living in areas of high development with sophisticated water and sewage systems been able to escape helminth infection. Allergies are as conspicuously present in these human populations as they are absent in populations that are still regularly exposed to helminths. Furthermore, in populations with endemic helminthoses there is little overt expression of allergic pathology that could be connected to the acquisition or elimination of helminth parasites. Based on these observations, it is suggested that endemic helminthoses activate the Th2 system, particularly at mucosal surfaces, to provide a different level of immunological homeostasis than currently occurs in developed societies. Under these conditions, mast cells, eosinophils and IgE rarely participate in reactions that we would recognize as 'allergic', although their participation in the control of helminth infections is

  1. Are intestinal helminths risk factors for developing active tuberculosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Mengistu, Getahun; Akuffo, Hannah;

    2006-01-01

    were also tested for HIV by commercial sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 230 smear-positive TB patients and 510 healthy household contacts. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 71% in patients and 36% in controls. HIV seroprevalence...... was significantly higher in patients than in controls (46.7%vs. 11.6%, P logistic regression analysis showed a strong association between TB and intestinal helminth infection (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 2.7-5.9, P

  2. Helminth parasites (Cestoidea: Nematoda) of select herpetofauna from Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-four amphibians (6 families, 12 species) and 28 reptiles (5 families, 16 species) from Paraguay were examined for helminths. Fifteen (44%) amphibians and 6 (21%) reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 4 (12%) amphibians and 2 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections. Three species of Cestoidea and 17 species of Nematoda were found in the herptiles surveyed. Fourteen new host and 12 new locality records are documented, including the first report of the filaroid nematode, Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954) Chabaud and Frank, 1961, from South America.

  3. Dual sofosbuvir and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Ward, H; Kattakuzhy, S; Wilson, E; Kottilil, S

    2016-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is the first pan-genotypic direct acting antiviral agent to be approved. This article provides an overview of the pharmacology of sofosbuvir and ribavirin and a comprehensive summary of the phase 2 and 3 studies supporting dual sofosbuvir and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. With the production of generic formulations of sofosbuvir, we anticipate this regimen leading the first wave for widespread, IFN-free treatment and becoming first line for all genotypes (including genotype 1) for much of the world-in particular in developing and middle income countries. We discuss the continued challenges with this regimen including among patients with decompensated liver disease and post-liver transplant, and renal failure. We address concerns of emerging resistance. We also discuss the future prospects including the global uptake of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for the treatment of all genotypes.

  4. Wound Chronicity, Inpatient Care, and Chronic Kidney Disease Predispose to MRSA Infection in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christopher; May, Kerry; Hale, Thomas; Allard, Bernard; Rowlings, Naomi; Freeman, Amy; Harrison, Jessica; McCann, Jane; Wraight, Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the microbiological profile of diabetes-related foot infections (DRFIs) and the impact of wound duration, inpatient treatment, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Postdebridement microbiological samples were collected from individuals presenting with DRFIs from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. RESULTS A total of 653 specimens were collected from 379 individuals with 36% identifying only one isolate. Of the total isolates, 77% were gram-positive bacteria (staphylococci 43%, streptococci 13%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from 23%; risk factors for MRSA included prolonged wound duration (odds ratio 2.31), inpatient management (2.19), and CKD (OR 1.49). Gram-negative infections were more prevalent with inpatient management (P = 0.002) and prolonged wound duration (P < 0.001). Pseudomonal isolates were more common in chronic wounds (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS DRFIs are predominantly due to gram-positive aerobes but are usually polymicrobial and increase in complexity with inpatient care and ulcer duration. In the presence of prolonged duration, inpatient management, or CKD, empiric MRSA antibiotic cover should be considered. PMID:19587371

  5. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  6. Interleukin-17 and innate immunity in infections and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailovic, Natasa; Daigo, Kenji; Mantovani, Alberto; Selmi, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) includes several cytokines among which IL-17A is considered as one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine being central to the innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-17 is produced by unconventional T cells, members of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), mast cells, as well as typical innate immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages located in the epithelial barriers and characterised by a rapid response to infectious agents by recruiting neutrophils as first line of defence and inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Th17 responses appear pivotal in chronic and acute infections by bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. The data discussed in this review cumulatively indicate that innate-derived IL-17 constitutes a major element in the altered immune response against self antigens or the perpetuation of inflammation, particularly at mucosal sites. New drugs targeting the IL17 pathway include brodalumab, ixekizumab, and secukinumab and their use in psoriatic disease is expected to dramatically impact our approach to this systemic condition.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene-Related Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Urban School- and Preschool-Aged Children in Kibera, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Davis, Stephanie M; Odero, Kennedy O; Blackstock, Anna; Cuéllar, Victoria M; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Roy, Sharon L; Fox, LeAnne M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect persons living in areas with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Preschool-aged children (PSAC) and school-aged children (SAC) are disproportionately affected by STH infections. We aimed to identify WASH factors associated with STH infection among PSAC and SAC in Kibera, Kenya. In 2012, households containing a PSAC or SAC were randomly selected from those enrolled in the International Emerging Infections Program, a population-based surveillance system. We administered a household questionnaire, conducted environmental assessments for WASH, and tested three stools from each child for STH eggs using the Kato-Katz method. WASH factors were evaluated for associations with STH infection using univariable and multivariable Poisson regression. Any-STH prevalence was 40.8% among 201 PSAC and 40.0% among 475 SAC enrolled. Using the Joint Monitoring Programme water and sanitation classifications, 1.5% of households reported piped water on premises versus 98.5% another improved water source; 1.3% reported improved sanitation facilities, while 81.7% used shared sanitation facilities, 13.9% had unimproved facilities, and 3.1% reported no facilities (open defecation). On univariable analysis, STH infection was significantly associated with a household toilet located off-premises (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.33; p = 0.047), while always treating water (PR = 0.81; p = 0.04), covering drinking water containers (PR = 0.75; p = 0.02), using clean towels during hand drying (PR = 0.58; p<0.01), having finished household floor material (PR = 0.76; p<0.01), having electricity (PR = 0.70; p<0.01), and increasing household elevation in 10-meter increments (PR = 0.89; p<0.01) were protective against STH infection. On multivariable analysis, usually versus always treating water was associated with increased STH prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.52; p<0.01), while having finished household floor material (aPR = 0.76; p = 0

  8. Chronic lymphoedema caused by recurrent infections in a patient with allergic hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Jensen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is very common and may be complicated by secondary infections. Chronic lymphoedema is a potentially debilitating condition, which may occur due to secondary infections or the dermatitis itself. The problem of chronic lymphoedema following allergic contact dermatitis ha...

  9. Chronic pulmonary infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, C S; Hansen, C R; Pressler, T;

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of chronic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patient are still unclear. Method All patients treated in the Copenhagen CF centre (N=278) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 were included. Each patient chronically infected with S...

  10. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez; Irma Rivera-Montoya; Roberto Cárdenas-Arreola; Liborio Morán; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS). Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D) symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A...

  11. Chronic lymphoedema caused by recurrent infections in a patient with allergic hand eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Dyring-Andersen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is very common and may be complicated by secondary infections. Chronic lymphoedema is a potentially debilitating condition, which may occur due to secondary infections or the dermatitis itself. The problem of chronic lymphoedema following allergic contact dermatitis has been infrequently reported. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with severe allergic contact dermatitis complicated by chronic, intractable lymphoedema of the hands and forearms. This case report reminds us that allergic hand dermatitis may be complicated by a chronic and debilitating state of lymphoedema. Also, it underlines the importance of fast and adequate treatment of both the dermatitis and the secondary infections.

  12. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-03-22

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  13. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE and its protective role in human immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Matthew Fitzsimmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths. Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g. EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins.During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However some infections (especially Ascaris are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins and highly similar molecules in dust mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s3 and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin.In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  14. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  15. Immune therapy including dendritic cell based therapy in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sk Md Fazle Akbar; Norio Horiike; Morikazu Onji

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. Of the approximately 2 billion people who have been infected worldwide, more than 400 million are chronic carriers of HBV. Considerable numbers of chronic HBV carriers suffer from progressive liver diseases. In addition, all HBV carriers are permanent source of this virus. There is no curative therapy for chronic HBV carriers. Antiviral drugs are recommended for about 10% patients, however, these drugs are costly, have limited efficacy, and possess considerable side effects.Recent studies have shown that immune responses of the host to the HBV are critically involved at every stage of chronic HBV infection: (1) These influence acquisition of chronic HBV carrier state, (2) They are important in the context of liver damages, (3) Recovery from chronic HBV-related liver diseases is dependent on nature and extent of HBV-specific immune responses.However, induction of adequate levels of HBV-specific immune responses in chronic HBV carriers is difficult.During the last one decade, hepatitis B vaccine has been administered to chronic HBV carriers as a therapeutic approach (vaccine therapy). The present regimen of vaccine therapy is safe and cheap, but not so effective.A dendritic cell-based therapeutic vaccine has recently been developed for treating chronic HBV infection. In this review, we will discuss about the concept, scientific logics, strategies and techniques of development of HBV-specific immune therapies including vaccine therapy and dendritic cell-based vaccine therapy for treating chronic HBV infection.

  16. Deep dermatophyte infection with chronic draining nodules in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidovich, C W; Kornfeld, B W; Gentry, R H; Fitzpatrick, J E

    1995-04-01

    Chronic superficial dermatophyte infection may predispose the immunocompromised patient to invasive or disseminated involvement. We report a case of deep dermatophyte infection in a patient treated with long-term corticosteroid therapy for lung disease. The patient responded well to oral griseofulvin. Previously reported cases are reviewed along with recent investigative findings in the pathogenesis of chronic dermatophyte infections. Recommendations are made for diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Temporal occurrence and community structure of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, from north central Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring

  18. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  19. Hepatitis E virus genotype three infection of human liver chimeric mice as a model for chronic HEV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D.B. van de Garde (Martijn); S.D. Pas (Suzan); G. van der Net (Guido); R.A. de Man (Robert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A. Boonstra (Andre); T. Vanwolleghem (Thomas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenotype (gt) 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are emerging in Western countries. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of chronic HEV infection and progressive liver damage, but no adequate model system currently mimics this disease course. Here we explore the possibilities of in vi

  20. Helminthic infestation in children of Kupwara district: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the investigation of the frequency of intestinal helminth parasites in children of Kupwara, Kashmir, India. Three hundred and twelve children in the age group of 4-15 years were examined for different intestinal helminths in three schools located in rural areas. Two hundred and twenty two of 312 (71.15% tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various helminth parasites included Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata . By far, the highest frequency of 69.23% (216/312 was noted for Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Trichuris trichiura 30.76% (96/312, Enterobius vermicularis 7.69% (24/312 and Taenia saginata 7.69% (24/312. Single infection was found in 33.65% (105/312 and mixed infection was seen in 37.5% (117/312 children. This study emphasizes the need for improved environmental conditions, i.e., clean water supplies, enhanced sanitation and chemotherapy of school-age children in rural areas.

