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Sample records for chronic growth faltering

  1. Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age

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    Jaffar Shabbar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor growth of children in developing countries is a major public health problem associated with mortality, morbidity and developmental delay. We describe growth up to three years of age and investigate factors related to stunting (low height-for-age at three years of age in a birth cohort from an urban slum. Methods 452 children born between March 2002 and August 2003 were followed until their third birthday in three neighbouring slums in Vellore, South India. Field workers visited homes to collect details of morbidity twice a week. Height and weight were measured monthly from one month of age in a study-run clinic. For analysis, standardised z-scores were generated using the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Risk factors for stunting at three years of age were analysed in logistic regression models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effect of missing values. Results At age three years, of 186 boys and 187 girls still under follow-up, 109 (66%, 95% Confidence interval 58-73% boys and 93 (56%, 95% CI 49-64% girls were stunted, 14 (8%, 95% CI 4-13% boys and 12 (7%, 95% CI 3-11% girls were wasted (low weight-for-height and 72 (43%, 95% CI 36-51 boys and 66 (39%, 95% CI 31-47% girls were underweight (low weight-for-age. In total 224/331 (68% children at three years had at least one growth deficiency (were stunted and/or underweight and/or wasted; even as early as one month of age 186/377 (49% children had at least one growth deficiency. Factors associated with stunting at three years were birth weight less than 2.5 kg (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.36-9.70 'beedi-making' (manual production of cigarettes for a daily wage in the household (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.86, maternal height less than 150 cm (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.12-3.62, being stunted, wasted or underweight at six months of age (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05-2.93 and having at least one older sibling (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.51. Conclusion A high proportion of urban slum dwelling

  2. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children.

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    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-06-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States.

  3. The duration of diarrhea and fever is associated with growth faltering in rural Malawian children aged 6-18 months

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    Trehan Indi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrition support programs that only focus upon better complementary feeding remain an insufficient means of limiting growth faltering in vulnerable populations of children. To determine if symptoms of acute infections correlate with the incidence of growth faltering in rural Malawian children, the associations between fever, diarrhea, and cough with anthropometric measures of stunting, wasting, and underweight were investigated. Data were analyzed from a trial where 209 children were provided with adequate complementary food and followed fortnightly from 6-18 months of age. Linear mixed model analysis was used to test for associations. Diarrheal disease was inversely associated with changes in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ, mid-upper arm circumference Z-score (MUACZ, and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ. Fever was also inversely associated with changes in MUACZ and WAZ. These results suggest that initiatives to reduce febrile and diarrheal diseases are needed in conjunction with improved complementary feeding to limit growth faltering in rural Malawi.

  4. Late preterm birth is a risk factor for growth faltering in early childhood: a cohort study

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    Victora Cesar G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of preterm birth are increasing worldwide and this increase is mostly due to infants born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestational age, the so-called "late preterm" births. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of late preterm birth over growth outcomes, assessed when children were 12 and 24 months old. Methods In 2004, all births taking place in Pelotas (Southern Brazil were recruited for a cohort study. Late preterm (34/0-36/6 weeks of gestational age and term children (37/0-42/6 weeks were compared in terms of weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores. Weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores below -2 were considered, respectively, underweight, stunting and wasting. Singleton newborns with adequate weight for gestational age at birth, successfully followed-up either at 12 or 24 months of age were analyzed and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals calculated through logistic regression. Results 3285 births were included, 371 of whom were late preterm births (11.3%. At 12 months, prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were, respectively, 3.4, 8.7 and 1.1% among late preterm children, against 1.0, 3.4 and 0.3% among term children. At 24 months, correspondent values were 3.0, 7.2 and 0.8% against 0.8, 2.9 and 0.4%. Comparing with the term children, adjusted odds of being underweighted among late preterm children was 2.57 times higher (1.27; 5.23 at 12 months and 3.36 times higher (1.56; 7.23 at 24; of being stunted, 2.35 (1.49; 3.70 and 2.30 (1.40; 3.77; and of being wasted, 3.98 (1.07; 14.85 and 1.87 (0.50; 7.01. Weight gain from birth to 12 and 24 months was similar in late preterm and term children, whereas length gain was higher in the former group in both periods. Conclusion Late preterm children grow faster than children born at term, but they are at increased risk of underweight and stunting in the first two years of life. Failure to thrive in

  5. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

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    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3-6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

  6. Faltering lemming cycles reduce productivity and population size of a migratory Arctic goose species.

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    Nolet, Bart A; Bauer, Silke; Feige, Nicole; Kokorev, Yakov I; Popov, Igor Yu; Ebbinge, Barwolt S

    2013-07-01

    The huge changes in population sizes of Arctic-nesting geese offer a great opportunity to study population limitation in migratory animals. In geese, population limitation seems to have shifted from wintering to summering grounds. There, in the Arctic, climate is rapidly changing, and this may impact reproductive performance, and perhaps population size of geese, both directly (e.g. by changes in snow melt) or indirectly (e.g. by changes in trophic interactions). Dark-bellied brent geese (Branta bernicla bernicla L.) increased 20-fold since the 1950s. Its reproduction fluctuates strongly in concert with the 3-year lemming cycle. An earlier analysis, covering the growth period until 1988, did not find evidence for density dependence, but thereafter the population levelled off and even decreased. The question is whether this is caused by changes in lemming cycles, population density or other factors like carry-over effects. Breeding success was derived from proportions of juveniles. We used an information-theoretical approach to investigate which environmental factors best explained the variation in breeding success over nearly 50 years (1960-2008). We subsequently combined GLM predictions of breeding success with published survival estimates to project the population trajectory since 1991 (year of maximum population size). In this way, we separated the effects of lemming abundance and population density on population development. Breeding success was mainly dependent on lemming abundance, the onset of spring at the breeding grounds, and the population size of brent goose. No evidence was found for carry-over effects (i.e. effects of conditions at main spring staging site). Negative density dependence was operating at a population size above c. 200 000 individuals, but the levelling off of the population could be explained by faltering lemming cycles alone. Lemmings have long been known to affect population productivity of Arctic-nesting migratory birds and, more

  7. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth...... cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless...... of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight...

  8. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth...... of children with feeding problems arising de novo in otherwise healthy children. In conclusion, weight faltering in infancy is clearly associated with contemporary measured feeding problems, but the risk mechanisms involved differ in early vs. late onset....... cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless...... of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight...

  9. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset.

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    Olsen, Else M; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight and gestational age, with single parenthood and with mother having smoked during pregnancy. Onset between 2 weeks and 4 months was associated with congenital disorders and serious somatic illness, and with deviant mother-child relationship, whereas, onset between 4 and 8 months seemed to represent a group of children with feeding problems arising de novo in otherwise healthy children. In conclusion, weight faltering in infancy is clearly associated with contemporary measured feeding problems, but the risk mechanisms involved differ in early vs. late onset.

  10. Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Chronic Renal Failure

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    Cayir, Atilla; Kosan, Celalettin

    2014-01-01

    Growth is impaired in a chronic renal failure. Anemia, acidosis, reduced intake of calories and protein, decreased synthesis of vitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy and changes in growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor and the gonadotropin-gonadal axis are implicated in this study. Growth is adversely affected by immunosuppressives and corticosteroids after kidney transplantation. Treating metabolic disorders using the recombinant huma...

  11. The effect of acute and chronic stress on growth.

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    Sävendahl, Lars

    2012-10-23

    Impaired bone growth is observed in many children exposed to stress, but whether the underlying cause is psychological or secondary to a variety of chronic disorders is unclear. The growth plate is specifically targeted by stress through many different mechanisms, including increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cortisol, as well as impaired actions of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Both glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, and proinflammatory cytokines adversely affect several aspects of chondrogenesis in the growth plate, and these effects can be ameliorated by raising local IGF-1 concentrations. However, this intervention does not completely normalize growth. In children with stress related to chronic inflammation, the cornerstone of improving stress-impaired growth remains the judicious use of glucocorticoids while ensuring effective control of the disease process. Specific immunomodulatory therapy that targets the actions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is at least partially effective at rescuing linear growth in many children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Patients who do not respond to anti-TNF treatment may be candidates for therapeutic agents that target other proinflammatory cytokines and for GH intervention. Although GH treatment rescues linear growth in some patients with JIA, it is unknown whether GH can rescue growth in those patients who do not respond to anticytokine therapy. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to explore these and other new potential treatment strategies that could improve bone growth in patients who do not respond to conventional therapy.

  12. The epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in chronic kidney diseases

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    Harskamp, Laura R.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Goor, van Harry; Meijer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has a critical role in renal development, tissue repair and electrolyte handling. Numerous studies have reported an association between dysregulation of this pathway and the initiation and progression of various chronic kidney diseases such as diab

  13. Aortic growth rates in chronic aortic dissection

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    Kelly, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center (United States)]. E-mail: ainekell@med.umich.edu; Quint, L.E. [Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center (United States); Nan, B. [School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zheng, J. [School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cronin, P. [Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center (United States); Deeb, G.M. [Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center (United States); Williams, D.M. [Division of Vascular Interventional Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Aim: To determine and compare rates of descending aortic enlargement and complications in chronic aortic dissection with and without a proximal aortic graft. Methods and materials: Fifty-two patients with dissection involving the descending aorta and who had undergone at least two computed tomography (CT) examinations at our institution between November, 1993 and February, 2004 were identified, including 24 non-operated patients (four type A, 20 type B) and 28 operated patients (type A). CT examinations per patient ranged from two to 10, and follow-up ranged from 1-123 months (mean 49 months, median 38.5 months). On each CT image, the aortic short axis (SA), false lumen (FL), and true lumen (TL) diameters were measured at the longitudinal midpoint of the dissection and at the point of maximum aortic diameter. Complications were tabulated, including aortic rupture and aortic enlargement requiring surgery. Results: For non-operated patients, the midpoint and maximum point SA, TL, and FL diameters increased significantly over time. For operated patients, the midpoint and maximum point SA and FL diameters increased significantly over time. In both groups, aortic enlargement was predominantly due to FL expansion. Diameter increases in non-operated patients were significantly larger than those in operated patients. The rate of change in aortic diameter was constant, regardless of aortic size. Four non-operated and six operated patients developed aortic complications. Conclusions: In patients with a dissection involving the descending thoracic aorta, the FL increased in diameter over time, at a constant rate, and to a greater degree in non-operated patients (mostly type B) compared with operated patients (all type A)

  14. Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease

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    Peco-Antić Amira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD, growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1 resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week administered by subcutaneous injection.

  15. Epiphyseal growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling is decreased in chronic kidney disease-related growth retardation.

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    Troib, Ariel; Landau, Daniel; Kachko, Leonid; Rabkin, Ralph; Segev, Yael

    2013-11-01

    Linear growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been ascribed to insensitivity to growth hormone. This resistance state has been attributed to impaired growth hormone signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in liver and skeletal muscle leading to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Here we determine whether systemic and growth plate alterations in growth hormone signaling contribute to CKD-induced linear growth retardation using partially nephrectomized and pair-fed control 20-day-old rats. Serum growth hormone did not change in rats with CKD, yet serum IGF-I levels were decreased and growth retarded. The tibial growth plate hypertrophic zone was wider and vascularization at the primary ossification center was reduced in CKD. This was associated with a decrease in growth plate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and immunostainable VEGF and IGF-I levels. Growth plate growth hormone receptor and STAT5 protein levels were unchanged, while JAK2 was reduced. Despite comparable growth hormone and growth hormone receptor levels in CKD and control rats, relative STAT5 phosphorylation was significantly depressed in CKD. Of note, the mRNA of SOCS2, an inhibitor of growth hormone signaling, was increased. Thus, linear growth impairment in CKD can in part be explained by impaired long bone growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway, an abnormality that may be caused by an increase in SOCS2 expression.

  16. Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease.

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    Rees, Lesley; Jones, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery by gastrostomy superior to oral and nasogastric routes? Do children who are no longer in the 'infancy' stage of growth benefit from enteral feeding? Do patients with protein energy wasting benefit from increased nutritional input? How do we prevent obesity, which is becoming so prevalent in the developed world? This review will address these issues.

  17. Growth in Very Young Children Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

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    Azocar, Marta; Borzych, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Büscher, Anja; Edefonti, Alberto; Bilge, Ilmay; Askenazi, David; Leozappa, Giovanna; Gonzales, Claudia; van Hoeck, Koen; Secker, Donna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Rönnholm, Kai; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Stewart, Heather; Ariceta, Gema; Ranchin, Bruno; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Very young children with chronic kidney disease often have difficulty maintaining adequate nutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of short stature in this population. Characteristics of the dialysis prescription and supplemental feeding via a nasogastric (NG) tube or gastrostomy may improve growth, but this is not well understood. Here, we analyzed data from 153 children in 18 countries who commenced chronic peritoneal dialysis at <24 months of age. From diagnosis to last observation, 57 patients were fed on demand, 54 by NG tube, and 10 by gastrostomy; 26 switched from NG to gastrostomy; and 6 returned from NG to demand feeding. North American and European centers accounted for nearly all feeding by gastrostomy. Standardized body mass index (BMI) uniformly decreased during periods of demand feeding and increased during NG and gastrostomy feeding. Changes in BMI demonstrated significant regional variation: 26% of North American children were obese and 50% of Turkish children were malnourished at last observation (P < 0.005). Body length decreased sharply during the first 6 to 12 months of life and then tended to stabilize. Time fed by gastrostomy significantly associated with higher lengths over time (P < 0.001), but adjustment for baseline length attenuated this effect. In addition, the use of biocompatible peritoneal dialysate and administration of growth hormone independently associated with improved length, even after adjusting for regional factors. In summary, growth and nutritional status vary regionally in very young children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis. The use of gastrostomy feeding, biocompatible dialysis fluid, and growth hormone therapy associate with improved linear growth. PMID:22021715

  18. Sticking to our guns: Social identity as a basis for the maintenance of commitment to faltering organizational projects

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    Haslam, S.A.; Ryan, M.K.; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Jetten, J.; Webley, P.

    2006-01-01

    What leads some people to maintain commitment to faltering organizational projects while others abandon them? Building on previous work that has examined the link between social identity and the characteristics of decision-making associated with groupthink, this paper argues that one key determinant

  19. Sticking to our guns : social identity as a basis for the maintenance of commitment to faltering organizational projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Ryan, Michelle K.; Postmes, Tom; Spears, Russell; Jetten, Jolanda; Webley, Paul

    2006-01-01

    What leads some people to maintain commitment to faltering organizational projects while others abandon them? Building on previous work that has examined the link between social identity and the characteristics of decision-making associated with groupthink, this paper argues that one key determinant

  20. Growth assessment in Egyptian infants and children with chronic diarrhea.

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    Ei-Deeb, Marwa T; Hamid, Dalia H Abdel

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the various growth parameters among patients presenting with chronic diarrhea and highlight the most common causes of chronic diarrhea among a sample of Egyptian infants and children. This cross-sectional study included 146 patients with chronic diarrhea. They were 87 males and 59 females, with age ranging between 2 and 198 months and a mean age of 27.3 +/- 34.5 months. Each patient was subjected to medical history taking including age of onset and duration of diarrhea, consistency of stools, presence of blood and mucus, vomiting with or without hematemesis, fever, allergic manifestations and family history of atopy. Dietetic history included milk feeding during the first 6 months and age of weaning and age of introduction of cow's milk products. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height and weight for height were assessed and z-scores were calculated using software WHO anthro v3.2.2. Laboratory investigations included stool analysis and culture, CBC and all other investigations necessary for diagnosis of the definite cause including RAST for specific IgE against cow's milk proteins, serology for celiac disease (anti-gliadin and anti tTG), Breath hydrogen test, endoscopy (colonoscopy or esophago-gastrodudenoscopy) and histopathologic assessment of endoscopic biopsies. CMA was diagnosed on basis of withdrawal and open re-challenge technique. Causes included chronic infections (40.4%), CMA (34.9%), celiac disease (10.3%), inflammatory bowel disease (6.8%) and lactose intolerance (3.4%). Rare causes were chronic non-specific diarrhea (1.3%), cystic fibrosis (0.7%), post-surgery short bowel syndrome (0.7%), neuroblastoma (0.7%) and IBS (0.7%).78.7% of patients enrolled in the study had a low WFA z-score (Infants with CMA had the lowest mean value of WFH z-score (-2.26 +/- 1.78).

  1. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    1992-01-01

    mainly due to the decreased liver function. Low levels of somatomedins are also seen in patients with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, renal impairment, and malnutrition. GH stimulates the production of IGF-1, and both are part of a negative feedback system acting on hepatic, pituitary......, and hypothalamic levels. The basal and stimulated GH concentration is pathologically elevated in patients with chronic liver disease and may be due to a disturbed regulation. Alterations in liver IGF receptors in patients with chronic liver disease still require investigation as they may be important for the liver...

  2. The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

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    Turner, Paul Craig

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated. PMID:24455429

  3. Consequences of Divorce in Infancy: Three Case Studies of Growth Faltering

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    Solchany, JoAnne

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is difficult for any child to deal with, but for our youngest children it presents a host of risks and challenges. Attachment has often been at the forefront of many divorce and visitation discussions, particularly in relation to overnight visitation. The case studies presented here address another dimension of the impact of divorce on…

  4. Age-Specific Correlates of Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias; Trommlerová, Sofia Karina

    2016-02-01

    Growth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to shed light on the potential drivers of growth faltering. Applying nonparametric techniques and exploiting within-mother variation, we find that maternal and household factors predict best the observed shifts and bends in child nutrition age curves. The documented interaction between age and maternal characteristics further underlines the need not only to provide nutritional support during the first years of life but also to improve maternal conditions.

  5. Growth, poverty and chronic poverty in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from 15 Communities 1994-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Hoddinott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines growth, poverty and chronic poverty in 15 Ethiopian villages between 1994 and 2004. Growth and poverty reduction in these communities was substantial; headcount poverty fell from 48 to 35 percent. However, there is also movement in and out of poverty over this period and a signif

  6. Renal heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling in experimental chronic transplant dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katta, K.; Boersema, M.; Adepu, S.; Rienstra, H.; Celie, J.W.; Mencke, R.; Molema, G.; Goor, H. van; Berden, J.H.M.; Navis, G.; Hillebrands, J.L.; Born, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the glycan structure, proteoglycans can act as coreceptors for growth factors. We hypothesized that proteoglycans and their growth factor ligands orchestrate tissue remodeling in chronic transplant dysfunction. We have previously shown perlecan to be selectively up-regulated in the glom

  7. In situ growth rates and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in chronic lung infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, L.; Haagensen, J.A.; Jelsbak, L.

    2008-01-01

    The growth dynamics of bacterial pathogens within infected hosts are a fundamental but poorly understood feature of most infections. We have focused on the in situ distribution and growth characteristics of two prevailing and transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones that have caused chronic lu...

  8. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Mendley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correction of height deficit. This strategy may be appropriate for children with chronic kidney disease and short stature who are in puberty.

  9. Pathophysiology and management of abnormal growth in children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Ahmed, S F; Farquharson, C; McGrogan, P; Russell, R K

    2013-01-01

    Many children with a variety of chronic diseases suffer from a variable component of chronic inflammation and often have co-existing growth retardation. The aetiology of this growth retardation may be multifactorial and in a condition such as inflammatory bowel disease it includes the effects of the disease on nutrition as well as the effect of drugs such as glucocorticoids. Growth is primarily regulated through the endocrine and paracrine component of the GH/IGF-1 axis which may be modulated by other factors such as sex steroids. There is increasing evidence that this axis may be affected in children with chronic inflammation. An improved understanding of the GH/IGF-1 axis and how it is affected in chronic inflammation will lead to an improved rationale for developing therapeutic regimens that can improve growth in those children whose growth does not improve despite optimal management of the disease. This review will illustrate these aspects by concentrating primarily on the pathophysiology of growth retardation in inflammatory bowel disease and possible interventions for improving growth.

  10. Hematopoietic Growth Factors, Signaling and the Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushansky, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMDs) are a group of conditions characterized by unregulated blood cell production, that due either to excessive numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes or platelets, or their defective function cause symptoms and signs of fatigue, headache, ruddy cyanosis, hemorrhage, abdominal distension, and the complications of vascular thrombosis. In the late 19th century Vaquez provided the first description of polycythemia vera (PV) and Hueck defined idiopathic myel...

  11. Chronic and non-healing wounds: The story of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    The pathophysiology of the chronicity and non-healing status of wounds remains unknown. This paper presents the following hypothesis: abnormal patterns of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) are the culprits of wound chronicity and non-healing. More specifically, for patients with poor circulation, the decreased VEGFR-2 level is the cause of poor wound healing; for patients with non-compromised circulation, for example, patients with concurrent chronic wounds and active autoimmune diseases, the increased VEGFR-1 level is related to the non-healing status of wounds. The hypothesis is supported by the following facts. VEGFR-1 is the main contributor for inflammation and VEGFR-2 facilitates angiogenesis; soluble VEGFR-1 (sVEGFR-1) inactivates both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. Patients with auto-immune disease have abnormally increased VEGFR-1 and decreased sVEGFR. Wounds in patients with active autoimmune diseases have poor response to electric stimulation which facilitates chronic wound healing in patients without active autoimmune diseases via increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. Patients with chronic wounds (including diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers) but no active autoimmune diseases have decreased VEGFR-2 levels. We thus believe that abnormal patterns of VEGFRs are the culprits of wound chronicity and non-healing. For wounds with compromised circulation, VEGFR-2 decrease contributes to its chronicity; whereas for wounds with non-compromised circulation, VEGFR-1 increase is the leading cause of the non-healing status of chronic wounds. Treatments and research in wound care should be tailored to target these changes based on circulation status of wounds. Complete elucidation of changes of VEGFRs in chronic and non-healing wounds will enhance our understandings in tissue healing and thus better our selection of appropriate treatments for chronic and non-healing wounds.

  12. Age-Specific Correlates of Child Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rieger (Matthias); S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGrowth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to

  13. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population l...

  14. Growth Arrest Specific 2 Is Up-Regulated in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells and Required for Their Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Haixia Zhou; Yue Ge; Lili Sun; Wenjuan Ma; Jie Wu; Xiuyan Zhang; Xiaohui Hu; Eaves, Connie J; Depei Wu; Yun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although the generation of BCR-ABL is the molecular hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the comprehensive molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear yet. Growth arrest specific 2 (GAS2) regulates multiple cellular functions including cell cycle, apoptosis and calpain activities. In the present study, we found GAS2 was up-regulated in CML cells including CD34+ progenitor cells compared to their normal counterparts. We utilized RNAi and the expression of dominant negative form o...

  15. Basic fibroblast growth factor improves learning and memory functions in chronic stress mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Qu; Chunying Li; Hongchang Liu; Chang Su

    2011-01-01

    Four weeks of uncertain stress was used to establish an animal model of chronic stress.Basic fibroblast growth factor was injected daily for 15 days following stress induction.Cell morphology in the hippocampal CA3 region of chronic stress mice revealed cell damage.Nitric oxide content and calcium concentration were significantly increased in the hippocampus,and learning and memory functions were significantly decreased.After basic fibroblast growth factor intervention,Ca2+ overload was decreased and neuronal damage was relieved in hippocampal neurons,which improved learning and memory functions in chronic stress mice.Latency was prolonged and the number of errors was decreased in a passive avoidance test.

  16. Growth disorders in type 1 diabetes: an Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Virmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Though children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM are often tall at the time of diagnosis, they may experience growth retardation, pubertal delay or both, which may be due to poor glycemic control, associated diseases or chronic complications. Factors affecting growth include: gender, genetic environment, age at diagnosis, diabetes duration, puberty, metabolic control, and status of growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs. Insulin regulates expression of hepatic GH receptors, affects IGFs and IGFBPs synthesis by modulating GH postreceptor events, and significantly increases IGF-I bioactivity. Low portal insulin seen in T1DM leads to GH hypersecretion, low circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and high circulating IGFBP-1. Newly diagnosed T1DM patients have decreased GHBP which can be restored with insulin therapy. Growth velocity should be appropriate for the age of the child/adolescent, and the mid-parental height. Height, weight and blood pressure (BP should be measured and plotted on a growth chart at least 2-3 times a year. Puberty should also be assessed annually. Following precautions are to be taken in T1DM children: checking for pubertal onset and ensuring it is not delayed, testing early when growth falters (hypothyroidism/celiac disease/puberty/other conditions, aiming for best possible metabolic control (multidose regimens, regardless of type of insulin, and encouraging dietary calcium and protein, exposure to sunlight, Vitamin D supplements and exercise.

  17. Maximum growth rate of Mycobacterium avium in continuous culture or chronically infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C M; Taylor, M A; Dennis, M W

    1987-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a human pathogen which may cause either chronic or disseminated disease and the organism exhibits a slow rate of growth. This study provides information on the growth rate of the organism in chronically infected mice and its maximal growth rate in vitro. M. avium was grown in continuous culture, limited for nitrogen with 0.5 mM ammonium chloride and dilution rates that ranged from 0.054 to 0.153 h-1. The steady-state concentration of ammonia nitrogen and M. avium cells for each dilution rate were determined. The bacterial saturation constant for growth-limiting ammonia was 0.29 mM (4 micrograms nitrogen/ml) and, from this, the maximal growth rate for M. avium was estimated to be 0.206 h-1 or a doubling time of 3.4 h. BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) colony-forming units and a chronic infection resulted, typical of virulent M. avium strains. During a period of 3 months, the number of mycobacteria remained constant in the lungs, but increased 30-fold and 8,900-fold, respectively, in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter increase appeared to be due to proliferation in situ. The generation time of M. avium in the mesenteric lymph nodes was estimated to be 7 days.

  18. Potential role of growth factors with particular focus on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the management of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; M., El Nahas

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) so far primarily has been based on early and aggressive treatment of hypertension. A number of other therapeutic approaches have the potential of being translated to the clinical area within the foreseeable future. In this review, we focus...... on growth factors and, in particular, on the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the treatment of CKD and the management of its complications. Disturbances of the GH-IGF-1 axis in CKD have suggested therapeutic roles for both the inhibition, as well as the stimulation...

  19. Renal heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling in experimental chronic transplant dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Kirankumar; Boersema, Miriam; Adepu, Saritha; Rienstra, Heleen; Celie, Johanna W A M; Mencke, Rik; Molema, Grietje; van Goor, Harry; Berden, Jo H M; Navis, Gerjan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van den Born, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    Depending on the glycan structure, proteoglycans can act as coreceptors for growth factors. We hypothesized that proteoglycans and their growth factor ligands orchestrate tissue remodeling in chronic transplant dysfunction. We have previously shown perlecan to be selectively up-regulated in the glomeruli and arteries in a rat renal transplantation model. Using the same model, here we present quantitative RT-PCR profiling data on proteoglycans and growth factors from laser-microdissected glomeruli, arterial tunicae mediae, and neointimae at 12 weeks after transplantation. In glomeruli and neointimae of allografts, selective induction of the matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was observed, along with massive accumulation of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Profiling the heparan sulfate polysaccharide side chains revealed conversion from a non-FGF2-binding heparan sulfate phenotype in control and isografted kidneys toward a FGF2-binding phenotype in allografts. In vitro experiments with perlecan-positive rat mesangial cells showed that FGF2-induced proliferation is dependent on sulfation and can be inhibited by exogenously added heparan sulfate. These findings indicate that matrix proteoglycans such as perlecan serve as functional docking platforms for FGF2 in chronic transplant dysfunction. We speculate that heparin-like glycomimetics could be a promising intervention to retard development of glomerulosclerosis and neointima formation in chronic transplant dysfunction.

  20. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study.

  1. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p glandular weight of the ventral prostate was seen. Serum testosterone...

  2. In situ growth rates and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in chronic lung infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Jelsbak, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    The growth dynamics of bacterial pathogens within infected hosts are a fundamental but poorly understood feature of most infections. We have focused on the in situ distribution and growth characteristics of two prevailing and transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones that have caused chronic lung...... matrix, whereas nonmucoid variants were present mainly as dispersed cells. To obtain estimates of the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in CF lungs, we used quantitative FISH to indirectly measure growth rates of bacteria in sputum samples (reflecting the in vivo lung conditions). The concentration of r......RNA in bacteria isolated from sputa was measured and correlated with the rRNA contents of the same bacteria growing in vitro at defined rates. The results showed that most cells were actively growing with doubling times of between 100 and 200 min, with some growing even faster. Only a small stationary...

  3. Parathyroid cell resistance to fibroblast growth factor 23 in secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitzer, H; Ben-Dov, I Z; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2010-02-01

    Although fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) acting through its receptor Klotho-FGFR1c decreases parathyroid hormone expression, this hormone is increased in chronic kidney disease despite an elevated serum FGF23. We measured possible factors that might contribute to the resistance of parathyroid glands to FGF23 in rats with the dietary adenine-induced model of chronic kidney disease. Quantitative immunohistochemical and reverse transcription-PCR analysis using laser capture microscopy showed that both Klotho and FGFR1 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in histological sections of the parathyroid glands. Recombinant FGF23 failed to decrease serum parathyroid hormone levels or activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the glands of rats with advanced experimental chronic kidney disease. In parathyroid gland organ culture, the addition of FGF23 decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and mRNA levels in control animals or rats with early but not advanced chronic kidney disease. Our results show that because of a downregulation of the Klotho-FGFR1c receptor complex, an increase of circulating FGF23 does not decrease parathyroid hormone levels in established chronic kidney disease. This in vivo resistance is sustained in parathyroid organ culture in vitro.

  4. Growth Responses of Fish During Chronic Exposure of Metal Mixture under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz and Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth responses of five fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were determined, separately, under chronic exposure of binary mixture of metals (Zn+Ni at sub-lethal concentrations (1/3rd of LC50 for 12 weeks. Randomized complete block design (RCBD was followed to conduct this research work. The groups (10 fish each of Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix having almost similar weights were investigated for their growth responses and metals bioaccumulation patterns in their body organs during chronic exposure of Zn+Ni mixture. The bioaccumulation of metals in the fish body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, fins, bones, muscle and skin were also determined before and after growth trails under the stress of metals mixture. The exposure of fish to sub-lethal concentrations of mixture caused significant impacts on the average wet weight increments of five fish species. Ctenopharyngodon idella and Labeo rohita attained significantly higher weights, followed by that of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla. However, the growth of metals mixture exposed fish species was significantly lesser than that of control fish (un-stressed. Significantly variable condition factor values reflected the degree of fish well-beings that correlated directly with fish growth and metal exposure concentration. Any significant change in feed intake, due to stress, is reflected in terms of fish growth showing the impacts of metal mixture on fish growth were either additive or antagonist / synergistic. Accumulation of all the metals in fish body followed the general order: liver>kidney>gills> skin >muscle> fins >bones.

  5. Enhanced expression of fibroblast growth factors and receptor FGFR-1 during vascular remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Kranenburg (Andor); W.I. de Boer (Pim); J.H.J.M. van Krieken (Han); W.J. Mooi (Wolter); J.E. Walters (Jane); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan); P.J. Sterk (Peter); H.S. Sharma (Hari)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractImportant characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include airway and vascular remodeling, the molecular mechanisms of which are poorly understood. We assessed the role of fibroblast growth factors (FGF) in pulmonary vascular remodeling by examini

  6. The role of PTEN in chronic growth hormone-induced hepatic insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Su, Peizhu; Wang, Chuqiong; Zhu, Kongqin; Chen, Xiaolan; Liu, Side; He, Jiman

    2013-01-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH) therapy has been shown to cause insulin resistance, but the mechanism remains unknown. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, is a major negative regulator of insulin signaling. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic GH on insulin signaling in the context of PTEN function. Balb/c healthy mice were given recombinant human or bovine GH intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. We found that phosphorylation of Akt was significantly decreased in chronic GH group and the expression of PTEN was significantly increased. We further examined this effect in the streptozotocin-induced Type I diabetic mouse model, in which endogenous insulin secretion was disrupted. Insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling was impaired. However, different from the observation in healthy mice, the expression of PTEN did not increase. Similarly, PTEN expression did not significantly increase in chronic GH-treated mice with hypoinsulinemia induced by prolonged fasting. We conducted in-vitro experiments in HepG2 cells to validate our in-vivo findings. Long-term exposure to GH caused similar resistance of insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling in HepG2 cells; and over-expression of PTEN enhanced the impairment of insulin signaling. On the other hand, disabling the PTEN gene by transfecting the mutant PTEN construct C124S or siPTEN, disrupted the chronic GH induced insulin resistance. Our data demonstrate that PTEN plays an important role in chronic-GH-induced insulin resistance. These findings may have implication in other pathological insulin resistance.

  7. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor stimulates growth of the urinary tract in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Jørgensen, P E;

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four male Wistar rats, 8 weeks old, were allocated into three groups and treated with human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) administered subcutaneously in doses of 0, 30, and 150 micrograms/kg per day for 4 weeks. Blood sampling was done every 2nd week and urine sampling was done...... for 2 consecutive days every week. The most striking finding was that the ureters were dose dependently enlarged, due to growth of all layers of the ureteric wall. The urothelium of the bladder showed considerable hyperplasticity with a widening of the basal proliferative compartment and a normal...... differentiation pattern as observed by the expression of carbohydrate epitopes, characterized with lectinohistochemistry. Blood examination revealed a decrease in blood haemoglobin concentration and a slight increase in serum creatinine concentration in the high-dose group. There were no effects of EGF...

  8. Obesity, chronic disease, and economic growth: a case for "big picture" prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Garry

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of a form of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation ("metaflammation") linked with obesity, but also associated with several lifestyle-related behaviours not necessarily causing obesity, suggests a re-consideration of obesity as a direct cause of chronic disease and a search for the main drivers-or cause of causes. Factors contributing to this are considered here within an environmental context, leading to the conclusion that humans have an immune reaction to aspects of the modern techno-industrial environment, to which they have not fully adapted. It is suggested that economic growth-beyond a point-leads to increases in chronic diseases and climate change and that obesity is a signal of these problems. This is supported by data from Sweden over 200 years, as well as "natural" experiments in disrupted economies like Cuba and Nauru, which have shown a positive health effect with economic downturns. The effect is reflected both in human health and environmental problems such as climate change, thus pointing to the need for greater cross-disciplinary communication and a concept shift in thinking on prevention if economic growth is to continue to benefit human health and well-being.