  1. Endothelial Dysfunction Correlates with Liver Fibrosis in Chronic HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Barone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection can exert proatherogenic activities due to its direct action on vessel walls and/or via the chronic inflammatory process involving the liver. Aims. To clarify the role of HCV in atherosclerosis development in monoinfected HCV patients at different degrees of liver fibrosis and with no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods. Forty-five patients were included. Clinical, serological, and anthropometric parameters, liver fibrosis (transient liver elastometry (fibroscan and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI, carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT, and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD were assessed. Patients were divided into 3 tertiles according to fibroscan values. Results. Patients in the third tertile (fibroscan value >11.5 KPa showed FMD values were significantly lower than second and first tertiles (4.7±1.7% versus 7.1±2.8%, p=0.03. FMD values were inversely related to liver elastomeric values. c-IMT values were normal. The risk for endothelial dysfunction development in the third tertile (p=0.02 was 6.9 higher than the first tertile. A fibroscan value >11.5 KPa had a positive predictive power equal to 79% for endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions. HCV advanced liver fibrosis promotes atherosclerosis by inducing endothelial dysfunction independently of common cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. The woodchuck as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the woodchuck and the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and disease in humans. The establishment of woodchuck breeding colonies, and use of laboratory-reared woodchucks infected with defined WHV inocula, have enhanced our understanding of the virology and immunology of HBV infection and disease pathogenesis, including major sequelae like chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of persistent WHV infection and of viral load on the natural history of infection and disease progression has been firmly established along the way. More recently, the model has shed new light on the role of host immune responses in these natural processes,and on how the immune system of the chronic carrier can be manipulated therapeutically to reduce or delay serious disease sequelae through induction of the recovery phenotype. The woodchuck is an outbred species and is not well defined immunologically due to a limitation of available host markers. However, the recent development of several key host response assays for woodchucks provides experimental opportunities for further mechanistic studies of outcome predictors in neonatal- and adult-acquired infections. Understanding the virological and immunological mechanisms responsible for resolution of self-limited infection, and for the onset and maintenance of chronic infection, will greatly facilitate the development of successful strategies for the therapeutic eradication of established chronic HBV infection. Likewise, the results of drug efficacy and toxicity studies in the chronic carrier woodchucks are predictive for responses of patients chronically infected with HBV. Therefore, chronic WHV carrier woodchucks provide a well-characterized mammalian model for preclinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of drug candidates, experimental therapeutic vaccines, and immunomodulators for the treatment and

  3. Nutritional status in chronically hospitalized stroke patients complicated with pulmonary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Chen; Lufang Chen; Yiqing Tao; Maomao Han; Chunlan Cui; Shichao Liu

    2011-01-01

    Complicated pulmonary infection following stroke has traditionally been considered an aspirated infection by many physicians, and little attention has been paid to concomitant protein-energy malnutrition. In the present study, we hypothesized that protein-energy malnutrition may be present in hospitalized chronic stroke patients complicated with pulmonary infection. The results revealed that body protein and fat stores were significantly depleted in stroke patients with pulmonary infection. Protein-energy malnutrition was present in 12 of 27 patients with pulmonary infection. In comparison, only eight of 42 stroke patients without pulmonary infection exhibited protein-energy malnutrition. A significantly higher prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition was found in the pulmonary infection group, suggesting that protein-energy malnutrition is more likely to be present in hospitalized chronic stroke patients with pulmonary infection.

  4. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  5. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUMIDONMING, Wilawan; SALMAN, Doaa; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; ABDELBASET, Abdelbaset E.; SANGKAEO, Khamphon; KAWAZU, Shin-ichiro; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand. PMID:27570099

  7. Chronic Larva Currens Following Tourist Travel to the Gambia and Southeast Asia Over 20 Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kristy E; Danylo, Alexis; Boggild, Andrea K

    2015-01-01

    Larva currens is the cutaneous manifestation of human infection with the geotropic helminth Strongyloides stercoralis. Strongyloidiasis is a lifelong infection unless treated. A high index of suspicion is needed to prevent chronic symptoms of strongyloidiasis (eg, larva currens, eosinophilia, abdominal discomfort) and to prevent fatal dissemination. We present a case of chronic larva currens following tourist travel to the Gambia and Southeast Asia>20 years ago. This case highlights several important features of larva currens and strongyloidiasis, including the chronicity of symptoms, the rapidity of the migratory serpiginous rash, and the absence of high-grade eosinophilia.

  8. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, eithe...

  9. Hepatitis C virus quasispecies and pseudotype analysis from acute infection to chronicity in HIV-1 co-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, R Bridget; Tarr, Alexander W; Hue, Stephane; Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Gilson, Richard; Ball, Jonathan K; Nastouli, Eleni; Garson, Jeremy A; Pillay, Deenan

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infected patients who acquire HCV infection have higher rates of chronicity and liver disease progression than patients with HCV mono-infection. Understanding early events in this pathogenic process is important. We applied single genome sequencing of the E1 to NS3 regions and viral pseudotype neutralization assays to explore the consequences of viral quasispecies evolution from pre-seroconversion to chronicity in four co-infected individuals (mean follow up 566 days). We observed that one to three founder viruses were transmitted. Relatively low viral sequence diversity, possibly related to an impaired immune response, due to HIV infection was observed in three patients. However, the fourth patient, after an early purifying selection displayed increasing E2 sequence evolution, possibly related to being on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Viral pseudotypes generated from HCV variants showed relative resistance to neutralization by autologous plasma but not to plasma collected from later time points, confirming ongoing virus escape from antibody neutralization.

  10. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J; Urban, Joseph F; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-03-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (MΦ) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  11. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/- or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/- displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb, whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3 by macrophages (MΦ and myofibroblasts (MF within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  12. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ma; Wen-Wei Yan

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a significantly increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to controls or HBV-infected patients.Moreover, the incidence rate of post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) also appears to be higher among patients with HCV infection. PTDM is often associated with direct viral infection, autoimmune disorders, and immunosuppressive regimen. Activation of tumor necrosis factor-α may be the link between HCV infection and diabetes. In this article, we reviewed the epidemiologic association between HCV infection and PTDM, highlighting the most recent pathophysiologic insights into the mechanisms underlying this association.

  13. Metabolic Manifestations and Complications Associated With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Robert J; Gish, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations that contribute to morbidity and mortality. It is especially important to be aware of metabolic manifestations and serious complications that affect other organs and cancer risks. Chronic HCV infection itself contributes to de novo development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, both of which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Through these metabolic pathways (as well as through other hypothesized mechanisms that involve lipid metabolism, systemic inflammatory signals, and endothelial dysfunction), chronic HCV infection also contributes to significant systemic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While chronic HCV infection contributes to incident development of metabolic complications, the presence of concurrent metabolic diseases also contributes to disease progression, such as higher risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and progression to advanced fibrosis, among patients with chronic HCV infection. The implications of these observations are particularly important given the rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the United States and worldwide. Furthermore, concurrent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, either as a result of underlying metabolic syndrome or as a direct result of HCV-induced fatty liver disease, further complicates the management of chronic HCV-infected patients. Greater awareness is needed toward the systemic manifestations of chronic HCV infection, with focused attention on the associated metabolic manifestations and complications. Successful treatment and cure of chronic HCV infection with the currently available, highly effective antiviral therapies will significantly improve long-term outcomes among these patients. It is also important to recognize and address the associated metabolic manifestations and complications to reduce cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality.

  14. Mortality in patients with chronic and cleared hepatitis C viral infection: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies....

  15. Phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists. When compared with placebo or no intervention, we were unable to identify convincing evidence that phyllanthus species...... are beneficial in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Some randomised clinical trials have compared phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs....

  16. STIM1 controls T cell-mediated immune regulation and inflammation in chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvignes, Ludovic; Weidinger, Carl; Shaw, Patrick; Vaeth, Martin; Ribierre, Theo; Liu, Menghan; Fergus, Tawania; Kozhaya, Lina; McVoy, Lauren; Unutmaz, Derya; Ernst, Joel D; Feske, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Chronic infections induce a complex immune response that controls pathogen replication, but also causes pathology due to sustained inflammation. Ca2+ influx mediates T cell function and immunity to infection, and patients with inherited mutations in the gene encoding the Ca2+ channel ORAI1 or its activator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) are immunodeficient and prone to chronic infection by various pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here, we demonstrate that STIM1 is required for T cell-mediated immune regulation during chronic Mtb infection. Compared with WT animals, mice with T cell-specific Stim1 deletion died prematurely during the chronic phase of infection and had increased bacterial burdens and severe pulmonary inflammation, with increased myeloid and lymphoid cell infiltration. Although STIM1-deficient T cells exhibited markedly reduced IFN-γ production during the early phase of Mtb infection, bacterial growth was not immediately exacerbated. During the chronic phase, however, STIM1-deficient T cells displayed enhanced IFN-γ production in response to elevated levels of IL-12 and IL-18. The lack of STIM1 in T cells was associated with impaired activation-induced cell death upon repeated TCR engagement and pulmonary lymphocytosis and hyperinflammation in Mtb-infected mice. Chronically Mtb-infected, STIM1-deficient mice had reduced levels of inducible regulatory T cells (iTregs) due to a T cell-intrinsic requirement for STIM1 in iTreg differentiation and excessive production of IFN-γ and IL-12, which suppress iTreg differentiation and maintenance. Thus, STIM1 controls multiple aspects of T cell-mediated immune regulation to limit injurious inflammation during chronic infection.

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Jupelli

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs. Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  18. Comparative study between occult hepatitis C virus infection and chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, M; López-Alcorocho, J M; Rodríguez-Iñigo, E; Castillo, I; Carreño, V

    2007-01-01

    We have recently described the presence of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HCV-RNA in liver in the absence of anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA) in patients with persistently abnormal liver function tests of unknown aetiology. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of patients with occult HCV infection vs those of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We compared clinical features of 68 patients with occult HCV infection and 69 untreated chronic HCV patients (anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA positive), matched for age, gender, duration of abnormal liver function tests and body mass index. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher (P HCV, but cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher in patients with occult HCV infection (P HCV patients had higher gamma-globulin (P = 0.005), alpha-foetoprotein (P HCV than in occult HCV infection. Mean percentage of infected hepatocytes was higher (P = 0.001) in chronic HCV (10.1%) than in occult HCV infection (5.3%). This occult HCV infection is a milder disease than chronic HCV, and this could be related to the significantly lower number of infected hepatocytes observed in occult HCV.

  19. Innate immunity and chronic immune activation in HCV/HIV-1 co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Veronica D; Landay, Alan L; Sandberg, Johan K

    2010-04-01

    Innate immune responses are critical in the defense against viral infections. NK cells, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and invariant CD1d-restricted NKT cells mediate both effector and regulatory functions in this early immune response. In chronic uncontrolled viral infections such as HCV and HIV-1, these essential immune functions are compromised and can become a double edged sword contributing to the immunopathogenesis of viral disease. In particular, recent findings indicate that innate immune responses play a central role in the chronic immune activation which is a primary driver of HIV-1 disease progression. HCV/HIV-1 co-infection is affecting millions of people and is associated with faster viral disease progression. Here, we review the role of innate immunity and chronic immune activation in HCV and HIV-1 infection, and discuss how mechanisms of innate immunity may influence protection as well as immunopathogenesis in the HCV/HIV-1 co-infected human host.

  20. Helminth Infection and Commensal Microbiota Drive Early IL-10 Production in the Skin by CD4+ T Cells That Are Functionally Suppressive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Sanin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The skin provides an important first line of defence and immunological barrier to invasive pathogens, but immune responses must also be regulated to maintain barrier function and ensure tolerance of skin surface commensal organisms. In schistosomiasis-endemic regions, populations can experience repeated percutaneous exposure to schistosome larvae, however little is known about how repeated exposure to pathogens affects immune regulation in the skin. Here, using a murine model of repeated infection with Schistosoma mansoni larvae, we show that the skin infection site becomes rich in regulatory IL-10, whilst in its absence, inflammation, neutrophil recruitment, and local lymphocyte proliferation is increased. Whilst CD4+ T cells are the primary cellular source of regulatory IL-10, they expressed none of the markers conventionally associated with T regulatory (Treg cells (i.e. FoxP3, Helios, Nrp1, CD223, or CD49b. Nevertheless, these IL-10+ CD4+ T cells in the skin from repeatedly infected mice are functionally suppressive as they reduced proliferation of responsive CD4+ T cells from the skin draining lymph node. Moreover, the skin of infected Rag-/- mice had impaired IL-10 production and increased neutrophil recruitment. Finally, we show that the mechanism behind IL-10 production by CD4+ T cells in the skin is due to a combination of an initial (day 1 response specific to skin commensal bacteria, and then over the following days schistosome-specific CD4+ T cell responses, which together contribute towards limiting inflammation and tissue damage following schistosome infection. We propose CD4+ T cells in the skin that do not express markers of conventional T regulatory cell populations have a significant role in immune regulation after repeated pathogen exposure and speculate that these cells may also help to maintain skin barrier function in the context of repeated percutaneous insult by other skin pathogens.

  1. Does host immunity influence helminth egg hatchability in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, K A; Pathak, A K; Cattadori, I M

    2015-07-01

    Transmission success for helminths with free-living stages depends on the ability of eggs and larvae to develop and survive once in the environment. While environmental conditions are often suggested to influence egg phenology and hatching rate, immunity against parasite eggs might also play a role. We examined this hypothesis using the gastrointestinal helminths Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Graphidium strigosum, two common infections of the European rabbit. Changes in egg hatching rate and volume were examined in relation to specific antibodies in the serum and bound to eggshells, using eggs shed in host faeces over a 15-week period. Hatching rate was consistently higher for T. retortaeformis than G. strigosum and no changes were observed between weeks. Egg volume increased for G. strigosum but decreased for T. retortaeformis. We did find evidence of egg-specific antibody responses and fewer antibodies were bound to eggs of T. retortaeformis compared to G. strigosum. Little to no association was found between antibodies and hatchability, or volume, for both helminths. We suggest that host antibodies play a relatively minor role in the egg hatching rate of these gastrointestinal helminths.

  2. Phenotypes selected during chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients: implications for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Wang, Hengzhuang; Høiby, Niels

    2012-07-01

    During chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods of time under the challenging selective pressure imposed by the immune system and antibiotic treatment as a result of its biofilm mode of growth and adaptive evolution mediated by genetic variation. Mucoidy, hypermutability and acquirement of mutational antibiotic resistance are important adaptive phenotypes that are selected during chronic P. aeruginosa infection. This review dicsusses the role played by these phenotypes for the tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics and show that mucoidy and hypermutability change the architecture of in vitro formed biofilms and lead to increase tolerance to antibiotics. Production of high levels of beta-lactamase impairs penetration of beta-lactam antibiotics due to inactivation of the antibiotic. In conclusion, these data underline the importance of biofilm prevention strategies by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy before phenotypic diversification during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  3. Neospora caninum: Chronic and congenital infection in consecutive pregnancies of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuz, Monica L; Shkap, Varda; Wollkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovich, Benjamin; Savitsky, Igor; Fleiderovitz, Ludmila; Noam, Sugar; Elena, Blinder; Molad, Thea; Golenser, Jacob

    2016-03-30

    Neospora caninum, the causative agent of bovine neosporosis is the major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. The principal route of transmission is via in utero infection of the offspring. Congenitally-infected dams remain persistently infected for life and might undergo abortions in consecutive pregnancies. In the present study, the effect of N. caninum in chronic and congenital infection was examined. CD1 mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live tachyzoites of the NcIs491 isolate, while non-infected mice served as a control. There were no clinical signs of infection observed following inoculation, but high titers of specific anti- N. caninum antibodies were detected. A month after infection, when chronic-infection was established, mice were mated. Fertility, litter size and mortality rate were monitored within two generations of four consecutive pregnancies. During a nine months period of the study all females maintained high level of antibodies, while the non- infected control mice remained seronegative. There was no difference in the fertility rate of the dams, or in the litter size of infected and control mice. Mortality of offspring of the first and second generations of the infected dams was observed within the two first weeks of life. The vertical transmission was analyzed by PCR assay of offspring brains. PCR positive results were found in all 13 litters of the first generation tested during four consecutive pregnancies. The rate of vertical transmission slightly decreased in successive pregnancies being 74.2%, 59.5%, 48.1% and 40% for the first to fourth pregnancies respectively. In the second generation 21 out of 28 litters were found positive and the overall rate of vertical transmission was 28.5%. In chronically and congenitally infected dams N. caninum infection was maintained during all successive pregnancies for about 9 months. The results show that CD-1 outbred mice are a suitable model for studying chronic and congenital neosporosis.

  4. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. C.; Levengood, J.M.; Osborn, J. M.; Yetter, A. P.; Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Cory D. Suski,; Hagy, Heath M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014–2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2–23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  5. [Helminths in chickens in Sudan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Khawad; el-Badawi; Eisa, A M

    1977-09-01

    The identification of the helminthic parasites of the poultry in Khartoum province, during the months of October and November, 1969, 230 hens, 6--12 months old, were examined in the laboratory; 87% of the hens exhibited mono- and polyinfections. The following species were found: Subulura brumpti, Raillietina tetragona, Tetrameres americana, Gongylonema ingluvicola and Dispharynx spiralis, mostly as polyinfections.

  6. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Helminths of Native Turkeys in Amol, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RanjbarBahadory Sh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Native turkeys are kept as domestic bird in rural environments and can be infected with bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Capillaria and Ascaridia are nematodes of small intestines of domestic birds such as turkey. Small intestine trematod of birds like echinostomiasis need intermediate hosts for evolution. Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida are parasites in small intestines of birds. These parasites can cause economic loss and create problems for turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the genus and species, frequency and severity of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Gastrointestinal of 60 slaughtered turkeys of Amol city were necropsied and examined. 25% of the samples were not contaminated and 75% of samples were infected with nematode, cestode and trematode. Prevalence and parasite species, including: 20% Capillaria, 51% A. gali, 8% R. tetragona, 8% R. echinobothrida and 11% Echinostoma. The results indicated that the highest prevalence of helminth parasites in turkeys of Amol and north of Iran was nematode.

  7. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessolossky M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mireya Wessolossky,1 Verna L Welch,2 Ajanta Sen,1 Tara M Babu,1 David R Luke21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USABackground: Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients.Methods: The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis.Results: Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61% and asthma (18%, and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27% and bone marrow transplants (14%. A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03. The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14; 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75.Conclusion: Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the

  8. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. RESULTS The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively (P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. CONCLUSION The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans. PMID:27895431

  9. Quasispecies composition and diversity do not reveal any predictors for chronic classical swine fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenckel, Maria; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Höper, Dirk

    2017-03-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) can run acute, chronic, and prenatal courses in both domestic pigs and wild boar. Although chronic infections are rare events, their epidemiological impact is very high due to the long-term shedding of virus. So far, little is known about the factors that influence disease course and outcome from either the host or virus's perspective. To elucidate the viral determinants, we analyzed the role of the viral populations for the development of chronic CSF virus (CSFV) infections. Three different animal trials that had led to both chronic and acute infections were chosen for a detailed analysis by deep sequencing. The three inocula represented sub-genogroups 2.1 and 2.3, and two viruses were wild-type CSFV, one derived from an infectious cDNA clone. These viruses and samples derived from acutely and chronically infected animals were subjected to next-generation sequencing. Subsequently, the derived full-length genomes were compared at both the consensus and the quasispecies level. At consensus level, no differences were observed between the parental viruses and the viruses obtained from chronically infected animals. Despite a considerable level of variability at the quasispecies level, no indications were found for any predictive pattern with regard to the chronicity of the CSFV infections. While there might be no direct marker for chronicity, moderate virulence of some CSFV strains in itself seems to be a crucial prerequisite for the establishment of long-term infections which does not need further genetic adaption. Thus, general host and virus factors need further investigation.

  10. [Natural helminth infection in Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766), by Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proença, 1945 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria L de A; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; Pinto, Roberto M; Lins, Fernanda P; Riehl Vaz, Mônica G; de Abreu, Ana Paula M; de Souza, Paulo César A

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of a natural infection in the saffron finch Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) captured in Brazil, with the establishment of a new host record for the acuarioid nematode Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proença, 1945, previously referred in Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) from Paraguay and Sporophila caerulescens caerulescens (Vieillot, 1823) and C. cyanomelas (Wied, 1821) from Brazil and Myarchus nuttingi (Ridgway, 1883) from Costa Rica.

  11. Novel PI3Kγ Mutation in a 44-Year-Old Man with Chronic Infections and Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoischen, Alexander; Veltman, Joris; Allsop, Stephen A.; Granadillo, Victor J. Anciano; William, Arsani; Netea, Mihai G.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old man is presented here with 14 years of chronic purulent sinusitis, a chronic fungal rash of the scrotum, and chronic pelvic pain. Treatment with antifungal therapy resulted in symptom improvement, however he was unable to establish an effective long-term treatment regimen, resulting in debilitating symptoms. He had undergone extensive work-up without identifying a clear underlying etiology, although Candida species were cultured from the prostatic fluid. 100 genes involved in the cellular immune response were sequenced and a missense mutation was identified in the Ras-binding domain of PI3Kγ. PI3Kγ is a crucial signaling element in leukotaxis and other leukocyte functions. We hypothesize that his mutation led to his chronic infections and pelvic pain. PMID:23861857

  12. Bone SPECT/CT detection of a sequestrum in chronic-infected nonunion of the tibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Sequestra are dead pieces of bone most often seen in long bones affected with prior or current infection. In addition to antibiotic therapy, chronic osteomyelitis with sequestration requires surgical debridement for cure. The author presents a case of tibial fracture associated with chr......Abstract: Sequestra are dead pieces of bone most often seen in long bones affected with prior or current infection. In addition to antibiotic therapy, chronic osteomyelitis with sequestration requires surgical debridement for cure. The author presents a case of tibial fracture associated...... with chronic osteomyelitis, nonunion, and the presence of a sequestrum that was detected by bone SPECT/CT.  ...

  13. Is chronic hepatitis C virus infection a risk factor for breast cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique; Larrey; Marie-Cécile; Bozonnat; Ihab; Kain; Georges-Philippe; Pageaux; Eric; Assenat

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the prevalence of breast tumors in adult females with chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection.METHODS:Prospective,single-center study,based on female outpatients consulting in a liver unit,for 1 year.The study group included females with present and/or past history of chronic infection by HCV.Patients with spontaneous recovery were excluded.Chronic hepatitis had been proved by liver biopsy in the majority of cases and/or biological markers of inflammation and fibrosis.The control group incl...

  14. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lustigman

    Full Text Available A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  15. Sofosbuvir and Simeprevir Treatment of a Stem Cell Transplanted Teenager With Chronic Hepatitis C Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischler, Björn; Priftakis, Peter; Sundin, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    There have been no previous reports on the use of interferon-free combinations in pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. An infected adolescent with severe sickle cell disease underwent stem cell transplantation and subsequent treatment with sofosbuvir and simeprevir during ongoing immunosuppression. Despite the emergence of peripheral edema as a side effect, treatment was continued with sustained antiviral response.

  16. Case Report: Chronic Recurrent Unilateral Pulmonary Infection: Result of Congenital Unilateral Agenesis of Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Abu Saleh, Walid K; Ramchandani, Mahesh; Scheinin, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral agenesis of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly. This report describes a 52-year-old female who gave a long history of chronic, recurrent, left-sided pulmonary infections related to UAPA. For many years, she was managed medically but the infection continued to recur. She eventually underwent left pneumonectomy and made a good recovery.

  17. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori does not provoke major systemic inflammation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Fröhlich, M

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), in particular infection with virulent strains producing the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by generation of a persistent low-grade inflammatory stimulus. We...

  18. Shared immune and repair markers during experimental toxoplasma chronic brain infection and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Tomasik (Jakub); T.L. Schultz (Tracey L.); W. Kluge (Wolfgang); R.H. Yolken (Robert H.); S. Bahn (Sabine); V.B. Carruthers (Vern B.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChronic neurologic infection with Toxoplasma gondii is relatively common in humans and is one of the strongest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the exact neuropathological mechanisms linking T gondii infection and schizophrenia remain unclear. Here we utilize a mouse m

  19. Immune recovery in acute and chronic HIV infection and the impact of thymic stromal lymphopoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Hartling, Hans J; Thorsteinsson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    that promotes CD4+ T cells homeostatic polyclonal proliferation and regulates Th17/regulatory T-cell balance, immunological functions known to be affected during primary HIV infection. The aim of this study was to describe immune recovery in primary and chronic HIV infection and possible impact of TSLP. METHODS...

  20. Pattern recognition receptor responses in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects the expression and function of Toll like receptors (TLRs), but data on TLR function in HBV infection are mainly from adult patients. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is distinctly different in children...

  1. In situ growth rates and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in chronic lung infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, L.; Haagensen, J.A.; Jelsbak, L.