  9. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  10. Nerve Growth Factor Decreases in Sympathetic and Sensory Nerves of Rats with Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in the maintenance and survival of both sympathetic and sensory nerves. Also, NGF can regulate receptor expression and neuronal activity in the sympathetic and sensory neurons. Abnormalities in NGF regulation are observed in patients and animals with heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the effects of chronic HF on the levels of NGF within the sympathetic and sensory nerves are not known. Thus, the ELISA method was used to assess the levels of NGF in the stellate ganglion (SG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control rats and rats with chronic HF induced by myocardial infarction. Our data show for the first time that the levels of NGF were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the SG and DRG neurons 6–20 weeks after ligation of the coronary artery. In addition, a close relation was observed between the NGF levels and the left ventricular function. In conclusion, chronic HF impairs the expression of NGF in the sympathetic and sensory nerves. Given that sensory afferent nerves are engaged in the sympathetic nervous responses to somatic stimulation (i.e. muscle activity during exercise) via a reflex mechanism, our data indicate that NGF is likely responsible for the development of muscle reflex-mediated abnormal sympathetic responsiveness observed in chronic HF. PMID:24913185

  11. Effect of chronic restraint stress on human colorectal carcinoma growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lin

    Full Text Available Stress alters immunological and neuroendocrinological functions. An increasing number of studies indicate that chronic stress can accelerate tumor growth, but its role in colorectal carcinoma (CRC progression is not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS on CRC cell growth in nude mice and the possible underlying mechanisms. In this study, we showed that CRS increased the levels of plasma catecholamines including epinephrine (E and norepinephrine (NE, and stimulated the growth of CRC cell-derived tumors in vivo. Treatment with the adrenoceptor (AR antagonists phentolamine (PHE, α-AR antagonist and propranolol (PRO, β-AR antagonist significantly inhibited the CRS-enhanced CRC cell growth in nude mice. In addition, the stress hormones E and NE remarkably enhanced CRC cell proliferation and viability in culture, as well as tumor growth in vivo. These effects were antagonized by the AR antagonists PHE and PRO, indicating that the stress hormone-induced CRC cell proliferation is AR dependent. We also observed that the β-AR antagonists atenolol (ATE, β1- AR antagonist and ICI 118,551 (ICI, β2- AR antagonist inhibited tumor cell proliferation and decreased the stress hormone-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK1/2 in vitro and in vivo. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 also blocked the function of the stress hormone, suggesting the involvement of ERK1/2 in the tumor-promoting effect of CRS. We conclude that CRS promotes CRC xenograft tumor growth in nude mice by stimulating CRC cell proliferation through the AR signaling-dependent activation of ERK1/2.

  12. Influence of chronic intermittent hypoxia on growth associated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus of young rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Chen; Chunling Zhao; Chunlai Zhang; Lirong Luo; Guang Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the pathological change to hippocampal neurons and the expression of growth associated protein 43 in 21-day-old young rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed varying degrees of degeneration and necrosis in hippocampal neurons depending on the modeling time. Immunohistochemistry revealed that growth associated protein 43 expression in young rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia de-creased, but that levels were still higher than those of normal rats at each time point, especially 4 weeks after modeling. During 1-5 weeks after modeling, a slow growth in rat weight was ob-served. Experimental findings indicate that chronic intermittent hypoxia may induce growth dys-function and necrosis of hippocampal neurons, as well as increase the expression of growth as-sociated protein 43 in young rats.

  13. Influence of chronic intermittent hypoxia on growth associated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhao, Chunling; Zhang, Chunlai; Luo, Lirong; Yu, Guang

    2012-06-05

    This study aimed to explore the pathological change to hippocampal neurons and the expression of growth associated protein 43 in 21-day-old young rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed varying degrees of degeneration and necrosis in hippocampal neurons depending on the modeling time. Immunohistochemistry revealed that growth associated protein 43 expression in young rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia decreased, but that levels were still higher than those of normal rats at each time point, especially 4 weeks after modeling. During 1-5 weeks after modeling, a slow growth in rat weight was observed. Experimental findings indicate that chronic intermittent hypoxia may induce growth dysfunction and necrosis of hippocampal neurons, as well as increase the expression of growth associated protein 43 in young rats.

  14. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chro...

  15. Obesity, Chronic Disease, and Economic Growth: A Case for “Big Picture” Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Egger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a form of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation (“metaflammation” linked with obesity, but also associated with several lifestyle-related behaviours not necessarily causing obesity, suggests a re-consideration of obesity as a direct cause of chronic disease and a search for the main drivers—or cause of causes. Factors contributing to this are considered here within an environmental context, leading to the conclusion that humans have an immune reaction to aspects of the modern techno-industrial environment, to which they have not fully adapted. It is suggested that economic growth—beyond a point—leads to increases in chronic diseases and climate change and that obesity is a signal of these problems. This is supported by data from Sweden over 200 years, as well as “natural” experiments in disrupted economies like Cuba and Nauru, which have shown a positive health effect with economic downturns. The effect is reflected both in human health and environmental problems such as climate change, thus pointing to the need for greater cross-disciplinary communication and a concept shift in thinking on prevention if economic growth is to continue to benefit human health and well-being.

  16. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hypatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Biao; ZHANG YouRong; ZHAO Zhong; WU DanLi; YUAN LiZhen; WU Bin; WANG LiSheng; HUANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno-virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab-lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran-domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  17. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno- virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab- lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran- domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  18. Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, A; von Ehren, M; Skottheim, B; Grönbladh, A; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Raininko, R; Gordh, T; Nyberg, F

    2014-07-01

    During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported.

  19. Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Changes the Liver Microbiome and Promotes Helicobacter Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthitaetrakool, Upsornsawan; Pinlaor, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai; Chomvarin, Chariya; Dangtakot, Rungtiwa; Chaidee, Apisit; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Sangka, Arunnee; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2016-01-01

    Adults of Opisthorchis viverrini reside in the biliary system, inducing inflammation of bile ducts and cholangitis, leading to hepatobiliary disease (HBD) including cholangiocarcinoma. O. viverrini infection also has major implications for the bacterial community in bile ducts and liver. To investigate this in chronic O. viverrini infection (≥ 8 months p.i.), bacterial genomic DNA from livers of hamsters and from worms was investigated using culture techniques, PCR for Helicobacter spp. and high-throughput next-generation sequencing targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. Of a total of 855,046 DNA sequence reads, 417,953 were useable after filtering. Metagenomic analyses assigned these to 93 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisting of 80 OTUs of bacteria, including 6 phyla and 42 genera. In the chronic O. viverrini-infected group, bacterial community composition and diversity were significantly increased compared to controls. Sequences of Fusobacterium spp. were the most common (13.81%), followed by Streptococcus luteciae (10.76%), Escherichia coli (10.18%), and Bifidobacterium spp. (0.58%). In addition, Helicobacter pylori (0.17% of sequences) was also identified in the liver of chronic O. viverrini infections, but not in normal liver. The presence of H. pylori was confirmed by PCR and by use of an antibody against bacterial antigen, supporting the metagenomics data. The identities of bacteria cultured for enrichment suggested that chronic O. viverrini infection changes the liver microbiome and promotes Helicobacter spp. growth. There may be synergy between O. viverrini and the liver microbiome in enhancing immune response-mediated hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:27806126

  20. Growth arrest specific 2 is up-regulated in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and required for their growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhou

    Full Text Available Although the generation of BCR-ABL is the molecular hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, the comprehensive molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear yet. Growth arrest specific 2 (GAS2 regulates multiple cellular functions including cell cycle, apoptosis and calpain activities. In the present study, we found GAS2 was up-regulated in CML cells including CD34+ progenitor cells compared to their normal counterparts. We utilized RNAi and the expression of dominant negative form of GAS2 (GAS2DN to target GAS2, which resulted in calpain activity enhancement and growth inhibition of both K562 and MEG-01 cells. Targeting GAS2 also sensitized K562 cells to Imatinib mesylate (IM. GAS2DN suppressed the tumorigenic ability of MEG-01 cells and impaired the tumour growth as well. Moreover, the CD34+ cells from CML patients and healthy donors were transduced with control and GAS2DN lentiviral vectors, and the CD34+ transduced (YFP+ progeny cells (CD34+YFP+ were plated for colony-forming cell (CFC assay. The results showed that GAS2DN inhibited the CFC production of CML cells by 57±3% (n = 3, while affected those of normal hematopoietic cells by 31±1% (n = 2. Next, we found the inhibition of CML cells by GAS2DN was dependent on calpain activity but not the degradation of beta-catenin. Lastly, we generated microarray data to identify the differentially expressed genes upon GAS2DN and validated that the expression of HNRPDL, PTK7 and UCHL5 was suppressed by GAS2DN. These 3 genes were up-regulated in CML cells compared to normal control cells and the growth of K562 cells was inhibited upon HNRPDL silence. Taken together, we have demonstrated that GAS2 is up-regulated in CML cells and the inhibition of GAS2 impairs the growth of CML cells, which indicates GAS2 is a novel regulator of CML cells and a potential therapeutic target of this disease.

  1. The Dark Knight Falters

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabal, N

    2012-01-01

    Potential line emission at 111 and 129 GeV from 16 unassociated Fermi-LAT point sources has been reported recently by Su & Finkbeiner (2012c). Together with similar features seen by Fermi in a region near the Galactic Centre, the evidence has been interpreted as the spectral signature of dark matter annihilation or internal bremsstrahlung. Through a combination of supervised machine-learning algorithms and archival multiwavelength observations we find that 14 out of the 16 unassociated sources showing the line emission in the Su & Finkbeiner sample are most likely active galactic nuclei (AGN). Based on this new evidence, one must widen the range of possible solutions for the 100-140 GeV excess to include a very distinct astrophysical explanation. While we cannot rule out a dark matter origin for the line emission in the Galactic Centre, we posit that if the detection in the Su & Finkbeiner sample is indeed real it might be related to accretion, bubble, or jet activity in nearby (z < 0.2) AGN. A...

  2. Immunizations climb, then falter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, H

    1994-01-01

    The extended immunization campaign began in the mid 1980s and contributed to immunization of 4 out of every 5 infants worldwide, or 80% by the end of the 1980s. There was a slight relaxation of effort around 1990 and 1991, and declines occurred in 28 developing countries. In developing countries, 101 countries maintained or increased immunization in 1991. Rates dropped in Brazil and Venezuela and sub-Saharan Africa. Rates remained constant in 1992, except for the declines in women's tetanus immunization. Distribution is 4-5 times a year to 100 million infants. The savings in lives amounted to 3 million 1992, and further extension could have saved another 1.7 million. The cost in low income countries is $6 to $20, with an average of $15. Five visits are required for complete immunization into one dose; costs could then be reduced by 70%. Total annual costs amount to $2.2 to $2.4 billion for the United Nations Expanded Programme on Immunization. This sum amounts to 2% of public health expenditures in developing countries. The benefits are in reduction in health care costs and expanded productive potential of people. The measles vaccine alone reduced the death rate from 2.5 million in 1980 to 900,000 in 1990. Nonfatal measles morbidity was reduced from 75 million to 25 million for the same period. From averted measles incidents, the savings in treatment costs and productive potential are immeasurable. The first smallpox vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, but it took nearly two for final smallpox eradication in 1979 worldwide. Over the past 10 years, polio eradication has cost $1.4 billion, but without polio vaccines, the cost would reach $500 million annually. Refrigeration and transportation to remote areas has made immunization difficult. The development of low-dose vaccines that would maintain potency in tropical temperatures would be a welcome contribution.

  3. Chronic alterations in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I signaling lead to changes in mouse tendon structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, R H; Clausen, N M; Schjerling, P; Larsen, J O; Martinussen, T; List, E O; Kopchick, J J; Kjaer, M; Heinemeier, K M

    2014-02-01

    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis is an important stimulator of collagen synthesis in connective tissue, but the effect of chronically altered GH/IGF-I levels on connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit is not known. We studied three groups of mice; 1) giant transgenic mice that expressed bovine GH (bGH) and had high circulating levels of GH and IGF-I, 2) dwarf mice with a disrupted GH receptor gene (GHR-/-) leading to GH resistance and low circulating IGF-I, and 3) a wild-type control group (CTRL). We measured the ultra-structure, collagen content and mRNA expression (targets: GAPDH, RPLP0, IGF-IEa, IGF-IR, COL1A1, COL3A1, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, versican, scleraxis, tenascin C, fibronectin, fibromodulin, decorin) in the Achilles tendon, and the mRNA expression was also measured in calf muscle (same targets as tendon plus IGF-IEb, IGF-IEc). We found that GHR-/- mice had significantly lower collagen fibril volume fraction in Achilles tendon, as well as decreased mRNA expression of IGF-I isoforms and collagen types I and III in muscle compared to CTRL. In contrast, the mRNA expression of IGF-I isoforms and collagens in bGH mice was generally high in both tendon and muscle compared to CTRL. Mean collagen fibril diameter was significantly decreased with both high and low GH/IGF-I signaling, but the GHR-/- mouse tendons were most severely affected with a total loss of the normal bimodal diameter distribution. In conclusion, chronic manipulation of the GH/IGF-I axis influenced both morphology and mRNA levels of selected genes in the muscle-tendon unit of mice. Whereas only moderate structural changes were observed with up-regulation of GH/IGF-I axis, disruption of the GH receptor had pronounced effects upon tendon ultra-structure.

  4. Chronic kidney disease induced by adenine: a suitable model of growth retardation in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Débora; Gil-Peña, Helena; Fuente, Rocío; García-López, Enrique; Loredo, Vanessa; Hernández-Frías, Olaya; Ordoñez, Flor A; Rodríguez-Suárez, Julián; Santos, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Growth retardation is a major manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in pediatric patients. The involvement of the various pathogenic factors is difficult to evaluate in clinical studies. Here, we present an experimental model of adenine-induced CKD for the study of growth failure. Three groups (n = 10) of weaning female rats were studied: normal diet (control), 0.5% adenine diet (AD), and normal diet pair fed with AD (PF). After 21 days, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, parathyroid hormone (PTH), weight and length gains, femur osseous front advance as an index of longitudinal growth rate, growth plate histomorphometry, chondrocyte proliferative activity, bone structure, aorta calcifications, and kidney histology were analyzed. Results are means ± SE. AD rats developed renal failure (serum urea nitrogen: 70 ± 6 mg/dl and creatinine: 0.6 ± 0.1 mg/dl) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (PTH: 480 ± 31 pg/ml). Growth retardation of AD rats was demonstrated by lower weight (AD rats: 63.3 ± 4.8 g, control rats: 112.6 ± 4.7 g, and PF rats: 60.0 ± 3.8 g) and length (AD rats: 7.2 ± 0.2 cm, control rats: 11.1 ± 0.3 cm, and PF rats: 8.1 ± 0.3 cm) gains as well as lower osseous front advances (AD rats: 141 ± 13 μm/day, control rats: 293 ± 16 μm/day, and PF rats: 251 ± 10 μm/day). The processes of chondrocyte maturation and proliferation were impaired in AD rats, as shown by lower growth plate terminal chondrocyte height (21.7 ± 2.3 vs. 26.2 ± 1.9 and 23.9 ± 1.3 μm in control and PF rats) and proliferative activity index (AD rats: 30 ± 2%, control rats: 38 ± 2%, and PF rats: 42 ± 3%). The bone primary spongiosa structure of AD rats was markedly disorganized. In conclusion, adenine-induced CKD in young rats is associated with growth retardation and disturbed endochondral ossification. This animal protocol may be a useful new experimental model to study growth in CKD.

  5. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-07-24

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

  6. Chronic fructose intoxication after infancy in children with hereditary fructose intolerance. A cause of growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, D M; Perman, J A; Thaler, M; Morris, R C

    1983-09-29

    In two unrelated boys, 5.3 and 3.8 years of age with hereditary fructose intolerance, apparently isolated growth retardation (-2.71 S.D. and -2.40 S.D.) occurred after infancy, even though acute symptomatic fructose intoxication was prevented by restriction of dietary fructose. When more stringent restriction of dietary fructose was instituted (approximately 40 mg per kilogram of body weight per day), growth velocity increased from the 25th to the 97th percentile in one child and from well below the 3d to above the 75th percentile in the other. When restriction of dietary fructose was experimentally relaxed (from 10 to 250 mg per kilogram per day), neither boy had symptoms, hypoglycemia, or evidence of hepatic or renal dysfunction, but both had sustained hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria and increases in the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of magnesium. We conclude that in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, clinically important chronic fructose intoxication can occur after infancy without causing symptoms of acute fructose intoxication and can be expressed as an apparently isolated, reversible retardation of somatic growth with a continuing disorder of adenine nucleotide metabolism, characterized in part by recurrently increased rates of degradation of adenine nucleotides.

  7. Analysis of transforming growth factorβ signaling in chronic rhinosinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-chuan; AN Yun-song; WANG Tong; ZANG Hong-rui

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been reported that there is a significant difference in the local tissue concentration of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 between chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients.TGF-β has been reported to play an important role in regulating epithelial cell repair in lower airway remodeling and may be a critical factor involved in the remodeling process of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).Methods Ethmoidal mucosal samples collected from CRS and healthy control patients were analyzed for TGF-β1,TGF-βreceptor Ⅰ,TGF-β receptor Ⅱ,Smad3,phospho-Smad3,Smad7,and Smad anchor for receptor activation by Western blotting analysis.The proliferation of sinonasal epithelial cells at baseline and after TGF-β and/or EGF stimulation was evaluated by the MTT assay.Results In CRSsNP,TGF-β1,TGF-β receptor Ⅰ,TGF-β receptor Ⅱ,and Smad3 protein levels were significantly higher than controls.In CRSwNP,TGF-β1,Smad3,and pSmad3 protein levels were significantly lower than controls.Smad7 protein was significantly higher in CRS than controls.In vitro experiments demonstrated that the baseline proliferation levels of sinonasal epithelial cells were lower in CRS than controls.Conclusions CRSwNP is characterized by a lower level of TGF-signaling compared with the control.In CRSsNP,although the upstream signaling of TGF-β was enhanced,the high Smad7 protein expression may restrain the downstream signaling components (e.g.,pSmad3) and the TGF-β antiproliferative effect on sinonasal epithelium.The difference in the local tissue concentration of TGF-β1 between CRSsNP and CRSwNP patients did not result in significant differences in epithelial proliferation.

  8. Effective Delivery of Doxycycline and Epidermal Growth Factor for Expedited Healing of Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhilash

    The problems and high medical costs associated with chronic wounds necessitate an economical bioactive wound dressing. A new strategy was investigated to inhibit MMP-9 proteases and to release epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance healing. Doxycycline (DOX) and EGF were encapsulated on polyacrylic acid modified polyurethane film (PAA-PU) using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly. The number of bilayers tuned the concentration of DOX and EGF released over time with over 94% bioactivity of EGF retained over 4 days. A simple wound model in which MMP-9 proteases were added to cell culture containing fibroblast cells demonstrated that DOX inhibited the proteases providing a protective environment for the released EGF to stimulate cell migration and proliferation at a faster healing rate. In the presence of DOX, only small amounts of the highly bioactive EGF are sufficient to close the wound. Results show that this is new and promising bioactive dressing for effective wound management.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in the Andean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jose R; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Preciado, Hugo F Ju; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene--vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)--was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n = 131; 49.1 ± 12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n = 84; 47.2 ± 13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p Cerro de Pasco population and HapMap3 population (Fst > 0.36, p < 0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes.

  10. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 as a Marker of Chronic Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfu Wu

    Full Text Available Kidney biopsy remains the mainstay of Lupus Nephritis (LN diagnosis and prognostication. The objective of this study is to identify non-invasive biomarkers that closely parallel renal pathology in LN. Previous reports have demonstrated that serum Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4 was increased in diabetic nephropathy in both animal models and patients. We proceeded to assess if IGFBP4 could be associated with LN. We performed ELISA using the serum of 86 patients with LN. Normal healthy adults (N = 23 and patients with other glomerular diseases (N = 20 served as controls. Compared to the healthy controls or other glomerular disease controls, serum IGFBP-4 levels were significantly higher in the patients with LN. Serum IGFBP-4 did not correlate well with systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI, renal SLEDAI or proteinuria, but it did correlate with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = 0.609, P < 0.0001. Interestingly, in 18 patients with proliferative LN whose blood samples were obtained at the time of renal biopsy, serum IGFBP-4 levels correlated strongly with the chronicity index of renal pathology (R = 0.713, P < 0.001. IGFBP-4 emerges a potential marker of lupus nephritis, reflective of renal pathology chronicity changes.

  11. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis.

  12. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception.

  13. Growth Impairment and Nutritional Status in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Deniz Kara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Malnutrition is closely linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD in adult patients with poor outcome. But data on pediatric patients is inadequate. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of growth failure and malnutrition in pediatric CKD patients and explore the relationship of these parameters to each other and to other clinical parameters. Methods:This study included 42 patients and 29 healthy children matched for age and gender. Patients were classified firstly in age group and secondly in therapy modalities. Nutritional evaluations were performed according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, and we performed adjustments using values from children with the same chronological age as reference. Findings:In pubertal group, the mean height SDS was lower than in pre-pubertal period while it was higher than in early childhood (P=0.4 and P=0.03 respectively. In all groups, 45% of patients had malnutrition: 20 patients on predialysis, 22 patients with end stage renal disease (14 on hemodialysis, and 8 on peritoneal dialysis. The mean weight SDS was lower in end stage renal disease groups (P<0.001. The height SDS was lower in end stage renal disease groups (P<0.001. Conclusion:Growth failure and malnutrition remain a significant clinical problem as age and therapy modalities are dependent in children with CKD.

  14. Influence of food-type on the population growth rate of the rotifier Brachionus calyciflorus in short-chronic assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Beekman, W.

    2006-01-01

    The type of food given during short chronic assays with the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus might be one of the sources of variation in the reproductive rate of the rotifers. Ten green algal species were supplied as monospecific diets to examine variability in rotifer growth rate. In addition, rotif

  15. Effects of chronic and periodic exposure to ammonia on growth and blood physiology in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foss, A.; Imsland, A.K.; Roth, B.; Schram, E.; Stefansson, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed periodically and chronically to different levels of un-ionised ammonia (UIA-N) and the subsequent effect on growth and food conversion efficiency was studied. Fish with a mean (SD) initial weight 19.3 (3.9) g, were exposed to five treatments consis

  16. Expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 protein in the hippocampus in rats exhibiting chronic stress-induced depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonglin Hou; Mingming Tang

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that the expression of members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) protein family is altered in post-mortem brains of humans suffering from major depressive disorder. The present study examined whether the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) protein is altered following chronic stress in an animal model. Rats were exposed to 35 days of chronic unpredictable mild stress, and then tested using open-field and sucrose consumption tests. Compared with the control group, rats in the chronic stress group exhibited obvious depressive-like behaviors, including anhedonia, anxiety and decreased mobility. The results of western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a downregulation of the expression of FGF2 and FGFR1 in the hippocampus of rats, particularly in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. This decreased expression is in accord with the results of post-mortem studies in humans with major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that FGF2 and FGFR1 proteins participate in the pathophysiology of depressive-like behavior, and may play an important role in the mechanism of chronic stress-induced depression.

  17. Juvenile chronic arthritis. Dentofacial morphology, growth, mandibular function and orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, H

    1995-01-01

    In children with Juvenile Chronic arthritis (JCA), temporomandibular joint involvement may lead to disturbances in dentofacial growth and mandibular function. The aim of this thesis was to study the dentofacial morphology, temporomandibular joint destruction and mandibular function in JCA children, and the relation between these factors. The intention was also to make a longitudinal study of the changes in facial morphology during growth and during treatment with functional appliances. Thirty-five JCA children, 12 boys and 23 girls, aged 7-16 years (mean 11.2 years), and the control groups, with either normal or distal occlusion, were studied by means of panoramic radiographs, lateral cephalograms, study casts, recordings of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), bite force and chewing characteristics. A method to evaluate the condylar height on panoramic radiographs was developed. Panoramic radiographs are found to be reliable for evaluation of the condylar height, provided the same panoramic machine is used. The dentofacial morphology in JCA children is characterized by a smaller, more retrognathic and steeper inclined mandible compared to that of healthy children with ideal occlusion. Compared to healthy children with distal occlusion, no difference in mandibular retrognathia could be demonstrated but the JCA children showed a smaller, more steeply inclined mandible. The presence and extent of condylar lesions play a significant role in the development of the facial morphology and also contribute to the facial heterogeneity among JCA children. During growth the JCA children without radiographically visible condylar lesions showed a growth pattern resembling that of healthy children with normal occlusion, while children with condylar lesions showed aggravation of the mandibular retrognathia and a tendency towards a backward-rotating growth pattern. The chewing movements in JCA children are restricted by the disease and by the presence of

  18. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula N Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein or control isocaloric diet (20% protein. On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  19. Alteration in transforming growth factor-β receptor expression in gallbladder disease: implications of chronic cholelithiasis and chronic Salmonella typhi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh D. Walawalkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer prevalence is ever increasing with Salmonella typhi chronic infection being one of the predisposing factors. Altered ratios or expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β receptors and changes in its function are associated with loss in anti-proliferative effects of TGF-β and cancer progression. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction we monitor any changes in TGF-β receptor gene expression. We simultaneously screen for S. typhi within the samples. From 73 patients undergoing cholecystectomy 39-50% had significant expression (P<0.05 of TGF-β receptor (TβR- I and TβR-II during chronic cholelithiasis as compared to the remaining 19-23% with acute chronic cholelithiasis. There was no significant increase in TβR-III receptor expression. Patient’s positive for S. typhi (7/73 did not show any significant changes in expression of these receptors, thus indicating no direct relation in regulating the host TGFβ-signaling pathway. Further analysis on expression of downstream Smad components revealed that patients with up-regulated TGFβ receptor expression show >2-fold increase in the RSmads and Co-Smads with a >2-fold decrease in I-Smads. Thus gain of TβR-I and II expression in epithelial cells of the gallbladder was associated with chronic inflammatory stages of the gallbladder disease.

  20. Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Walthall, William K

    2003-12-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of eight agricultural adjuvants (Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet L-77, Sylgard 309, X-77, and WaterMaxx) to Daphnia pulex were evaluated with 48-h acute lethal concentration estimates (LC50) and a 10-d population growth-rate measurement, the instantaneous rate of increase (r1). Based on LC50, the order of toxicity was R-11 > X-77 = Sylgard 309 = Silwet L-77 > Kinetic > Bond > Plyac > WaterMaxx; all LC50 estimates were higher than the expected environmental concentration (EEC) of 0.79 mg/L, indicating that none of these adjuvants should cause high levels of mortality in wild D. pulex populations. Extinction, defined as negative population growth rate, occurred after exposure to 0.9 mg/L R-11, 13 mg/L X-77, 25 mg/L Kinetic, 28 mg/L Silwet, 18 mg/L Sylgard, 450 mg/L Bond, 610 mg/L Plyac, and 1,600 mg/L WaterMaxx. Concentrations that caused extinction were substantially below the acute LC50 for R-11, Kinetic, Plyac, X-77, and Bond. The no-observable-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effects concentration (LOEC) for the number of offspring per surviving female after exposure to R-11 were 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for population size after exposure to R-11 were (1.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Both of these values were lower than the EEC, indicating that R-11 does have the potential to cause damage to D. pulex populations after application at recommended field rates. The wide range of concentrations causing extinction makes it difficult to generalize about the potential impacts that agricultural adjuvants might have on aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, additional studies that examine effects on other nontarget organisms and determine residues in aquatic ecosystems may be warranted.

  1. Expression of growth hormone and its receptor in chronic atrophic gastritis and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Si; Qian Cao; Min Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) expression of and its clinical significance in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).METHODS:A total of 90 cases were enrolled in the study.Thirty were healthy controls,the other 60 patients were divided into two groups according to the endoscopical and histological diagnosis.Blood samples were drawn in the morning (menarche did not occur during the blood extraction in female patients),gastric mucosa was obtained by endoscopy.Serum GH and gastrice mucosal GHR levels were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and En Vinsion technique.RESULTS:The average GH level was 1.021±0.132μ/L in CAG patients,in controls it was 2.869 0.512μ/L.There was a significant difference between these two groups(P<0.01).The positive rate of GHR in CAG patients was 10%,in controls the rate was 100%.There was a significant difference (P<0.01).There was no significant change of GH level (3.176±0.421μ/L) in patients with gastric carcinoma compared with controls (P>0.05).CONCLUSION:The study shows that levels of GH and GHR expression are low in CAG patients.CAG pathogenesis has a correlation with mucosal nutrient deficiency,decreased levels of GH and GHR have an adverse effect on the repair and regeneration of CAG.There is no significant change of GH in gastric carcinorma patients,GH dose not play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

  2. Analysis of epidermal growth factor signaling in nasal mucosa epithelial cell proliferation involved in chronic rhinosinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yunchuan; Li Lijuan; Wang Tong; Zang Hongrui; An Yunsong; Li Lifeng; Zhang Junyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant epithelial repair has been observed in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients; however,the mechanism of epithelial cell repair regulation is unclear.Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in regulating epithelial cell repair in lower airway and may be a critical factor in the remodeling processes of CRS.The objective of our research is to evaluate the differences between CRS and normal subjects and between chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polys (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polys (CRSwNP) in the regulation of EGF pathways and the regulating proliferative position of classic Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways.Methods We evaluated the proliferation rates of ethmoidal mucosal cells before and after stimulation with EGF,epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor AG1478,and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 using MTT assays.We also analyzed the sinonasal epithelial cells collected from control subjects and patients with CRS subtypes CRSsNP and CRSwNP for the expression of ERK1/2,phosphorylated ERK1/2,P21,P15,and P27 using western blotting analyses.Results The proliferation rates of sinonasal epithelial cells before and after EGF stimulation were lower in CRS patients than in the controls.AG1478 or PD98059 inhibitor treatment of control epithelial cells did not result in a significant difference in proliferation.Although,AG1478 and PD98059 inhibited the proliferation of CRS cells,the degree of proliferation inhibition was markedly different in CRSsNP.AG 1478 suppressed the proliferation of CRSwNP epithelial cells,whereas PD98059 had no effect.The ratio of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CRS cells was lower than that of the control cells.Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors were highly expressed in CRS cells compared with that of control cells.ERK1/2 and P27 showed differential expression in CRSsNP and CRSwNP.Conclusions Differences existed in EGF pathways in CRS patients and normal

  3. Association between fibroblast growth factor 7 and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-cheng XU; Jiang-ying KUANG; Jin LIU; Chun-lan MA; Yu-lin FENG; Zhi-guang SU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) is involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes,including lung disease.However,relatively little is known about the effect of FGF7 gene polymorphisms on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility.This study aimed to investigate the association between FGF7 polymorphisms with COPD susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.Methods:We conducted a case-control study of 279 COPD patients and 367 age- and gender-distribution-matched control subjects.The tagging SNPs rs10519225 and rs7170426 in FGF7 were genotyped by SNaPshot.The associations of each SNP genotype and haplotype constructed by these loci with COPD were analyzed.Results:A multivariate analysis showed that rs10519225 was significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD (P=-0.011,OR=1.535,FDR q=0.022),whereas no association was found for rs7170426.Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that these loci were in weak LD,with an r2 of 0.033 and a D' of 0.232 (95% CI:0.150-0.520).The haplotype constructed by allele G at rs10519225 and allele A at rs7170426 was associated with a decreased susceptibility to COPD (P=0.012,OR=0.751,FDR q=0.048).Conclusion:These findings suggest that FGF7 may be one susceptibility factor for COPD.

  4. Effect of chronic caffeine intake on myocardial function during early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temples, T E; Geoffray, D J; Nakamoto, T; Hartman, A D; Miller, H I

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of chronic caffeine ingestion on the myocardium during fetal and neonatal growth and development. The isolated perfused working heart preparation was used to evaluate cardiac function. During gestation and lactation, one group of dams consumed a caffeine supplemented diet (10 mg/kg/day). Their offspring were sacrificed and the hearts analyzed 50 days after birth. We found that the intake of caffeine by the dams resulted in significant increases in the offspring's coronary flow, peak systolic pressure, and myocardial work. A second group of dams ingested a diet containing caffeine (10 mg/kg/day) during lactation only. Their pups continued to consume the caffeine diet until 50 days. Pup hearts exhibited significant reductions in cardiac output, stroke volume, pressure development, myocardial work, and external efficiency when compared to controls. Caffeine did not affect body or heart weight or adipose size or number in these experiments. Thus, continued caffeine consumption following birth may alter cardiac performance of the offspring.

  5. Chronic warming stimulates growth of marsh grasses more than mangroves in a coastal wetland ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldren, G A; Barreto, C R; Wykoff, D D; Morrissey, E M; Langley, J A; Feller, I C; Chapman, S K

    2016-11-01

    Increasing temperatures and a reduction in the frequency and severity of freezing events have been linked to species distribution shifts. Across the globe, mangrove ranges are expanding toward higher latitudes, likely due to diminishing frequency of freezing events associated with climate change. Continued warming will alter coastal wetland plant dynamics both above- and belowground, potentially altering plant capacity to keep up with sea level rise. We conducted an in situ warming experiment, in northeast Florida, to determine how increased temperature (+2°C) influences co-occurring mangrove and salt marsh plants. Warming was achieved using passive warming with three treatment levels (ambient, shade control, warmed). Avicennia germinans, the black mangrove, exhibited no differences in growth or height due to experimental warming, but displayed a warming-induced increase in leaf production (48%). Surprisingly, Distichlis spicata, the dominant salt marsh grass, increased in biomass (53% in 2013 and 70% in 2014), density (41%) and height (18%) with warming during summer months. Warming decreased plant root mass at depth and changed abundances of anaerobic bacterial taxa. Even while the poleward shift of mangroves is clearly controlled by the occurrences of severe freezes, chronic warming between these freeze events may slow the progression of mangrove dominance within ecotones.