    2008-01-01

    The growth dynamics of bacterial pathogens within infected hosts are a fundamental but poorly understood feature of most infections. We have focused on the in situ distribution and growth characteristics of two prevailing and transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones that have caused chronic lu...

  2. Current progress in the development of therapeutic vaccines for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B is still a major public health issue despite the successful prophylactic vaccination attempts. Chronicity of hepatitis B virus(HBV is mainly due to its ability to debilitate host's immune system. Therefore, major measures have been taken to stop this process and help patients with chronic hepatitis B infection recover from their illness. While satisfactory results have been achieved using preventive HBV vaccines, a reliable and effective therapeutic treatment is still in need of extensive studies. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B include direct antiviral agents and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, which are not always effective and are also costly. In addition, due to the fact that chronic HBV is responsible for debilitation of the immune system, studies have focused on developing therapeutic vaccines to help host's immune system recover and limit the infection. Several approaches including but not restricted to recombinant peptide-based, DNA-based, viral vector-based, and cell-based approaches are currently in use to develop therapeutic vaccines against the chronic form of HBV infection. In the current review, the authors will first discuss the role of the immune system in chronic hepatitis B infection and will then focus on latest advancements in therapeutic vaccination of HBV especially the clinical trials that have been carried out so far.

  3. Relations between stunting and soil-transmitted helminths infections in school-age pupils%学龄儿童生长发育迟缓及其与土源性线虫感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚煜; 闫承生; 翟书梅; 李中秋; 石小勇; 江燕; 汤林华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand stunting status and explore the influence factor of stunting. [ Methods] A cross-sectional method to examine 1 031 pupils aged 9 to 12 years. These pupils came from 15 schools in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province rural areas in China. Study contects included questionnaires survey; physical examination, based on the new WHO Child Growth Standards(WHO Anthroplus, 2007); haemoglobin detection; stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz technique to choose soil-transmitted helminthes (Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris triehiura) infections. EpiData3. 0 was used to establish a database. Statistical analyses of the data were performed using statistical package for Social Sciences for Windows SPSS(version 16. 0). [Results] The overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ<2SD) was 25. 6% (264/1 031). Risk factors for stunting that based on logistic regression analyses were: 1)Soil-transmitted helminthes moderate-to-heavy intensity infections(OR= 1. 927,95%CI:1. 194~3. 110); 2)anaemia(OR=3. 26,95%CI: 2. 018~5. 268); 3)education level of mother(OR=2. 125,95%CI: 1. 388~3. 254). The overall prevalence of STH infections was 36.7 % (378/1 031 ), moderate-to-heavy intensity STH infections was 16.8 % (173/1 031). Ascariasis,hookworm trichuriasis and co-infection were 11.2%(115/1 031),11. 5%(119/1 031),4.9%(51/1 031), and 9. 1%(93/ 1 031) respectively. The anaemia (Hb<120 g/L) was 13. 1%. [Conclusions] The present study shows that stunting is highly prevalence among study population and STH infections is one of the important risk factors for stunting, especially moderate-to-heavy intensity infections is the main predictors of stunting.%[目的]了解学龄儿童生长发育迟缓现状及其相关影响因素.[方法]在广西、海南两地农村地区,对3个乡15个学校的1 031名9~12岁儿童生长发育进行现况调查,调查内容包括:填写问卷、病原学检测、体格测量以及实验室

  4. Helminths of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia from a rock outcrop area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, L A; Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J

    2005-12-01

    The helminth fauna of 291 Hemidactylus mabouia (Lacertilia: Gekkonidae) from a rock outcrop area in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, was studied. Five species were recovered, namely one unidentified species of centrorhynchid acanthocephalan (present only as cystacanths) and the nematodes Parapharyngodon sceleratus, P. largitor (Oxyuroidea: Pharingodonidae), Physaloptera sp. (Spiruroidea: Physalopteridae) and one indeterminate species of Acuariidae (Acuaroidea), with the latter two forms present only as larvae. Infection rates tended to increase with host size, but appeared to be unaffected by season. Hemidactylus mabouia shared most of its helminth fauna with two other sympatric lizard hosts, Mabuya frenata and Tropidurus itambere. The helminth assemblage of the H. mabouia population appears to have been entirely acquired by this exotic gecko from the local helminth species pool, rather than possessing any species from the parasite faunas of the original African populations.

  5. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions.

  6. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Gook Huh; Myoung-Don Oh; You-Sun Kim; Jong-Sung Lee; Tae-Yeob Jeong; Soo-Hyung Ryu; Jung-Hwan Lee; Jeong-Seop Moon; Yun-Kyung Kang; Myung-Shup Shim

    2008-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastro-intestinal manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Protozoa and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that can easily infect these patients.Among the NTM,Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequently observed pathogen in HIV-infected patients.However,NTMs other than MAC have not been reported as a gastrointestinal pathogen as yet.We present a case of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient in whom Mycobacterium ulcerans and cryptosporidium co-infection is evidenced from colonic tissue.

  7. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  8. Studies on the parasitic helminths of slaughtered animals in Iraq. I. Parasitic helminths of the liver of herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, N; Nassir, J K

    1983-12-01

    The livers and lungs of 580 sheep, 160 goats, 418 cattle, 50 camels and 48 buffaloes slaughtered in Baghdad in April-July, 1981 were examined for helminth parasites; 14.3% of the sheep, 0.6% of the goats, 18.2% of the cattle, 72.0% of the camels and 8.3% of the buffaloes were infected with trematodes and cestodes. Dicrocoelium dendriticum is reported from the livers of sheep in Iraq for the first time.

  9. Parasitic helminths of small mammals in Elba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Ribas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the helminth fauna of small mammals (Rodentia and Insectivora in the mediterranean island of Elba (Italy. We first performed a survey of the parasitic helminths of Rattus rattus (L., 1758, Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 (Rodentia, Murinae, Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811 (Insectivora, Soricidae and Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae. An expedition was undertaken in January 2002 making an helminth faunistic study of: 14 R. rattus; 11 M. domesticus; 2 C. suaveolens and 1 E. europaeus. A total of 28 animals were trapped at seven stations and nine helminth species were detected: Corrigia vitta Dujardin, 1845 (Dicrocoelidae, Brachylaima erinacei Blanchard, 1847 (Brachylaimidae [Digenea]; Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819; H. tiara (Dujardin, 1845 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae; Aonchotheca erinacei Rudolphi, 1819; Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1893 (Trichuridae; Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 (Spirocercidae; Paracrenosoma kontrimavinchusi Guenov, 1978 (Metastrongylidae; Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 (Oxyuridae [Nematoda]. The house mice were not infected by helminths. In the black rat, five species were detected: C. vitta, H. diminuta, C. hepaticum, M. muris and S. muris. Insectivores hosts were parasitised by B. erinacei, A. erinacei (E. europaeus, H. tiara and P. kontrimavinchusi (C. suaveolens. All species were identified by morphological characteristics and in the cases of H. diminuta and M. muris isozyme electrophoresis were used to compare with continental and insular samples. Helminths found in these hosts in Elba Island (apart of P. kontrimavinchusi are the best colonisers of mediterranean islands. These species were

  10. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  11. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-05-12

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying target condition through considerations of the pathogenesis, and specification of a practical case definition, which can subsequently be used in the DTE for the specific purpose. The process is illustrated by two examples of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle. MAP infections are chronic and can result in different adverse effects at different time points during the incubation period. The description provides input on the process and deductive reasoning which are integral parts to develop a high-quality design of a DTE for chronic infectious diseases.

  12. Therapeutic strategies for a functional cure of chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection with the viral DNA polymerase inhibitors or pegylated alpha-interferon has led to a significant retardation in HBV-related disease progression and reduction in mortality related to chronic hepatitis B associated liver decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, chronic HBV infection remains not cured. The reasons for the failure to eradicate HBV infection by long-term antiviral therapy are not completely understood. However, clinical studies suggest that the intrinsic stability of the nuclear form of viral genome, the covalently closed circular (ccc DNA, sustained low level viral replication under antiviral therapy and homeostatic proliferation of hepatocytes are the critical virological and pathophysiological factors that affect the persistence and therapeutic outcomes of HBV infection. More importantly, despite potent suppression of HBV replication in livers of the treated patients, the dysfunction of HBV-specific antiviral immunity persists. The inability of the immune system to recognize cells harboring HBV infection and to cure or eliminate cells actively producing virus is the biggest challenge to finding a cure. Unraveling the complex virus–host interactions that lead to persistent infection should facilitate the rational design of antivirals and immunotherapeutics to cure chronic HBV infection.

  13. RANTES gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and expression in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zhong-ping; ZHAO Xiu-ying; HUANG De-zhuang; HE Li-xiang; CHEN Yu; ZHAO Chun-hui; ZHENG Bo-jian

    2005-01-01

    Background Regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) plays a critical role in T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The process is involved in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation. The present study was to ascertain the possible correlations between chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the RANTES gene polymorphisms and their expression. Methods The study included 130 HBV negative healthy donors and 152 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to detect RANTES gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RANTES levels in the platelet depleted plasma were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results RANTES alleles -403G, -28C and In1.1T were the predominant alleles in the subjects studied. No significant correlation was found between CHB infection and the RANTES alleles, while a significant correlation was found between CHB infection and increased RANTES expression in platelet depleted plasma (P<0.05). Conclusions SNPs in RANTES gene do not affect chronic HBV infection or the outcome of interferon-α treatment in patients positive for HBV "e" antigen (HBeAg+). However, patients with CHB infection express the higher levels of plasma RANTES, which is thus associated with CHB infection.

  14. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  15. Fine structure and cellular responses at the host-parasite interface in a range of fish-helminth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bo, T; Lorenzoni, M; Shinn, A P; Giari, L

    2015-03-15

    A series of ultrastructural-based studies were conducted on the interface region in different fish-helminth systems: (a) an intestinal infection of the cestode Monobothrium wageneri in tench, Tinca tinca; (b) an extensive intestinal submucosa and mucosal infection in tench by metacercariae of an unidentified digenean trematode; (c) an intestinal infection in brown trout, Salmo trutta, by the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae; (d) an extraintestinal infection by larvae of the acanthocephalan, Pomphorhynchus laevis in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus; and (e) an infection in the livers of Eurasian minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, by larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus. Endoparasitic helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract and associated organs, inducing the recruitment of various immune cells to the site of infection. In each of the fish-helminth systems that were studied, a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response involving mast cells (MCs) and neutrophils in close proximity to the helminths was documented. The current study presents data on the interface region in each fish-helminth system and documents the penetration of mast cells granules within the tegument of P. laevis larvae. No extracellular vesicles containing tegumental secretions from any of the four different taxa of endoparasitic helminths species at the host-parasite interface region were seen.

  16. Prevalence and Distribution of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH among Asymptomatic School Going Children in South Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anbumani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infections represent a major health problem in poor and developing countries. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of STH among school going children of Kancheepuram district. Three hundred and fifty eight children in the age group of 5-10 years were examined for STH. One hundred and fourteen of the 358 (40% were tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various intestinal helminths are Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Taenia species. At least one intestinal helminth was detected in 25.13% (90/358 children and multiple helminth infestation was recorded in 15.08% (54/358. The most common parasitic helminth was A. lumbricoides 60% (84/144 followed by T. trichiura 4.17% (6/144. A. lumbricoides was found as single type infection as well as in association with other helminths in mixed type infection. This study emphasizes the need for improved sanitation and better living conditions for the school-age children in rural areas.

  17. Improved outcome of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is associated with induction of a Th1-dominated cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Jensen, P O; Kobayashi, O;

    2002-01-01

    patients, the lungs of susceptible BALB/c mice were re-infected with P. aeruginosa 14 days after the initial infection. Singly-infected BALB/c mice, as well as non-infected mice, were used as controls. Decreased mortality and milder lung inflammation in re-infected BALB/c mice, as well as a tendency......Repeated challenge with antigen is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of pulmonary diseases. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience recurrent pulmonary colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa before establishment of chronic lung infection. To mimic recurrent lung infections in CF...... production, in chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in CF....

  18. Methamphetamine mediates immune dysregulation in a murine model of chronic viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma eSriram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a highly addictive psychostimulant that not only affects the brain and cognitive functions but also greatly impacts the host immune system, rendering the body susceptible to infections and exacerbating the severity of disease. Although there is gathering evidence about METH abuse and increased incidence of HIV and other viral infections, not much is known about the effects on the immune system in a chronic viral infection setting. We have used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV chronic mouse model of viral infection in a chronic METH environment and demonstrate that METH significantly increases CD3 marker on splenocytes and programmed death -1 (PD-1 expression on T cells, a cell surface signaling molecule known to inhibit T cell function and cause exhaustion in a lymphoid organ. Many of these METH effects were more pronounced during early stage of infection, which are gradually attenuated during later stages of infection. An essential cytokine for T-lymphocyte homeostasis, Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in serum was prominently reduced in METH-exposed infected mice. In addition, the serum pro-inflammatory (TNF, IL12 p70, IL1β, IL-6 and KC-GRO and Th2 (IL-2, IL-10 and IL-4 cytokine profiles were also altered in the presence of METH. Interestingly CXCR3, an inflammatory chemokine receptor, showed significant increase in the METH treated LCMV infected mice. Similarly, compared to only infected mice, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in METH exposed LCMV infected mice were up regulated. Collectively, our data suggest that METH alters systemic, peripheral immune responses and modulates key markers on T cells involved in pathogenesis of chronic viral infection.

  19. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in an area with intermediate prevalence of HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Javad Kaviani; Behzad Behbahani; Mohammad Jafar Mosallaii; Fatemeh Sari-Aslani; Seyed Alireza Taghavi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the possible role of occult HBV infection in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.METHODS: After exclusion of autoimmune, metabolic and viral etiologies, 104 consecutive adult patients with histologic and biochemical features of chronic hepatitis and negative HBsAg were enrolled in the study.Qualitative PCR with a sensitivity of 150 × 103 copies/L,using two primers for Pre-S and core regions was applied to measure presence of HBV DNA in serum of the patients.RESULTS: All 104 patients completed the study.Qualitative HBV DNA was positive in two patients (1.9%).CONCLUSION: Occult HBV infection has negligible role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.

  20. Prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy Abdellatif; ElMakhzangy, Hesham Ibrahim; Gamal, Amira; Mekky, Fatma; El Kassas, Mohammed; Mohammed, Nabil; Abdel Hamid, Mohammed; Esmat, Gamal

    2010-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia has been known to provoke a plethora of autoimmune syndromes referred to as extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection. Aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations among Egyptians with hepatitis C infection and its' association with cryoglobulin profile. The current research represents a cross-sectional study where patients with chronic HCV infection attending the outpatient clinic of the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute over a period of 1 year were interviewed. Patients with decompensated liver disease, on interferon therapy, having end-stage renal disease or coexisting viral infection like hepatitis B surface antibody positive patients were all excluded from the research. Laboratory investigations as well as serological assay including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Three hundred and six patients having chronic HCV infection were interviewed in this research. The overall estimated prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations in the current research was 16.39%, chronic fatigue syndrome 9.5%, sicca symptoms 8.8%, arthralgia 6.5%, fibromyalgia 1.9%, myalgia 1.3%, arthritis 0.7%, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis 0.7%, autoimmune hemolytic anemia 0.7%, thrombocytopenia 0.7%. Xerophthalmia was significantly present in male population (p = 0.04), whereas fibromyalgia, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, arthritis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were significantly present in female population under study (p chronic HCV genotype 4 infection, the prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations was 16.3% with chronic fatigue syndrome and sicca symptoms being the most common with no significant correlation to the degree of elevation of liver disease or viral load.

  1. The helminth parasite proteome at the host-parasite interface - Informing diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ree, Anna M; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-10-01

    Helminth parasites are a significant health burden for humans in the developing world and also cause substantial economic losses in livestock production across the world. The combined lack of vaccines for the major human and veterinary helminth parasites in addition to the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics in sheep and cattle mean that controlling helminth infection and pathology remains a challenge. However, recent high throughput technological advances mean that screening for potential drug and vaccine candidates is now easier than in previous decades. A better understanding of the host-parasite interactions occurring during infection and pathology and identifying pathways that can be therapeutically targeted for more effective and 'evolution proof' interventions is now required. This review highlights some of the advances that have been made in understanding the host-parasite interface in helminth infections using studies of the temporal expression of parasite proteins, i.e. the parasite proteome, and discuss areas for potential future research and translation.

  2. ATM facilitates mouse gammaherpesvirus reactivation from myeloid cells during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinski, Joseph M; Darrah, Eric J; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Mboko, Wadzanai P; Mounce, Bryan C; Malherbe, Laurent P; Corbett, John A; Gauld, Stephen B; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2015-09-01

    Gammaherpesviruses are cancer-associated pathogens that establish life-long infection in most adults. Insufficiency of Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase leads to a poor control of chronic gammaherpesvirus infection via an unknown mechanism that likely involves a suboptimal antiviral response. In contrast to the phenotype in the intact host, ATM facilitates gammaherpesvirus reactivation and replication in vitro. We hypothesized that ATM mediates both pro- and antiviral activities to regulate chronic gammaherpesvirus infection in an immunocompetent host. To test the proposed proviral activity of ATM in vivo, we generated mice with ATM deficiency limited to myeloid cells. Myeloid-specific ATM deficiency attenuated gammaherpesvirus infection during the establishment of viral latency. The results of our study uncover a proviral role of ATM in the context of gammaherpesvirus infection in vivo and support a model where ATM combines pro- and antiviral functions to facilitate both gammaherpesvirus-specific T cell immune response and viral reactivation in vivo.

  3. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose......) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying...... of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte...

  4. Clinical features of vascular disorders associated with chronic hepatitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis virus infections can be accompanied by extrahepatic manifestations that may be caused by the host's immune reaction to the viral infection. Vascular involvement is one of these manifestations and is occasionally associated with life-threatening conditions due to systemic organ failure. The unique profile of hepatitis-related vascular involvement is associated with infection by different types of hepatitis viruses. For example, polyarteritis nodosa is more frequently reported in patients with chronic hepatitis B than those with chronic hepatitis C. Similarly, membranous nephropathy is a notable manifestation among hepatitis B virus-positive patients. In contrast, patients infected with hepatitis C virus are at risk for cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Antiviral therapy is necessary to control these kinds of vasculitis related to hepatitis virus infections; however, immunosuppressive agents may be required to treat severe cases. New antiviral drugs for viral hepatitis could improve the prognosis of vascular and renal involvement.

  5. Immune complexed (IC) hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronically and acutely HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Maggi, F; Abbruzzese, F; Bellomi, F; Giannelli, G; Picardi, A; Scagnolari, C; Folgori, A; Spada, E; Piccolella, E; Dianzani, F; Antonelli, G

    2009-02-01

    In infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists in various forms of circulating particles which role in virus persistence and in HCV resistance to IFN therapy is still debated. Here, the proportion of HCV bound to immunoglobulin was determined in plasma of 107 chronically infected patients harbouring different HCV genotypes and, for comparison, of six patients with acute HCV infection. The results showed that, in spite of wide individual variability, chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited an extremely high proportion of immune complexed (IC) virus regardless of plasma HCV load and infecting genotype. Moreover, no significant association was found between baseline proportion of IC HCV and response to IFN treatment. Plasma samples collected within 2 weeks of treatment from 20 patients revealed a significant decline of mean IC HCV values relative to baseline that clearly paralleled the decay of total HCV load. In acutely infected patients, circulating HCV was not IC or IC at very low levels only in patients developing chronic HCV infection. Collectively, these findings strengthen the possibility that IC virus could play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  6. The Emerging Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chronic Hepatitis and Mixed Cryoglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is known to be responsible for both hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. Mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjögren syndrome, and chronic polyarthritis are the most documented rheumatologic extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection. The most frequent and clinically important extrahepatic endocrine manifestations of chronic HCV infection are thyroid disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a meta-analysis of the literature, a significant association between HCV infection and thyroid autoimmunity and/or hypothyroidism as well as a high prevalence of thyroid cancer have been reported. The pattern of thyroid disorders observed in HCV infected patients is characterized by the presence of elevated circulating anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies with increased risk of hypothyroidism. Several clinical epidemiologic studies have reported that HCV infection is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The type of diabetes manifested by subjects with chronic HCV infection is not of the classical type 2 diabetes; in fact, HCV-related diabetic patients are leaner than the classical diabetic patients, and have a significantly lower LDL-cholesterol, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia (mixed cryoglobulinemia and chronic HCV infection with type 2 diabetes have more frequently non-organ-specific-autoantibodies than non-diabetic patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and those with chronic HCV infection. Based on the above-mentioned findings, it has been hypothesized that diabetes in HCV infection may have an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In patients with chronic HCV infection, we found an increased risk of carotid artery plaque and carotid intima-media thickening. These findings suggested a possible role for chronic hepatitis C in the pathogenesis of carotid artery remodelling. Recently, high prevalence rates of anti-HCV antibodies were shown in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or

  7. Extrahepatic immune related manifestations in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampaki, Maria; Koskinas, John

    2014-09-21

    The association of chronic hepatitis C with immune related syndromes has been frequently reported. There is a great range of clinical manifestations affecting various systems and organs such as the skin, the kidneys, the central and peripheral nervous system, the musculoskeletal system and the endocrine glands. Despite the high prevalence of immune related syndromes in patients with chronic hepatitis C, the exact pathogenesis is not always clear. They have been often associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia, a common finding in chronic hepatitis C, cross reaction with viral antigens, or the direct effect of virus on the affected tissues. The aim of this review is to analyze the reported hepatitis C virus immune mediated syndromes, their prevalence and clinical manifestations and to discuss the most supported theories regarding their pathogenesis.

  8. Use of Remote Sensing/Geographical Information Systems (RS/GIS) to Identify the Distributional Limits of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) and Their Association to Prevalence of Intestinal Infection in School-Age Children in Four Rural Communities in Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    STHs can infect all members of a population but school-age children living in poverty are at greater risk. Infection can be controlled with drug treatment, health education and sanitation. Helminth control programs often lack resources and reliable information to identify areas of highest risk to guide interventions and to monitor progress. Objectives: To use RS/GIS to identify the environmental variables that correlate with the ecology of STHs and with the prevalence of STH infections. Methods: Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from the RS environmental data using ESRI s ArcGIS 9.3. Prevalence data and RS environmental data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those RS environmental variables that better correlate with prevalence data will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite sensors onboard Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 respectively. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections will be determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). Expected Results: Associations between RS environmental data and prevalence in situ data will be determined and their applications to public health will be discussed. Discussion/Conclusions: The use of RS/GIS data to predict the prevalence of STH infections could be useful for helminth control programs, providing improved geographical guidance of interventions while increasing cost-effectiveness. Learning Objectives: (1) To identify the RS environmental

  9. Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Chronic Urticaria: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some studies have shown the possible involvement of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in chronic urticaria, but the relationship remains controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively assess the association between H. pylori infection and chronic urticaria. Methods. Observational studies comparing the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria and control subjects were identified through a systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to July 2014. H. pylori infection was confirmed by serological or nonserological tests. For subgroup analyses, studies were separated by region, publication year, and H. pylori detection method to screen the potential factors resulting in heterogeneity. Results. 16 studies involving 965 CU cases and 1235 controls were included. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in urticarial patients than in controls (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.12–2.45; P=0.01. This result persisted in subanalysis of nine high-quality studies (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03–1.80; P=0.03. Subgroup analysis showed that detection method of H. pylori is also a potential influential factor for the overall results. Conclusions. Our present meta-analysis suggests that H. pylori infection is significantly, though weakly, associated with an increased risk of chronic urticaria.

  10. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe.