  6. Role of hematopoietic growth factors as adjuncts in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Fazal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hematotoxicity is the most common reason for reducing the dose or withdrawing ribavirin (RBV and interferon (IFN therapy in chronic hepatitis C, which leads to the elimination of a possible cure for the patient. Traditionally, severe anemia and neutropenia have been considered as absolute contraindications to start antiviral therapy. This has not however, been the case since the advent of adjunct therapy with hematopoietic growth factors (erythropoietin (EPO and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. Some recent landmark studies have used this adjunct therapy to help avoid antiviral dose reductions. Although the addition of this adjunct therapy has been shown to significantly increase the overall cost of the treatment, this extra cost is worth bearing if the infection is cured at the end of the day. Although more studies are needed to refine the true indications of this adjunct therapy, determine the best dose regimen, quantify the average extra cost and determine whether or not the addition of this therapy increases the sustained virological response rates achieved, the initial reports are encouraging. Therefore, although not recommended on a routine basis, some selected patients may be given the benefits of these factors. This article reviews the current literature on this subject and makes a few recommendations to help develop local guidelines.

  7. New Insights on COX-2 in Chronic Inflammation Driving Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Honor J; Saunders, C; Ramsay, R G; Thompson, E W

    2015-12-01

    The medicinal use of aspirin stretches back to ancient times, before it was manufactured in its pure form in the late 19th century. Its accepted mechanistic target, cyclooxygenase (COX), was discovered in the 1970s and since this landmark discovery, the therapeutic application of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has increased dramatically. The most significant benefits of NSAIDs are in conditions involving chronic inflammation (CI). Given the recognized role of CI in cancer development, the use of long-term NSAID treatment in the prevention of cancer is an enticing possibility. COX-2 is a key driver of CI, and here we review COX-2 expression as a predictor of survival in various cancer types, including breast. Obesity and post-partum involution are natural inflammatory states that are associated with increased breast cancer risk. We outline the COX-2 mediated mechanisms contributing to the growth of cancers. We dissect the cellular mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and how COX-2 may induce this to facilitate tumor progression. Finally we examine the potential regulation of COX-2 by c-Myb, and the possible interplay between c-Myb/COX-2 in proliferation, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1α)/COX-2 in invasive pathways in breast cancer.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates bacillary growth by ATP-Binding: requirement for establishing chronic persistent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Drumm

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumm, J.; Mi, K; Bilder, P; Sun, M; Lim, J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Basaraba, R; So, M; Zhu, G; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  10. Analysis of Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Soluble Receptors in Patients with Different Forms of Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jagodzinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a powerful enhancer of vascular permeability and inflammatory response; however its significance in chronic urticaria is poorly recognised. Aim. To compare free circulating levels of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in patients with different forms of chronic urticaria. Methods. The concentrations of VEGF and its receptors in plateletpoor plasma (PPP/plasma were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in chronic urticaria: (1 chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU with positive autologous serum skin test (ASST, (2 CSU with negative response to ASST, (3 CSU with concomitant euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (CSU/Hashimoto, (4 delayed pressure urticaria (DPU, and the healthy subjects. Results. There were no significant differences in VEGF concentration in PPP between CSU groups and the healthy subjects. Contrary, VEGF concentration was significantly higher in DPU and CSU/Hashimoto patients as compared with the healthy subjects and CSU groups. Furthermore, VEGF value in CSU/Hashimoto patients during the remission was similar to that of the active period and significantly higher than the healthy subjects; VEGF concentration was significantly correlated with TSH. Plasma concentrations of sVEGF1 and sVEGF2 were similar in chronic urticaria patients and the healthy subjects. Conclusions. Increased free circulating VEGF concentration may result from the urticarial process itself as well as concomitant Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

  11. [VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AND SOME INDICATORS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION OF PATIENTS HAVING CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTRO DUODENAL ZONE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavyalova, O V; Spivakovskiy, Yu M; Tchernenkov, Yu V; Lukina, O A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of vaskuloendotelian growth factor and nitric oxide in children with chronic inflammatory diseases of the stomach and duodenum. The study involved 63 children with chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastroduodenal zone. Substrate study was serum. The data obtained were compared with a group of healthy children. The highest possible content vaskuloendotelian growth factor noted in the group of children with duodenal ulcer in the acute phase and in the group of chronic gastroduodenita associated with Helicobacter pylori. According to the results of the study established the role of nitric oxide and vaskuloendotelian growth factor in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases.

  12. Chronically Increased Amino Acids Improve Insulin Secretion, Pancreatic Vascularity, and Islet Size in Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Davis, Melissa; Wai, Sandra; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Placental insufficiency is associated with reduced supply of amino acids to the fetus and leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR fetuses are characterized by lower glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, smaller pancreatic islets with less β-cells, and impaired pancreatic vascularity. To test whether supplemental amino acids infused into the IUGR fetus could improve these complications of IUGR we used acute (hours) and chronic (11 d) direct fetal amino acid infusions into a sheep model of placental insufficiency and IUGR near the end of gestation. IUGR fetuses had attenuated acute amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion compared with control fetuses. These results were confirmed in isolated IUGR pancreatic islets. After the chronic fetal amino acid infusion, fetal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet size were restored to control values. These changes were associated with normalization of fetal pancreatic vascularity and higher fetal pancreatic vascular endothelial growth factor A protein concentrations. These results demonstrate that decreased fetal amino acid supply contributes to the pathogenesis of pancreatic islet defects in IUGR. Moreover, the results show that pancreatic islets in IUGR fetuses retain their ability to respond to increased amino acids near the end of gestation after chronic fetal growth restriction.

  13. Growth hormone plus resistance exercise attenuate structural changes in rat myotendinous junctions resulting from chronic unloading

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    D. Curzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Myotendinous junctions (MTJs are specialized sites on the muscle surface where forces generated by myofibrils are transmitted across the sarcolemma to the extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, the interface between the sarcolemma and extracellular matrix is highly folded and interdigitated at these junctions. In this study, the effect of exercise and growth hormone (GH treatments on the changes in MTJ structure that occur during muscle unloading, has been analyzed. Twenty hypophysectomized rats were assigned randomly to one of five groups: ambulatory control, hindlimb unloaded, hindlimb unloaded plus exercise (3 daily bouts of 10 climbs up a ladder with 50% body wt attached to the tail, hindlimb unloaded plus GH (2 daily injections of 1 mg/kg body wt, i.p., and hindlimb unloaded plus exercise plus GH. MTJs of the plantaris muscle were analyzed by electron microscopy and the contact between muscle and tendon was evaluated using an IL/B ratio, where B is the base and IL is the interface length of MTJ’s digit-like processes. After 10 days of unloading, the mean IL/B ratio was significantly lower in unloaded (3.92, unloaded plus exercise (4.18, and unloaded plus GH (5.25 groups than in the ambulatory control (6.39 group. On the opposite, the mean IL/B ratio in the group treated with both exercise and GH (7.3 was similar to control. These findings indicate that the interaction between exercise and GH treatments attenuates the changes in MTJ structure that result from chronic unloading and thus can be used as a countermeasure to these adaptations.

  14. Growth hormone plus resistance exercise attenuate structural changes in rat myotendinous junctions resulting from chronic unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzi, D; Lattanzi, D; Ciuffoli, S; Burattini, S; Grindeland, R E; Edgerton, V R; Roy, R R; Tidball, J G; Falcieri, E

    2013-11-13

    Myotendinous junctions (MTJs) are specialized sites on the muscle surface where forces generated by myofibrils are transmitted across the sarcolemma to the extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, the interface between the sarcolemma and extracellular matrix is highly folded and interdigitated at these junctions. In this study, the effect of exercise and growth hormone (GH) treatments on the changes in MTJ structure that occur during muscle unloading, has been analyzed. Twenty hypophysectomized rats were assigned randomly to one of five groups: ambulatory control, hindlimb unloaded, hindlimb unloaded plus exercise (3 daily bouts of 10 climbs up a ladder with 50% body wt attached to the tail), hindlimb unloaded plus GH (2 daily injections of 1 mg/kg body wt, i.p.), and hindlimb unloaded plus exercise plus GH. MTJs of the plantaris muscle were analyzed by electron microscopy and the contact between muscle and tendon was evaluated using an IL/B ratio, where B is the base and IL is the interface length of MTJ's digit-like processes. After 10 days of unloading, the mean IL/B ratio was significantly lower in unloaded (3.92), unloaded plus exercise (4.18), and unloaded plus GH (5.25) groups than in the ambulatory control (6.39) group. On the opposite, the mean IL/B ratio in the group treated with both exercise and GH (7.3) was similar to control. These findings indicate that the interaction between exercise and GH treatments attenuates the changes in MTJ structure that result from chronic unloading and thus can be used as a countermeasure to these adaptations.

  15. Cardiological aging in SAM model: effect of chronic treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, K; Vara, E; García, C; Ariznavarreta, C; Escames, G; Tresguerres, J A F

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on different parameters related to inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in hearts from two types of male mice models: senescence-accelerated mice (SAM-P8) and senescence-accelerated-resistant (SAM-R1), and the influence of chronic administration of Growth Hormone (GH) on old SAM-P8 mice. Forty male mice were used. Animals were divided into five experimental groups: two 10 month old untreated groups (SAM-P8/SAM-R1), two 2 month old young groups (SAM-P8/SAM-R1) and one 10 month old group (SAM-P8) treated with GH for 30 days. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 10, heme oxygenases 1 and 2, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases, NFkB, Bad, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were submitted to a two way ANOVA statistical evaluation using the Statgraphics program. Inflammation, as well as, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers were increased in the heart of old SAM-P8 males, as compared to young controls and this situation was not observed in the old SAM-R1 mice. Exogenous GH administration reverted the effect of aging in the described parameters of old SAM-P8 mice. Our results suggest that inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress could play an important role in the observed cardiovascular alterations related to aging of SAM-P8 mice and that GH may play a potential protective effect on the cardiovascular system of these animals.

  16. Lack of hepcidin ameliorates anemia and improves growth in an adenine-induced mouse model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Oleh; Sureshbabu, Angara; Doty, Steve B; Zhu, Yuan-Shan; Patino, Edwin; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Choi, Mary E; Boskey, Adele; Rivella, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Growth delay is common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), often associated with poor quality of life. The role of anemia in uremic growth delay is poorly understood. Here we describe an induction of uremic growth retardation by a 0.2% adenine diet in wild-type (WT) and hepcidin gene (Hamp) knockout (KO) mice, compared with their respective littermates fed a regular diet. Experiments were started at weaning (3 wk). After 8 wk, blood was collected and mice were euthanized. Adenine-fed WT mice developed CKD (blood urea nitrogen 82.8 ± 11.6 mg/dl and creatinine 0.57 ± 0.07 mg/dl) and were 2.1 cm shorter compared with WT controls. WT adenine-fed mice were anemic and had low serum iron, elevated Hamp, and elevated IL6 and TNF-α. WT adenine-fed mice had advanced mineral bone disease (serum phosphorus 16.9 ± 3.1 mg/dl and FGF23 204.0 ± 115.0 ng/ml) with loss of cortical and trabecular bone volume seen on microcomputed tomography. Hamp disruption rescued the anemia phenotype resulting in improved growth rate in mice with CKD, thus providing direct experimental evidence of the relationship between Hamp pathway and growth impairment in CKD. Hamp disruption ameliorated CKD-induced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis derangements and growth plate alterations. Disruption of Hamp did not mitigate the development of uremia, inflammation, and mineral and bone disease in this model. Taken together, these results indicate that an adenine diet can be successfully used to study growth in mice with CKD. Hepcidin appears to be related to pathways of growth retardation in CKD suggesting that investigation of hepcidin-lowering therapies in juvenile CKD is warranted.

  17. Growth, chronic kidney disease and pediatric kidney transplantation: is it useful to use recombinant growth hormone in Colombian children with renal transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, D A; López, L F; Ovalle, D F; Buitrago, J; Rodríguez, D; Lozano, E

    2011-11-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the best treatment for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In recent times, knowledge concerning the effect of CKD and kidney transplantation over the normal growth rate has increased; now it is known that 40% of children with CKD do not reach the expected height for age. Growth retardation has been associated with the type of nephropathy, metabolic and endocrine disorders that are secondary to kidney disease, immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids, and suboptimal function of renal allograft. Nowadays, we know better the role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in growth retardation we can see it in children with CKD or recipients of renal allograft. Several studies have shown that administration of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) has a positive effect on the longitudinal growth of children and teenagers who have received a kidney transplant. On the other hand, there have been reported side effects associated with using rhGH; however, these are not statistically significant. In this article, we show a small review about growth in children with CKD and/or recipients of renal allografts the growth pattern of three children who were known by the Transplant Group of National University of Colombia, and the results obtained with the use of rhGH in one of these cases. We want to show the possibility of achieving a secure use of rhGH in children with CKD and its use as a therapeutic option for treating the growth retardation in children with kidney transplantation, and set out the need of typifying the growth pattern of Colombian children with CKD and/or who are recipients of renal allografts through multicenter studies to propose and analyze the inclusion of rhGH in the therapeutic scheme of Colombian children with these two medical conditions. rhGH could be a useful tool for treating children with CKD or kidney transplantation who have not reached the expected longitudinal growth for age. However

  18. Paramecium tetraurelia growth stimulation under low-level chronic irradiation: investigations on a possible mechanism. [/sup 60/Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Dupouy, D.; Planel, H.

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effects of low-level chronic irradiation on Paramecium tetraurelia proliferation. Biological effects were strongly dependent on the bacterial density of culture medium and more exactly on the catalase content of the medium. Significant growth stimulation was found under /sup 60/Co chronic irradiation at a dose rate of 2 rad/year when paramecia were grown in a medium containing a high bacterial concentration (2.5 x 10/sup 2/ cells/m) or supplemented with catalase (300 U/ml). In a medium with a low bacterial density (1 x 10/sup 6/ cell/ml) or supplemented with a catalase activity inhibitor, growth simulation was preceded by a transitory inhibiting effect which could be correlated with extracellularly radioproduced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ addition appeared to be able to simulate the biological effects of chronic irradiation. A possible mechanism is discussed.We proposed that the stimulating effects were the result of intracellular enzymatic scavenging of radioproduced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  19. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 increases renal fibrosis by accelerating transforming growth factor-β signaling in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Jun; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Miyata, Keishi; Endo, Motoyoshi; Terada, Kazutoyo; Tian, Zhe; Sugizaki, Taichi; Tanigawa, Hiroki; Zhao, Jiabin; Zhu, Shunshun; Sato, Michio; Araki, Kimi; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Kengo; Mukoyama, Masashi; Tomita, Kimio; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Oike, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Renal fibrosis is a common pathological consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with tissue fibrosis closely associated with chronic inflammation in numerous pathologies. However, molecular mechanisms underlying that association, particularly in the kidney, remain unclear. Here, we determine whether there is a molecular link between chronic inflammation and tissue fibrosis in CKD progression. Histological analysis of human kidneys indicated abundant expression of angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) in renal tubule epithelial cells during progression of renal fibrosis. Numerous ANGPTL2-positive renal tubule epithelial cells colocalized with cells positive for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, a critical mediator of tissue fibrosis. Analysis of M1 collecting duct cells in culture showed that TGF-β1 increases ANGPTL2 expression by attenuating its repression through microRNA-221. Conversely, ANGPTL2 increased TGF-β1 expression through α5β1 integrin-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Furthermore, ANGPTL2 deficiency in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction model significantly reduced renal fibrosis by decreasing TGF-β1 signal amplification in kidney. Thus, ANGPTL2 and TGF-β1 positively regulate each other as renal fibrosis progresses. Our study provides insight into molecular mechanisms underlying chronic inflammation and tissue fibrosis and identifies potential therapeutic targets for CKD treatment.

  20. Reduced serum concentrations of nerve growth factor, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in chronic cannabis abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Valerio; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Pomponi, Massimiliano; Tonioni, Federico; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bria, Pietro

    2008-12-01

    Chronic cannabis use produces effects within the central nervous system (CNS) which include deficits in learning and attention tasks and decreased brain volume. Neurotrophins, in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are proteins that serve as survival factors for CNS neurons. Deficits in the production and utilization of these proteins can lead to CNS dysfunctions including those associated with cannabis abuse. In this study we measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the NGF and BDNF serum levels in two groups of subjects: cannabis-dependent patients and healthy subjects. We found that NGF serum levels were significantly reduced in cannabis abusers as compared to healthy subjects. These findings indicate that NGF may have a role in the central action of cannabis and potentially in the neurotoxicity induced by this drug. These data also suggest that chronic cannabis consumption may be a risk factor for developing psychosis among drug users.

  1. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment, using two dose regimens in children with chronic renal failure--a report on linear growth and adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai A R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the efficiency and the adverse effects of 2 or 4 IU/m2/day of growth hormone (GH) in the first year and 4 IU/m2/day in the second. Of 29 growth-retarded children with chronic renal failure (CRF) (aged 3.4-15.1 years), 23 completed the first year of therapy, and 16...... overt insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, glucose metabolism should be monitored in children with CRF during rhGH-treatment. GH therapy in our patients resulted in a significant increase in height velocity with no inappropriate bone age progression and few serious adverse effects, all...

  2. Chronic administration of epidermal growth factor to pigs induces growth, especially of the urinary tract with accumulation of epithelial glycoconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1995-01-01

    of developmental processes like incisor eruption, inhibition of gastric acid secretion, morphologic changes in the pancreas resembling pancreatitis, and malignancies in mammary glands and the liver. The present investigation was initiated to explore the effects of systemic EGF administration to the mature organism......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor hyperstimulation induced by systemically administered EGF or by the development of transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) or other EGF-related ligands is known to induce various effects, such as acceleration...

  3. Long-term habitat selection and chronic root herbivory: explaining the relationship between periodical cicada density and tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Louie H; Karban, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) are insect herbivores that feed on host tree roots, but their distribution among hosts is determined largely by the oviposition of female cicadas in the previous generation. A pattern of decreasing tree growth rates with increasing cicada densities is predicted when considering the costs of chronic root herbivory, but the opposite pattern is expected when considering adaptive habitat selection. Here, we report observations indicating that the relationship between periodical cicada densities and host tree growth rates is hump shaped. We suggest that both herbivory and habitat selection are likely to be key processes explaining this pattern, resulting in regions of positive and negative correlation. These results suggest that the effects of cicada herbivory are most apparent at relatively high cicada densities, while habitat selection tends to distribute cicada herbivory on host trees that are able to compensate for cicada root herbivory up to threshold cicada densities.

  4. Chronic stress accelerates pancreatic cancer growth and invasion: a critical role for beta-adrenergic signaling in the pancreatic microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Fuchs, Corina; Le, Caroline P; Pimentel, Matthew A; Shackleford, David; Ferrari, Davide; Angst, Eliane; Hollande, Frédéric; Sloan, Erica K

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer cells intimately interact with a complex microenvironment that influences pancreatic cancer progression. The pancreas is innervated by fibers of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and pancreatic cancer cells have receptors for SNS neurotransmitters which suggests that pancreatic cancer may be sensitive to neural signaling. In vitro and non-orthotopic in vivo studies showed that neural signaling modulates tumour cell behavior. However the effect of SNS signaling on tumor progression within the pancreatic microenvironment has not previously been investigated. To address this, we used in vivo optical imaging to non-invasively track growth and dissemination of primary pancreatic cancer using an orthotopic mouse model that replicates the complex interaction between pancreatic tumor cells and their microenvironment. Stress-induced neural activation increased primary tumor growth and tumor cell dissemination to normal adjacent pancreas. These effects were associated with increased expression of invasion genes by tumor cells and pancreatic stromal cells. Pharmacological activation of β-adrenergic signaling induced similar effects to chronic stress, and pharmacological β-blockade reversed the effects of chronic stress on pancreatic cancer progression. These findings indicate that neural β-adrenergic signaling regulates pancreatic cancer progression and suggest β-blockade as a novel strategy to complement existing therapies for pancreatic cancer.

  5. The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)/Met Axis: A Neglected Target in the Treatment of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissinot, Marjorie [Translational Neuro-Oncology Group, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Level 5 Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, St James’s Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Vilaine, Mathias [Institute of Research on Cancer and Aging (IRCAN), CNRS-Inserm-UNS UMR 7284, U 1081, Centre A. Lacassagne, 33 Avenue Valombrose, Nice 06189 (France); Hermouet, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.hermouet@univ-nantes.fr [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU), Place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093 (France); Inserm UMR892, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie Nantes-Angers, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Université de Nantes, 8 quai Moncousu, Nantes cedex 44007 (France)

    2014-08-12

    Met is the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a cytoprotective cytokine. Disturbing the equilibrium between Met and its ligand may lead to inappropriate cell survival, accumulation of genetic abnormalities and eventually, malignancy. Abnormal activation of the HGF/Met axis is established in solid tumours and in chronic haematological malignancies, including myeloma, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for the abnormal activation of HGF/Met pathways are described and discussed. Importantly, inCML and in MPNs, the production of HGF is independent of Bcr-Abl and JAK2V617F, the main molecular markers of these diseases. In vitro studies showed that blocking HGF/Met function with neutralizing antibodies or Met inhibitors significantly impairs the growth of JAK2V617F-mutated cells. With personalised medicine and curative treatment in view, blocking activation of HGF/Met could be a useful addition in the treatment of CML and MPNs for those patients with high HGF/MET expression not controlled by current treatments (Bcr-Abl inhibitors in CML; phlebotomy, hydroxurea, JAK inhibitors in MPNs)

  6. Chronic systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs causes pronounced urothelial growth with accumulation of glycoconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Djurhuus, Jens Christian;

    1995-01-01

    with solvent (n = 5), EGF 30 micrograms/kg/day (n = 6) for 4 weeks, or EGF 30 micrograms/kg/day for 5 weeks followed by 3 weeks of recovery (n = 5). The ureters and bladders were examined by routine histology and electron microscopy and were immunostained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Four weeks...... of EGF treatment increased the median cross sectional area of the ureter fourfold with growth of all wall layers. The urothelium was widened from 5 cell layers in the controls to 10 in the EGF-treated animals. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining revealed an increased mitotic activity...

  7. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    with chronic nephropathy. Four groups of patients with moderate to severely reduced renal function were studied: glomerulonephritis (n = 10), diabetic nephropathy (n = 11), tubulointerstitial nephropathy (n = 13), and polycystic kidney disease (n = 8). The renal function was evaluated by glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  8. Assessment of antibacterial effect of cinnamon on growth of porphyromons gingivalis from chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amoian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims : Antibiotics are commonly used for controlling the growth of porphyromons gingivalis (P.g which is one of the most important etiologic factors in the periodontal diseases. Different side effects of synthetics and chemical drugs such as increasing the drug resistancy in the human pathogens have led to study on the herbal antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of cinnamon on the growth of porphyromons gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, samples were provided from patients having pockets. After culturing the microorganism and diagnosis of P.g by gram staining and biochemical tests, cinnamon in different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1500 mg/ml with oil solvent were prepared and placed by disks in the cultures medium. Positive controls were amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamycin . Oil was negative control. Then the plates were incubated for 24 hours in 37 0 C and then non-growth halos by disk diffusion method, MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration were determined. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA test.   Results: The results showed that the cinnamon at the concentration of MIC=750 mg/ml had the inhibitory effects of bacteria and at the concentration of MIC=1500 mg/ml had killing effect. However, this antibacterial effect compared with commonly used antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, was much weaker (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Cinnamon showed an antimicrobial effect on porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients with deep pockets.

  9. Potential role of growth factors with particular focus on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the management of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; El Nahas, Meguid

    2009-01-01

    on growth factors and, in particular, on the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the treatment of CKD and the management of its complications. Disturbances of the GH-IGF-1 axis in CKD have suggested therapeutic roles for both the inhibition, as well as the stimulation...... reported in a number of small studies to have conflicting effects on renal function. In end-stage renal disease, GH has been shown in a number of small-scale studies to modify inflammation, improve lipid profile, and favorably affect cardiovascular parameters. Studies also have shown some benefit of IGF-1...

  10. Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Miho; Sato, Haruhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiyasu; Hirukawa, Takashi; Sawaya, Asako; Miyakogawa, Takayo; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Kakuta, Takatoshi

    2009-07-20

    We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone.

  11. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  12. Comparison of solcoseryl and epidermal growth factors (EGF) in healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcerations and mucosal growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Dembinski, A; Warzecha, A; Drozdowicz, D

    1988-02-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract of calf blood, and EGF, produced by salivary glands, have been shown to enhance the healing of peptic ulcerations, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Since both solcoseryl and EGF have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation, we designed the study to compare the ulcer healing and growth promoting actions of these two agents in the same animals. Gastric and duodenal ulcerations were produced by serosal application of 100% acetic acid on an area of 13.8 mm2 of gastric and duodenal wall, respectively. In the control animals, 7 days after ulcer induction, the mean ulcer area was reduced to 7.1 +/- 1.2 mm2 in the stomach, and to 6.1 +/- 0.8 mm2 in the duodenum. After 14 days all ulcers were healed, both in the stomach and duodenum. Oral administration of solcoseryl (10 ml/kg-day) or EGF (30 micrograms/kg-day) for 7 days after ulcer induction resulted in a significant reduction in the ulcer area in the stomach, and to a greater extent in the duodenum. This enhancement of ulcer healing by solcoseryl was accompanied by a significant increase in the weight of the duodenal mucosa and the total contents of DNA and RNA after 7 days of treatment, and in the weight and nucleic acid contents in both the gastric and duodenal mucosa after 14 days of treatment. EGF also increased the weights and the nucleic acid contents in gastric and duodenal mucosa, but this was significant only after 14 days of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Skeletal growth and long-term bone turnover after enterocystoplasty in a chronic rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerharz, E.W.; Gasser, J.A.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2003-01-01

    , colocystoplasty, and controls. All animals received antibiotics for 1 week after surgery; half of each group remained on oral antibiotics. Bone-related biochemistry was measured in serum and urine. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were used to determine bone...... insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 were the only significant findings on blood analysis. Deoxypyridinoline crosslinks in urine were higher in rats with an enterocystoplasty than in controls.CONCLUSIONS: Enterocystoplasty in rats neither impairs skeletal growth nor bone quantity, but leads...

  14. Acute and chronic effects of growth hormone on renal regulation of electrolyte and water homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimke, H.; Flyvbjerg, A.; Frische, S.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, growth hormone (GH) has been known to influence electrolyte and water handling in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the GH-induced anti-natriuretic and anti-diuretic effects have remained elusive. This review will examine the existing literature on renal e

  15. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor causes esophageal epithelial hyperplasia in pigs and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C O; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for maintaining the esophageal functional integrity. Goettingen minipigs were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (30 micrograms/kg/day) for four weeks. Wistar rats were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (150 microgram...

  16. Dietary and pharmacological modification of fibroblast growth factor-23 in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Aaltje Y.; de Borst, Martin H.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Vervloet, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Increased levels of phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are strong predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. From a physiological perspective and supported by some data, phosphorus is the main driver for FGF-23 secretion. Therefore, it is conceivable that interventions ai

  17. Dietary and pharmacological modification of fibroblast growth factor-23 in chronic kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, A.Y.; Borst, M.H. de; Wee, P.M. ter; Vervloet, M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased levels of phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are strong predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. From a physiological perspective and supported by some data, phosphorus is the main driver for FGF-23 secretion. Therefore, it is conceivable that interventions ai

  18. Effects of dietary betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and serum lipids in broilers subjected to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaojun; Zhao, Shujing; Dai, Sifa; Liu, Deyi; Bokhari, Shehla Gul

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplementing betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and lipid metabolism status in broilers kept under chronic heat stress. Five hundred and forty chicks were randomly divided into six groups and the two normal temperature groups were held at normal ambient temperature and fed the basal diet (CONT) and basal diet plus 0.1% betaine, respectively. Heat stressed (HS) broilers were held at 32 ± 1°C from days 22 to 42 and fed the basal diet containing variable levels of betaine. Broilers were examined at days 28, 35 and 42 for body weight, feed consumption, fat deposition and serum lipids. The CONT and betaine-supplemented groups showed higher (P betaine significantly decreased those compared with the HS-CONT group. Additionally, betaine supplementation significantly decreased triglyceride, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with HS-CONT. Chronic HS reduces broiler production performance. However, betaine can reverse these negative effects partially and thus improve carcass composition by changing lipid metabolism.

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 to Tigriopus japonicus: effects on survival, growth, reproduction, and intrinsic rate of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-03-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus has a wide geographical distribution and is considered as a suitable model species for the assessment of toxicity of marine pollutants. The aim of the present study was to test the impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the growth, development, and reproduction of T. japonicus in two successive generations. We first quantified the 96-h 50% lethal concentration (2.83 mg/L; all reported concentrations are nominal values), the no-observed-effect concentration (0.6 mg/L), and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC; 1.2 mg/L) of PCB126 in the nauplii. Nauplii were more sensitive than the adults, which still survived at the highest tested PCB126 concentration (8 mg/L). In the chronic toxicity testing, 10 life history traits were quantified for T. japonicus. No obvious effect on any of these traits was observed in the first generation (F0) at tested concentrations (generational life-cycle exposure (F1), however, PCB126 had an obvious toxic effect on the reproduction (>1 µg/L) and growth (>0.1 µg/L). Thus, copepods became more sensitive to PCB126 exposure as generations developed. Among the different traits tested, body size was the most sensitive parameter. Reproduction (fecundity, number of clutches, nauplii/clutch) and intrinsic population growth were also significantly impacted by PCB exposure. The survivorship, sex ratio, hatching time, and development were not affected. Environmental risk assessment of contaminants must therefore be based on a long-term multigenerational exposure to provide a realistic measurement of the influences of pollutants on aquatic life.

  20. Interspecific divergence in foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in a temperate forest in response to chronic nitrogen inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.D.; Burdette, S.B.; Gilliam, F.S. [Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Adams, M.B. [USDA Forest Service, Timber and Watershed Laboratory, Parsons, WV (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in deciduous forests can act as a fertilizer initially. However, at chronic elevated deposition levels, the nitrogen levels may exceed the demands of biota. This study examined the ecosystem response to nitrogen saturation. In particular, the effects of excessive nitrogen fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth was examined in 3 tree species in a mixed deciduous forest at Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia. Two watersheds were used. The first acted as a control which did not receive any treatments, and the second received 3 aerial applications of ammonium sulfate annually since 1989. Foliage of red maple, tulip poplar and black cherry were sampled in 1992, 1997 and 2000. Stem diameter growth, foliar nitrogen concentrations, nitrogen-phosphorous ratios and nutrient resorption were studied. In the earliest study, foliar nitrogen concentration of all 3 species was 11 per cent higher in the fertilized watershed compared to the control watershed. By 2000, that was no longer the case. Nitrogen concentration and nitrogen-phosphorous ratios were higher in the control watershed. Nitrogen resorption efficiencies in red maple and black cherry were 30 per cent lower in the treated watershed. Stem diameter growth in the treated watershed was 55 per cent lower in the red maple and 30 per cent lower in the tulip poplar and black cherry compared to that of the control watershed. The results suggest that the fertilized watershed had slower growth in red maple and to a lesser extent, black cherry and tulip poplar. It was concluded that increasing nitrogen saturation can lead to changes in species composition. 32 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  1. Hepatic steatosis,low-grade chronic inflammation and hormone/growth factor/adipokine imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni; Tarantino; Silvia; Savastano; Annamaria; Colao

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a further expression of metabolic syndrome, strictly linked to obesity and diabetes mellitus, is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), elevated serum levels of free fatty acids and fatty infi ltration of the liver, which is known as hepatic steatosis. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a key feature of this disease and correlates with its severity. Free-fatty-acidinduced toxicity represents one of mechanisms for the pathogenesis of NAFLD and hormones, growth factors and a...

  2. A six-month intervention with two different types of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods had distinct short- and long-term effects on linear and ponderal growth of vietnamese infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phu, Pham V.; Hoan, Nguyen V.; Salvignol, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Traditional complementary foods (CF) with a low nutrient density have been implicated in growth faltering, stunting, and other adverse outcomes in children. The efficacy of 2 types of locally produced, micronutrient-fortified CF to prevent stunting of infants living in rural Vietnam was evaluated......-scores in the C group intermediate and not significantly different from the others. This study shows that regular provision of locally produced CF fortified with micronutrients partly stopped growth faltering in Vietnamese infants, with differential effects on long-term length and ponderal growth. Providing only...... micronutrients instead of a complete array of nutrients might result in only short-term length growth benefits. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition....

  3. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induced by enriched environment enhances angiogenesis and motor function in chronic hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwa Seo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched environment (EE on promoting angiogenesis and neurobehavioral function in an animal model of chronic hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injury. HI brain damage was induced in seven day-old CD-1® mice by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 for 90 min. At six weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to either EE or standard cages (SC for two months. Rotarod, forelimb-use asymmetry, and grip strength tests were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function. In order to identify angiogenic growth factors regulated by EE, an array-based multiplex ELISA assay was used to measure the expression in frontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum. Among the growth factors, the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 was confirmed using western blotting. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were also evaluated using immunohistochemistry. As a result, mice exposed to EE showed significant improvements in rotarod and ladder walking performances compared to SC controls. The level of FGF-2 was significantly higher in the frontal cortex of EE mice at 8 weeks after treatment in multiplex ELISA and western blot. On the other hand, FGF-2 in the striatum significantly increased at 2 weeks after exposure to EE earlier than in the frontal cortex. Expression of activin A was similarly upregulated as FGF-2 expression pattern. Particularly, all animals treated with FGF-2 neutralizing antibody abolished the beneficial effect of EE on motor performance relative to mice not given anti-FGF-2. Immunohistochemistry showed that densities of α-SMA(+ and PECAM-1(+ cells in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were significantly increased following EE, suggesting the histological findings exhibit a similar pattern to the upregulation of FGF-2 in the brain. In conclusion, EE enhances endogenous angiogenesis and neurobehavioral functions

  4. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred and fifty day-old chicks were...