  11. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda;

    2010-01-01

    with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences.......Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... investigated in a study area where children were chronically exposed to malaria throughout while S. mansoni transmission was geographically restricted. Hepatosplenomegaly was associated with increased portal vein diameters, with enlargement of the spleen rather than the liver being more closely associated...

  12. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  13. Persistent activation of an innate immune response translates respiratory viral infection into chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edy Y; Battaile, John T; Patel, Anand C; You, Yingjian; Agapov, Eugene; Grayson, Mitchell H; Benoit, Loralyn A; Byers, Derek E; Alevy, Yael; Tucker, Jennifer; Swanson, Suzanne; Tidwell, Rose; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Morton, Jeffrey D; Castro, Mario; Polineni, Deepika; Patterson, G Alexander; Schwendener, Reto A; Allard, John D; Peltz, Gary; Holtzman, Michael J

    2008-06-01

    To understand the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disease, we analyzed an experimental mouse model of chronic lung disease with pathology that resembles asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. In this model, chronic lung disease develops after an infection with a common type of respiratory virus is cleared to only trace levels of noninfectious virus. Chronic inflammatory disease is generally thought to depend on an altered adaptive immune response. However, here we find that this type of disease arises independently of an adaptive immune response and is driven instead by interleukin-13 produced by macrophages that have been stimulated by CD1d-dependent T cell receptor-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells. This innate immune axis is also activated in the lungs of humans with chronic airway disease due to asthma or COPD. These findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disease with the discovery that the transition from respiratory viral infection into chronic lung disease requires persistent activation of a previously undescribed NKT cell-macrophage innate immune axis.

  14. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Cousins

    Full Text Available The neovascular (wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV, laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  15. Studies on the interaction between Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and intestinal helminths in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N.R.; Roepstorff, A.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    trickle infected with low or moderate dose levels of Oesophagostomum spp. and challenge infected with S. Typhimurium. In another experiment, pigs were inoculated with S. Typhimurium followed by a challenge exposure to either Oesophagostomum, Trichuris or Ascaris. Enhancement of the Salmonella infection......Concomitant infections with helminths and bacteria may affect the course and the resulting disease outcome of the individual infections. Salmonella, Oesophagostomum, Trichuris and Ascaris coexist naturally in pig herds in Denmark, and possible interactions were studied. Pigs in one experiment were...... was not demonstrated in either experiment. The helminth effect on the pigs was modest and may explain the lack of influence on the Salmonella infection. A previous experiment with a larger Oesophagostomum infection level resulted in enhancement of the S. Typhimurium infection. A dose dependency of the interaction...

  16. Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mitanshu; Tan, Christopher Bryan; Rajan, Dhyan; Ahmed, Shadab; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  17. Risk of Infections in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.

    2013-01-01

    of pyelonephritis may be 2 to 4 times increased. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetes is generally not recommended. Diabetes duration and chronic complications including cystopathy appear to be more important risk factors than current glycemic control, but further evidence is needed. Modifiable risk...

  18. Clinical identification of bacteria in human chronic wound infections: culturing vs. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoads Daniel D; Cox Stephen B; Rees Eric J; Sun Yan; Wolcott Randall D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic wounds affect millions of people and cost billions of dollars in the United States each year. These wounds harbor polymicrobial biofilm communities, which can be difficult to elucidate using culturing methods. Clinical molecular microbiological methods are increasingly being employed to investigate the microbiota of chronic infections, including wounds, as part of standard patient care. However, molecular testing is more sensitive than culturing, which results in m...

  19. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  20. Patterns and risk factors of helminthiasis and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community in Zanzibar, in the context of helminth control programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool samples with different methods for soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura and one urine sample for Schistosoma haematobium. Finger-prick blood was taken to estimate anemia levels and to detect antibody reactions against ascariasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA approach. Parasitological methods determined a helminth prevalence of 73.7% in the rural, and 48.9% in the peri-urban setting. Most helminth infections were of light intensity with school-aged children showing the highest intensities. Multiple helminth species infections were pervasive in rural dwellers regardless of age. More than half of the participants were anemic, with a particularly high prevalence in the peri-urban setting (64.7%. Risk factors for helminth infections were age, sex, consumption of raw vegetables or salad, recent travel history, and socio-economic status. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: After several years of chemotherapy-based morbidity control efforts in Zanzibar, helminth prevalences are still high and anemia is common, but helminth infection intensities are low. Hence, chemotherapy should be continued, and complemented with improved access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, along with poverty alleviation measures for a more enduring impact.

  1. Aging aggravates ischemic stroke-induced brain damage in mice with chronic peripheral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Hiramani; Malm, Tarja; Denes, Adam; Valonen, Piia; Wojciechowski, Sara; Magga, Johanna; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Humphreys, Neil; Grencis, Richard; Rothwell, Nancy; Koistinaho, Jari

    2013-10-01

    Ischemic stroke is confounded by conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and infection, all of which alter peripheral inflammatory processes with concomitant impact on stroke outcome. The majority of the stroke patients are elderly, but the impact of interactions between aging and inflammation on stroke remains unknown. We thus investigated the influence of age on the outcome of stroke in animals predisposed to systemic chronic infection. Th1-polarized chronic systemic infection was induced in 18-22 month and 4-month-old C57BL/6j mice by administration of Trichuris muris (gut parasite). One month after infection, mice underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and infarct size, brain gliosis, and brain and plasma cytokine profiles were analyzed. Chronic infection increased the infarct size in aged but not in young mice at 24 h. Aged, ischemic mice showed altered plasma and brain cytokine responses, while the lesion size correlated with plasma prestroke levels of RANTES. Moreover, the old, infected mice exhibited significantly increased neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of both plasma interleukin-17α and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Neither age nor infection status alone or in combination altered the ischemia-induced brain microgliosis. Our results show that chronic peripheral infection in aged animals renders the brain more vulnerable to ischemic insults, possibly by increasing the invasion of neutrophils and altering the inflammation status in the blood and brain. Understanding the interactions between age and infections is crucial for developing a better therapeutic regimen for ischemic stroke and when modeling it as a disease of the elderly.

  2. Helminth communities of two sympatric skinks (Mabuya agilis and Mabuya macrorhyncha) from two "restinga" habitats in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D; Bursey, C R; Vicente, J J

    2002-12-01

    The helminth fauna of two sympatric congeneric skinks (Mabuya agilis and M. macrorhyncha) from two distinct "restinga" habitats (Praia das Neves and Grussaí) in southeastern Brazil were studied, totalling four data sets (sample sizes ranging from 11 to 28). A total of ten helminth species were associated with the skinks: Raillietiella sp., Paradistomum parvissimum, Pulchrosomoides elegans, Oochoristica ameivae, Hexametra boddaertii, Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physalopteroides venancioi, Physaloptera sp., an unidentified acuariid nematode and an unidentified centrorhynchid acanthocephalan. Except for Hexametra boddaertii (found only in Grussaí) and Pulchrosomoides elegans (found only in Praia das Neves), all helminth species were present at both localities. Half of the helminth species were present only as larvae and, in most cases, appear to represent paratenic parasitism. Overall prevalences of infection were high for both host species in both localities. Mabuya agilis tended to have richer and more diverse infracommunities than M. macrorhyncha. Some parameters of infection by individual helminth species seem to be related to the ecology of each Mabuya species. The parasite faunas were qualitatively very similar among species and/or localities, but quantitative similarities were more varied, due to differential representativeness of individual helminth species among host populations. The helminth communities of both skink species can be classified as non-interactive, being composed of site-specialists and immature stages of non-lizard parasites.

  3. Development of chronic and acute golden Syrian hamster infection models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuerner, R L; Alt, D P; Palmer, M V

    2012-03-01

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several Leptospira species. Onset of an acute lethal infection following inoculation with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for pathogenesis studies. An important exception is the outcome following inoculation of hamsters with live L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, the primary cause of bovine leptospirosis and a cause of human infections. Typically, inoculation of hamsters with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo fails to induce clinical signs of infection. In this study, the authors defined LD(50) and ID(50) for 2 strains of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo: JB197 and 203. Both strains infected hamsters with ID(50) values of approximately 1.5 × 10(2) bacteria yet differed in tissue invasion and interaction with leukocytes, resulting in widely divergent clinical outcomes. Hamsters infected with strain 203 established renal colonization within 4 days postinfection and remained asymptomatic with chronic renal infections similar to cattle infected with serovar Hardjo. In contrast, hamsters infected with strain JB197 developed a rapidly debilitating disease typical of acute leptospirosis common in accidental hosts (eg, humans) with an LD(50) of 3.6 × 10(4) bacteria. Evidence that strain JB197 resides in both extracellular and intracellular environments during hamster infection was obtained. Development of models that result in chronic and acute forms of leptospirosis provides a platform to study L. borgpetersenii pathogenesis and to test vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis.

  4. Helminth Parasites of Eastern European Hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor in Northern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a high tendency among exotic pet owners for keeping hedgehogs. This mammal can transfer some significant zoonotic pathogens to human. Hence, the present study was conducted for the first time to prepare a list of helminth parasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in North of Iran.Ten (four males and six females road killed hedgehogs were collected during April to January 2011 in rural areas of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. All of internal organs were scrutinized for helminth burden. The extracted specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and then cleared in Lacto-phenol solution. Helminth identification was carried out according to available systematic keys.All the examined hedgehogs (100% were infected with parasitic helminth as following: two hedgehogs (20% were infected with Crenosoma striatum, four hedgehogs (40% harbored Physaloptera clausa, one (10% host had Hymenolepis erinacei and three (30% of them were infected with Nephridiacanthus major.This is noteworthy that the current survey is the first report of helminth parasites fauna of Eastern European Hedgehog in Iran. Since, this is the first such investigation in our country, more researches are required to perform on unexplored areas of Iran in order to increase our knowledge regarding hedgehog parasitic diseases.

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection without cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn; L; Nash; Tracy; Woodall; Ashley; SM; Brown; Susan; E; Davies; Graeme; JM; Alexander

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate and characterise patients with chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection presenting with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) in the absence of cirrhosis.METHODS:Patients with chronic hepatitis C infection without cirrhosis presenting with HCC over a 2-year period were identified.The clinical case notes,blood test results and histological specimens were reviewed to identify whether additional risk factors for the development of HCC were present.RESULTS:Six patients(five male,one female) with chro...

  6. A case of multiple extrahepatic manifestations in a patient with untreated, chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Andrew; McGee, Jean; Kartan, Saritha; Baskin, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a complex, multi-organ disorder, not just limited to the liver. Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) type 2 is a common extrahepatic complication, in which immunoglobulin complexes deposit in vascular endothelium. This in turn creates a diffuse inflammatory reaction, leading to a variety of disorders involving multiple systems. We report the rare case of a patient with cryoglobulinemia, cutaneous vasculitis, membroproliferative glomerulonephritis, and B cell lymphoma with a variant t(6;10) translocation in the setting of an untreated, chronic HCV infection. This case highlights the challenge associated with diagnosing and managing such a complex presentation.

  7. Co-infection with Cyclospora cayetanensis and Salmonella typhi in a patient with HIV infection and chronic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Rafael; Velázquez, Beltran; Reyes, Zoila; Somarriba, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    A 45-year-old-Haitian male patient with fever, abdominal cramping, chronic diarrhoea and weight loss of about 3 kg was investigated. Stool examination revealed Salmonella typhi and Cyclospora cayetanensis. The HIV test was positive with a CD4 count of 130 cells/mm(3). We provided the first report of co-infection Cyclospora cayetanensis and Salmonella typhi in a HIV patient with chronic diarrhoea. The patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin, 500 mg, twice daily for two weeks, with a good clinical outcome.

  8. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection.

  9. Type-I Interferon responses: From Friend to Foe in the Battle against Chronic Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Murira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN-I have long been heralded as key contributors to effective antiviral responses. More widely understood in the context of acute viral infection, the role of this pleiotropic cytokine has been characterized as triggering antiviral states in cells and potentiating adaptive immune responses. Upon induction in the innate immune response, IFN-I triggers the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, which upregulate the effector function of immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells, B cells and T cells towards successful resolution of infections. However, emerging lines of evidence reveal that viral persistence in the course of chronic infections could be driven by deleterious immunomodulatory effects upon sustained IFN-I expression. In this setting, elevation of IFN-I and ISGs is directly correlated to viral persistence and elevated viral loads. It is important to note that the correlation among IFN-I expression, ISGs and viral persistence may be a cause or effect of chronic infection and this is an important distinction to make towards establishing the dichotomous nature of IFN-I responses. The aim of this mini-review is to (i summarize the interaction between IFN-I and downstream effector responses and therefore (ii delineate the function of this cytokine on positive and negative immunoregulation in chronic infection. This is a significant consideration given the current therapeutic administration of IFN-I in chronic viral infections whose therapeutic significance is projected to continue despite emergence of increasingly efficacious antiviral regimens. Furthermore, elucidation of the interplay between virus and the antiviral response in the context of IFN-I will elucidate avenues towards more effective therapeutic and prophylactic measures against chronic viral infections.

  10. Telbivudine (Sebivo in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV chronic infection

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    Viola Sacchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world, with about 350 million people who are infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV and about 1 million deaths annually.Hepatitis B is characterized by an acute and a chronic phase, if the subject fails to produce adequate immune response.About 5-10% of adults infected with HBV go on to develop chronic infection and become chronic carriers (CHB; moreover, the liver damage, if not stopped, continues until cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the natural history of HBV infection, the most important event is HBeAg seroconversion, characterized by loss of HBeAg (a specific antigen of the virus and development of anti-HBe antibodies (HBeAg-positive patients. If the seroconversion has occurred early (when liver damage is not already significant and is maintained, long-term prognosis is excellent. The disease can follow a more aggressive course if active viral replication persists despite anti-HBe positivity. This state, characterized by continuing viral replication, has been termed as HBeAg-negative CHB, and is the most prevalent form in Italy. At the moment, there are 4 approved antiviral drug classes, with different antiviral efficacy, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: interferons, nucleoside analogues, nucleotide analogues, and cyclopents.The primary target of the treatment is a prolonged suppression of viral replication, in order to avoid long term complications and increase survival.

  11. Differential diagnosis of infections in a patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Paolo Ghiringhelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 65-years-old patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, receiving oxygen therapy and resistant to antibiotic therapy. He was admitted with high fever, productive cough, marked leukocytosis, and chest X-ray findings of infiltration and fluid levels within lung cysts. A differential diagnosis was essential to start an adequate treatment and avoid the rapid worsening of patients respiratory status. In patients with chronic pulmonary diseases under immunotherapy, micotic infections should be considered. Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from bronchial washing fluid and we diagnosed chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA. Oral itraconazole was started and his symptoms and laboratory data markedly improved.

  12. T cell immunopathogenesis and immunotherapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukihiro Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B is caused by the host immune response and T cells play a major role in the immunopathogenesis.More importantly,T cells not only destroy hepatocytes infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV),but also control HBV replication or eradicate HBV in a noncytolytic manner.Therefore,analysis of T cell immune response during acute and chronic HBV infection is important to develop a strategy for successful viral control,which could lead to immunotherapy for terminating persistent HBV infection.There have been many attempts at immunotherapy for chronic HBV infection,and some have shown promising results.High viral load has been shown to suppress antiviral immune responses and immunoinhibitory signals have been recently elucidated,therefore,viral suppression by nucleos(t)ide analogs,stimulation of antiviral immune response,and suppression of the immunoinhibitory signals must be combined to achieve desirable antiviral effects.

  13. Cost-Effective Interventions in The Control of Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlika Toy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus (HBV causes infection in the liver that can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and premature death. The disease is not widely recognised as a serious public health problem, and as a result, inadequate resources are being allocated to hepatitis B prevention and control. Vaccination against HBV has been a great success and has resulted in a reduction in the rate of chronic infection; however, the vaccine is of no help for those already infected. The big challenge is how to deliver effective and affordable care to those who are carriers and who are eligible for treatment, and affordable diagnostics to detect those who are not yet aware of their infection, to prevent the spread to susceptible individuals. This review intends to give the reader a brief overview of the types of control strategies that have been examined in recent cost-effectiveness studies on the control of chronic hepatitis B.

  14. Management of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Elfstrand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidia Elfstrand, Claes-Henrik FlorénDepartment of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of HIV infection regardless of whether the patients have AIDS. HIV and malnutrition tend to occur in the same populations, the underprivileged and resource-poor. Malnutrition increases severity and mortality of infection. Occurrence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, gut status and pathogenic agents, nutritional status and the crucial role of nutrition are reviewed. Bovine colostrum-based food can be useful for managing chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, enhancing both nutritional and immunological status.Keywords: HIV, diarrhea, nutrition, bovine colostrum, CD4+ 

  15. Autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: pitfalls for the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; Buskila, Dan; D'Angelo, Salvatore; D'Amico, Emilio; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2012-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is one of the best mimes in medicine. About 40-70% of patients suffering from this disorder develop at least one extra-hepatic disorder that can have a rheumatic nature (arthralgias, arthritis, vasculitis and sicca syndrome) and must be differentiated from the primitive rheumatic diseases. In addition, HCV infection can also alter the laboratory tests. Several alterations of first line laboratory tests can be usually found in both chronic HCV infection and chronic inflammatory rheumatic disorders. In the present review we analyze the interference of HCV in tests more specifically used in rheumatology: rheumatoid factor and other autoantibodies (ANA, anti-ENA, ANCA, anti-DNA, antiphospholipid, anti-CCP). In patients suffering from HCV infection, the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTD) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should be made only when the detected symptoms or laboratory data are not inducible by HCV, otherwise only a diagnosis of "possible CTD" or "possible RA" should be considered.

  16. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  17. Richness and diversity of helminth communities in tropical freshwater fishes: Empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Dick, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: Published information on the richness and diversity of helminth parasite communities in tropical freshwater fishes is reviewed in response to expectations of species-rich parasite communities in tropical regions. Location: Areas covered include the tropics and some subtropical areas. In addition, the north temperate area of the nearctic zone is included for comparison. Methods: Data from 159 communities in 118 species of tropical freshwater fish, summarized from 46 published studies, were used for this review. Parasite community descriptors used in the analyses included component community richness and calculated mean species richness. Data from 130 communities in 47 species of nearctic north temperate freshwater fish were summarized from 31 studies and used for comparison. Results: The component helminth communities of many tropical freshwater fish are species-poor, and considerable proportions of fish from certain parts of the tropics, e.g. West African drainages, are uninfected or lightly infected. Mean helminth species richness was low and equaled or exceeded 2.0 in only 22 of 114 communities. No single group of helminths was identified as a dominant component of the fauna and species composition was variable among and within broader geographical areas. The richest enteric helminth assemblages were found in mochokid and clariid catfish with a mixed carnivorous diet, whereas algal feeders, herbivores and detritivores generally had species-poor gut helminth communities. Comparisons indicated that certain areas in the north temperate region had higher helminth species richness in fishes than areas in the tropics. Main conclusions: Expectations of high species richness in helminth communities of tropical freshwater fishes are not fulfilled by the data. Direct comparisons of infracommunities and component communities in host species across widely separated phylogenetic and geographical lines are inappropriate. Examination of latitudinal differences in richness

  18. Chronic lyme disease: psychogenic fantasy or somatic infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, Phyllis

    2003-02-01

    Sigal and Hassett published an article about Lyme disease in the EHP Supplements (Sigal and Hassett 2002), suggesting that chronic Lyme disease is "psychogenic." I do not think that Sigal and Hassett, non-psychiatrists, are qualified to speak about psychiatric matters. I, however, actually have had the disease, which they characterize as "medically unexplained," for over 25 years and have 15 years of experience as a patient advocate and educator. I beg to differ.

  19. Health-related quality of life of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Elegance TP; Lam Cindy LK; Lai CL; Yuen MF; Fong Daniel YT; So Thomas MK

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Aim To evaluate the HRQOL of Chinese patients at different stages of CHB infection and to find out factors associated with HRQOL. Methods 520 Chinese adult CHB patients of whom 156 were uncomplicated, 102 had impaired liver function, 139 had cirrhosis and 123 had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were interviewed with a structured questionnaire, ...

  20. As a Rare Site of Invasive Fungal Infection, Chronic Granulomatous Aspergillus Synovitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Canbolat Ayhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus can causes invasive disease of various organs especially in patients with weakened immune systems. Aspergillus synovitis and arthritis are uncommon types of involvement due to this infection. Approches to fungal osteoarticular infections are based on only case reports. This paper presents a rare case of chronic granulomatous Aspergillus synovitis in an immunocompromised 5-year old girl who was treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  1. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of Chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae Infection in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T; Shin, KwangOk; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    1999-01-01

    Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type...

  2. Sinus surgery postpones chronic Gram-negative lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, M C; Aanaes, K; Høiby, N

    2016-01-01

    of pulmonary samples positive for GNB. We investigated whether the effect is sustained. METHODOLOGY: We report the effect of ESS and adjuvant therapy three years postoperatively in a CF cohort participating in this prospective clinical follow-up study. The primary endpoint was the lung infection status defined...

  3. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection andtherapeutic profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina Peta; Carlo Torti; Natasa Milic; Alfredo Focà; Ludovico Abenavoli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients withchronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closelyassociated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis ismore common in genotype 3 infection owing to a directcytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely tobe the result of the alterations in host metabolism;metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormonesinvolved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has beendemonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in thepathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as thedecreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrixprotein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, areassociated with liver steatosis. Various studies haveshown that steatosis is strongly correlated negativelywith adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection.The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus inducedsteatosis is still not completely understood, but therelationship between adiponectin low levels and liversteatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectinto protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulationby increasing β-oxidation of free fatty acid and thusdecreasing de novo free fatty acid production.

  4. Acanthamoeba polyphaga in rheumatoid arthritis: possibility for a chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeansson, S; Kvien, T K

    2001-06-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga (AP) is ubiquitous in nature and frequently infects humans. AP has some features, such as persistence, which makes it an attractive candidate in studies of a possible infectious aetiology in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study the occurrence of AP-specific antibodies was compared between RA patients and matched controls.

  5. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  6. Oral mucosa alterations in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis due to HBV or HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulka, Agnieszka; Simon, Krzysztof; Piszko, Paweł; Kalecińska, Ewa; Dominiak, Marzena

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the character of lesions within oral mucosa in patients suffering from chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver due to either HBV or HCV infection. A total of 74 patients treated at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Wrocław for chronic hepatitis B (20 patients, group I) and for chronic hepatitis C (23 patients group III) and cirrhosis of the liver due to HBV (15 patients , group II) and HCV (16 patients, group IV) infection. The control group comprised 29 healthy subjects. Lesions within the oral mucosa found on clinical examinations were confirmed with a histopathological evaluation. Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B revealed leukoplakia (1/20), melanoplakia (1/20), petechiae (1/20), 17 patients from this group did not show any changes. Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C revealed leukoplakia (6/23), Delbanco's disease (2/23), melanoplakia (1/23), lichen planus (1/23), petechiae (1/23), 12 patients from this group did not show any changes. Patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver due of HBV infection revealed leukoplakia (3/15) petechiae (2/15), Delbanco's disease (1/15), angular cheilitis (1/15), aphthae (1/15), 7 patients from this group did not reveal any changes. Patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver due of HCV infection revealed petechiae (2/16), melanoplakia (1/16), candidosis (1/16), labial herpes (1/16), 11 patients from this group did not reveal any changes. In control group we observed leukoplakia (3/29), Delbanco's disease (1/29), labial herpes (1/29), petechiae (1/29), and 23 subjects did not present pathological lesions within the oral mucosa. Results indicate the lack of connection between chronic HBV and HCV infection as well as the stage of the disease with the incidence and character of oral lesions in oral mucosa.