  5. Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondanelli, Marta; Bonadonna, Stefania; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Doga, Mauro; Gola, Monica; Onofri, Alessandro; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Giustina, Andrea; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2005-09-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism. Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects. Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Glucose metabolism was assessed by evaluating glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment index. Disease duration was significantly longer (Pgigantism than in patients with acromegaly, whereas GH and IGF-I concentrations were comparable. Left ventricular mass was increased both in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, as compared with controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 2 of 6 of both patients with gigantism and patients with acromegaly, and isolated intraventricular septum thickening in 1 patient with gigantism. Inadequate diastolic filling (ratio between early and late transmitral flow velocitygigantism and 1 of 6 patients with acromegaly. Impaired glucose metabolism occurrence was higher in patients with acromegaly (66%) compared with patients with gigantism (16%). Concentrations of IGF-I were significantly (Pgigantism who have cardiac abnormalities than in those without cardiac abnormalities. In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in patients with acromegaly, although patients with gigantism are exposed to GH excess for a

  6. Relationship between leptin, insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamer, A; Alisir Ecder, S; Akkus, Z; Kocyigit, Y; Atamer, Y; Ilhan, N; Ecder, T

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between leptin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Levels of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and common routine parameters were measured in 45 patients (23 males and 22 females) with CKD and 45 healthy controls matched for age, gender and body mass index. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured using a two-site immunoradiometric assay. Leptin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A homeostasis model assessment computer-solved model was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Levels of serum leptin, insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and HOMA-IR were significantly increased in patients with CKD compared with healthy subjects, whereas fasting blood glucose was not significantly different between the two groups. In patients with CKD, the serum leptin level was significantly correlated with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and HOMA-IR. In conclusion, this study suggests that there is an interaction between leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and insulin resistance in patients with CKD.

  7. Antiarrhythmic effect of growth factor-supplemented cardiac progenitor cells in chronic infarcted heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Monia; Bocchi, Leonardo; Rossi, Stefano; Frati, Caterina; Graiani, Gallia; Lagrasta, Costanza; Miragoli, Michele; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Stirparo, Giuliano G; Mastrototaro, Giuseppina; Urbanek, Konrad; De Angelis, Antonella; Macchi, Emilio; Stilli, Donatella; Quaini, Federico; Musso, Ezio

    2016-06-01

    c-Kit(pos) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a successful approach in healing the infarcted heart and rescuing its mechanical function, but electrophysiological consequences are uncertain. CPC mobilization promoted by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and IGF-1 improved electrogenesis in myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that locally delivered CPCs supplemented with HGF + IGF-1 (GFs) can concur in ameliorating electrical stability of the regenerated heart. Adult male Wistar rats (139 rats) with 4-wk-old MI or sham conditions were randomized to receive intramyocardial injection of GFs, CPCs, CPCs + GFs, or vehicle (V). Enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged CPCs were used for cell tracking. Vulnerability to stress-induced arrhythmia was assessed by telemetry-ECG. Basic cardiac electrophysiological properties were examined by epicardial multiple-lead recording. Hemodynamic function was measured invasively. Hearts were subjected to anatomical, morphometric, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology analyses. Compared with V and at variance with individual CPCs, CPCs + GFs approximately halved arrhythmias in all animals, restoring cardiac anisotropy toward sham values. GFs alone reduced arrhythmias by less than CPCs + GFs, prolonging ventricular refractoriness without affecting conduction velocity. Concomitantly, CPCs + GFs reactivated the expression levels of Connexin-43 and Connexin-40 as well as channel proteins of key depolarizing and repolarizing ion currents differently than sole GFs. Mechanical function and anatomical remodeling were equally improved by all regenerative treatments, thus exhibiting a divergent behavior relative to electrical aspects. Conclusively, we provided evidence of distinctive antiarrhythmic action of locally injected GF-supplemented CPCs, likely attributable to retrieval of Connexin-43, Connexin-40, and Cav1.2 expression, favoring intercellular coupling and spread of excitation in mended heart.

  8. Elevated platelet-derived growth factor-BB concentrations in premature neonates who develop chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Kim G

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD in the preterm newborn is associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB, a potent chemotactic growth factor, may mediate the fibrotic component of CLD. The objectives of this study were to determine if tracheal aspirate (TA concentrations of PDGF-BB increase the first 2 weeks of life in premature neonates undergoing mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, its relationship to the development of CLD, pulmonary hemorrhage (PH and its relationship to airway colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu. Methods Infants with a birth weight less than 1500 grams who required mechanical ventilation for RDS were enrolled into this study with parental consent. Tracheal aspirates were collected daily during clinically indicated suctioning. Uu cultures were performed on TA collected in the first week of life. TA supernatants were assayed for PDGF-BB and secretory component of IgA concentrations using ELISA techniques. Results Fifty premature neonates were enrolled into the study. Twenty-eight infants were oxygen dependent at 28 days of life and 16 infants were oxygen dependent at 36 weeks postconceptual age. PDGF-BB concentrations peaked between 4 and 6 days of life. Maximum PDGF-BB concentrations were significantly higher in infants who developed CLD or died from respiratory failure. PH was associated with increased risk of CLD and was associated with higher PDGF-BB concentrations. There was no correlation between maximum PDGF-BB concentrations and Uu isolation from the airway. Conclusions PDGF-BB concentrations increase in TAs of infants who undergo mechanical ventilation for RDS during the first 2 weeks of life and maximal concentrations are greater in those infants who subsequently develop CLD. Elevation in lung PDGF-BB may play a role in the development of CLD.

  9. Chronic uranium exposure and growth toxicity for phytoplankton. Dose-effect relationship: first comparison of chemical and radiological toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbin, R.; Pradines, C.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The bioavailability of uranium for freshwater organisms, as for other dissolved metals, is closely linked to chemical speciation in solution (U aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes in the presence of ligands commonly found in natural waters e.g. carbonate, phosphate, hydroxide and natural organic matter). For the studied chemical domain, short-term uranium uptake experiments have already shown that the free uranyl ion concentration [UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}] is a good predictor of uranium uptake by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as predicted by the Free Ion Activity Model. In agreement with these results, acidic pH and low ligands concentrations in water enhance uranium bioavailability and consequently its potential chronic effects on phytoplankton. Moreover, uranium is known to be both radio-toxic and chemo-toxic. The use of different isotopes of uranium allows to expose organisms to different radiological doses for the same molar concentration: e.g. for a given element concentration (chemical dose), replacing depleted U by U-233 obviously leads to an enhanced radiological delivered dose to organisms (x10{sup 4}). In this work we established relationships between uranium doses (depleted uranium and 233-U ) and effect on the growth rate of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Uranium bioaccumulation was also monitored. Growth rate was measured both in classical batch (0-72 hrs) and continuous (turbidostat) cultures, the latter protocol allowing medium renewal to diminish exudates accumulation and speciation changes in the medium. The differences in effects will be, if possible, related to the development of defence mechanisms against the formation of reactive oxygen species (forms of glutathione) and the production of phyto-chelatins (small peptides rich in cystein that play an important role in the homeostasis and the detoxication of metals in cells). (author)

  10. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with proteinuria and smoking in chronic kidney disease: An analysis of the MASTERPLAN cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vervloet Marc G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 has emerged as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality throughout all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD, independent from established risk factors and markers of mineral homeostasis. The relation of FGF23 with other renal and non-renal cardiovascular risk factors is not well established. Methods Using stored samples, plasma FGF23 was determined in 604 patients with moderate to severe kidney disease that participated in the MASTERPLAN study (ISRCTN73187232. The association of FGF23 with demographic and clinical parameters was evaluated using multivariable regression models. Results Mean age in the study population was 60 years and eGFR was 37 (± 14 ml/min/1.73 m2. Median proteinuria was 0.3 g/24 hours [IQR 0.1-0.9]. FGF23 level was 116 RU/ml [67-203] median and IQR. Using multivariable analysis the natural logarithm of FGF23 was positively associated with history of cardiovascular disease (B = 0.224 RU/ml; p = 0.002, presence of diabetes (B = 0.159 RU/ml; p = 0.035, smoking (B = 0.313 RU/ml; p 2; p Conclusions Our study demonstrates that in patients with CKD, FGF23 is related to proteinuria and smoking. We confirm the relation between FGF23 and other cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Helps Explain the Biphasic Cardiovascular Effects of Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Peng Hu, Qiang Xuan, Bo Hu, Ling Lu, Jing Wang, Yuan Han Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD. Recently, vitamin D has sparked widespread interest because of its potential favorable benefits on cardiovascular disease (CVD. Evidence from clinical studies and animal models supports the existence of biphasic cardiovascular effects of vitamin D, in which lower doses suppress CVD and higher doses stimulate CVD. However, the mechanism for the different effects remains unclear. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 is a recently identified member of the FGF family, and thought to be actively involved in renal phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis. More specifically, Vitamin D stimulates FGF-23 secretion and is inhibited by increased FGF-23. Given this background, we hypothesize that FGF-23 may provide a unique tool to explain the biphasic cardiovascular effects of vitamin D in CKD. The data presented in this review support the hypothesis that FGF-23 may be linked with the high cardiovascular risk in CKD through accelerating the onset of vascular calcification, secondary hyperparathyroidism, left ventricular hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, modulation of FGF-23 may become a potential therapeutic target to lowing cardiovascular risk in CKD. Several clinical interventions, including decreased phosphate intake, phosphate binders, cinacalcet plus concurrent low-dose vitamin D, C-terminal tail of FGF-23 and renal transplantation, have been employed to manipulate FGF-23.

  12. Persistent fibroblast growth factor 23 signalling in the parathyroid glands for secondary hyperparathyroidism in mice with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kazuki; Takeshita, Ai; Furushima, Kenryo; Miyajima, Masayasu; Hatamura, Ikuji; Kuro-o, Makoto; Furuta, Yasuhide; Sakaguchi, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which parathyroid hormone (PTH) is excessively secreted in response to factors such as hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia, and low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels, is commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is accompanied by high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). However, the effect of FGF23 on the parathyroid glands (PG) remains controversial. To bind to FGF receptors, FGF23 requires αKlotho, which is highly expressed in the PG. Here, we examined the effects of Fgfr1–3, αKlotho, or Fgfr1–4 ablation specifically in the PG (conditional knockout, cKO). When mice with early to mid-stage CKD with and without cKO were compared, plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphate, FGF23, and 1,25(OH)2D did not change significantly. In contrast, plasma PTH levels, which were elevated in CKD mice, were significantly decreased in cKO mice. PG from CKD mice showed augmentation of cell proliferation, which was significantly suppressed by cKO. Parathyroid tissue cultured for 4 days showed upregulation of PTH secretion and cell proliferation in response to FGF23. Both these effects were inhibited by cKO. These findings suggest that FGF23 is a long-term inducer of parathyroid cell proliferation and PTH secretion, and is one cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. PMID:28094278

  13. Growth and Histopathological Effects of Chronic Exposition of Marine Pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis Larvae to Petroleum Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline Pereira; Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Moreira, Caue Bonucci [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Aquicultura, Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luis Andre [Laboratorio de Piscicultura Estuarina e Marinha, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos [Escola de Veterinaria, Departamento de Zootecnia, Laboratorio de Aquacultura, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)], e-mail: kmiranda2010@ufmg.br

    2012-07-15

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds, considered deleterious to aquatic biota. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) has a great commercial importance in local fisheries and a high potential for aquaculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects in 'pejerrey' larvae exposed to different concentrations of petroleum WSF. The chronic toxicity test was conducted with newly hatched larvae exposed for 21 days to sublethal concentrations of WSF (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 % of WSF), plus one control. Survival and growth were significantly lower in the highest concentration. Several histopathological changes were found in the gills (e.g., hyperplasia, aneurysms, edema, and necrosis), kidney (e.g., nuclear alterations, decrease in the hematopoietic cells), and liver (e.g., hypertrophy, karyorrhexis, and karyopyknosis). An index of branchial lesion was proposed to standardize gill lesions to different pollutants.

  14. Life-cycle chronic gamma exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana induces growth effects but no discernable effects on oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cuypers, Ann; van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Horemans, Nele

    2010-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to low-dose chronic gamma irradiation during a full life cycle (seed to seed) and several biological responses were investigated. Applied dose rates were 2336, 367 and 81 microGy h(-1). Following 24 days (inflorescence emergence), 34 days (approximately 50% of flowers open) and 54 days (silice ripening) exposure, plants were harvested and monitored for biometric parameters, capacities of enzymes involved in the antioxidative defence mechanisms (SOD, APOD, GLUR, GPOD, SPOD, CAT, ME), glutathione and ascorbate pool, lipid peroxidation products, altered gene expression of selected genes encoding for antioxidative enzymes or reactive oxygen species production, and DNA integrity. Root fresh weight was significantly reduced after gamma exposure compared to the control at all stages monitored but no significant differences in root weight for the different dose rates applied was observed. Leaf and stem fresh weight were significantly reduced at the highest irradiation level after 54 days exposure only. Also total plant fresh was significantly lower at silice riping and this for the highest and medium dose rate applied. The dose rate estimated to result in a 10% reduction in growth (EDR-10) ranged between 60 and 80 microGy h(-1). Germination of seeds from the gamma irradiated plants was not hampered. For several of the antioxidative defence enzymes studied, the enzyme capacity was generally stimulated towards flowering but generally no significant effect of dose rate on enzyme capacity was observed. Gene analysis revealed a significant transient and dose dependent change in expression of RBOHC indicating active reactive oxygen production induced by gamma irradiation. No effect of irradiation was observed on concentration or reduction state of the non-enzymatic antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione. The level of lipid peroxidation products remained constant throughout the observation period and was not affected by dose rate. The comet assay

  15. Local immunotherapy via delivery of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β antagonist for treatment of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Christopher B; Rai, Reena; Faubel, Sarah; Burdick, Jason A; Soranno, Danielle E

    2015-05-28

    Obstructive nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in children. The tissue injury resulting from initial dilation precipitates a deleterious cascade of macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, and fibrosis to produce a resultant dysfunctional tissue. We propose to abate this tissue remodeling process through immunotherapy administered via the local and sustained delivery of interleukin-10 (IL-10; anti-inflammatory) and anti-transforming growth factor β (anti-TGFβ; anti-fibrotic). Shear-thinning, injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels were formed through supramolecular guest-host interactions and used to contain IL-10, anti-TGFβ, or both molecules together. Degradation assays demonstrated that diffusive molecule release was associated with concurrent hydrogel erosion and was sustained for up to 3weeks in vitro. Erosion was likewise monitored in vivo by non-invasive optical imaging, where gel localization to the affected tissue was observed with near complete clearance by day 18. Hydrogels were applied to a murine model of chronic kidney disease, with subcapsular hydrogel injections acting as a delivery depot. Quantitative histological analysis (days 7, 21, and 35) was used to evaluate treatment efficacy. Notably, results demonstrated reduced macrophage infiltration beyond day 7 in treatment groups and reduced apoptosis at day 21, relative to untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction disease model. Fibrosis was reduced at the 35day timepoint in groups treated with IL-10 or anti-TGFβ alone, but not with the combination therapy. Rather, dual delivery of IL-10 and anti-TGFβ resulted in a paradoxical hastening of fibrosis, warranting further investigation. Localized immunotherapy is a novel approach to treat kidney disease and shows promise as a translatable therapy.

  16. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Development of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Cong; Zhao, Gang; Feng, Yan; Yuan, Hongyan; Song, Hongmei; Bie, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is an inflammatory and angiogenic disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has an important effect on the pathological progression of CSDH. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and VEGF also play a significant role in pathological angiogenesis. Our research was to investigate the level of MMPs and VEGF in serum and hematoma fluid. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) shows the characteristics of different stages of CSDH. We also analyzed the relationship between the level of VEGF in subdural hematoma fluid and the appearances of the patients' MRI. We performed a study comparing serum and hematoma fluid in 37 consecutive patients with primary CSDHs using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was assayed by the gelatin zymography method. The patients were divided into five groups according to the appearance of the hematomas on MRI: group 1 (T1-weighted low, T2-weighted low, n=4), group 2 (T1-weighted high, T2-weighted low, n=11), group 3 (T1-weighted mixed, T2-weighted mixed, n=9), group 4 (T1-weighted high, T2-weighted high, n=5), and group 5 (T1-weighted low, T2-weighted high, n=8). Neurological status was assessed by Markwalder score on admission and at follow-up. The mean age, sex, and Markwalder score were not significantly different among groups. The mean concentration of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly higher in hematoma fluid than in serum (pMMP-2 was higher in hematoma fluid (pMMP-2 and MMP-9 are significantly elevated in hematoma fluid, suggesting that the MMPs/VEGF system may be involved in the angiogenesis of CSDH. We also demonstrate a significant correlation between the concentrations of VEGF and MRI appearance. This finding supports the hypothesis that high VEGF concentration in the hematoma fluid is of major pathophysiological importance in the generation and steady increase of the hematoma volume, as well as the determination of MRI appearance.

  17. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure

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    Sung Woo Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF and deoxynivalenol (DON. Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control; MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON; A (MT + a clay additive; B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive; and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive. Average daily gain (ADG and feed intake (ADFI were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.

  18. The use of feed additives to reduce the effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on pig growth, organ health and immune status during chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Hansen, Jeff A; Kim, Yong B; De Souza, Anna L P; Middleton, Teena F; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-07-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.

  19. Elevated placenta growth factor predicts pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease under inhaled corticosteroids therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hao-Chien

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased incidence of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD under inhaled corticosteroid (ICS therapy was noticed in previous studies. We performed a prospective study to elucidate the risk factors for the development of pneumonia in this group of patients. Methods A prospective, non-randomized study with patients diagnosed as having COPD from 2007 to 2008 identified in the Far Eastern Memorial Hospital were recruited. We recorded data for all patients, including clinical features and signs, demographic data, lung function status, and medications. Bio-markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP and placenta growth factor (PlGF were checked at first diagnosis. Every acute exacerbation was also recorded, especially pneumonia events, which were confirmed by chest radiography. Multivariate analysis was performed with stepwise logistic regression for pneumonia risk factors. Results 274 patients were diagnosed as having COPD during the study period and 29 patients suffered from pneumonia with a prevalence of 10.6%. The rate was significantly higher in patients with ICS therapy (20/125, 16% compared with those without ICS (9/149, 6% (p = 0.02. We stratified ICS therapy into medium dose (500-999 ug/day fluticasone equivalent, 71 patients and high dose (1000 ug/day and higher fluticasone equivalent, 54 patients group. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of pneumonia between these two group (medium dose: 13/71, 18.3% vs. high dose: 7/54, 12.9%, p = 0.47. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for developing pneumonia and included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 less than 40% of predicted (odds ratio (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-6.9, ICS prescription ((OR 2.4, 95% (CI: 1.3-8.7, the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-9.4 and PlGF level over 40 pg/L (OR 4.1, 95% CI: 1.5-9.9. Conclusion ICS therapy in patients with COPD

  20. Transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guang SU; Fu-qiang WEN; Yu-lin FENG; Min XIAO; Xiao-ling WU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the frequencies of polymorphism and haplotype in the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) gene promoter in the Chinese population and to investigate the susceptibility of this population to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: The target fragments of the TGF-β1 gene promoter were amplified and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in 84 COPD patients and 97 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was performed using HWE program of the LINKUTIL package and statistical analysis was carried out with the SPSS statistical package. An expectation maximization algorithm was used for the pairwise linkage disequilibrium test and haplotype analysis. Results: More carriers of the -800A allele, or fewer carriers of the-509T allele, were detected in the COPD patients compared with the non-symptomatic control subjects [for the -800A allele, 29.8% vs 14.4%, respectively, χ2=6.257,degrees of freedom (df)=1, P=0.012; for the -509T allele, 27.3% vs 44.3%, respectively, χ2=5.582, df=1, P=0.018]. The prevalence of the -800A allele was significantly higher in the COPD patients than in control subjects (P=0.009), whereas the frequency of the -509T allele was significantly higher in control subjects than in the COPD patients (P=0.008). In addition, this distribution tendency for the -800Aor -509T allele was similar in heavy smokers (smoking history >20 pack years);(number ofpacks of cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of years of smoking)χ2=7.235, P=0.007, and χ2=5.636, P=0.018, respectively). The linkage disequilibrium was found between -800 G→A and -509 C→T (D>0.60, P<0.0001), and the frequency of the AC haplotype, consisting of the least common base at -800 and the most common base at -509, was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in controls (0.056 vs 0.021, P<0.05). Conclusions: The single nucleotide polymorphism

  1. The influence of genotype on vascular endothelial growth factor and regulation of myocardial collateral blood flow in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.; Baldazzi, F.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from...... patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype......-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis...

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor and chronic hepatitis C Factor de crecimiento hepatocitario y hepatitis crónica C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marín-Serrano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by hepatic stellate cells and implicated in liver regeneration and fibrosis. Serum levels of HGF vary in liver diseases, reflecting hepatic damage and hepatocellular dysfunction. In this study, serum levels of HGF and the relationship between HGF and biochemical, histological and virological data, have been analysed in patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Patients and methods: serum HGF concentration was measured by ELISA in sandwich in 45 patients with CHC. Correlation between HGF levels and histological (necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis score and biochemical (transaminases, prothrombin activity, albumin, bilirubin, or virological (hepatitis C virus load parameters was analyzed. Serum HGF concentration was also studied in a subgroup of the original sample treated with interferon and ribavirin. Results: serum HGF concentrations of patients with CHC were significantly higher than those detected in healthy controls. Patients with significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2 had a significantly older age, lower count of platelets and higher values of AST, GGT and HGF, than those patients with a fibrosis score F Objetivo: el factor de crecimiento hepatocitario (HGF es una citocina pleiotrópica producida por las células estrelladas hepáticas, que está implicada en la regeneración y la fibrosis hepática. La concentración sérica del HGF en las enfermedades hepáticas es variable, reflejando daño hepático y disfunción hepatocelular. En este estudio se ha analizado la concentración sérica del HGF en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis C (VHC y su relación con los datos bioquímicos, histológicos y virológicos. Pacientes y métodos: se determinó la concentración sérica de HGF mediante ELISA en sándwich y se analizó la correlación entre los niveles del HGF y los datos histológicos (actividad necroinflamatoria, estadio de

  3. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development assay: Effects of chronic 4-tert-octylphenol or 17ß-trenbolone exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a Tier II test guideline being developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. The LAGDA was designed to evaluate effects of chronic chemical exposure on growth, thy...

  4. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay

    2015-01-01

    chronic kidney disease cohort. Methods: Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), sclerostin and C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF23) normalized for age and sex were analyzed in 556 children aged 6-18 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-60 ml...

  5. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... alcohol abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute ... chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be a factor in some cases. ...

  6. Wogonoside induces growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest via promoting the expression and binding activity of GATA-1 in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hui, Hui; Xu, Jingyan; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2016-06-01

    GATA-1, a zinc finger transcription factor, has been demonstrated to play a key role in the progression of leukemia. In this study, we investigate the effects of wogonoside, a naturally bioactive flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, on cell growth and cell cycle in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells, and uncover its underlying mechanisms. The experimental design comprised CML cell lines K562, imatinib-resistant K562 (K562r) cells, and primary CML cells, treated in vitro or in vivo, respectively, with wogonoside; growth and cell cycle were then evaluated. We found that wogonoside could induce growth inhibition and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in both normal and K562r cells. Wogonoside promotes the expression of GATA-1 and facilitates the binding to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and p21 promoter, thus inhibiting MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and cell cycle checkpoint proteins, including CDK2, CDK4, cyclin A, and cyclin D1, and increasing p21 expression. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that administration of wogonoside decreased CML cells and prolonged survival in NOD/SCID mice with CML cell xenografts. In conclusion, these results clearly revealed the inhibitory effect of wogonoside on the growth in CML cells and suggested that wogonoside may act as a promising drug for the treatment of imatinib-resistant CML.

  7. Expression of ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor-1 in immature piglet model of chronic cyanotic congenital heart defects with decreased pulmonary blood flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; LIU Ying-long; L(U) Xiao-dong; ZHU Yao-bin; LING Feng; LIU Ai-jun; LI Gang; XU Yu-lin

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyanotic patients have potential growth retardation and malnutrition due to hypoxemia and other reasons.Ghrelin is a novel endogenous growth hormone secretagogue that has effects on growth and cardiovascular activities.The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma level and myocardial expression of ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) using an immature piglet model of chronic cyanotic congenital heart defects with decreased pulmonary blood flow. Methods Twelve weanling Chinese piglets underwent procedures of main pulmonary artery-left atrium shunt with pulmonary artery banding or sham operation as control. Four weeks later, hemodynamic parameters were measured.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plasma ghrelin and IGF-1 level measurement were performed. Ventricular ghrelin and IGF-1 mRNA expressions were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Four weeks after surgical procedure, the cyanotic model produced lower arterial oxygen tension ((68.73 ±15.09) mmHg), arterial oxygen saturation ((82.35 ± 8.63)%), and higher arterial carbon dioxide tension ((51.83 ± 6.12)mmHg), hematocrit ((42.67 ± 3.83)%) and hemoglobin concentration ((138.17 ± 16.73) g/L) than the control piglets ((194.08 ± 98.79) mmHg, (96.43 ± 7.91)%, (36.9 ± 4.73) mmHg, (31.17 ± 3.71)%, (109.83 ± 13.75) g/L) (all P <0.05).Plasma ghrelin level was significantly higher in the cyanotic model group in comparison to the control (P=0.004), and the plasma IGF-1 level was significantly lower than control (P=0.030). Compared with control animals, the expression of ghrelin mRNAs in the ventricular myocardium was significantly decreased in the cyanotic model group (P=0.000), and the expression of IGF-1 mRNAs was elevated (P=0.001). Conclusions Chronic cyanotic congenital heart defects model was successfully established. Plasma ghrelin level and myocardial IGF-1 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated, while plasma IGF-1 level and

  8. Chronic treatment with long-acting bromocriptine does not affect duration of the breeding season, voluntary food intake, body weight, or wool growth in the Scottish blackface ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlewis, J D; Sibbald, A M; Milne, J A; McNeilly, A S

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether suppression of the seasonal increase in prolactin concentrations by chronic treatment with the dopamine agonist bromocriptine would affect onset of anoestrus, voluntary food intake, body weight, and wool growth in a seasonal breed of sheep. Groups of eight Scottish Blackface ewes were injected i.m. each week with either the vehicle (Group A) or 2.0 mg (Group B), 6.0 mg (Group C), or 18.0 mg (Group D) of bromocriptine in a long-acting formulation, commencing on 18 January and terminating on 25 July (midwinter to midsummer in the northern hemisphere). Immediately before the bromocriptine injection, blood samples were taken for progesterone and prolactin determination. Voluntary food intakes were measured daily, and body weights were recorded every fortnight. Estimates of wool growth were made by weighing wool clipped from a measured area of skin once a month. Treatment had no effect on onset of anoestrus, voluntary food intake, body weight, or wool growth. Plasma prolactin concentrations increased significantly in all groups during the treatment period. From January to April, all doses of bromocriptine significantly reduced prolactin concentrations but later in the study (May and June) prolactin was significantly suppressed in Group D only, although even in this group prolactin concentrations increased between March and June. Pituitary prolactin content, measured at the end of the study in July, was also suppressed by bromocriptine. The gradual increase in prolactin concentrations in ewes receiving chronic bromocriptine was further investigated by treating a fifth group of ewes (Group E) with 18.0 mg of long-acting bromocriptine each week, commencing on 20 June.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. 'The letting go, the building up, [and] the gradual process of rebuilding': identity change and post-traumatic growth in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroll, Megan A; Howard, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the phenomenon of identity change and subsequent post-traumatic growth (PTG) in individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Ten participants (average illness duration 7.4 years) were interviewed (average length, 79 minutes) via a semi-structured interview schedule and verbatim transcriptions were analysed with interpretative phenomenological analysis. The four superordinate themes revealed were 'comparisons of past to present self: "you have to be someone else, and you have to live with that''', 'the effect of social isolation on identity and subsequent insights into others' behaviours', 'contemplation of future and identity: ''where do I go from here?"', and 'PTG: "the letting go, the building up, [and] the gradual process of rebuilding"'. These themes outlined the experiences of those with ME/CFS as they underwent changes in identity due to the limitations the condition imposed on activities and roles, understanding others' behaviours after a period of isolation, the comparison of the past self with the present self and finally, the positive growth that was noted by two of the interviewees with regards to a new 'true' self. Despite the distressing and unpredictable nature of ME/CFS, it appears that individuals with this disorder can experience personal growth.

  10. Chronic effects of light irradiated from LED on the growth performance and endocrine properties of barfin flounder Verasper moseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Kasagi, Satoshi; Murakami, Naoto; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kikuchi, Shigeto; Mizusawa, Kanta; Andoh, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of specific wavelengths of light on the growth of barfin flounder. The fish, reared in white tanks in a dark room, were irradiated with light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak wavelengths of 464nm (blue), 518nm (green), and 635nm (red) under a controlled photoperiod (10.5:13.5, light-dark cycle; 06:00-16:30, light). Fish were reared for four weeks in three independent experiments at three different water temperatures (averages of 14.9°C, 8.6°C, and 6.6°C). The fish irradiated with blue and green light had higher specific growth rates (% body weight⋅day(-1)) than fish irradiated with red light. Notably, green light had the greatest effect on growth among the three light wavelengths at 6.6°C. In the brains of fish reared at 6.6°C, the amounts of melanin-concentrating hormone 1 mRNA under green light were lower than those under red light, and amounts of proopiomelanocortin-C mRNA under blue and green light were higher than those under red light. No differences were observed for other neuropeptides tested. In the pituitary, no difference was observed in growth hormone mRNA content. In plasma, higher levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I were observed in fish under green light than those of fish under red light. These results suggest that the endocrine systems of barfin flounder are modulated by a specific wavelength of light that stimulates somatic growth.

  11. Plant Protein Intake Is Associated with Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Serum Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J.; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J.; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Porter, Anna C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Study Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2938 participants with chronic kidney disease and information on dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Predictors Percentage of total protein from plant sources (% plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Outcomes Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin. Measurements We modeled the association between % plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes, body mass index, eGFR, income, smoking, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24 hour urinary sodium, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and use of diuretics. Results Higher % plant protein was associated with lower FGF23 (p=0.05) and higher HCO3 (p=0.01), but not with serum phosphate or PTH (p=0.9 and 0.5, respectively). Higher % plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (p=0.2), lower serum albumin (p=0.2) or lower hemoglobin (p=0.3). The associations of % plant protein with FGF23 and HCO3 did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5) or total protein intake (≤ 0.8 g/kg/d vs. >0.8 g/kg/d) (p-interaction > 0.10 for each). Limitations Cross-sectional study; Determination of % plant protein using the DHQ has not been validated. Conclusions Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF23 and raise HCO3 in patients with CKD. PMID:22480598

  12. The effects of chronic administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to rats on the levels of endogenous EGF in the submandibular glands and kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Jøgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mainly produced in the submandibular glands (SMG) and in the kidneys. It has recently been reported that EGF-related ligands may induce their own biosynthesis (autoinduction) in vitro. In the present paper, we investigated whether chronic systemic treatment with EGF...... influenced the amount of endogenous EGF in the SMG and kidneys. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of placebo (n = 16) or human recombinant EGF (150 micrograms/kg per day, n = 8) for 4 weeks. Urine was sampled the last 24 h of the study period. At the time of killing......, the SMG and the kidneys were removed. The SMG was larger in the EGF-treated animals, 229.8 +/- 35.5 (mean +/- SD) mg than in the control animals, 181.7 +/- 18.1 mg (P kidneys were larger in the EGF...

  13. Intradiscal and intra-articular facet infiltrations with plasma rich in growth factors reduce pain in patients with chronic low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Fernando; Anitua, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Low back pain (LBP) is a complex and disabling condition, and its treatment becomes a challenge. Aims: The aim of our study was to assess the clinical outcome of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) infiltrations (one intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection) under fluoroscopic guidance-control in patients with chronic LBP. PRGF-Endoret which has been shown to be an efficient treatment to reduce joint pain. Settings and Design: The study was designed as an observational retrospective pilot study. Eighty-six patients with a history of chronic LBP and degenerative disease of the lumbar spine who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited between December 2010 and January 2012. Subjects and Methods: One intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection of PRGF-Endoret under fluoroscopic guidance-control were carried out in 86 patients with chronic LBP in the operating theater setting. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were performed using absolute and relative frequency distributions for qualitative variables and mean values and standard deviations for quantitative variables. The nonparametric Friedman statistical test was used to determine the possible differences between baseline and different follow-up time points on pain reduction after treatment. Results: Pain assessment was determined using a visual analog scale (VAS) at the first visit before (baseline) and after the procedure at 1, 3, and 6 months. The pain reduction after the PRGF-Endoret injections showed a statistically significant drop from 8.4 ± 1.1 before the treatment to 4 ± 2.6, 1.7 ± 2.3, and 0.8 ± 1.7 at 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment, respectively, with respect to all the time evaluations (P < 0.0001) except for the pain reduction between the 3rd and 6th month whose signification was lower (P < 0.05). The analysis of the VAS over time showed that at the end point of the

  14. Perinatal Programming of Childhood Asthma: Early Fetal Size, Growth Trajectory during Infancy, and Childhood Asthma Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “fetal origins hypothesis” or concept of “developmental programming” suggests that faltering fetal growth and subsequent catch-up growth are implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Associations between reduced birth weight, rapid postnatal weight gain, and asthma suggest that there are fetal origins to respiratory disease. The present paper first summarises the literature relating birth weight and post natal growth trajectories to asthma outcomes. Second, issues regarding the interpretation of antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements are discussed. Finally, recent reports linking antenatal measurement and growth trajectory to early childhood asthma outcomes are discussed. Understanding the nature and timing of factors which influence antenatal growth may give important insight into the antecedents of early-onset asthma with implications for interventions.

  15. Myxomavirus anti-inflammatory chemokine binding protein reduces the increased plaque growth induced by chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis oral infection after balloon angioplasty aortic injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R Lucas

    Full Text Available Thrombotic occlusion of inflammatory plaque in coronary arteries causes myocardial infarction. Treatment with emergent balloon angioplasty (BA and stent implant improves survival, but restenosis (regrowth can occur. Periodontal bacteremia is closely associated with inflammation and native arterial atherosclerosis, with potential to increase restenosis. Two virus-derived anti-inflammatory proteins, M-T7 and Serp-1, reduce inflammation and plaque growth after BA and transplant in animal models through separate pathways. M-T7 is a broad spectrum C, CC and CXC chemokine-binding protein. Serp-1 is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin inhibiting thrombotic and thrombolytic pathways. Serp-1 also reduces arterial inflammation and improves survival in a mouse herpes virus (MHV68 model of lethal vasculitis. In addition, Serp-1 demonstrated safety and efficacy in patients with unstable coronary disease and stent implant, reducing markers of myocardial damage. We investigate here the effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, on restenosis after BA and the effects of blocking chemokine and protease pathways with M-T7 and Serp-1. ApoE-/- mice had aortic BA and oral P. gingivalis infection. Arterial plaque growth was examined at 24 weeks with and without anti-inflammatory protein treatment. Dental plaques from mice infected with P. gingivalis tested positive for infection. Neither Serp-1 nor M-T7 treatment reduced infection, but IgG antibody levels in mice treated with Serp-1 and M-T7 were reduced. P. gingivalis significantly increased monocyte invasion and arterial plaque growth after BA (P<0.025. Monocyte invasion and plaque growth were blocked by M-T7 treatment (P<0.023, whereas Serp-1 produced only a trend toward reductions. Both proteins modified expression of TLR4 and MyD88. In conclusion, aortic plaque growth in ApoE-/- mice increased after angioplasty in mice with chronic oral P. gingivalis infection. Blockade of chemokines, but not

  16. Experiences in home-based growth monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suelan, F; Briones, H

    1992-01-01

    A growth monitoring project (GMP) of child weighing was implemented by the Philippines' Department of Health (DOH) through the Integrated Provincial Health Office to monitor either children's nutritional progress or their faltering of growth. Weaknesses, however, were found in the GMP. For example, only 31% of preschoolers included in the Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP) survey had growth charts. An 1990 UNICEF-DOH survey also found that the growth chart was used primarily by mothers and service providers to record infant immunization. Mothers brought their children to well-baby clinics in barangay health centers only when their children were sick. Conducted only once per year, weighing was not perceived as a tool in detecting and preventing sickness, and ensuring normal growth. Asked to help improve the GMP, the NCP consulted intended beneficiaries and cooperators to develop a plan to pilot an intensive monitoring project in four towns of Negros Occidental, starting in January 1991 and ending in December 1992. The resultant Home-Based Growth Monitoring (HBGM) project would place emphasis upon enabling rural mothers to become self-sustaining agents for child growth monitoring. A key feature was the establishment of a weighing post in a strategic place for every 2-3 family clusters. The HBGM project was piloted in 1991 in Calatrava, Toboso, Cauayan, and Sipalay. This paper describes project implementation, problems and solutions, and results.

  17. Safranal, a Crocus sativus L constituent suppresses the growth of K-562 cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia. In silico and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geromichalos, George D; Papadopoulos, Theophanis; Sahpazidou, Despina; Sinakos, Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Crocin, a main constituent of Crocus sativus L (saffron), has been found to inhibit the growth of K-562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells expressing Bcr-Abl protein tyrosine kinase activity. The aim of our study is to investigate the ability of the bioactive saffron's constituents, crocin (CRC) and safranal (SFR), to inhibit the Bcr-Abl protein activity employing an in silico approach, as well as the in vitro effect of these compounds on K-562 growth and gene expression of Bcr-Abl. In silico molecular docking studies revealed that mostly SFR can be attached to Bcr-Abl protein, positioned inside the protein's binding cavity at the same place with the drug used in the treatment of CML, imatinib mesylate (IM). The predicted polar interactions and hydrophobic contacts constructing a hydrophobic cavity inside the active site, explain the observed inhibitory activity. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that SFR and CRC mediate cytotoxic response to K562 cells. In vitro studies on the expression of Bcr-Abl gene revealed that SFR and in a lesser degree IM inhibited the expression of the gene, while in contrast CRC induced an increase. The ultimate goal was to evaluate the existence of a potential antitumor activity of saffron's constituents SFR and CRC.

  18. Growth factor-induced mobilization of cardiac progenitor cells reduces the risk of arrhythmias, in a rat model of chronic myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bocchi

    Full Text Available Heart repair by stem cell treatment may involve life-threatening arrhythmias. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs appear best suited for reconstituting lost myocardium without posing arrhythmic risks, being commissioned towards cardiac phenotype. In this study we tested the hypothesis that mobilization of CPCs through locally delivered Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 to heal chronic myocardial infarction (MI, lowers the proneness to arrhythmias. We used 133 adult male Wistar rats either with one-month old MI and treated with growth factors (GFs, n = 60 or vehicle (V, n = 55, or sham operated (n = 18. In selected groups of animals, prior to and two weeks after GF/V delivery, we evaluated stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias by telemetry-ECG, cardiac mechanics by echocardiography, and ventricular excitability, conduction velocity and refractoriness by epicardial multiple-lead recording. Invasive hemodynamic measurements were performed before sacrifice and eventually the hearts were subjected to anatomical, morphometric, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology analyses. When compared with untreated MI, GFs decreased stress-induced arrhythmias and concurrently prolonged the effective refractory period (ERP without affecting neither the duration of ventricular repolarization, as suggested by measurements of QTc interval and mRNA levels for K-channel α-subunits Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, nor the dispersion of refractoriness. Further, markers of cardiomyocyte reactive hypertrophy, including mRNA levels for K-channel α-subunit Kv1.4 and β-subunit KChIP2, interstitial fibrosis and negative structural remodeling were significantly reduced in peri-infarcted/remote ventricular myocardium. Finally, analyses of BrdU incorporation and distribution of connexin43 and N-cadherin indicated that cytokines generated new vessels and electromechanically-connected myocytes and abolished the correlation of infarct size with deterioration

  19. Optimizing the current therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus: peginterferon and ribavirin dosing and the utility of growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L

    2008-08-01

    Achieving a sustained virologic response depends on the patient achieving three sequential independent milestones: virologic response, maintaining this response throughout treatment, and not relapsing after treatment has been completed. The ability to achieve these milestones depends on the doses of interferon/peginterferon and ribavirin used and on whether treatment with these medications is adjusted, interrupted, or prematurely discontinued in response to adverse events. This review discusses strategies to optimize peginterferon and ribavirin dosing and the impact that growth factors may have on the ability to achieve a sustained virologic response.

  20. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisot, Florian [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul [UMR 5805 EPOC – OASU, Station marine d’Arcachon, Université Bordeaux 1, Arcachon 33120 (France); Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Alonzo, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We exposed three successive generations of Daphnia magna to chronic gamma radiation. • We examined DNA alterations and effects on survival, growth and reproduction. • DNA alterations were accumulated over a generation and transmitted to the progeny. • Effects on survival and reproduction, and delay in growth increased over generations. - Abstract: This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h{sup −1}). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h{sup −1} in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h{sup −1} at hatching to 0.007 mGy h{sup −1} after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h{sup −1} at hatching to 0.007 mGy h{sup −1} after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} and DNA alterations significant at highest

  1. Effect of acute and chronic arsenic exposure on growth, structure and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ramansu; Ghosh, Debabrata; Saha, Dhira Rani; Padhy, Pratap Kumar; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-02-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila being a ubiquitous bacterium is prone to arsenic exposure. The present study was designed to determine the role of arsenic on growth and virulence of A. hydrophila. Exposure to arsenic (1 mg L(-1) and 2 mg L(-1)) had no effect on growth but significantly inhibited the hemolytic and cytotoxic potential of exposed bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of membrane integrity and presence of condensed cytoplasm suggestive of acute stress in bacteria exposed to arsenic. Arsenic-adapted bacteria were developed by repeated sub-culturing in presence of arsenic. Arsenic-adaptation led to significant recovery in hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. The arsenic-adapted bacteria exhibited normal membrane integrity, decreased cytoplasmic condensation and possessed scattered polysome like structures in the cytoplasm. A positive correlation was observed between arsenic tolerance and resistance to several antimicrobials. Arsenic-adaptation failed to confer cross-protection to mercury and cadmium stress. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the expression of two new proteins of approximately 85 kDa and 79 kDa respectively in arsenic-adapted A. hydrophila. Plasmid-curing and transformation studies clearly indicate plasmid has no role on arsenic resistance trait of the bacteria. Our study, for the first time, reports a structure and function relationship of xenobiotics on bacteria.

  2. Chronic effects of 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl on reproduction, mortality, growth, and respiration of daphnia pulicaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have shown toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on aquatic life only in the micro g/L range, well above normal ambient concentrations. Daphnia pulicaria was isolated from Lake Erie and exposed to 50 ng/L to 10 micro g/L of 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl (DCB) in lifetable and physiological studies. Reproduction, mortality, growth, and respiration were measured for periods up to the entire lifespan of the animal with and without the use of an organic surfactant. Significant mortality and inhibition of reproduction were found at levels as low as 50-100 ng/L in lifetable studies, and no safe level could be determined. A unique, yet repeatable, dose-response curve occurred in lifetables with maximum inhibition at low to intermediate concentrations. Inhibition at the highest level tested, 10 micro g/L, occurred only after continuous exposure for three generations. Increasing concentrations of CBD stimulated growth, while respiration experiments yielded variable results.

  3. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK.

  4. Effects of chronic heat exposure and protein intake on growth performance, nitrogen retention and muscle development in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, S; Chagneau, A M; Guillaumin, S; Michel, J; Peresson, R; Geraert, P A; Tesseraud, S

    1999-01-01

    The respective effects of ambient temperature, dietary crude protein and feed intake were investigated in finishing chickens and the consequence of protein supplementation under high temperature conditions was analysed in particular. Heat-related reduction in growth was associated with decreased nitrogen retention (-30 or -35% according to the diet), which could not be explained by the observed lower feed intake alone. Tissue samples performed in 5- to 6-week-old chicks showed varying effects of heat according to the muscles studied: at 32 degrees C, the proportion of Pectoralis major muscle (in percentage of body weight) appeared slightly reduced (reduction lower than 10%), whereas the proportion of two leg muscles were increased (+10 to +15% for the Sartorius muscle; +5% for the gastrocnemius muscle). At 32 degrees C, providing a high protein diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased weight gain and feed efficiency, and slightly improved whole body protein deposition.

  5. Chronic systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in the rat increases the mucosal surface of the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, Peter;

    1995-01-01

    . The histological composition and mucosal surface area of the perfusion-fixed small intestine was quantified with stereological principles. The length of the gut remained unchanged. The amount of tissue and surface area per length of gut (median (ranges)) were increased from 117 (101-131) mg/cm and 2.6 (2.1-3.5) cm......We examined the effects of treatment with human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the functioning small intestine in the rat. Male Wistar rats, 7-8 weeks old, were treated with EGF administered subcutaneously in doses of 0 (n = 7) or 150 micrograms/kg/day (n = 8) for 4 weeks......2/cm in the controls to 146 (138-152) mg/cm and 3.5 (2.5-3.8) cm2/cm for the complete small intestine (both comparisons P intestine, whereas the surface area was only increased in proximal and middle parts. It is concluded...

  6. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, trans-forming growth factor-β1, nerve growth factor, resistin and hyaluronic acid as serum markers:comparison between recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Ganesh Kamath; C Ganesh Pai; Asha Kamath; Annamma Kurien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic parameters that can predict the presence of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in patients with recur-rent pain due to pancreatitis would help to direct appropri-ate therapy. This study aimed to compare the serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nerve growth factor (NGF), resis-tin and hyaluronic acid (HA) in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and CP to assess their ability to differenti-ate the two conditions. METHODS: Levels of serum markers assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were prospectively com-pared in consecutive patients with RAP, CP and in controls, and stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to identify the markers differentiating RAP from CP. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients (RAP=32, CP=81) and 78 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 32.0 (14.0) years; 89 (78.8%) were male. All markers were signiifcantly higher in CP patients than in the controls (P CONCLUSION: Serum resistin is a promising marker to dif-ferentiate between RAP and CP and needs validation in future studies, especially in those with early CP.

  7. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption, withdrawal and nerve growth factor on neuropeptide Y expression and cholinergic innervation of the rat dentate hilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A; Rocha, João P; Cardoso, Armando; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Madeira, M Dulce

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation (HF) to chronic alcohol consumption and withdrawal. Among the brain systems that appear to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of these conditions are the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ergic and the cholinergic systems. Because these two systems seem to closely interact in the HF, we sought to study the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (6months) and subsequent withdrawal (2months) on the expression of NPY and on the cholinergic innervation of the rat dentate hilus. As such, we have estimated the areal density and the somatic volume of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, and the density of the cholinergic varicosities. In addition, because alcohol consumption and withdrawal are associated with impaired nerve growth factor (NGF) trophic support and the administration of exogenous NGF alters the effects of those conditions on various cholinergic markers, we have also estimated the same morphological parameters in withdrawn rats infused intracerebroventricularly with NGF. NPY expression increased after withdrawal and returned to control values after NGF treatment. Conversely, the somatic volume of these neurons did not differ among all groups. On other hand, the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was reduced by 24% in ethanol-treated rats and by 46% in withdrawn rats. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats increased the VAChT expression to values above control levels. These results show that the effects of prolonged alcohol intake and protracted withdrawal on the hilar NPY expression differ from those induced by shorter exposures to ethanol and by abrupt withdrawal. They also suggest that the normalizing effect of NGF on NPY expression might rely on the NGF-induced improvement of cholinergic neurotransmission in the dentate hilus.

  8. Combined human growth hormone and lactulose for prevention and treatment of multiple organ dysfunction in patients with severe chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Guo Ding; Jing Shan; Bin Zhang; Hong-Bo Ma; Li Zhou; Rui Jin; Yu-Fen Tan; Li-Xiang He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of combined recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and lactulose for treatment and/or prevention of multiple organ dysfunction in patients with chronic severe hepatitis B. METHODS: Forty-eight inpatients with chronic severe hepatitis B were randomly divided into rhGH group (n = 28)and control group (n = 20). In rhGH group, 4-4.5 IU of rhGH was injected intramuscularly once daily for 2-4 wk,and 100 mL of enema containing 30 mL of lactulose, 2 g of metronidazole and 0.9% saline was administered every 2 d for 2-4 wk. Their symptoms and complications were noted. Liver and kidney functions were analyzed by an Olympus analyzer. Serum GH, IGF-1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 were measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Clinical symptoms of 90% of these patients in rhGH group were obviously improved. The total effectiveness in rhGH group was better than that in control group (75% vs40%, P<0.05). After 2- and 4-wk treatment of rhGH respectively, serum albumin (26.1±4.1 vs 30.2±5.3,31.9±5.1 g/L), prealbumin (79.6±28.0 vs 106.6±54.4,108.4±55.0 g/L), cholesterol (76.3±16.7 vs 85.6±32.3,96.1±38.7 mg/dL), and IGFBP1 (56.8±47.2 vs 89.7±50.3ng/mL after 2 wk) were significantly increased compared to control group (P<0.05). However, serum GH was decreased. The increase of serum IGF1 and IGFBP3 after rhGH treatment was also observed.CONCLUSION: rhGH in combination with lactulose may be beneficial to the prevention and treatment of multiple organ dysfunction in patients with chronic severe hepatitis.

  9. The importance of growth factors for the treatment of chronic wounds in the case of diabetic foot ulcers

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    Ehm, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcers as a result of diabetes mellitus are a serious problem with an enormous impact on the overall global disease burden due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes. Because of long hospital stays, rehabilitation, often required home care and the use of social services diabetic foot complications are costly. Therapy with growth factors could be an effective and innovative add-on to standard wound care. Research questions: What is the benefit of therapies with growth factors alone or in combination with other technologies in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer assessed regarding medical, economical, social, ethical and juridical aspects? Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases limited to English and German language and publications since 1990. Cost values were adjusted to the price level of 2008 and converted into Euro. A review and an assessment of the quality of publications were conducted following approved methodical standards conforming to evidence-based medicine and health economics. Results: We identified 25 studies (14 randomized controlled trials (RCT, nine cost-effectiveness analyses, two meta-analyses. The RCT compared an add-on therapy to standard wound care with standard wound care/placebo alone or extracellular wound matrix: in six studies becaplermin, in two rhEGF, in one bFGF, and in five studies the metabolically active skin grafts Dermagraft and Apligraf. The study duration ranged from twelve to 20 weeks and the study population included between 17 to 382 patients, average 130 patients. The treatment with becaplermin, rhEGF and skin implants Dermagraft and Apligraf showed in eight out of 13 studies an advantage concerning complete wound closure and the time to complete wound healing. Evidence for a benefit of treatment with bFGF could not be found. In four out of 14 studies the proportion of adverse events was 30% per study group with no difference between the treatment groups. The methodological

  10. Chronic Over-expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Increases Bile Acid Biosynthesis by Opposing FGF15/19 Action

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    Jun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological doses of fibroblast growth factor (FGF 21 effectively normalize glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis in multiple animal models with many benefits translating to obese humans with type 2 diabetes. However, a role for FGF21 in the regulation of bile acid metabolism has not been reported. Herein, we demonstrate AAV-mediated FGF21 overexpression in mice increases liver expression of the key bile acid producing enzyme, Cyp7a1, resulting in an increased bile acid pool. Furthermore, in cholecystectomized mice, FGF21-mediated bile acid pool increase led to increased transit of bile acids into colon. We elucidate that the mechanism of FGF21 induced bile acid changes is mainly through antagonizing FGF15/19 function on liver βKlotho/FGFR4 receptor complex; thus inhibiting FGF15/19-mediated suppression of Cyp7a1 expression. In conclusion, these data reveal a previously unidentified role for FGF21 on bile acid metabolism and may be relevant to understand the effects of FGF21 analogs in clinical studies.

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia nurse-like cells express hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and display features of immunosuppressive type 2 skewed macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Paolo; Pietra, Gabriella; Travaini, Giorgia; Quarto, Rodolfo; Shyti, Genti; Benelli, Roberto; Ottaggio, Laura; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Zupo, Simona; Cutrona, Giovanna; Pierri, Ivana; Balleari, Enrico; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Calvaruso, Marco; Tripodo, Claudio; Ferrarini, Manlio; de Totero, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor, produced by stromal and follicular dendritic cells, and present at high concentrations in the sera of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, prolongs the survival of leukemic B cells by interacting with their receptor, c-MET. It is, however, unknown whether hepatocyte growth factor influences microenvironmental cells, such as nurse-like cells, which deliver survival signals to the leukemic clone. We evaluated the expression of c-MET on nurse-like cells and monocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and searched for phenotypic/functional features supposed to be influenced by the hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET interaction. c-MET is expressed at high levels on nurse-like cells and at significantly higher levels than normal on monocytes from patients. Moreover, the hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET interaction activates STAT3TYR705 phosphorylation in nurse-like cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an enzyme modulating T-cell proliferation and induced on normal monocytes after hepatocyte growth factor treatment, was detected together with interleukin-10 on nurse-like cells, and on freshly-prepared patients’ monocytes. Immunohistochemical/immunostaining analyses demonstrated the presence of c-MET+ and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase+ cells in lymph node biopsies, co-expressed with CD68 and vimentin. Furthermore nurse-like cells and chronic lymphocytic monocytes significantly inhibited T-cell proliferation, prevented by anti-transforming growth factor beta and interleukin-10 antibodies and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors, and supported CD4+CD25high+/FOXP3+ T regulatory cell expansion. We suggest that nurse-like cells display features of immunosuppressive type 2 macrophages: higher hepatocyte growth factor levels, produced by leukemic or other microenvironmental surrounding cells, may cooperate to induce M2 polarization. Hepatocyte growth factor may thus have a dual pathophysiological role: directly through enhancement of

  12. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR Β IN BLOOD SERUM AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Surkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Progressive obstruction and lung tissue remodeling comprise an important feature of the airways in COPD patients. The main processes involved in tissue remodeling in COPD are protease/antiprotease, oxidant/antioxidant imbalances, like as inflammatory and fibrotic events that contribute to development or progression of disease. TGFβ is a multifunctional growth factor that regulates synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, primarily collagen and fibronectin, thus inducing fibrosis of respiratory ways. The aim of our study was to determine levels of TGFβ in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of COPD patients. All the patients with COPD had increased levels of TGFβ in serum, as compared with subjects without COPD (p < 0.01, but there was no difference in TGFβ concentration between patients at different stages of disease. Increased phagocytic activity of blood monocytes was found in 81% of COPD patients, as compared to controls. Phagocytosis of apoptotic T­cells and bacterial infection of monocytes leads to increased secretion of TGFβ and it may cause higher levels of TGF β in peripheral blood. TGFβ concentration in BALF of patients at stage III of disease was higher than in the patients at stage II (p < 0.05. The level of TGFβ in BALF directly correlates with number of alveolar macrophages (r = 0.39; р = 0.03. These data indicate that TGFβ is involved in chemotaxis of macrophages in COPD patients’ airways. We conclude that increased secretion of TGFβ by peripheral blood monocytes may be a result of their high phagocytic activity. Hence, TGFβ mediates interactions between the two main components underlying lung tissue remodeling, i.e. fibrosis of respiratory airways, and development of emphysema in COPD.

  13. Chronic heroin and cocaine abuse is associated with decreased serum concentrations of the nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Valerio; Pomponi, Massimiliano; Conte, Gianluigi; Mathé, Aleksander A; Attilio Tonali, Pietro; Bria, Pietro

    2007-11-01

    Chronic cocaine and heroin users display a variety of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions including impaired attention, learning, memory, reaction time, cognitive flexibility, impulse control and selective processing. These findings suggest that these drugs may alter normal brain functions and possibly cause neurotoxicity. Neurotrophins are a class of proteins that serve as survival factors for CNS neurons. In particular, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in the survival and function of cholinergic neurons while brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity and in the maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons. In the present study, we measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the NGF and BDNF levels in serum of three groups of subjects: heroin-dependent patients, cocaine-dependent patients and healthy volunteers. Our goal was to identify possible change in serum neurotrophins in heroin and cocaine users. BDNF was decreased in heroin users whereas NGF was decreased in both heroin and cocaine users. These findings indicate that NGF and BDNF may play a role in the neurotoxicity and addiction induced by these drugs. In view of the neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia the data also suggest that reduced level of neurotrophins may increase the risk of developing psychosis in drug users.

  14. Preemptive analgesic effects of low-dose ketamine on growth-associated protein expression in dorsal root ganglion of chronic constriction injury model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyong Lin; Chen Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and plays an important role in the treatment of pain.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preemptive analgesic effects of different doses of ketamine on growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in dorsal root ganglion in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury, and to study the differences between high-dose and low-dose ketamineDESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical College of Shantou University. MATERIALS: Thirty-five adult male Sprague Dawley rats were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ketamine hydrochloride injection was provided by Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jiangsu. METHODS: This study was performed at the Immunological Laboratory, Medical College of Shantou University from September to December 2006. Model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury: after anesthesia, the right sciatic nerve was exposed and ligated 1-cm distal to the ischiadic tuberosity with a No. 3-0 cat gut suture. Grouping and intervention: 35 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (n = 5), chronic constriction injury (CCI) group (n = 10), low-dose ketamine group (n = 10), and high-dose ketamine group (n = 10). Rats in the normal control group did not undergo any surgery or drug intervention. Rats in the CCI group received intraperitoneal injection of saline (1 mL), and their sciatic nerves were ligated after 10 minutes. Rats in the low-dose ketamine group underwent intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (25 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve; while, rats in the high-dose ketamine group were given intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (50 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve. On the third and the seventh days after surgery, dorsal root ganglion were resected from the sciatic nerve and cut into sections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GAP-43

  15. Chronic Lead Exposure and Mixed Factors of Gender×Age×Brain Regions Interactions on Dendrite Growth, Spine Maturity and NDR Kinase.

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    Yang Du

    Full Text Available NDR1/2 kinase is essential in dendrite morphology and spine formation, which is regulated by cellular Ca2+. Lead (Pb is a potent blocker of L-type calcium channel and our recent work showed Pb exposure impairs dendritic spine outgrowth in hippocampal neurons in rats. But the sensitivity of Pb-induced spine maturity with mixed factors (gender×age×brain regions remains unknown. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effect of Pb exposure on spine maturity in rat brain with three factors (gender×age×brain regions, as well as the NDR1/2 kinase expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Pb from parturition to postnatal day 30, 60, 90, respectively. Golgi-Cox staining was used to examine spine maturity. Western blot assay was applied to measure protein expression and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was used to examine mRNA levels. The results showed chronic Pb exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and impaired spine maturity in both rat hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The impairment of dendritic length induced by Pb exposure tended to adolescence > adulthood, hippocampus > medial prefrontal cortex and female > male. Pb exposure induced significant damage in spine maturity during adolescence and early adult while little damage during adult in male rat brain and female medial prefrontal cortex. Besides, there was sustained impairment from adolescence to adulthood in female hippocampus. Interestingly, impairment of spine maturity followed by Pb exposure was correlated with NDR1/2 kinase. The reduction of NDR1/2 kinase protein expression after Pb exposure was similar to the result of spine maturity. In addition, NDR2 and their substrate Rabin3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by Pb exposure in developmental rat brain. Taken together, Pb exposure impaired dendrite growth and maturity which was subject to gender×age×brain regions effects and related to NDR1/2 signal expression.

  16. Impact of epidermal growth factor single-nucleotide polymorphism on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiya, Shohei; Fujimoto, Yukiko; Bekki, Yuki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Shirabe, Ken; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with an increased risk of hepatic tumors. The study aimed to elucidate the impact of EGF SNP and EGF receptor (EGFR) expression on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. To examine the impact of EGF SNP and EGFR on recurrent HCC, we retrospectively analyzed 141 HCC patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who underwent curative hepatectomy. The EGF *61 GG allele was present in 69 patients (48.9%), AG in 56 (39.7%) and AA in 16 (11.4%). The AA group had a significantly lower rate of intrahepatic metastasis (0% vs 16.5%, P = 0.02), lower serum EGF concentration (26.3 ± 15.9 pg/mL vs 43.4 ± 30.5 pg/mL, P = 0.02) and lower proportion of early recurrence (≤2 years; 28.6% vs 71.2%, P = 0.03) than the AG/GG group. The AA group had significantly higher recurrence-free survival than the AG/GG group (P = 0.04), but there was no significant difference in overall survival between these two groups (P = 0.97). High versus low EGFR expression analyzed by immunohistochemical staining in cancer cells was not significantly associated with overall survival (P = 0.37) or recurrence-free survival (P = 0.39). Therefore, EGF *61 AA was associated with a lower risk of recurrence after curative hepatectomy for HCC in patients with hepatitis C virus infection than other genotypes, but EGFR expression in cancer cells was not significantly associated with prognosis.

  17. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

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    Phuong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control, liver (main site for lipogenesis and muscle (main site for thermogenesis.80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room. The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10. The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured.Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR. Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05. CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05, the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty

  18. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for ...

  19. Effects of an intervention on infant growth and development: evidence for different mechanisms at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Somé, Jérôme W; Dewey, Kathryn G; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y

    2016-05-04

    Millions of children in low-income and middle-income countries falter in linear growth and neurobehavioral development early in life. This faltering may be caused by risk factors that are associated with both growth and development, such as insufficient dietary intake and infection in infancy. Alternatively, these risk factors may be indicative of an environment that constrains both linear growth and development through different mechanisms. In a cluster-randomized trial in Burkina Faso, we previously found that provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements plus malaria and diarrhoea treatment from age 9 to 18 months resulted in positive effects of ~0.3 standard deviation on length-for-age z-score (LAZ) and of ~0.3 standard deviation on motor, language and personal-social development scores at age 18 months. In this paper, we examined whether the effect of the intervention on developmental scores was mediated by the effect on LAZ, or, alternatively, whether the intervention had independent effects on growth and development. For motor, language, and personal-social z-scores, the effect of the intervention decreased from 0.32 to 0.21, from 0.33 to 0.27 and from 0.35 to 0.29, respectively, when controlling for change in LAZ from 9 to 18 months. All effects remained significant. These results indicate that the intervention had independent positive effects on linear growth and development, suggesting that these effects occurred through different mechanisms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Usability and Tolerability of the Norditropin NordiFlex® Injection Device in Children Never Previously Treated With Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Growth Hormone Disorder; Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children; Genetic Disorder; Turner Syndrome; Foetal Growth Problem; Small for Gestational Age; Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Renal Insufficiency; Delivery Systems

  1. Growth Hormone Deficiency Is Associated with Worse Cardiac Function, Physical Performance, and Outcome in Chronic Heart Failure: Insights from the T.O.S.CA. GHD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Isgaard, Jörgen; Marra, Alberto M.; Bobbio, Emanuele; Vriz, Olga; Åberg, David N.; Masarone, Daniele; De Paulis, Amato; Saldamarco, Lavinia; Vigorito, Carlo; Formisano, Pietro; Niola, Massimo; Perticone, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Saccà, Luigi; Colao, Annamaria; Cittadini, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Although mounting evidence supports the concept that growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) affects cardiovascular function, no study has systematically investigated its prevalence and role in a large cohort of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of GHD in mild-to-moderate CHF and to explore clinical and functional correlates of GHD. Methods One-hundred thirty CHF patients underwent GH provocative test with GHRH+arginine and accordingly categorized into GH-deficiency (GHD, n = 88, age = 61.6±1.1 years, 68% men) and GH-sufficiency (GHS, n = 42, age = 63.6±1.5 years, 81% men) cohorts. Both groups received comprehensive cardiovascular examination and underwent Doppler echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and biochemical and hormonal assay. Results GHD was detected in roughly 30% of CHF patients. Compared to GHD, GHS patients showed smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes (-28%, p = .008 and -24%, p = .015, respectively), lower LV end-systolic wall stress (-21%, p = .03), higher RV performance (+18% in RV area change, p = .03), lower estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (-11%, p = .04), higher peak VO2 (+20%, p = .001) and increased ventilatory efficiency (-12% in VE/VCO2 slope, p = .002). After adjusting for clinical covariates (age, gender, and tertiles of LV ejection fraction, IGF-1, peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, and NT-proBNP), logistic multivariate analysis showed that peak VO2 (β = -1.92, SE = 1.67, p = .03), VE/VCO2 slope (β = 2.23, SE = 1.20, p = .02) and NT-proBNP (β = 2.48, SE = 1.02, p = .016), were significantly associated with GHD status. Finally, compared to GHS, GHD cohort showed higher all-cause mortality at median follow-up of 3.5 years (40% vs. 25%, p < .001, respectively), independent of age, sex, NT-proBNP, peak VO2 and LVEF. Conclusions GH deficiency identifies a subgroup of CHF patients characterized by impaired functional capacity, LV remodeling and elevated

  2. Chronic activation of the epithelial immune system of the fruit fly's salivary glands has a negative effect on organismal growth and induces a peculiar set of target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsadik Ahmed

    2010-04-01

    response is highly tissue-specific. Our analysis indicates that chronic activation of the salivary gland's immune system is costly, as it induces severe reduction in growth throughout development. The IMD-regulated increase in expression levels of the fly's presenilin representatives opens the opportunity to use the salivary glands for studying the physiological and pathophysiological role of these genes in a simple but functional environment.

  3. Different expression of mu-opiate receptor in chronic and acute wounds and the effect of beta-endorphin on transforming growth factor beta type II receptor and cytokeratin 16 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliardi, P L; Sumanovski, L T; Büchner, S; Rufli, T; Bigliardi-Qi, M

    2003-01-01

    There is evidence that neuropeptides, especially the opiate receptor agonists, are involved in wound healing. We have previously observed that beta-endorphin, the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, stimulates the expression of cytokeratin 16 in a dose-dependent manner in human skin organ cultures. Cytokeratin 16 is expressed in hyperproliferative epidermis such as psoriasis and wound healing. Therefore we were interested to study whether epidermal mu-opiate receptor expression is changed at the wound margins in acute and chronic wounds. Using classical and confocal microscopy, we were able to compare the expression level of mu-opiate receptors and the influence of beta-endorphin on transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in organ culture. Our results show indeed a significantly decreased expression of mu-opiate receptors on keratinocytes close to the wound margin of chronic wounds compared to acute wounds. Additionally beta-endorphin upregulates the expression of transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human skin organ cultures. These results suggest a crucial role of opioid peptides not only in pain control but also in wound healing. Opioid peptides have already been used in animal models in treatment of wounds; they induce fibroblast proliferation and growth of capillaries, and accelerate the maturation of granulation tissue and the epithelization of the defect. Furthermore opioid peptides may fine-tune pain and the inflammatory response while healing takes place. This new knowledge could potentially be used to design new locally applied drugs to improve the healing of painful chronic wounds.

  4. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystitis - chronic ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks are caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. These ...

  5. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  6. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  7. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  8. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  9. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  10. A Growth Curve Analysis of the Course of Dysthymic Disorder: The Effects of Chronic Stress and Moderation by Adverse Parent-Child Relationships and Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Davila, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Using mixed effects models, the authors examined the effects of chronic stress, adverse parent-child relationships, and family history on the 7.5-year course of dysthymic disorder. Participants included 97 outpatients with early-onset dysthymia who were assessed with semistructured interviews at baseline and 3 additional times at 30-month…

  11. Relation between Red Cell Distribution Width and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Cleaving in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Heart Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, Fenna; Emans, Mireille E.; van der Putten, Karien; Braam, Branko; van Ittersum, Frans J.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; de Borst, Martin H.; Vervloet, Marc; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In chronic kidney disease (CKD), both anemia and deregulated phosphate metabolism are common and predictive of adverse outcome. Previous studies suggest that iron status influences phosphate metabolism by modulating proteolytic cleavage of FGF23 into C-terminal fragments. Red cell distribu

  12. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT: A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Kent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual’s values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8% and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain.

  13. Evidence for the Effects of Complementary Feeding Interventions on the Growth of Infants and Young Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    As momentum for investment in early childhood nutrition grows, so does the evidence base for the effectiveness of interventions to improve complementary feeding in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where the risk of early growth faltering is high. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of the evidence for the impact of two categories of interventions (nutrition education alone and provision of food or nutrient supplements with or without education) on linear and ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 months in LMIC. Pooled-effect sizes from three recent systematic reviews consistently suggest a modest but significant effect of both types of complementary feeding interventions on weight and length gain. However, interpretation of these pooled estimates is limited by the variability in intervention design and inconsistency in reporting of growth outcomes across the relatively small number of rigorous controlled trials currently available in the literature.

  14. Primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic wounds: a methodology to produce human cell lines and test putative growth factor therapy such as GMCSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppock Donald L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple physiologic impairments are responsible for chronic wounds. A cell line grown which retains its phenotype from patient wounds would provide means of testing new therapies. Clinical information on patients from whom cells were grown can provide insights into mechanisms of specific disease such as diabetes or biological processes such as aging. The objective of this study was 1 To culture human cells derived from patients with chronic wounds and to test the effects of putative therapies, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF on these cells. 2 To describe a methodology to create fibroblast cell lines from patients with chronic wounds. Methods Patient biopsies were obtained from 3 distinct locations on venous ulcers. Fibroblasts derived from different wound locations were tested for their migration capacities without stimulators and in response to GM-CSF. Another portion of the patient biopsy was used to develop primary fibroblast cultures after rigorous passage and antimicrobial testing. Results Fibroblasts from the non-healing edge had almost no migration capacity, wound base fibroblasts were intermediate, and fibroblasts derived from the healing edge had a capacity to migrate similar to healthy, normal, primary dermal fibroblasts. Non-healing edge fibroblasts did not respond to GM-CSF. Six fibroblast cell lines are currently available at the National Institute on Aging (NIA Cell Repository. Conclusion We conclude that primary cells from chronic ulcers can be established in culture and that they maintain their in vivo phenotype. These cells can be utilized for evaluating the effects of wound healing stimulators in vitro.

  15. 生长因子应用于慢性牙周炎位点保存的临床观察%The clinical observation of applying growth factors to site preservation in chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏斐然; 徐燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of site preservation using platelet-rich fibrin or basic fibroblast growth factor in patients who suffer from serious chronic periodontitis. Method:Twenty nine patients were divided into three groups. Teeth of patients were extracted,tooth sockets were did site preservation technique:PRF group was used platelet-rich fibrin which was made from blood of patients. bFGF group was used basic fibroblast growth factor. Control group did not use PRF or bFGF. After six months,the clinical effect of three groups was observed. Result:After six months,patients of PRF group and bFGF group were observed that bone have sufficient bone height and mineral density has increased. Bone density of patients who did not use growth factors is low. Conclusion:Using growth factor such as platelet-rich fibrin or basic fibrob-last growth factor can improve the condition of soft and hard tissue,and can maintain more bone mass in ridge preservation of serious chronic periodontitis.%目的:观察重度慢性牙周炎患者分别使用富血小板纤维蛋白(platelet-rich fibrin,PRF)和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,bFGF)行拔牙窝位点保存的临床疗效。方法:29例重度慢性牙周炎患者随机分为3组,患牙拔除后,牙槽窝行位点保存术:PRF组牙槽窝行位点保存术使用患者自身血液离心制备的PRF;bFGF组使用bFGF;空白对照组不使用PRF或bFGF。术后6个月后观察临床疗效。结果:使用生长因子PRF或bFGF的患者术后6个月观察,牙龈形态饱满,骨高度保持,骨密度增加。未使用PRF或bFGF生长因子的患者骨密度较低。结论:牙周炎患者位点保存术中使用生长因子PRF和bFGF可以有效改善软硬组织的情况,保存更多的牙槽骨量。

  16. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  17. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  18. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  19. 重组人生长激素对慢性腹腔感染病人蛋白质代谢的影响%Influence of recombinant growth hormone on protein metabolism in chronic abdominal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元新; 李幼生; 任建安; 李宁; 黎介寿

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究重组人生长激素对促进慢性腹腔感染病人蛋白质代谢的影响。 方法:20例慢性腹腔感染病人随机分为GH组(TPN+GH)和对照组(TPN),研究时间为10天。分别于研究前与研究结束时进行感染评分,检测血清生长激素(GH)、血清胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)、血清胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白-3(IGFBP-3);分别于研究前、研究第3天、第7天及研究结束时,检测血清白蛋白、前白蛋白、转铁蛋白、纤维连接蛋白、C-反应蛋白;测定每天氮平衡及24 h尿肌酐。 结果:研究结束时GH组GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3显著高于对照组及研究前;研究期间GH组血清白蛋白、前白蛋白、转铁蛋白、纤维连接蛋白升高,而C-反应蛋白下降;氮平衡改善,累计氮平衡显著高于对照组,而24 h尿肌酐则下降。 结论:重组人生长激素能促进慢性腹腔感染病人蛋白质代谢,而IGF-1在其中发挥了重要作用。%Objectives: To study the ameliorated effect of recombinant growth hormone on protein metabolism in chronic abdominal infection.  Methods: 20 patients were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in the control group received TPN only for 10 days, while patients in the GH groups received both rGH(13.5u/d) and TPN for 10 days. Sepsis Score grade and detection of serum Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and Insulin like growth factor binding protein- 3(IGFBP-3) were carried out on day 0 and day 11, Serum albumin, prealbumin, transferring, fibronectin and C-reaction protein were detected on day 0, day 3, day 7 and day 11, Nitrogen balance and 24-hour urine creatinine secretion were assayed daily.  Results: GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in the GH group on day 11 were significantly higher than those in the GH group on day 0 and those in the control group on day 11, Serum albumin, prealbumin, transferring and fibronectin increased, while C

  20. Aqueous Extract of Gumiganghwal-tang, a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Reduces Pulmonary Fibrosis by Transforming Growth Factor-β1/Smad Signaling Pathway in Murine Model of Chronic Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jin, Seong Eun; Lee, Mee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Gumiganghwal-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that is used widely for the treatment of the common cold and inflammatory diseases in Korea and other Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Gumiganghwal-tang aqueous extract (GGTA) against airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis using a mouse model of chronic asthma. Chronic asthma was modeled in BALB/c mice via sensitization/challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of 1% ovalbumin (OVA) and inhalation of nebulized 1% OVA for 4 weeks. GGTA (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) was also administered by oral gavage once a day for 4 weeks. We investigated the number of inflammatory cells, production of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, chemokine and the total transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); the levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the plasma; the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissue; and the expression of TGF-β1, Smad-3, and collagen in lung tissue. Our results revealed that GGTA lowered the recruitment of inflammatory cells (particularly, lymphocyte); and decreased the production of Th2 cytokines, chemokine and total TGF-β1; and attenuated the levels of total and OVA-specific IgE; and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, GGTA significantly reduced the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad-3, and lowered collagen deposition. These results indicate that GGTA reduces airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis by regulating Th2 cytokines production and the TGF-β1/Smad-3 pathway, thus providing a potential treatment for chronic asthma. PMID:27741312

  1. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins: regulation in chronic active plaques in multiple sclerosis and functional analysis of glial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesik, D.; De Keyser, J.; Glazenburg, L.; Wilczak, N.

    2006-01-01

    Studies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggest that astrocyte-secreted insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) helps target IGF-1 to IGF-1 receptor-expressing oligodendrocytes and promote remyelination. We examined the presence

  2. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins : regulation in chronic active plaques in multiple sclerosis and functional analysis of glial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesik, Daniel; De Keyser, Jacques; Glazenburg, Lisa; Wilczak, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Studies in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggest that astrocyte-secreted insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) helps target IGF-1 to IGF-1 receptor-expressing oligodendrocytes and promote remyelination. We examined the presence

  3. Influence of HBcAg in liver cell plasma on expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in liver tissue of low-grade chronic hepatitis B patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Gang Liu; Jun-Qiang Li; Chen-Zhao Song; Jian-Hua Lu; Xin-Xin Wang; Jian-Lin Yang; Zhen-Wei Lang; Xin Meng; Li-Jie Zhang; Lin Sun; Shi-Jie Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the influence of HBcAg on the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in liver tissue of low-grade chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.METHODS: The expression of TGF-β1 and HBcAg in liver samples from 93 low-grade CHB patients was detected by immunohistochemistry and valuated by semi-quantitative scoring.RESULTS: In the 93 low-grade CHB patients, HBcAg was expressed in cell plasma but not in the liver tissue.There was no significant difference between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The expression of TGF-β1 is not related with HBcAg expressed as plasma type in the tissues of low-grade CHB patients.

  4. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms 869 T/C and 915 G/C in the exon 1 locus of transforming growth factor-β1 gene on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dai-shun; LI Xiao-ou; YING Bin-wu; CHEN Lei; WANG Tao; XU Dan; WEN Fu-qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background The main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is cigarette smoking. However, only 10%-20% of chronic heavy smokers develop systematic COPD. We hypothesized that the inheritance of gene polymorphisms could influence the development of COPD, which was investigated by studying two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in exon 1 of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene.Methods We enrolled 219 patients with COPD as the research group and 148 healthy people as the control group, all of whom were Chinese Han people. The polymorphisms of the TGF-β1 gene, 869T/C and 915G/C, were analyzed using the method of amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR).Results The occurrence of the TGF-β1 gene 869T/C polymorphism in patients with COPD was significantly different from the control group (P 0.05).Conclusions The polymorphism 869T/C in TGF-β1 gene has a significant association with disease occurrence in COPD patients and the C allele might be a risk factor. The homozygous wild-type CC of 869T/C on TGFβ1 could be a predisposing factor in COPD and those who carry the C allele might have particularly susceptibility to developing COPD.

  5. Development of the Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay: effects of chronic 4-tert-octylphenol or 17β-trenbolone exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselman, Jonathan T; Kosian, Patricia A; Korte, Joseph J; Olmstead, Allen W; Iguchi, Taisen; Johnson, Rodney D; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2016-12-01

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a globally harmonized test guideline developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with Japan's Ministry of the Environment. The LAGDA was designed to evaluate apical effects of chronic chemical exposure on growth, thyroid-mediated amphibian metamorphosis and reproductive development. During the validation phase, two well-characterized endocrine-disrupting chemicals were tested to evaluate the performance of the initial assay design: xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP) and xenoandrogen 17β-trenbolone (TB). Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed, in flow-through conditions, to tOP (nominal concentrations: 0.0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg l(-1) ) or TB (nominal concentrations: 0.0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ng l(-1) ) until 8 weeks post-metamorphosis, at which time growth measurements were taken, and histopathology assessments were made of the gonads, reproductive ducts, liver and kidneys. There were no effects on growth in either study and no signs of overt toxicity, sex reversal or gonad dysgenesis. Exposure to tOP caused a treatment-related decrease in circulating thyroxine and an increase in thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia (25 and 50 µg l(-1) ) during metamorphosis. Müllerian duct development was affected after exposure to both chemicals; tOP exposure caused dose-dependent maturation of oviducts in both male and female frogs, whereas TB exposure caused accelerated Müllerian duct regression in males and complete regression in >50% of the females in the 100 ng l(-1) treatment. Based on these results, the LAGDA performed adequately to evaluate apical effects of chronic exposure to two endocrine-active compounds and is the first standardized amphibian multiple life stage toxicity test to date. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Potential role of growth hormone in impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver of rats chronically treated with arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; de Carvalho, José Edgar Nicoletti; Poyares, Leonice Lourenço; Bordin, Silvana; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2009-05-01

    We have shown that rats chronically treated with Arginine (Arg), although normoglycemic, exhibit hyperinsulinemia and decreased blood glucose disappearance rate after an insulin challenge. Attempting to investigate the processes underlying these alterations, male Wistar rats were treated with Arg (35 mg/d), in drinking water, for 4 wk. Rats were then acutely stimulated with insulin, and the soleus and extensorum digitalis longus muscles, white adipose tissue (WAT), and liver were excised for total and/or phosphorylated insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate 1/2, Akt, Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/3/5, and p85alpha/55alpha determination. Muscles and WAT were also used for plasma membrane (PM) and microsome evaluation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 content. Pituitary GH mRNA, GH, and liver IGF-I mRNA expression were estimated. It was shown that Arg treatment: 1) did not affect phosphotyrosine-IR, whereas it decreased phosphotyrosine-IR substrate 1/2 and phosphoserine-Akt content in all tissues studied, indicating that insulin signaling is impaired at post-receptor level; 2) decreased PM GLUT4 content in both muscles and WAT; 3) increased the pituitary GH mRNA, GH, and liver IGF-I mRNA expression, the levels of phosphotyrosine-STAT5 in both muscles, phosphotyrosine-Janus kinase 2 in extensorum digitalis longus, phosphotyrosine-STAT3 in liver, and WAT as well as total p85alpha in soleus, indicating that GH signaling is enhanced in these tissues; and 4) increased p55alpha total content in muscles, WAT, and liver. The present findings provide the molecular mechanisms by which insulin resistance and, by extension, reduced GLUT4 content in PM of muscles and WAT take place after chronic administration of Arg, and further suggest a putative role for GH in its genesis, considering its diabetogenic effect.

  7. 碱性成纤维细胞生长因子加速慢性难愈合创面愈合%Healing of chronic cutaneous wounds by topical treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小兵; 沈祖尧; 郭振荣; 张明良; 盛志勇

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical application of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) on the healing of chronic cutaneous wounds. Methods Twenty-eight patients with thirty-three chronic cutaneous wounds resulting from trauma, diabetes mellitus, pressure sore and radiation injuries were enrolled in this prospective, open-label crossover trial. Prior to treatment with rbFGF, all wounds failed to heal with conventional therapies within 4 weeks. All wounds were locally treated with rbFGF at a dose of 150?AU/cm2. Healing time and the quality of wounds were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment.Results Healing of all chronic wounds was expedited. During the study, eighteen wounds completely healed within 2 weeks, four healed within 3 weeks, and another eight completely healed within 4 weeks. Only three wounds failed to heal within 4 weeks, but healed at 30, 40 and 42 days after treatment with rbFGF. Thus, compared with conventional therapies, the effective rate of rbFGF treatment within 4 weeks was 90.9%. Histological assessment showed more abundant capillary sprouts or tubes and that fibroblasts were differentiated in wounds treated with rbFGF. No adverse side effects related to basic fibroblast growth factor were observed.Conclusions Our results indicate that rbFGF could be used to accelerate healing in chronic wounds. It is our belief that this may be a more effective method of chronic wound management.%目的 观察重组中碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(rbFGF)对慢性难愈合创面(溃疡)的促修复作用并探讨其促修复机制。方法 本组28例共33个慢性难愈合创面,其中创伤性溃疡12例(13个创面)、压迫性溃疡9例(13个创面),糖尿病溃疡4例,放射性溃疡3例。所有创面经清创后用rbFGF治疗(150?AU/cm2创面,每天1次)。结果 所有经rbFGF治疗的创面都产生了明显的愈合,其中2周内愈合为18例,2-3周内愈合为4

  8. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  9. Relation between Red Cell Distribution Width and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Cleaving in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenna van Breda

    Full Text Available In chronic kidney disease (CKD, both anemia and deregulated phosphate metabolism are common and predictive of adverse outcome. Previous studies suggest that iron status influences phosphate metabolism by modulating proteolytic cleavage of FGF23 into C-terminal fragments. Red cell distribution width (RDW was recently identified as a strong prognostic determinant for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of iron status. We assessed whether RDW is associated with FGF23 cleaving in CKD patients with heart failure.The associations between RDW and either intact FGF23 (iFGF23, C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23, reflecting iFGF23 and C-terminal fragments together and the iFGF23/cFGF23 ratio were analyzed in 52 patients with CKD (eGFR 34,9 ± 13.9 ml/min/1.73m2 and chronic heart failure (CHF. Associations between RDW and FGF23 forms were studied by linear regression analysis adjusted for parameters of renal function, iron metabolism, phosphate metabolism and inflammation.Median cFGF23 levels were 197.5 [110-408.5] RU/ml, median iFGF23 levels were 107.3 [65.1-162.2] pg/ml and median FGF23 ratio was 0.80 [0.37-0.86]. Mean RDW was 14.1 ± 1.2%. cFGF23 and RDW were associated (β = 1.63 x 10(-3, P < 0.001, whereas iFGF23 and RDW were not (β = -1.38 x 10(-3, P = 0.336. The iFGF23/cFGF23 ratio was inversely associated with RDW. The difference between cFGF23 and iFGF23 (cFGF23- iFGF23 was positively associated with RDW (β = 1.74 x 10(-3, P < 0.001. The association between cFGF23 and RDW persisted upon multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusted for parameters of renal function, phosphate metabolism, iron metabolism and inflammation (β = 0.97 x 10(-3, P = 0.047.RDW is associated with cFGF23 but not with iFGF23 levels in patients with CKD and CHF. This suggests a connection between RDW and FGF23 catabolism, independent of iron status and inflammation. Future studies are needed to unravel underlying mechanisms and whether these pertain to the link

  10. Insulin growth factor 1 receptor expression is associated with NOTCH1 mutation, trisomy 12 and aggressive clinical course in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maura

    Full Text Available IGF1R is emerging as an important gene in the pathogenesis of many solid and haematological cancers and its over-expression has been reported as frequently associated with aggressive disease and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we performed an investigation of the role of IGF1R expression in a large and representative prospective series of 217 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL patients enrolled in the multicentre O-CLL1 protocol (clinicaltrial.gov #NCT00917540. High IGF1R gene expression was significantly associated with IGHV unmutated (IGHV-UM status (p<0.0001, high CD38 expression (p<0.0001, trisomy 12 (p<0.0001, and del(11(q23 (p=0.014. Interestingly, higher IGF1R expression (p=0.002 characterized patients with NOTCH1 mutation (c.7541_7542delCT, identified in 15.5% of cases of our series by next generation sequencing and ARMS-PCR. Furthermore, IGF1R expression has been proven as an independent prognostic factor associated with time to first treatment in our CLL prospective cohort. These data suggest that IGF1R may play an important role in CLL biology, in particular in aggressive CLL clones characterized by IGHV-UM, trisomy 12 and NOTCH1 mutation.

  11. Insulin Growth Factor 1 Receptor Expression Is Associated with NOTCH1 Mutation, Trisomy 12 and Aggressive Clinical Course in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maura, Francesco; Mosca, Laura; Fabris, Sonia; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; Barbieri, Marzia; D’Anca, Marianna; Manzoni, Martina; Colombo, Monica; Massucco, Carlotta; Reverberi, Daniele; Gentile, Massimo; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Bossio, Sabrina; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Musolino, Caterina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Morabito, Fortunato; Ferrarini, Manlio; Neri, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    IGF1R is emerging as an important gene in the pathogenesis of many solid and haematological cancers and its over-expression has been reported as frequently associated with aggressive disease and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we performed an investigation of the role of IGF1R expression in a large and representative prospective series of 217 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients enrolled in the multicentre O-CLL1 protocol (clinicaltrial.gov #NCT00917540). High IGF1R gene expression was significantly associated with IGHV unmutated (IGHV-UM) status (p<0.0001), high CD38 expression (p<0.0001), trisomy 12 (p<0.0001), and del(11)(q23) (p=0.014). Interestingly, higher IGF1R expression (p=0.002) characterized patients with NOTCH1 mutation (c.7541_7542delCT), identified in 15.5% of cases of our series by next generation sequencing and ARMS-PCR. Furthermore, IGF1R expression has been proven as an independent prognostic factor associated with time to first treatment in our CLL prospective cohort. These data suggest that IGF1R may play an important role in CLL biology, in particular in aggressive CLL clones characterized by IGHV-UM, trisomy 12 and NOTCH1 mutation. PMID:25786252

  12. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  13. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) and microRNA-21 are components of a positive feedback loop in pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) during chronic pancreatitis and are exported in PSC-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Alyssa; Chen, Ruju; Chen, Li; Kemper, Sherri; Hattori, Takako; Takigawa, Masaharu; Brigstock, David R

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas which, in its chronic form, involves tissue destruction, exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, increased risk of pancreatic cancer, and an extensive fibrotic pathology which is due to unrelenting collagen deposition by pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). In response to noxious agents such as alcohol-excessive consumption of which is a major cause of pancreatitis in the West-normally quiescent PSC undergo a phenotypic and functional transition to activated myofibroblasts which produce and deposit collagen at high levels. This process is regulated by connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), expression of which is highly up-regulated in activated PSC. We show that CCN2 production by activated PSC is associated with enhanced expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) which was detected at high levels in activated PSC in a murine model of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. A positive feedback loop between CCN2 and miR-21 was identified that resulted in enhancement of their respective expression as well as that of collagen α1(I). Both miR-21 and CCN2 mRNA were present in PSC-derived exosomes, which were characterized as 50-150 nm CD9-positive nano-vesicles. Exosomes from CCN2-GFP- or miR-21-GFP-transfected PSC were taken up by other PSC cultures, as shown by direct fluorescence or qRT-PCR for GFP. Collectively these studies establish miR-21 and CCN2 as participants in a positive feedback loop during PSC activation and as components of the molecular payload in PSC-derived exosomes that can be delivered to other PSC. Thus interactions between cellular or exosomal miR-21 and CCN2 represent novel aspects of fibrogenic regulation in PSC. Summary Chronic injury in the pancreas is associated with fibrotic pathology which is driven in large part by CCN2-dependent collagen production in pancreatic stellate cells. This study shows that CCN2 up-regulation in PSC is associated with increased expression of miR-21 which, in turn, is able to

  14. Effects of chronic waterborne nickel exposure on growth, ion homeostasis, acid-base balance, and nickel uptake in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Som; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive aquatic organism tested to date for Ni. We undertook a series of experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) for this observed hypersensitivity. Consistent with previous experiments, juvenile snail growth in a 21-day exposure was reduced by 48% relative to the control when exposed to 1.3 μg l(-1) Ni (EC20 less than the lowest concentration tested). Ca(2+) homeostasis was significantly disrupted by Ni exposure as demonstrated by reductions in net Ca(2+) uptake, and reductions in Ca(2+) concentrations in the hemolymph and soft tissues. We also observed reduced soft tissue [Mg(2+)]. Snails underwent a significant alkalosis with hemolymph pH increasing from 8.1 to 8.3 and hemolymph TCO2 increasing from 19 to 22 mM in control versus Ni-exposed snails, respectively. Unlike in previous studies with Co and Pb, snail feeding rates were found to be unaffected by Ni at the end of the exposure. Snails accumulated Ni in the soft tissue in a concentration-dependent manner, and Ni uptake experiments with (63)Ni revealed a biphasic uptake profile - a saturable high affinity component at low exposure concentrations (36-189 nM) and a linear component at the high exposure concentrations (189-1,897 nM). The high affinity transport system had an apparent Km of 89 nM Ni(2+) and Vmax of 2.4 nmol g(-1)h(-1). This equates to a logK of 7.1, significantly higher than logK's (2.6-5.2) for any other aquatic organisms evaluated to date, which will have implications for Biotic Ligand Model development. Finally, pharmacological inhibitors that block Ca(2+) uptake pathways in snails did not inhibit Ni uptake, suggesting that the uptake of Ni does not occur via Ca(2+) uptake pathways. As with Cu and Pb, the exact mechanism for the significant disruption in Ca(2+) homeostasis and reduction in juvenile snail growth remains unknown.

  15. Ministry to the Chronically Ill Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, Pat Deasy; Collins, Denis E.

    1993-01-01

    Reports growth in the number of chronically ill children attending Catholic schools. Describes the separate roles of home, school, and hospital in children's long-term care. Urges educators to obtain necessary information on children's attendance, peer interaction, education, and medical compliance. Reviews issues specific to chronically ill…

  16. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest in decadal scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Koehler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide CO2 efflux to long-term experimental N-addition (125 kg N ha−1 yr-1 in mature lowland and montane forests in Panamá. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1 explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2 determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger from the lowland (15.20±1.25 Mg C ha−1 than the montane forest (9.36±0.29 Mg C ha−1. In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9–11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance in decadal scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2- and 3 yr N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots where stem diameter growth was promoted.

  17. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest on a decadal time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Koehler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux to long-term experimental N addition (125 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in mature lowland and montane forests in Panama. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1 explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2 determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger in the lowland (15.44 ± 1.02 Mg C ha−1 than in the montane forest (9.37 ± 0.28 Mg C ha−1. In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9–11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance on a decadal time scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2nd and 3rd year N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots in which stem diameter growth was promoted.

  18. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  19. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing. You may also have other tests. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition that keeps coming back or never goes away completely. If you smoke, it is important to quit. Treatment can help with your symptoms. It often includes ...

  20. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  1. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  2. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  3. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  4. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  5. Growth advantage of chronic myeloid leukemia CFU-GM in vitro: survival to growth factor deprivation, possibly related to autocrine stimulation, is a more common feature than hypersensitivity to GM-CSF/IL3 and is efficiently counteracted by retinoids +- alpha-interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, D; Foli, C; Giaretta, F; Argentino, C; Rus, C; Pileri, A

    2001-03-01

    Bcr/abl fusion gene, in experimental models, induces survival to growth factor deprivation and hypersensitivity to IL3. However, conflicting data were reported about chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitors. We investigated the responsiveness of purified CML CFU-GM to GM-CSF/IL3 and their survival to growth factor deprivation. CFU-GM hypersensitivity to IL3 and/or GM-CSF was found in 3/11 CML cases only. CML CFU-GM survived well in stroma-free 'mass' culture (5 x 10(4) cells/ml) without cytokine addition, up to day 11, average recovery being around 95% in medium + 10% fetal bovine serum and 67-81% in serum-free medium. Conversely, normal progenitors declined steadily, particularly after extensive purification (18 +/- 10% recovery at the 7th day), and in serum-free medium (4 +/- 6% recovery). By contrast, normal and CML CFU-GM declined in a similar way in limiting dilution cultures (1-10 cells/50 microl). We also investigated the effects of retinoic acid and alpha-interferon on CFU-GM survival. Both all-trans- and 13-cis retinoic acid, particularly in combination with alpha-interferon, reduced CML CFU-GM recovery down to normal progenitors' values. In conclusion, hypersensitivity to CSFs is rare in CML, whereas resistance to growth factor deprivation has been confirmed in mass, but not in limiting, dilution cultures. Both stereoisomers of retinoic acid, at therapeutic concentrations and in combination with alpha-interferon, can overcome the survival advantage of CML progenitors.

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway Mediates Fip1-like1-platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α-induced Cell Infiltration and Activation: Possible Molecular Mechanism for the Malignant Phenotype of Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fip1-like1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α fusion gene (F/P is responsible for 14-60% cases of hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES, also known as F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (F/P(+ CEL. The major pathogenesis of F/P(+ CEL is known to involve migration and activation of mast cells and eosinophils, leading to severe multi-organ dysfunction, but the mechanism was still unclear. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and serine-threonine protein kinase Akt have been reported to be targets of F/P in the F/P-promoted cell proliferation. They are extensively involved in the migration and adhesion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and also control cell invasion in some leukemias. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in eosinophil/neutrophil activation and infiltration; its possible role in regulating F/P induced cytotoxicity and upregulation of A4-integrin in eosinophils, and inducing eosinophil activation through controlling F/P-induced Nuclear factor-kB activity. Akt was recently shown to be stimulated by F/P, synergistically with stem cell factor, resulting in the induction of MCs migration and excessive activation. PI3K/Akt pathway is also a principal mediator of interleukin-5 (IL-5-induced signal transduction promoting eosinophil trafficking and degranulation, whereas IL-5 is a necessary cytokine for F/P-mediated CEL development. We, therefore, propose the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt pathway might be vital downstream of F/P to induce target cell activation and tissue infiltration, resulting in the malignant phenotype seen in F/P(+ CEL.

  7. Analysis of the association of chronic spontaneous urticaria with interlekin-4, -10, transforming growth factor-β1, interferon-γ, interleukin-17A and -23 by autologous serum skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırmaz, Cengiz; Vatansever, Seda; Onur, Ece; Nal, Emine; Erdin, Soner; Ozyurt, Beyhan

    2017-01-01

    Aim To contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) by identifying its relationship with autoimmunity and cytokines using the autologous serum skin test (ASST) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture (PBMC) method. Material and methods Interleukins (IL)-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17A, and IL-23 levels in cell supernatants obtained by the PBMC method were measured using ELISA. Disease activity was assessed by determining the urticaria activity score (UAS). Results A total of 40 patients diagnosed with CSU participated in this study. Twenty patients had positive ASST results, and 20 had negative results. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers. We found that the IL-23 (p = 0.01), IL-10 (p = 0.04) and IL-4 (p = 0.04) levels of the patient groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group. The IL-23 (p = 0.009), IL-10 (p = 0.009), IL-4 (p = 0.001), and IL-17 (p = 0.05) levels of the ASST(–) patient group were significantly lower compared with those of the control group. In addition, the IL-4 (p = 0.03) and IFN-γ (p = 0.05) levels of the ASST(+) patient group were significantly lower compared with those of the control group, and the ASST(+) patients had a significantly higher UAS than the ASST(–) patients (p = 0.021). Conclusions These results, when considered together with current reports in the literature, indicate that immune dysregulation occurs in the pathogenesis of CSU, causing cytokine imbalance. PMID:28261034

  8. 成纤维细胞生长因子23与慢性肾脏病患者心血管疾病的关系%Fibroblast growth factor 23 and cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛澄

    2013-01-01

    心血管疾病是慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者最常见的致死原因.成纤维细胞生长因子23(FGF23)在CKD患者中明显升高,且与左心室肥厚和心血管事件发生率密切相关.其机制包括FGF23激活肾素-血管紧张素-醛固酮系统和非klotho依赖左心室肥厚等.目前针对降低FGF23干预性治疗尚无定论,低磷饮食、磷结合剂与西那卡塞可降低CKD患者FGF23水平,但其有效性还需进一步的临床研究加以证实.%Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).It has been reported that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) was significantly higher in CKD,and correlated with the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular events.The mechanism of FGF23 included activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system,promoting LVH without klotho and et al.Intervention therapy to reduce FGF23 remains inconclusive.Low phosphorus diet,phosphate binders and cinacalcet could reduce the level of FGF23 in CKD patients.However,its effectiveness still need further clinical studies to be evaluated

  9. Girls Thrive Emotionally, Boys Falter After Move to Better Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Research (37 items) Genetics (70 items) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (57 items) RDoC (13 items) Research Funding (44 ... Services Research (37 items) Genetics (70 items) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (57 items) RDoC (13 items) Research Funding (44 ...

  10. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... Health care providers also consider CIDP as the chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The specific triggers ...

  11. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000933.htm Dealing with chronic cancer To use the sharing features on this ... be controlled for a period of time. Controlling Chronic Cancer When you have a chronic cancer, the ...

  12. Hyperglycemia, tumorigenesis, and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Chung Vivian

    2016-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells. Therefore, uncontrolled proinflammatory responses could conceivably create a chronic inflammatory state, promoting a tumor-favorable microenvironment and potentially triggering immune overactivation and cancer growth. To further understand how hyperglycemia contributes to immune overactivation, the tumor microenvironment and the development of chronic inflammation-associated tumors may provide insights into tumor biology and immunology. This paper provides a brief introduction to hyperglycemia-associated diseases, followed by a comprehensive overview of the current findings of regulatory molecular mechanisms of glycosylation on proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix under hyperglycemic conditions. Then, the authors discuss the role of hyperglycemia in tumorigenesis (particularly in prostate, liver, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers), as well as the contribution of hyperglycemia to chronic inflammation. The authors end with a brief discussion on the future perspectives of hyperglycemia/tumorigenesis and potential applications of alternative/effective therapeutic strategies for hyperglycemia-associated cancers.

  13. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  14. Dietary supplementation and rapid catch-up growth after acute diarrhoea in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, S; Poppitt, S D; Prentice, A M; Weaver, L T

    1996-10-01

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of short-term growth faltering in children of the developing world. If catch-up weight gain is delayed by inadequate dietary intake, or by further bouts of diarrhoea, progressive growth failure occurs. To test the hypothesis that early refeeding is as effective as later feeding after acute diarrhoea with weight loss, we measured the effects of a timed dietary intervention on weight gain after acute diarrhoea in underweight Gambian children. Thirty-four children aged 4-22 months with weight loss following acute diarrhoea were given a high-energy-protein supplement for 14 d beginning either immediately after rehydration or a fortnight later. With a 50% increase in energy intake and a 100% increase in protein intake there was a rapid and highly significant (P late, but over the full 28 d (of intervention and non-intervention) children who received late supplementation had greater overall weight gain (P foods, in the face of continuing diarrhoea.

  15. Changes of serum conective tissue growth factor levels in patients with chronic heart failure%慢性心力衰竭患者血清结缔组织生长因子水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建华; 王评; 夏裕

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究慢性心力衰竭( CHF)患者血清结缔组织生长因子( CTGF)的变化及临床意义。方法测定105例 CHF 患者血清 CTGF 含量及左心室射血分数( LVEF)、左心室质量指数( LVMI)变化,进行相关分析,并选取68例健康人做为对照组。结果 CHF 患者血清 CTGF 水平均显著高于对照组( P <0.01);血清 CTGF 升高水平与心力衰竭严重程度相平行;血清 CTGF 水平与 LVEF 呈负相关,与 LVMI、心功能分级呈正相关。结论血清 CTGF 参与了 CHF 的病理生理过程,血清 CTGF 水平可作为诊断及判断心力衰竭严重程度的生物学指标。%Objective To study the changes of serum connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) levels in patients with chronic heart failure(CHF)and its clinical implications. Methods The serum CTGF levels and the left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF),left ventricular mass index(LVMI)of 105 patients with CHF and 68 control subjects were measured and analyzed. Results The serum CTGF level in patients with CHF was significantly higher than that in the control group(P < 0. 01);The increased level of serum CTGF was parallelled with the severity of heart failure;The serum CTGF level was nega-tively correlated with LVEF,and positively correlated with LVMI and cardiac function classification. Conclusions Serum CTGF participate in the pathological and physiological process of CHF,so ser-um CTGF level can be used as biological index of diagnosis and judgement of the severity of heart failure.

  16. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases β cell mass and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin/hypoxia inducible factor 1/vascular endothelial growth factor A pathway in mice pancreatic islet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chen-juan; LI Min; LI Qing-yun; LI Ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence from population and clinic based studies showed that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its characterizing chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) were independently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.However,the pathogenesis by which OSA induces glucose metabolic disorders is not clear.We determined changes in pancreatic β cell mass and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)/ vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway following IH exposure.Methods A controlled gas delivery system regulated the flow of nitrogen and oxygen into a customized cage housing mice during the experiment.Twenty-four male wild C57BL/6J mice were either exposed to IH (n=12) or intermittent air as a control (n=12) for 56 days.Mice were anaesthetized and sacrificed after exposure,pancreas samples were dissected for immunofluorescent staining.Insulin and DAPI staining labelled islet β cells.Insulin positive area and β cell number per islet were measured.P-S6,HIF-1α and VEGF-A staining were performed to detect the activation of mTOR/HIF-1NEGF-A pathway.Results After eight weeks of IH exposure,insulin positive area increased by an average of 18.5% (P <0.05).The β cell number per islet increased (92 vs.55,respectively for IH and the control groups,P <0.05) with no change in the size of individual β cells.Islet expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A were higher in IH group than control group,and percentage of p-S6 positive β cell also increased after IH exposure (16.8% vs.4.6% respectively for IH and the control groups,P <0.05).Conclusion The number of pancreatic β cells increased as did the activity of the mTOR/HIF-1NEGF-A pathway after exposure to IH.

  17. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  18. Intestinal inflammation-induced child growth failure:immunologic and endocrine mechanisms%肠道炎症阻滞儿童体格生长的免疫和内分泌机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静秋

    2011-01-01

    Faltering linear growth is commonly encountered in children with intestinal inflammation. Growth hormone ( GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 ( IGF-1 ) are important regulators of postnatal longitudinal bone growth. Inhibition of GH/IGF axis will result in growth failure in young children. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 f$ (IL-ip), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) abnormally increase in children with intestinal inflammation, and may affect linear growth both systemically and locally at the level of the growth plate though disturbing the GH/IGF axis.%肠道炎症常伴发儿童的生长落后.生长激素(GH)和胰岛素生长因子-1(IGF-1)是调控出生后骨骼纵向生长的重要物质,抑制GH/IGF轴可阻滞儿童体格生长.肠道发生炎症时,异常升高的促炎症因子IL-1β、IL-6和TNF-a通过干扰GH/IGF轴,系统性以及在生长板局部水平影响骨骼生长,进而导致儿童生长阻滞.

  19. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  20. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  1. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss.

  2. Azithromycin blocks quorum sensing and alginate polymer formation and increases the sensitivity to serum and stationary growth phase killing of P. aeruginosa and attenuates chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in Cftr -/--mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, N.; Lee, Bao le ri; Hentzer, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of O-acetylated alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are tolerance to both antibiotic treatments and effects on the innate and the adaptive defense mechanisms. In clinical trials, azithromycin (AZM) ...

  3. P/Q-type and T-type calcium channels, but not type 3 transient receptor potential cation channels, are involved in inhibition of dendritic growth after chronic metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 and protein kinase C activation in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Olivia S; Hartmann, Jana; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Kapfhammer, Josef P

    2012-01-01

    The development of a neuronal dendritic tree is modulated both by signals from afferent fibers and by an intrinsic program. We have previously shown that chronic activation of either type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1s) or protein kinase C (PKC) in organotypic cerebellar slice cultures of mice and rats severely inhibits the growth and development of the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. The signaling events linking receptor activation to the regulation of dendritic growth remain largely unknown. We have studied whether channels allowing the entry of Ca(2+) into Purkinje cells, in particular the type 3 transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC3s), P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, and T-type Ca(2+) channels, might be involved in signaling after mGluR1 or PKC stimulation. We show that the inhibition of dendritic growth seen after mGluR1 or PKC stimulation is partially rescued by pharmacological blockade of P/Q-type and T-type Ca(2+) channels, indicating that activation of these channels mediating Ca(2+) influx contributes to the inhibition of dendritic growth. In contrast, the absence of Ca(2+) -permeable TRPC3s in TRPC3-deficient mice or pharmacological blockade had no effect on mGluR1-mediated and PKC-mediated inhibition of Purkinje cell dendritic growth. Similarly, blockade of Ca(2+) influx through glutamate receptor δ2 or R-type Ca(2+) channels or inhibition of release from intracellular stores did not influence mGluR1-mediated and PKC-mediated inhibition of Purkinje cell dendritic growth. These findings suggest that both T-type and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, but not TRPC3 or other Ca(2+) -permeable channels, are involved in mGluR1 and PKC signaling leading to the inhibition of dendritic growth in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

  4. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  5. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  6. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and ...

  7. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  8. Chronic tophaceous gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of chronic tophaceous gout, in a 27-year-old female on diuretics for chronic congestive cardiac failure with characteristic histopathological and radiological changes is reported.

  9. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintaining good health. Can chronic pancreatitis give my child cancer? If your child has chronic pancreatitis, he or she will be at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to the general population. The degree of ...

  10. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goals Ending Chronic Homelessness Share This: Ending Chronic Homelessness Last updated on January 19, 2017 We can ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  11. Cough . 2: Chronic cough in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M.D. Shields

    2003-01-01

    textabstractChronic cough is a common problem in childhood. Viral infections are the most prevalent cause, but other rarer disorders should be excluded whenever cough appears unusually severe and/or frequent, and when there is evidence of failure to thrive and growth retardation. T

  12. Endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzberg, E C; Casaburi, R

    2003-11-01

    In this overview, the available literature on endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed, with stress on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroid hormone and the anabolic steroids. In COPD, little is known about circulating growth hormone or IGF-I concentrations. Some authors find a decrease in growth hormone or IGF-I, others an increase. An increase of growth hormone might reflect a nonspecific response of the body to stress (for instance, hypoxaemia). Until now, only one controlled study on growth hormone supplementation has been published, which however did not reveal any functional benefits. Before growth hormone supplementation can be advised as part of the treatment in COPD, further controlled studies must be performed to investigate its functional efficacy. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in COPD and its role in pulmonary cachexia has not been extensively studied. So far, there is no evidence that thyroid function is consistently altered in COPD, except perhaps in a subgroup of patients with severe hypoxaemia. Further research is required to more extensively study the underlying mechanisms and consequences of disturbed thyroid function in this subgroup of COPD patients. A few studies have reported the results of anabolic steroid supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although some studies have discerned that low circulating levels of testosterone are common in males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, little is known about the prevalence, the underlying causes or functional consequences of hypogonadism in these patients. The use of systemic glucocorticosteroids and an influence of the systemic inflammatory response have been suggested as contributing to low testosterone levels. It can be hypothesised that low anabolic hormones will reduce muscle mass and eventually result in a diminished muscle function. Further evidence is required before testosterone

  13. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli. Pit

  14. Collagen types I and III propeptides as markers of healing in chronic leg ulcers. A noninvasive method for the determination of procollagen propeptides in wound fluid--influence of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L H; Jensen, L T; Avnstorp, C;

    1992-01-01

    A noninvasive method allowing measurements of the propeptides of collagen type III (PIIINP) and type I (PICP) in ulcer washings was developed. The response to topical human growth hormone was examined. Fourteen patients with venous ulcers were treated sequentially with human growth hormone (0.1, 0.......25, and 1 IU/cm2/day), each dose for 1 week, followed by 1 week washout. On alternate days, three and two times during treatment and washout periods, respectively, the ulcers were washed and incubated for 30 minutes with sterile water. No changes in healing rates in relation to growth hormone application...

  15. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder.

  16. [Nutrition and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayúcar Ruiz de Galarreta, A; Cordero Lorenzana, M L; Martínez-Puga y López, E; Gómez Seijo, A; Escudero Alvarez, E

    2000-01-01

    The causes of malnutrition in chronic terminal kidney failure are reviewed in the situation both before and after dialysis, as are the malnutrition rates in both circumstances and their treatment. Malnutrition has a high prevalence in terminal kidney patients, partly as a result of the therapeutic restriction on calories and proteins, but also due to the metabolic reactions typical of the disease and to anorexia. In patients subjected to dialytical methods, certain other mechanisms are added. In addition to malnutrition, there are alterations in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and potassium, as well as lipids, thus limiting nutritional therapy's ability to restore the nutritional status to normal. An awareness of energy expenditure in chronic terminal kidney failure and the consequences of malnutrition have led to new challenges in nutritional therapy, both in the dose and quality of the proteins, with a debate raging over the advantages of ketoanalogues, and also in the methods for providing nutrients. The ideal nutritional method for repletion is oral administration, but this can be enhanced with artificial support such as oral supplements, parenteral nutrition during dialysis or such alternatives as enteral nutrition at home in the case of chronic kidney problems in children, using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), in order to nourish the patients and minimize growth disorders.

  17. Biofilms in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Garth A; Swogger, Ellen; Wolcott, Randall; Pulcini, Elinor deLancey; Secor, Patrick; Sestrich, Jennifer; Costerton, John W; Stewart, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds.

  18. Growth outcome: nutritionist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Fattore, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a fundamental role of early nutrition on rates of growth and development, and later health. We may identify three major fields of scientific interest and clinical application. (1) In developing countries poor growth is associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, mainly lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have negative short-term consequences, and the nutritionist's task is the primary prevention of nutrient deficiencies to promote the full expression of the individual genetic potential, while allowing for recovery of early secondary functional deficiencies. (2) A second challenge for nutritionists is represented by the approach to growth impairments in rare disorders, ranging from congenital disorders to chronic infections. Most disorders are favorably influenced by improved nutritional status and better growth, and patients may satisfactorily reach adolescence, pubertal and reproductive age, up to ageing. Even for the less positive conditions, an improvement in the quality of life for families is in any case a rewarding aim. (3) A third challenge is represented by the definition of the role of nutrition on growth in physiological conditions for all individuals. Concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of accelerated child growth rates, possibly resulting in a predisposition to develop non-communicable chronic diseases in the adult age. Accordingly, this hypothesis might explain the benefits of breastfeeding in terms of slower early growth, and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Therefore, growth as viewed by a pediatric nutritionist perspective is a complex matter, ranging from the early stages of intrauterine development up to adult ages and ageing processes. Cost/benefit analyses of interventions on growth such as cost per DALYs

  19. Chronic Inflammatory Polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen children with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy monitored between 1975 and 2005 are reported from Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

  20. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  1. Chronic Postoperative Roseomonas Endophthalmitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; WU, WEI-CHI; CHEN, TUN-LU

    2008-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  2. Chronic postoperative Roseomonas endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Tun-Lu

    2009-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  3. Linear growth in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease in childhood, and its prevalence has increased remarkably over the last decades. Therefore, the scientific community became interested in studying the growth of the affected children. The relationship between asthma and growth suffers the influence of the clinical picture, of therapeutics, but the different study methods make it difficult to distinguish the factors responsible for the growth retardation detected by some authors. This review has the purpose of providing an overall outlook on this matter.

  4. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  5. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...... of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients’ active role, lifestyle, and health...... behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already...

  6. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies.

  7. Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs induces ductal proliferations in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Teglbjaerg, P S;

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and the EGF receptor are often overexpressed in chronic pancreatitis and in malignant pancreatic growth. Transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-alpha develop tissue changes in the pancrease resembling changes found in chronic...... pancreatitis. The effects of systemic treatment with EGF on the porcine pancrease were investigated in this study....

  8. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...... from which he eventually died. The glomerulonephritis was of unknown origin, and a possible relationship between CGD and glomerulonephritis is discussed....

  9. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... their treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  10. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  11. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism of the transforming growth factor-ill gene in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection%慢性乙型肝炎病毒感染者转化生长因子-β1基因单核苷酸多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚邦东; 裴彬; 杜德林; 李仲平; 李宇舟

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨转化生长因子(TGF)-β1单核苷酸多态性(SNP)与慢性HBV感染的关系.方法 采用PCR方法,对74例慢性乙型肝炎患者、41例乙型肝炎肝硬化患者和41例健康人外周血细胞基因组DNA的TGF-β1基因中三个SNP位点(rs2241715、rs2241716、rs4803455)进行基因分型.数据分析采用χ2或Fisher精确概率法检验.结果 健康人的 rs2241715基因型及等位基因频率与慢性乙型肝炎和肝硬化患者相比,差异有统计学意义(χ2=11.419,P<0.01或χ2=6.218χ2=5.961;P<0.05),rs2241715 T/T基因型的个体患慢性乙型肝炎和乙型肝炎肝硬化的相对危险度分别为其他型的2.974倍(95%CI=1.209~7.314,P=0.018)和3.228倍(95%CI=1.201~8.675,P=0.020),rs2241716和rs4803455位点则无上述相关性.结论 TGF-131基因的rs2241715 SNP位点T/T基因型可能与慢性HBV感染密切相关.%Objective To explore the genetic impact of three newly discovered single nueleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 gene on the susceptibility of the chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods Genome DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples of 115 cases suffering from the chronic HBV infection (74 chronic hepatitis B, 41 cirrhosis) as well as 41 healthy volunteers. Thereafter, genotyping of rs2241715, rs2241716 and rs4803455 sites of the TGF-β1 gene was performed by genotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The data were analyzed by the ehi square test and Fisher exact test. Results There was a significant difference of rs2241715 genotypes and allele frequencies between healthy volunteers and patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis (χ2 = 11.419, P<0.01 and χ2 = 6.218, χ2 = 5.961,P<0.05,respectively). Interestingly, the risk relative of subjects with T/T genotype suffered from chronic hepatitis B (OR = 2. 974, 95% CI = 1.209 - 7. 314, P = 0.018) and cirrhosis (OR = 3.228, 95%CI=1.201-8.675, P=0.020) was

  12. Overlap Chronic Placental Inflammation Is Associated with a Unique Gene Expression Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kripa; Wang, Huaqing; Troncone, Michael J; Khan, Waliul I; Pare, Guillaume; Terry, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    Breakdown of the balance between maternal pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways is thought to allow an anti-fetal maternal immune response that underlies development of chronic placental inflammation. Chronic placental inflammation is manifested by the influx of maternal inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, histiocytes, and plasma cells, into the placental membranes, villi, and decidua. These infiltrates are recognized pathologically as chronic chorioamnionitis, chronic villitis of unknown etiology, and chronic deciduitis. Each of these histological entities is associated with adverse fetal outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Studying the gene expression patterns in chronically inflamed placenta, particularly when overlapping histologies are present, may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Therefore, this study compared tissue with and without chronic placental inflammation, manifested as overlapping chronic chorioamnionitis, chronic villitis of unknown etiology, and chronic deciduitis. RNA expression profiling was conducted on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded placental tissue using Illumina microarrays. IGJ was the most significant differentially expressed gene identified and had increased expression in the inflamed tissue. In addition, IGLL1, CXCL13, CD27, CXCL9, ICOS, and KLRC1 had increased expression in the inflamed placental samples. These differentially expressed genes are associated with T follicular helper cells, natural killer cells, and B cells. Furthermore, these genes differ from those typically associated with the individual components of chronic placental inflammation, such as chronic villitis, suggesting that the inflammatory infiltrate associated with overlapping chronic chorioamnionitis, chronic villitis of unknown etiology, and chronic deciduitis differs is unique. To further explore and validate gene expression findings, we conducted immunohistochemical assessment of protein level

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis: predominant pathogen in chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Perfecto, Donald; Dpto. de CC. Básicas. Laboratorio de Microbiología Facultad de Odontología Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Dpto. de CC. Básicas. Laboratorio de Microbiología Facultad de Odontología Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Martínez Cadillo, Elba; Dpto. de CC. Básicas. Laboratorio de Microbiología Facultad de Odontología Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram negative bacillus predominant in chronic periodontitis, multiple virulence factors make it extremely aggressive. In the gingival sulcus find the conditions for growth,interacting with the host produces a slow but steady destruction of periodontal tissue. Its dominance has been considered a risk factor for systemic inflammatory diseases such as myocardial infarction. Although its susceptibility to a variety of drugs makes possible its handling with antimicrob...

  14. Matrine suppresses cell growth of human chronic myeloid leukemia cells via its inhibition of the interleukin-6/Janus activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingdi; Zhu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lijia; Sun, Xiao; Lu, Xuzhang; Zhou, Min; Qian, Sixuan; Jianyong, Li

    2015-01-01

    Matrine, alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens, is known to be pleiotropic by exerting anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, as well as anti-cancer effects. However, the precise molecular targets or pathways responsible for its activities still remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms of matrine in inhibiting the chronic myeloid leukemia cells (CML). It was observed that matrine treatment significantly suppressed CML cells proliferation, induced apoptosis and resulted in the accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase, accompanied by a significant decrease in Bcl-xL, Cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression. Western blot analyses revealed that matrine treatment resulted in the down-regulation in phospho-STAT3 and phospho-JAK2 without significantly effects on STAT3 and JAK2 protein levels. Matrine significantly reduced the expression of IL-6, a potent upstream activating factor of STAT3. These results strongly suggested the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway play an important role in matrine's anti-leukemia effects in K562 cells.

  15. Bacterial colonization or infection in chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandak, Nenad; Pajić-Penavić, Ivana; Sekelj, Alen; Tomić-Paradžik, Maja; Cabraja, Ivica; Miklaušić, Božana

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of bacteria present in maxillary and ethmoid cavities in patients with chronic sinusitis and to correlate these findings with bacteria simultaneously present in their nasopharynx. The purpose of this correlation was to establish the role of bacteria found in chronically inflamed sinuses and to evaluate if the bacteria present colonized or infected sinus mucosa. Nasopharyngeal and sinus swabs of 65 patients that underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery were cultivated and at the same time the presence of leukocytes were determined in each swab. The most frequently found bacteria in nasopharynx were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus viridans and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Maxillary or ethmoidal sinus swabs yielded bacterial growth in 47 (72.31%) patients. The most frequently found bacteria in sinuses were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp. and Streptococci (pneumoniae, viridans and spp.). The insignificant number of leukocytes was present in each sinus and nasopharyngeal swab. Every published microbiology study of chronic sinusitis proved that sinus mucosa were colonized with bacteria and not infected, yet antibiotic therapy was discussed making no difference between infection and colonization. Chronic sinusitis should be considered a chronic inflammatory condition rather than bacterial infection, so routine antibiotic therapy should be avoided. Empiric antibiotic therapy should be prescribed only in cases when the acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis occurs and the antibiotics prescribed should aim the usual bacteria causing acute sinusitis. In case of therapy failure, antibiotics should be changed having in mind that under certain circumstances any bacteria colonizing sinus mucosa can cause acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis.

  16. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in South Asia - challenges and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Pratap, Balaji; Sankarasubbaiyan, Suresh; Govindan, Priyanka; Nayak, K Shivanand; Sheriff, Rezvi; Naqvi, S A Jaffar

    2008-01-01

    Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD), especially continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD), is being increasingly utilized in South Asian countries (population of 1.4 billion). There are divergent geopolitical and socioeconomic factors that influence the growth and expansion of CAPD in this region. The majority of the countries in South Asia are lacking in government healthcare system for reimbursing renal replacement therapy. The largest utilization of chronic PD is in India, with nearly 6500 patients on this treatment by the end of 2006. A large majority of patients are doing 2 L exchanges 3 times per day, using glucose-based dialysis solution manufactured in India. Chronic PD is not being utilized in Myanmar, Bhutan, or Seychelles. Affirmative action by the manufacturing industry, medical professionals, government policy makers, and nongovernmental organizations for reducing the cost of chronic PD will enable the growth and utilization of this life-saving therapy.

  17. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  18. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Maria Jose; Mericq, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review covers updated management of growth failure in these children including adequate nutrition, treatment of metabolic alterations, and early administration of recombinant human growth hormone (GH). PMID:24187550

  19. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Salas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review covers updated management of growth failure in these children including adequate nutrition, treatment of metabolic alterations, and early administration of recombinant human growth hormone (GH.

  20. 转化生长因子β1基因型与移植肾的慢性排斥反应%Relationship between transforming growth factor-beta 1 genotype and chronic renal allograft rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕铁明; 吴卫真; 谭建明

    2008-01-01

    背景:免疫损伤是慢性排斥反应的主要发病机制,与多种免疫相关基因多态性有关,尤其是转化生长因子β1基因多态性更显重要.目前关于转化生长因子β1基因多态性与移植肾慢性排斥反应的关系,不同的学者研究结果各异.目的:分析供、受者转化生长因子β1基因型与移植肾慢性排斥反应的关系.设计:前瞻性病例分析.单位:解放军南京军区福州总医院泌尿外科,全军器官移植中心.对象:选择2000-06/2001-05在解放军南京军区福州总医院首次施行尸肾移植的受者144例和其中114例的供者65例(另30例缺乏供者血液标本).手术方案得到医院伦理道德委员会批准.方法:用序列特异引物聚合酶链反应方法,在肾移植前对肾移植受者(n=144)和其中114例的供者(n=65)进行转化生长因子β1基因型检测.术后对受者进行5年随访,追踪移植肾慢性排斥反应发生情况,分析受者基因型、供者基因型及供、受者基因型组合对移植肾功能的影响.主要观察指标:[1]转化生长因子β1不同基因型的肾移植供、受者慢性排斥反应的发生率.[2]肾移植供、受者转化生长因子β1不同基因型组合慢性排斥反应的发生率.结果:[1]高分泌基因型组受者的慢性排斥反应发生率高于中低分泌基因型组(x2=10.091,P0.05).[2]供、受者均为高分泌基因型组合的受者移植肾慢性排斥反应发生率高于所有其他基因型组合者(x2=4.352,P0.05).(2)Chronic renal allograft rejection occurred in the recipients with high-secretory TGF-β1 genotype,whose donors also had high-secretory TGF-β1 genotype,and the incidence of chronic renal allograft rejection was significantly higher than that in other recipients with TGF-β1 genotype combination(x2=4.352,P<0.05).While the incidence of chronic renal allograft rejection in the recipients with moderate-secretory and low-secretory TGF-β1 genotypes,whose donors also had

  1. Growth Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, Paul; Steven N. Durlauf; Temple, Johnathan R. W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a survey and synthesis of econometric tools that have been employed to study economic growth. While these tools range across a variety of statistical methods, they are united in the common goals of first, identifying interesting contemporaneous patterns in growth data and second, drawing inferences on long-run economic outcomes from cross-section and temporal variation in growth. We describe the main stylized facts that have motivated the development of growth econometrics...

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  3. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  4. Chronic sinusitis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cartilage and lined with a mucous membrane. Sinusitis occurs when the membranes becomes inflamed and painful, ... a result of a blocked sinus opening. Chronic sinusitis is often caused by inflammation and blockage due ...

  5. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  6. Zabofloxacin for chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, B; Szabo, D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of lower respiratory tract infection poses as an ongoing challenge among respiratory tract diseases. Bacterial infections are causes of acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis and indications for antibacterial therapy. Several antibiotics were applied to treat bacterial infections in chronic bronchitis, among them fluoroquinolones are considered potent, broad-spectrum agents with excellent tissue penetration. This monograph focuses on zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone agent recently approved and launched in South Korea, and summarizes the drug's antibacterial efficacy, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. Recent advances concerning fluoroquinolones in chronic bronchitis will be discussed, along with a comparison between zabofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Zabofloxacin has proved to be noninferior to moxifloxacin against major community-acquired Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory tract pathogens and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features can make it a potential antimicrobial agent in therapy of chronic bronchitis and other lower respiratory tract infections.

  7. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics » Bronchitis » Living With Chronic Bronchitis Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  8. Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient’s situation and on the hospital and city. Do Chronically Critically Ill Patients Regain the Ability ... as the patient. You may feel stress, worry, sadness, or fatigue. Some families worry about financial burdens. ...

  9. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  10. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to treat some chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Platelet apheresis Platelet apheresis is a treatment that uses a special machine ... using interferon alfa or pegylated interferon alpha . Platelet apheresis . A clinical trial of a new treatment. Check ...

  11. Chronic penile strangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  12. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and oxygen therapy Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 44. Read More Cor pulmonale Dilated cardiomyopathy Heart failure - overview Lung disease Patient ...

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CKD treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ... and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, ...

  15. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  16. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  17. Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Gérard; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired polyneuropathy presumably of immunological origin. It is characterized by a progressive or a relapsing course with predominant motor deficit. The diagnosis rests on the association of non-length-dependent predominantly motor ...

  18. Skin as a Psychoneuroendocrine Immunology Microcosm: The New Frontier of Low Dose Therapy With Cytokines and Growth Factors in the Systemic Treatment of Chronic Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases in Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the central role of signaling molecules, such as hormones, cytokines and growth factors, has become evident in both physiological and pathological processes; these signaling molecules are the main regulating effectors of whole body biological functions, in accordance with the guiding principle of psychoneuroendocrine immunology (PNEI. Low dose medicine (LDM represents an innovative medical approach in which the latest evidence in the fields of molecular biology, PNEI and nano-concentration pharmacology are merged. LDM suggests the use of low-doses of activated biological molecules in order to manage PNEI homeostasis, and this approach represents a new opportunity for the development of therapeutic strategies based on immune balancing interventions. Scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the LDM approach in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, and positive preliminary data regarding the oral administration of low dose activated cytokines for vitiligo and atopic dermatitis treatment, support the LDM-based therapeutic approach for many dermatological diseases.

  19. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-06-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3.

  20. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP. Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy, sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy, exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc. have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies.

  1. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too ... gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause ... Possible treatments include surgery to remove the tumor, medicines, and ...

  2. Microcirculation of the juvenile knee in chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bünger, Cody; Bülow, J; Tøndevold, E

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate pathogenetic factors in growth abnormalities of the knee in hemophilic arthropathy and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, the hemodynamic changes of the knee following chronic synovial inflammation and elevated joint pressure were studied in puppies. Unilateral arthritis was i....... The growth plates formed borders for the extension of these changes. The increased permeability and surface area between blood and bone in arthritis may accelerate the resorption and subsequent destruction of subchondral bone in chronic arthropathies of the juvenile knee.......In order to investigate pathogenetic factors in growth abnormalities of the knee in hemophilic arthropathy and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, the hemodynamic changes of the knee following chronic synovial inflammation and elevated joint pressure were studied in puppies. Unilateral arthritis...

  3. Tolerance and chronic rejection.

    OpenAIRE

    Womer, K. L.; Lee, R S; Madsen, J. C.; Sayegh, M H

    2001-01-01

    The most common cause of chronic allograft loss is an incompletely understood clinicopathological entity called chronic rejection (CR). Recent reports suggest an improvement in long-term renal allograft survival, although it is not clear from these data whether a true reduction of biopsy-proven CR has occurred. Although newer immunosuppressive medications have greatly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in the early post-transplantation period, the ideal therapy for both AR and CR w...

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008430 Effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WANG Haoyan(王浩彦), et al. Dept Respir Dis, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Capital Med Sci Univ, Beijing 100050. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):414-416. Objective To investigate the effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  5. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  6. Understanding chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Matthew; Burch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The key principles of chronic heart failure and the development of clinical management strategies are described. The physiological changes in chronic heart failure and the clinical management of children with heart failure are considered, but the treatment of heart failure related to congenital heart disease or the intensive care management of heart failure are not mentioned as both topics require consideration in their own right. A greater understanding of the maladaptive responses to chroni...

  7. Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Resha S; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cough remains a challenging condition, especially in cases where it persists despite comprehensive medical management. For these particular patients, there appears to be an emerging role for behavior modification therapy. We report a series of patients with refractory chronic cough to assess if there is any benefit of adding behavioral therapy to their treatment regimen. Study Design A case series with planned chart review of patients treated for chronic cough. Setting The review was performed with an outpatient electronic health record system at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods The charts of all patients treated for chronic cough by a single laryngologist over a 30-month period were analyzed. Patients' response to treatment and rate of cough improvement were assessed for those with refractory chronic cough who underwent behavior modification therapy. Results Thirty-eight patients with chronic cough were initially treated empirically for the most common causes of cough, of which 32% experienced improvement. Nineteen patients who did not significantly improve with medical management underwent behavior modification therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Of these patients, 84% experienced resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms. Conclusion Behavioral therapy may be underutilized in practice and could lead to improvement of otherwise recalcitrant cough.

  8. Effects of chronic crowding stress on growth, feeding, and behavior in Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis F2 juveniles%中华鲟幼鱼对慢性拥挤胁迫的生长、摄食及行为反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 郭柏福; 高勇

    2013-01-01

      设置低、中、高3个初始养殖密度(1 g/L、4 g/L、8 g/L),进行40 d的养殖实验,研究慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis Gray)幼鱼生长、摄食及行为的影响。研究表明,慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟的生长和摄食有显著影响,体质量、体质量特定生长率、体长特定生长率、日增重随着养殖密度的升高显著降低(P<0.05),实验结束时,高密度组肥满度显著低于中、低密度组(P<0.05);各实验组的摄食率随着养殖密度的升高而降低,饵料系数随着养殖密度的升高而升高(P<0.05)。慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟的行为也有显著的影响,随着养殖密度的增大,表现为呼吸频率、摆尾频率和游动速度显著加快等应急行为。研究结果表明高养殖密度对中华鲟的生长、摄食和行为存在显著的负面作用,不利于中华鲟幼鱼生长发育。%Chinese sturgeon(Acipenser sinensis) are an endangered anadromous species listed on the IUCN Red List. The species was characterized as a national level key protected animal of China in 1988 and fell under the protection of CITES Appendix II in 1998. Because of their perilous status, there is considerable interest in artifi-cial breeding and species conservation. To aid development of conservation breeding programs, we evaluated the effects of chronic crowding stress on growth, feeding, and behavior in F2 Chinese sturgeon. The fish were cultured at three stocking densities (low:1 g/L, medium:4 g/L, high:8 g/L) for 40 d to evaluate the influence of stocking density on growth, feeding and behavior. Density had a significant effect on growth and feeding. The body weight, growth efficiency, specific growth rate, and daily weight gain decreased significantly as stocking density increased. The feeding rate for the experimental groups also decreased as the stocking density increased and the feed conver-sion ratio increased as the

  9. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R

    1998-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies continue to provide evidence that fibromyalgia is part of a spectrum of chronic widespread pain. The prevalence of chronic widespread pain is several times higher than fibromyalgia as defined by the 1990 American College of Rheumatology guidelines. There is now compelling evidence of a familial clustering of fibromyalgia cases in female sufferers; whether this clustering results from nature or nature remains to be elucidated. A wide spectrum of fibromyalgia-associated symptomatology and syndromes continues to be described. During the past year the association with interstitial cystitis has been explored, and neurally mediated hypotension has been documented in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Abnormalities of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis have been also documented in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. The commonly reported but anecdotal association of fibromyalgia with whiplash-type neck trauma was validated in a report from Israel. However, unlike North America, 100% of Israeli patients with posttraumatic fibromyalgia returned to work. Basic research in fibromyalgia continues to pinpoint abnormal sensory processing as being integral to understanding fibromyalgia pain. Drugs such as ketamine, which block N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (which are often upregulated in central pain states) were shown to benefit fibromyalgia pain in an experimental setting. The combination of fluoxetine and amitriptyline was reported to be more beneficial than either drug alone in patients with fibromyalgia. A high prevalence of autoantibodies to cytoskeletal and nuclear envelope proteins was found in chronic fatigue syndrome, and an increased prevalence of antipolymer antibodies was found in symptomatic silicone breast implant recipients who often have fibromyalgia.

  10. Relation of Growth Rate from Birth to Three Months and Four to Six Months to Body Mass Index at Ages Four to Six Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Karp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While rapid early weight gain are common in children who become obese later in life, so is growth faltering in the first 3 months of life. Objective. We seek to determine what relationship weight gain in the first six months of age, separated into two 3-month periods, have with the BMI of children ages 4 to 6 years in an inner-city community. Subjects. A convenience sample cohort of 154 children attending an inner-city clinic. Methods. Consecutive charts were reviewed retrospectively. Age, gender, birth weight and weight change in the first and second 3 months of life were introduced as fixed factors using mixed linear models with BMI in years 4 to 6 as the dependent variable. Results. Weight change quartile in the first 3 months of life did not predict of BMI in years 4 to 6; however, weight changes quartiles during months 4 to 6 were significant predictors for subsequent overweight. Conclusion. The data presented herein suggest that, for this specific population, weight gain can be promoted when it is most essential. It is necessary, however, to identify intermediary variables that could affect outcomes in this and other communities.

  11. Pattern of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M S; Joarder, A H; Ekramuddaula, F M; Uddin, M M; Islam, M R; Habib, M A

    2012-04-01

    This observational study was conducted to know the bacteriological pattern of chronic suppurative otitis media. For this 110 patients of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) were selected from January 2006 to December 2007 at the out patient department of Otolaryngology and Head Neck surgery, BSMMU and Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka. Among the 110 patients unilateral involvement was 76.36% and bilateral involvement was 23.64%. Ninety percent patients presented with tubotympanic variety and 10% patients presented with attico-antral variety. Bacteriologically pure growth was found in 79.09% cases, mixed growth in 10.91% cases, no growth in 10% cases. Only aerobic bacteria were isolated in the present series. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism (43.68%) isolated in pure culture followed by staphylococcus aureus 27.59%, E. coli 10.35%, Kleibsiella spp. 9.19%, proteus spp. 8.04%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic followed by Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime, Cetriaxone. Before giving therapy bacterial growth and sensitivity pattern is to be known where facilities are available.

  12. PENGARUH POLA ASUH TERHADAP GANGGUAN PERTUMBUHAN BAYI SAMPAI UMUR SEMBILAN BULAN: Studi Kasus di Kecamatan Sukaraja, Kabupaten Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Triwinarto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Child Caring Practices To Infant Growth Faltering Since Birth To 9 Months Olds: A Case Study In Sub District Sukaraja, District Bogor.Introduction: Growth faltering in Indonesian infant started when they are less than six month old and continued untill they grow up. Child care including feeding pattern may as aa caused this problem.  The main factors related with growth faltering are unbalanced food consumption (macro and micro nutrient and infectious disease.Objectives: The study was aimed to assess the contribution of infant care to infant growth faltering before they reach age of nine month old. The study was designed as cohort prospective Fifty-nine babies were followed from birth until nine months old, in Sukaraja Subdistrict, Bogor Regency. Child care aspects being monitored were feeding pattern, nutrition comsumption and health care. Infant growth measured by weight and length gain, based on CDC-NCHS 2000 growth curve. Repeated measured analysis were used to evaluate when growth faltering begins. Multiple linier regressions were used to evaluate the impact of child care on infant growth.Result: The result of the study showed that child care significantly contribute infant weight gain and lenght gain when birth weight, birth length, frequency of infection, sex, age of mother, education of mother, nutrition and health knowledge of mother and ratio food to total expenditure were controlled. Growth faltering in weight due to child care starts when they reach two mothers old, and continue until nine months old. Growth faltering in length due to child care starts when they reach five months old, and continue until they the age reach nine months.Conclusions: Infant care especially during the first month of life is an important period to prevent infant from early growth faltering.Keywords: child care, feeding pattern, growth faltering 

  13. 成纤维母细胞生长因子23与慢性肾脏病患者血磷异常的研究进展%Research Progress on the Relationship between Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Disturbance of Phosphorus Metabolism in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其锋; 李莎莎(综述); 叶建明(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance of phosphorous metabolism is an independent risk factor of the prognosis in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD),and it is also the target for pharmacological intervention.Fibro-blast growth factor 23 is a recently identified hormone that regulates serum phosphorous metabolism and prin-cipally acts in the kidney to induce urinary phosphate excretion to maintain phosphate homeostasis .Fibroblast growth factor 23 is not only involved in regulating serum phosphorous metabolism under physiological condi-tion,but also related with disturbance of phosphorus metabolic in patients with CKD.Fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in CKD patients are markedly elevated in response to hyperphosphatemia ,that it indicates the phos-phorus accumulation in CKD patients.Therefore, fibroblast growth factor 23 can be a predictor for the pro-gression and prognosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism and CKD,as well as a new target in the treatment for disturbance of phosphorous metabolism in CKD patients.%磷代谢紊乱是慢性肾脏病( CKD)患者预后独立危险因素,也是药物治疗的靶点。成纤维母细胞生长因子23是新发现的调节血磷代谢的激素,它通过抑制肾脏对磷的重吸收,促进尿磷排泄,从而降低血磷。成纤维母细胞生长因子不仅参与维持生理状态下血磷的调节,也与CKD患者的磷代谢异常有关。 CKD患者的高血磷会导致成纤维母细胞生长因子23水平的明显升高,不仅反映CKD患者的血磷聚集,也是继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症及 CKD的进展、预后的一个重要预测因子,并可能成为治疗CKD患者磷代谢紊乱的新靶点。

  14. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  15. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  16. Management of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Relhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  17. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  18. Computational modeling of hypertensive growth in the human carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Pablo; Peña, Estefania; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Arterial hypertension is a chronic medical condition associated with an elevated blood pressure. Chronic arterial hypertension initiates a series of events, which are known to collectively initiate arterial wall thickening. However, the correlation between macrostructural mechanical loading, microstructural cellular changes, and macrostructural adaptation remains unclear. Here, we present a microstructurally motivated computational model for chronic arterial hypertension through smooth muscle cell growth. To model growth, we adopt a classical concept based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into an elastic part and a growth part. Motivated by clinical observations, we assume that the driving force for growth is the stretch sensed by the smooth muscle cells. We embed our model into a finite element framework, where growth is stored locally as an internal variable. First, to demonstrate the features of our model, we investigate the effects of hypertensive growth in a real human carotid artery. Our results agree nicely with experimental data reported in the literature both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Effect of rhein on transforming growth factor-β1、connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin expressions of renal tissue in rats with chronic allograft nephropathy%大黄酸对慢性移植肾肾病大鼠转化生长因子β1、结缔组织生长因子和纤维连接蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷立平; 苏健; 张鑫; 李必波; 仇莹莹; 刘丽; 李慧; 熊宁宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutical effect of rhein in rats with chronic allograft nephropathy and to elucidate its mechanism. Methodology:We used Fisher rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients to establish the model of chronic allograft nephropathy. Thirty rats with transplanting kidneys were divided into two groups: blank group for 16 rats and rhein intervention group with 14 rats. 5 lewis rats with right kidney removed were as controls. The blood and urine sample were collected at 4th, 8th and 16th week after transplantation for the examinations of renal function and total urine protein. The half of rats in each group was killed at 8th and 16th week for the renal histological examination. Immunohistochemical determination and real-time PCR were performed to detect the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor( CTGF), fibronectin on renal tissue. Results: (1) The rhein intervention group was significantly different from black group. The improved renal functions and significantly reduced the grade of renal fibrosis and interstitial inflammation were found after rhein intervention. (2) The expressions of CTGF as well as fibronectin were markedly decreased in renal tissue of rhein intervention group.Conclusion:The rhein can improve renal functions and reduce the grade of renal fibrosis and interstitial inflammation,which may associate with that rhein plays a role in anti-inflammation and anti-fibrosis.%目的:探讨中药大黄酸对大鼠慢性移植肾肾病(CAN)模型肾功能、组织学、转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)、结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)和纤维连接蛋白(FN)表达的影响.方法:F344近交系大鼠为供体、Lewis近交系大鼠为受体,左肾原位肾移植,建立30只CAN大鼠模型.将30只移植大鼠分成模型组(16只)和大黄酸治疗组(14只);在移植后1月、2月及4月分别收集大鼠的血、尿标本,检测肾功能及尿蛋白定量.移植后2月及4月分别宰

  20. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  1. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  2. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab...... with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines.......Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...

  3. c-fos与c-jun癌蛋白在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面联合表达的特征与意义%Expression of oncoproteins c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨c-fos与c-jun两种原癌基因产物在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面表达的特征与规律以及与不同组织修复结局发生的关系。 方法 16例标本均取自于外科手术患者,其中增生性瘢痕8例,溃疡创面8例,另有正常对照皮肤5例取自增生性瘢痕患者作为对照。用免疫组化法(ABC法)检测c-fos与c-jun两种癌蛋白以及bFGF在三种组织切片的分布特征。 结果在正常皮肤c-fos与c-jun的阳性表达主要见于表皮基底细胞和少量皮下成纤维细胞,但在相应部位c-jun的表达较c-fos为弱。在增生性瘢痕,c-fos与c-jun均出现强阳性表达,主要见于成纤维细胞。在溃疡组织,c-fos与c-jun的联合表达多见于毛细血管内皮细胞、部分炎症细胞以及成纤维细胞胞浆。 结论增生性瘢痕与溃疡创面c-fos与c-jun表达量与部位同正常皮肤存在显著差异,提示这两种原癌基因产物在影响和调控组织修复中有重要作用。%Objective To explore the characteristics of oncoprotein expression of c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods Tissues of hypertrophic scars (n=8), chronic dermal ulcers (n=8) and normal skin (n=5) were taken from 21 patients with burns and chronic dermal ulcers in operation. The ABC immunohistochemical method was used to characterize the gene product expression of c-fos, c-jun and bFGF in the above tissues. Results In normal skin, both c-fos and c-jun protein expression and bFGF protein expression were observed. The signals of both oncoproteins were localized mainly in subcutaneous fibroblasts, but, positive expression of the bFGF protein was mainly in keratinocytes. In hypertrophic scars, positive expression of both oncoproteins could be found mainly in fibroblasts, but bFGF was mainly in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In chronic dermal ulcers, endothelial cells, some

  4. 动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血后慢性脑积水与TGF-β1的关系及相关多因素分析%Association of chronic hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with transforming growth factor-β1 levels and other risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞; 袁文; 廖达光; 张天一; 王知非

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels and other risk factors in the occurrence of chronic hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods Patients treated for aSAH in our hospital between January, 2007 and June, 2012 were divided into non-hydrocephalus group and hydrocephalus group. TGF-β1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compared between the two groups at different time points. A retrospective analysis was conducted to identify the potential risk factors for chronic hydrocephalus, which were subsequently confirmed by Logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 129 patients enrolled, 16 (12.4%) developed chronic hydrocephalic with an average diagnosis time of 31.6±17.0 days. In patients with chronic hydrocephalus, TGF-β1 level in the CSF increased significantly on the 13th day following aSAH (P<0.05). Retrospective analysis showed that the patients with hydrocephalus and those without had significant differences in history of hypertension, times of SAH, Hunt-Hess classification, ventricular expansion, aneurysm position, Fisher classification, ventricular hemorrhage score and intracranial infections (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified ventricular expansion, aneurysm position, Fisher classification, ventricular hemorrhage score and postoperative intracranial infections as significant risk factors for the occurrence of chronic hydrocephalus (P<0.05). Conclusions In adult patients with aSAH, the risk factors for chronic hydrocephalus include ventricular expansion, aneurysm position, Fisher classification, ventricular hemorrhage score and postoperative intracranial infections. These risk factors can have greater clinical value than TGF-β1 levels in the CSF in predicting the occurrence of chronic hydrocephalus following aSAH.%目的 探讨脑脊液中转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)浓度及其他临床因素在成年动脉瘤性蛛网膜下腔出血(aSAH)后慢性脑

  5. Complementary feeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old.

  6. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Nandy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor (IGF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF, and transforming growth factor (TGF in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  7. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata, E-mail: mukhopadhyay.debabrata@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-02-24

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  8. [Histaminergic angioedema and chronic urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacard, Florence; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bensaid, Benoit; Nicolas, Jean-François; Augey, Frédéric; Goujon, Catherine; Bérard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most angioedemas are histaminergic and correspond to deep urticarial swelling. Recurrent histaminergic angioedema led to the diagnosis of chronic urticaria, even when there are no superficial associated hives. Chronic urticaria is a benign disease, and autoimmune in 40 % of cases. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is not a sign of severity. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is associated with a longer duration of urticarial disease. NSAIDs and/or systemic corticotherapy are classic triggers of angioedema in chronic urticaria. In the absence of clinical endpoints, there is no need to make further assessment in chronic urticaria good responders to antihistamines.

  9. Recent research on the growth plate: Impact of inflammatory cytokines on longitudinal bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederquist, Bettina; Fernandez-Vojvodich, Paola; Zaman, Farasat; Sävendahl, Lars

    2014-08-01

    Children with inflammatory diseases usually display abnormal growth patterns as well as delayed puberty. This is a result of several factors related to the disease itself, such as malnutrition, hypercortisolism, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These factors in combination with glucocorticoid treatment contribute to growth retardation during chronic inflammation by systemically affecting the major regulator of growth, the GH/IGF1 axis. However, recent studies have also shown evidence of a direct effect of these factors at the growth plate level. In conditions of chronic inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated and released into the circulation. The most abundant of these, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL1β), and IL6, are all known to directly act on growth plate cartilage to induce apoptosis and thereby suppress bone growth. Both clinical and experimental studies have shown that growth retardation can partly be rescued when these cytokines are blocked. Therefore, therapy modulating the local actions of these cytokines may be effective for preventing growth failure in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we report the current knowledge of inflammatory cytokines and their role in regulating bone growth.

  10. Growth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6 to 10.2 centimeters) per year. Recently, growth hormone treatment has been approved for some kids and teens ... treated. Girls with Turner syndrome can benefit from growth hormone and estrogen therapy. Thyroid medication can be help restore a normal ...

  11. Nutritional Status in Children with Chronic Renal Failure on Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Hassan, Mona Mamdouh; Bazaraa, Hafez Mahmoud; Ahmed, Hany Fathy; Mahmoud Badr, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Growth retardation is still an important manifestation of children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the growth in relation to nutritional status in Egyptian children with CRF on hemodialysis.Subjects and Methods: The study included 30 Egyptian children above the age of six years on regular haemodialysis at the Haemodialysis Unit of the Centre of Pediatric Nephrology and Transplantation of Cairo University. Anthropometry, biochemical pa...

  12. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  14. The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Bente K

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and tumour growth. Regular exercise offers protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, breast cancer, and dementia. Evidence suggests that the protective...

  15. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  16. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  17. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke;

    2016-01-01

    strategies for acetaminophen use in chronic pain in both Embase and PubMed, 1,551 hits were obtained. Following cross-reference searches of both trials and 38 reviews, seven studies comparing acetaminophen in continuous dosing regimens of more than two weeks with placebo were included. The review...

  18. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs...

  19. Diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J;

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) incorporates symptomatic and endo- scopic criteria in the clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), while in epidemiological studies the definition is based on symptoms only. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...

  20. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedman, Jan; van Weissenbruch, Ranny

    2005-01-01

    We report what is, to our best knowledge, the first case of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) in which the frontal and sphenoid bones were involved. Characterized by a prolonged and fluctuating course of osteomyelitis at different sites, CRMO is self-limited, although sequelae can oc

  1. CHRONIC PROBLEM FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, EDWARD

    THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…

  2. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  3. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the feet and ankles Causes & Risk FactorsWhat causes CKD?The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. ... caused by CKD.How else is CKD treated?Chronic kidney disease can cause other problems. Talk with your doctor about how ...

  4. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  5. Nutritional catch-up growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Pando, Rakefet; Phillip, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition, marked by variant nutrient deficiencies, is considered a leading cause of stunted growth worldwide. In developing countries, malnutrition is caused mainly by food shortage and infectious diseases. Malnutrition may also be found in the developed world, where it is due mostly to prematurity, chronic diseases, and anorexia nervosa. In most cases, when food consumption is corrected, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth occurs. However, CU growth is not always complete, leading to growth deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that govern this process. Using a rat model of food restriction followed by refeeding, we established a nutrition-induced CU growth model. Levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found to significantly decrease when food was restricted and to increase already 1 day after refeeding. Gene expression analysis of the growth plate revealed that food restriction specifically affects transcription factors such as the hypoxia inducible factor-1 and its downstream targets on the one hand, and global gene expression, indicating epigenetic regulation, on the other. Food restriction also reduced the level of several microRNAs, including the chondrocyte-specific miR-140, which led to an increase in its target, SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These findings may explain the global changes in gene expression observed under nutritional manipulation. We suggest that multiple levels of regulation, including transcription factors, epigenetic mechanisms, and microRNAs respond to nutritional cues and offer a possible explanation for some of the effects of food restriction on epiphyseal growth plate growth. The means whereby these components sense changes in nutritional status are still unknown. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in growth may pave the way for the development of new treatments for children with growth disorders.

  6. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  7. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ...

  8. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  10. Chronic pneumonia due to Klebsiella oxytoca mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Kamal; Roshan, Rahul; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Shah, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella species infrequently cause acute community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The chronic form of the disease caused by K. pneumoniae (Friedlander's bacillus) was occasionally seen in the pre-antibiotic era. K. oxytoca is a singularly uncommon cause of CAP. The chronic form of the disease caused by K. oxytoca has been documented only once before. A 50-year-old immunocompetent male smoker presented with haemoptysis for 12 months. Imaging demonstrated a cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe with emphysematous changes. Sputum stains and cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative. However, three sputum samples for aerobic culture as well as bronchial aspirate cultured pure growth of K. oxytoca. A diagnosis of chronic pneumonia due to K. oxytoca was established and with appropriate therapy, the patient was largely asymptomatic. The remarkable clinical and radiological similarity to pulmonary tuberculosis can result in patients with chronic Klebsiella pneumonia erroneously receiving anti-tuberculous therapy.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC), strep...

  12. ESPEN guidelines on chronic intestinal failure in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pironi, L; Arends, J.; Bozzetti, F.; Cuerda, C.; Gillanders, L.; Jeppesen, P.B.; Joly, F.; Kelly, D.; Lal, S.; Staun, M.; Szczepanek, K.; Gossum, A. van; Wanten, G.J.A.; Schneider, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic Intestinal Failure (CIF) is the long-lasting reduction of gut function, below the minimum necessary for the absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes, such that intravenous supplementation is required to maintain health and/or growth. CIF is the rarest org

  13. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  14. Growth Stimulants

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Nyle J.

    1989-01-01

    A tiny pellet inserted under the skin of a calf's ear may increase weight gains as much as 15 to 20 percent. This same result would take years to accomplish through breeding and selection. These tiny pellets are growth stimulants. They are made of hormones that are constructed to slowly release minute amounts into the blood stream that stimulate the animal to produce natural body hormones. One of these hormones is a growth hormone. It regulates the rate of growth of the animal. Increasing the...

  15. Possible Biomarkers of Chronic Stress Induced Exhaustion - A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Wallensten

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 have previously been suggested to be potential biomarkers for chronic stress induced exhaustion. The knowledge about VEGF has increased during the last decades and supports the contention that VEGF plays an important role in stress and depression. There is scarce knowledge on the possible relationship of EGF and MCP-1 in chronic stress and depression. This study further examines the role of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and healthy women during a follow-up period of two years.Blood samples were collected from 105 women with chronic stress induced exhaustion on at least 50% sick leave for at least three months, at inclusion (T0, after 12 months (T12 and after 24 months (T24. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (T0 in 116 physically and psychiatrically healthy women. The plasma levels of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 were analyzed using Biochip Array Technology. Women with chronic stress induced exhaustion had significantly higher plasma levels of VEGF and EGF compared to healthy women at baseline, T12 and at T24. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MCP-1. Plasma levels of VEGF and EGF decreased significantly in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion during the two years follow-up.The replicated findings of elevated levels of VEGF and EGF in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and decreasing plasma levels of VEGF and EGF during the two years follow-up add important knowledge to the pathophysiology of chronic stress induced exhaustion.

  16. CHANGE OF GROWTH HORMONE AND INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS AXIS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN CHRONIC VIRUS B HEPATITIS AND CIRRHOSIS%慢性乙肝患者生长激素-胰岛素样生长因子轴的变化及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄真; 赵三江; 周俊英; 刘金星; 李兵顺

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性乙型肝炎(慢性乙肝)和肝硬化患者生长激素-胰岛素样生长因子轴(growth hormone -insulin-like growth factor axis,GH-IGF)的变化及其临床意义.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附法检测39例慢性乙肝、37例乙肝肝硬化及12例健康献血者血清胰岛素样生长因子1(insulin-like growth factor-1,IGF-1)和胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白-3(insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3,IGFBP-3),采用RIA法检测血清生长激素(growth hormone,GH).其中26例肝组织标本行IGF-1的免疫组织化学染色,并采用多媒体彩色图文分析系统进行图像定量分析.结果 ①慢性乙肝和肝硬化患者血清GH水平较正常对照组显著升高(P<0.05),而血清IGF-1和IGFBP-3水平明显下降(P<0.05);②慢性肝炎组随着炎症活动度的增加血清GH水平升高,血清IGF-1和IGFBP-3水平逐渐降低(P<0.05),肝硬化组随着肝功能代偿能力的减退血清GH水平升高,血清IGF-1和IGFBP-3水平明显下降(P<0.05);③G1~G4组肝组织IGF-1的表达较G0组增加(P<0.05),但G1~G4组之间无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 慢性乙肝和肝硬化患者GH-IGF轴发生显著性变化,存在GH抵抗现象.血清GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3水平在一定程度上反映肝细胞的炎症坏死程度及肝脏合成储备功能.

  17. Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myeloid Leukemia (CML) Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase Treatment options for people ... a stem cell donor with matching tissue type. Chronic phase The standard treatment for chronic phase CML ...

  18. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ready-to-feed formula. When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your health care provider if you are concerned about your child's growth. Medical evaluations are important even if you think developmental ...

  19. Ambulatory management of chronic hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Mary; Rueda, Jose; Caughey, Aaron B

    2012-09-01

    Chronic hypertension in pregnancy is one of the most common medical diseases affecting pregnancy. It is associated with serious maternal and fetal complications, including superimposed pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, premature delivery, placental abruption, and stillbirth. Baseline evaluation as early as possible is important to differentiate women with essential hypertension from those with severe hypertension, coexisting end-organ damage, and secondary causes of hypertension, as their risks of poor outcomes are increased. An optimal plan for maternal treatment and fetal surveillance can then be formulated. Coordination of care after delivery is important for long-term maternal health and future pregnancies.

  20. Maintaining Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's GDP grew 9.2 percent in 2011,a remarkable achievement outshining many other countries.However,the current condition of the national economy is less than appealing.The sequential quarterly GDP growth rates for 2011 stood at 9.7 percent,9.5 percent,9.1 percent and 8.9 percent,showing a trend of deceleration.A consensus has been made that stabilizing growth should be the primary goal for China's economic development.

  1. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  2. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Azulay, J-P; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2010-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a demyelinating chronic neuropathy of immune origin whose diagnosis is based upon clinical, biological and electrophysiological data; previously critical to the diagnosis the nerve biopsy is now restricted to the rare situations where accurate diagnosis cannot be reached using these data alone. CIDP are mainly idiopathic, but a few associated diseases must be sought for as they require specific attention. Such associated diseases must particularly be discussed when the manifestations are severe or resistant to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive agents. Indeed, idiopathic CIDP are usually responsive to these treatments. The effectiveness of these treatments is limited by the importance of the secondary axonal loss. The dependence or the resistance may sometimes justify the association of several immunomodulating treatments. A single randomized controlled trial support the use of cytotoxic drugs and none with rituximab.

  3. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  4. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors...... are associated with the retreatment of bCSDH with a focus on surgical laterality. METHODS In a national database of CSDHs (Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study) the authors retrospectively identified all bCSDHs treated in the 4 Danish neurosurgical departments over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2012....... Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between retreatment of bCSDH and clinical, radiological, and surgical variables. RESULTS Two hundred ninety-one patients with bCSDH were identified, and 264 of them underwent unilateral (136 patients) or bilateral (128 patients...

  5. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  6. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  7. Chronic Stress and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    to the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist HU-210 following chronic stress. European Journal of Pharmacology, 499(3), 291-295. Holscher, C. (1999...learning and memory, has the highest concentration of GC receptors in the brain and is involved in the stress response. Extensive research has... receptor levels than stressed male rodents (Konkle, 2003; Figueiredo, 2002; Handa, 1994). Males and females react to stress differently, so two models

  8. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  9. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  10. Back pain during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Carol C

    2013-01-08

    increase of lumbar lordosis, flattening of the thoracic spine and retroflexion of the pelvis with hamstrings contractures are strong signs for a grade IV olisthesis or spondyloptosis with subsequent lumbosacral kyphosis. Idiopathic scoliosis is not related to pain unless it is a marked (thoraco-) lumbar curve or if there is an underlying spinal cord pathology. Chronic back pain is an under recognised entity characterised by its duration (>3 months or recurrence within 3 months) and its social impacts such as isolation and absence from school or work. It represents an independent disease, uncoupled from any initial trigger. Multimodal therapeutic strategies are more successful than isolated, somatising orthopaedic treatment. Primary and secondary preventive active measures for the physically passive adolescents, regular sports medical check-up's for the young high level athletes, the awareness for the rare but potentially disastrous pathologies and the recognition of chronic pain syndromes are the cornerstones for successful treatment of back pain during growth.

  11. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Nedim Yuceturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a chronic syndrome that effects men with a wide range of age. The etiology, natural history and appropriate therapy models are still unclear. According to the classification of National Institutes of Health; 4 types of prostatitis were defined; acute bacterial prostatitis (category I, chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (category III and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV.Since microorganisms can only be isolated from a small percent of patients, empiric treatment is given to the most of the men. Multidisciplinary approach to the patients with suspected chronic prostatitis will help clinicians to play an active role in the treatment and prevent unnecessary medical therapies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 691-702

  12. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  13. Biochemical response to chronic shortening in unloaded soleus muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Fagan, J. M.; Tischler, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    One leg of tail-casted suspended rats was immobilized in a plantar-flexed position to test whether chronic shortening of posterior leg muscles affected the metabolic response to unloading. The immobilized plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles of these animals showed approximately 20 percent loss of muscle mass in contrast to simply a slower growth rate with unloading. Loss of mass of the soleus muscle during suspension was not accentuated by chronic shortening. Although protein degradation in the isolated soleus muscle of the plantar-flexed limb was slightly faster than in the contralateral free limb, this difference was offset by faster synthesis of the myofibrillar protein fraction of the chronically shortened muscle. Total adenine nucleotides were 17 percent lower (P less than 0.005) in the chronically shortened soleus muscle following incubation. Glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism showed little response to chronic shortening. These results suggest that, in the soleus muscle, chronic shortening did not alter significantly the metabolic responses to unloading and reduced activity.

  14. Approaching chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient's daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker's cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis.

  15. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Rigoberto; Bahna, Sami L

    2014-08-01

    Cough is probably the most common cause of seeking medical care in pediatric practice. Most acute cough is caused by infection and usually resolves within less than 4 weeks. If it lasts longer, it is considered chronic and deserves investigation to identify the underlying cause, which can be almost any of a wide variety of illnesses of the respiratory tract and certain extrathoracic conditions. This review provides an optimal approach for diagnosis through a skillful history taking, physical examination, and selection of appropriate tests.

  16. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  17. Treatment Strategies for Chronic Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Lord

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic somatic pain, including pain referred to the head, neck, shoulder girdle and upper limb from somatic structures, is addressed. Levels of evidence for the various treatments that have been prescribed for chronic whiplash associated disorders are considered. The challenge to find a treatment strategy for chronic pain after whiplash that completely relieves the condition and prevents its sequelae is reviewed.

  18. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  20. Expression of the SOCS family in human chronic wound tissues: Potential implications for SOCS in chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Sanders, Andrew J; Ruge, Fiona; Morris, Ceri-Ann; Harding, Keith G; Jiang, Wen G

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines play important roles in the wound healing process through various signalling pathways. The JAK-STAT pathway is utilised by most cytokines for signal transduction and is regulated by a variety of molecules, including suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins. SOCS are associated with inflammatory diseases and have an impact on cytokines, growth factors and key cell types involved in the wound‑healing process. SOCS, a negative regulator of cytokine signalling, may hold the potential to regulate cytokine‑induced signalling in the chronic wound‑healing process. Wound edge tissues were collected from chronic venous leg ulcer patients and classified as non-healing and healing wounds. The expression pattern of seven SOCSs members, at the transcript and protein level, were examined in these tissues using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Significantly higher levels of SOCS3 (P=0.0284) and SOCS4 (P=0.0376) in non-healing chronic wounds compared to the healing/healed chronic wounds were observed at the transcript level. Relocalisation of SOCS3 protein in the non-healing wound environment was evident in the investigated chronic biopsies. Thus, the results show that the expression of SOCS transcript indicated that SOCS members may act as a prognostic biomarker of chronic wounds.

  1. Understanding Biofilms in Chronic Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Schwartz, Joseph S; Palmer, James N

    2016-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a burdensome disease that has substantial individual and societal impact. Although great advances in medical and surgical therapies have been made, some patients continue to have recalcitrant infections. Microbial biofilms have been implicated as a cause of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis, and recent studies have tried to better understand the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis as it relates to microbial biofilms. Here, we provide an overview of biofilms in chronic sinusitis with emphasis on pathogenesis, treatment, and future directions. In addition, recent evidence is presented, elucidating the role of bitter taste receptors as a possible key factor leading to biofilm formation.

  2. Diagnostic dilemmas in chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubi, E; Grattan, C; Zuberbier, T

    2015-06-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN)/European Dermatology Forum (EDF)/World Allergy Organization (WAO) recently published updated recommendations for the classification, diagnosis and management of chronic urticaria (CU). This article discusses several cases of CU that provide examples of how the recommendations in the guidelines can be implemented in the diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) (also called chronic idiopathic urticaria [CIU]), chronic inducible urticaria (CINDU) or CU with comorbidities.

  3. Adjusting Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    How does China's approach to economic growth differ from that of the United States? In the context of economic globalization, how can China and the United States establish win-win relations? Focusing on these questions, People's Daily Online Washington-based correspondent Yong Tang recently interviewed Paul A Samuelson, professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Robert Mundell, professor of international economics at Columbia University, both of whom are Nobel Prize Laureate...

  4. [monitoring Growth].

    OpenAIRE

    Zeferino, Angélica M B; Barros Filho, Antonio A.; BETTIOL, Heloisa; Barbieri,Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    To present concepts related to growth assessment, with emphasis on aspects concerning the evaluation of individuals. The present paper is based on reports published by the WHO regarding the use anthropometry for the assessment of nutritional status; on original articles; and on book chapters about the same topic, as well as on the criticisms of auxologists of this type of assessment when employed at the individual level. Concepts concerning reference, skeletal maturity, mid-parental target he...

  5. 环氧合酶-2和血管内皮细胞生长因子与慢性乙型肝炎肝窦毛细血管化的关系%Relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor with liver sinusoidal capillarization of chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于莉; 许建明; 严家春; 马勇; 徐长江

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vas-culax endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with liver sinusnidal capillarization (LSC) of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods We studied liver biopsies from 200 patients with CHB COX-2 ,VEGF immunohistochemical stain were ob-served to accomplish relationship between expression of COX-2,VEGF and LSC. Results LSC occupy above 80% in the group. There were manifestation in mild-LSC (focal) , middle-LSC (sheet-shape) and severe-LSC (widespread). Electron microscope shown the laceration in the endothelium of sinuses and formation of basal lamina and budding for-mation lumen of blood vessel and fat-storing cell convert myofibroblast. Expression of COX-2, VEGF, Co-Ⅳ and retic-ulum, collagen and elastic fibers with mild or severe in LSC is manifest locking relate. Conclusion Increased ex-pression of COX-2 ,VEGF in liver tissue of CHB may facilitate LSC and hepatic fibrosis.%目的 探讨环氧合酶-2(COX-2)和血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)表达与慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)肝窦毛细血管化(LSC)的关系.方法 对200例CHB肝样本作COX-2、VEGF免疫组织化学染色,就其表达变化与LSC的关系进行观察.结果 LSC占该组病例80%以上,有轻(灶性)、中(片状)、重度(弥漫)表现.电镜示肝窦内皮撕裂,基膜形成,窦内皮细胞出芽形成血管腔,贮脂细胞转化肌成纤维细胞,COX-2、VEGF、Ⅳ型胶原(Co-Ⅳ)及网状、胶原、弹力纤维表达与LSC的轻重程度呈同步关系.结论 肝组织COX-2、VEGF表达增强可促进LSC及肝纤维化.

  6. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%肝细胞生长因子在阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征合并慢性阻塞性肺病的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鄂洪; 朱美英; 施毅; 宋勇; 赵蓓蕾

    2013-01-01

    目的 肝细胞生长因子(hepatocyte growth factor,HGF)是潜在的肺泡细胞促有丝分裂因子,可促进损伤肺泡细胞的修复.文中旨在研究HGF血清表达水平和阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome,OSAHS)合并慢性阻塞性肺病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者缺氧程度的关系.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定单纯OSAHS组(n=32)、OSAHS合并COPD组(n=46)、对照组(n=30)血清HGF的水平,分析血清HGF水平与呼吸紊乱指数(apnea hypopnea index,AHI)、最低血氧饱和度(lowest SatO2,LSatO2 )和COPD严重度的相关性.结果 OSAHS组、OSAHS合并COPD组血清HGF水平较健康对照组明显升高(P<0.05);OSAHS合并COPD组血清HGF水平明显高于OSAHS组(P<0.05);OSAHS亚组间比较,中度组与重度组血清HGF水平均较轻度组明显升高(P<0.05),重度组较中度组升高但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);OSAHS合并COPD组间比较,重度COPD组较中度COPD组、轻度COPD组血清HGF水平均显著升高(P<0.05).OSAHS组血清HGF水平与AHI正相关(r=0.387,P<0.05),与LSatO2负相关(r=-0.362,P<0.05).结论 OSAHS患者、OSAHS合并COPD患者血清HGF水平升高,且HGF增高程度与OSAHS及COPD严重程度相关.HGF的表达与慢性缺氧成具有相关性.

  7. Growth failure in children with renal disease : incidence, pathophysiology, new perspectives with growth hormone therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractStunted growth is a serious problem for children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Advances in the treatment of renal insufficiency, including dialysis and renal transplantation, have greatly improved the survival rate for these patients. Consequently the failure to grow has become

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease: Highlights for the General Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease in the pediatric population has been increasing. Early detection and treatment can slow down the progression of kidney disease and help prevent the development of end stage renal disease. In addition, as the kidney function declines, there are many pathophysiologic interactions with other organ systems that need to be monitored and treated. In particular, because of impaired vitamin D metabolism, calcium and phosphorus homeostasis is dysregulated and results in secondary bone disease. Anemia is common due to a number of factors including impaired erythropoietin production. Growth is often impacted by chronic kidney disease but can be improved by proper treatment. Complications of chronic kidney disease can be minimized by proper monitoring and treatment of these parameters. The general pediatrician plays a critical role in this process.

  9. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  10. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  12. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  13. [Histopathologic study of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayoff, M; Parache, R M; Bodelet, B; Gazel, P

    1983-01-01

    The conventional histopathology of the sinus is a criterium for the therapeutic indication, since it is possible to distinguish between granulomatous chronic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis with oedema and nasal polyposis. Each one of these clinical pictures has his own etiology and requires a specific therapeutic approach.

  14. [Chronic pyelonephritis in