  7. Exceptional Heterogeneity in Viral Evolutionary Dynamics Characterises Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemey, Philippe; Farci, Patrizia; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of HCV infection has seen significant progress, particularly since the approval of new direct-acting antiviral drugs. However these clinical achievements have been made despite an incomplete understanding of HCV replication and within-host evolution, especially compared with HIV-1. Here, we undertake a comprehensive analysis of HCV within-host evolution during chronic infection by investigating over 4000 viral sequences sampled longitudinally from 15 HCV-infected patients. We compare our HCV results to those from a well-studied HIV-1 cohort, revealing key differences in the evolutionary behaviour of these two chronic-infecting pathogens. Notably, we find an exceptional level of heterogeneity in the molecular evolution of HCV, both within and among infected individuals. Furthermore, these patterns are associated with the long-term maintenance of viral lineages within patients, which fluctuate in relative frequency in peripheral blood. Together, our findings demonstrate that HCV replication behavior is complex and likely comprises multiple viral subpopulations with distinct evolutionary dynamics. The presence of a structured viral population can explain apparent paradoxes in chronic HCV infection, such as rapid fluctuations in viral diversity and the reappearance of viral strains years after their initial detection. PMID:27631086

  8. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Montasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE, particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

  9. Harnessing the Helminth Secretome for Therapeutic Immunomodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ditgen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed.

  10. EBV infection is common in gingival epithelial cells of the periodontium and worsens during chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Vincent-Bugnas

    Full Text Available An amplifying role for oral epithelial cells (ECs in Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection has been postulated to explain oral viral shedding. However, while lytic or latent EBV infections of oro/nasopharyngeal ECs are commonly detected under pathological conditions, detection of EBV-infected ECs in healthy conditions is very rare. In this study, a simple non-surgical tissue sampling procedure was used to investigate EBV infection in the periodontal epithelium that surrounds and attaches teeth to the gingiva. Surprisingly, we observed that the gingival ECs of the periodontium (pECs are commonly infected with EBV and may serve as an important oral reservoir of latently EBV-infected cells. We also found that the basal level of epithelial EBV-infection is significantly increased in chronic periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease that undermines the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. Moreover, the level of EBV infection was found to correlate with disease severity. In inflamed tissues, EBV-infected pECs appear to be prone to apoptosis and to produce larger amounts of CCL20, a pivotal inflammatory chemokine that controls tissue infiltration by immune cells. Our discovery that the periodontal epithelium is a major site of latent EBV infection sheds a new light on EBV persistence in healthy carriers and on the role of this ubiquitous virus in periodontitis. Moreover, the identification of this easily accessible site of latent infection may encourage new approaches to investigate and monitor other EBV-associated disorders.

  11. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  12. Chronic diarrhea associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Claps, M; Beaucage, C M

    1986-08-15

    Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from a cat with chronic diarrhea. The diarrheic cat and another cat (which previously had diarrhea) in the same household had bactericidal antibody titers to the C jejuni. Clinical response to antibiotic therapy and not recovering Campylobacter sp from normal feces after treatment also supported the diagnosis of Campylobacter-associated diarrhea. Although the owner had a protracted episode of diarrhea, C jejuni was not isolated from the owner's feces, nor was a bactericidal antibody detected in the owner's serum.

  13. Factors Associated With Chronic Hepatitis in Patients With Hepatitis E Virus Infection Who Have Received Solid Organ Transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamar, Nassim; Garrouste, Cyril; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Garrigue, Valerie; Pischke, Sven; Chauvet, Cecile; Dumortier, Jerome; Cannesson, Amelie; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Thervet, Eric; Conti, Filomena; Lebray, Pascal; Dalton, Harry R.; Santella, Robert; Kanaan, Nada; Essig, Marie; Mousson, Christiane; Radenne, Sylvie; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Izopet, Jacques; Rostaing, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplants. However, the factors that contribute to chronic infection and the outcomes of these patients are incompletely understood. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17 c

  14. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  15. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  16. Sex influence on chronic intestinal inflammation in Helicobacter hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Robert S; Myles, Mathew H; Livingston, Beth A; Criley, Jennifer M; Franklin, Craig L

    2004-06-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus is a bacterial pathogen of mice that has been reported to cause chronic intestinal inflammation in A/JCr, germfree Swiss Webster, and immunodeficient mice. To the authors' knowledge, the influence of sex on development of chronic intestinal inflammation in H. hepaticus-infected mice has not been investigated. The purposes of the study reported here were to determine whether severity of intestinal inflammation differs between male and female A/JCr mice chronically infected with H. hepaticus and to characterize the mucosal immune response in these mice. The cecum of male and female A/JCr mice infected with H. hepaticus for 1 month and 3 months was objectively evaluated histologically for intestinal disease. Also, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was done to measure interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) mRNA values in the cecal tissue of these mice. Significant differences in cecal lesion scores were not present at 1 month after infection. However, infected female mice had significantly up-regulated expression of cecal IL-10, MIP-1alpha, IP-10, and MIG mRNA compared with that in uninfected females, and expression of IL-10 and MIP-1alpha was significantly greater than that detected in infected male mice (P JCr mice, females develop more severe intestinal inflammation than do males, and the chronic mucosal inflammation is polarized toward a Th1 response that is not down-regulated by increased activity of IL-10. We propose that H. hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice will serve as a good animal model with which to study the influence of sex on bacterial-induced mucosal inflammation.

  17. Sofosbuvir: A novel treatment option for chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmeet Kaur Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C currently infects more than 170 million people around the world, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care for HCV infection, including one of the two protease inhibitors, telaprevir or boceprevir, for 12-32 weeks, along with pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin for up to 48 weeks, is unsatisfactory in many cases, either because of lack of efficacy or because of treatment-related adverse effects. There is an urgent need of new drugs with improved efficacy as well as a safety profile. Sofosbuvir, a recently approved nucleotide analog, is a highly potent inhibitor of the NS5B polymerase in the Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and has shown high efficacy in combination with several other drugs, with and without PEG-INF, against HCV. It offers many advantages due to its high potency, low side effects, oral administration, and high barrier to resistance. The efficacy and safety were demonstrated in many large and well-designed phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials like NEUTRINO, PROTON, ELECTRON, ATOMIC, COSMOS, FUSION, FISSION, NUCLEAR, POSITRON, and the like. It is generally well-tolerated. Adverse events that occurred include: Headache, insomnia, fatigue, nausea, dizziness, pruritis, upper respiratory tract infections, rash, back pain, grade 1 anemia, and grade 4 lymphopenia; however, the exact safety profile can only be judged when this drug is actually used on a large scale.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasl and rhll quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    2001-01-01

    To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal-generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared....

  19. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: Focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Maan (Raoel); A.J.P. van der Meer (Adriaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still represents a major public health problem, as it is thought to be responsible for more than 350,000 deaths around the globe on a yearly basis. Fortunately, successful eradication of the virus has been associated with improved clinical outcom

  20. Strategies for Coping with Educational and Social Consequences of Chronic Ear Infections in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Children with chronic ear infections experience a lag time in understanding speech, which inhibits classroom participation and the ability to make friends, and ultimately reduces self-esteem. Difficulty in hearing affects speech and vocabulary development, reading and writing proficiency, and academic performance, and could lead to placement in…

  1. Melatonin and zinc treatment: distinctive modulation of cytokine production in chronic experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazão, Vânia; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Abrahão, Ana Amélia Carraro; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2011-12-01

    Melatonin by exhibiting antioxidant, anti-aging, and immunomodulatory properties favorably modulate the immune function, protecting the hosts from several infectious diseases. Zinc is an essential trace element important for the efficiency of the immune system in reason of its widespread role in the activity of enzymes, transcription factors and cytokines. The etiology of Chagas' disease, caused by a protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has been the focus of considerable discussion, although chronic phase still remains not fully understood. This study showed that zinc and melatonin treatment did not affect the percentage of both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes subsets in chronically infected animals. Increased levels of IL-2 and IL-10, as well as, enhanced thymocyte proliferation in T. cruzi infected groups under zinc and melatonin therapy was observed as compared to untreated group. Conversely, during the chronic phase of infection, macrophages counts were reduced in melatonin and zinc-melatonin treated animals. The combined actions of zinc and melatonin have beneficial effects in counteracting parasite-induced immune dysregulation, protecting animals against the harmful actions of chronic T. cruzi infection. Furthermore, our results provide an experimental basis for further studies on the role of immunomodulatory therapies.

  2. Controlled trial of inhaled budesonide in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchopulmonary Psuedomonas aeruginosa infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S S; Nielsen, K G;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of anti-inflammatory treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and complicating chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) lung infection was studied in a placebo-controlled, parallel, double-blind single center trial. Active treatment...

  3. Isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Helmy; Mohammed Ibrahim Al-Sebayel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of isolated anti-HBc in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection,and its relation to disease severity.METHODS: We screened all patients with chronic HCV infection referred to King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (antiHBs), and anti-HBc. One hundred and sixty nine patients who tested negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBs were included in this study.RESULTS: Pathologically, 59 had biopsy-proven cirrhosis and 110 had chronic active hepatitis (CAH). Of these 169 patients, 85 (50.3%) tested positive for anti-HBc.Patients with CAH had significantly higher prevalence of isolated anti-HBc than patients with cirrhosis, 71 (64.5%)and 14 (23.7%) respectively (P < 0.001). Twenty-five patients were tested for HBV DNA by qualitative PCR.The test was positive in 3 of them (12%; occult HBV infection).CONCLUSION: Isolated anti-HBc alone is common in Saudi patients with chronic HCV infection, and is significantly more common in those with CAH than those with cirrhosis. Therefore, a screening strategy that only tests for HBsAg and anti-HBs in these patients will miss a large number of individuals with isolated anti-HBc, who may be potentially infectious.

  4. The microorganisms in chronically infected end-stage and non-end-stage cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Alhede, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infections because of highly viscous mucus, where bacteria can form biofilms. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in the lungs of end-stage and non-end-stage patients using standard culturing techniques and mo...

  5. RESPIRATORY VIRAL-INFECTIONS AGGRAVATE AIRWAY DAMAGE CAUSED BY CHRONIC REJECTION IN RAT LUNG ALLOGRAFTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, JB; GOUW, ASH; GROEN, M; WILDEVUUR, C; PROP, J

    1994-01-01

    Airway damage resulting in bronchiolitis obliterans occurs frequently in patients after heart-lung and lung transplantation. Generally, chronic rejection is assumed to be the most important cause of bronchiolitis obliterans. However, viral infections might also be potential causes of airway damage a

  6. Giant cell arteritis associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giardina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory vasculopathy that preferentially affects medium-sized and large arteries. A viral cause has been suspected but not confirmed in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. We report the case of a 81-year-old female who suffered from chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and developed giant cell temporal arteritis.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Nina; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Ciofu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of the chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) was investigated by cross-sectional analysis of bacterial isolates from 51 CF centers and by longitudinal analysis of serial isolates which had been collected at the CF...

  8. Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greally, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant pathogen infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial colonization is usually transient and associated with non-mucoid strains, which can be eradicated if identified early. This strategy can prevent, or at least delay, chronic Pa infection, which eventually develops in the majority of patients by their late teens or early adulthood. This article discusses the management and latest treatment developments of Pa lung infection in patients with CF, with a focus on nebulized antibiotic therapy.

  9. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  10. Clinical and morphological characteristics of chronic uretheroprostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Kondratyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical symptoms, features of morphological structure of prostate in patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections. 60 male patients were examined. Anamnesis and interview data, results of laboratory and instrumental tests were analyzed. In 73.3% of cases cultural test and PCR allowed to identify M. hominis, U. urealiticum, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis in patients with chronic uretheroprostatitis. Out of 16 patients (26,6% of all examined with chronic recurrent uretheroprostatitis for whom neither chlamidial nor mycoplasmal infection was diagnosed by laboratory tests, for 14 patients (87,5% it was confirmed that patogenic urogenital infectious agents were localized intracellularly. Pathomorphological investigation of prostate bioptates allowed to estimate the type and degree of specific changes in the prostate tissue in cases of recurrent uretheroprostatitis resistant to the therapy and with frequent relapses.

  11. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  12. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood s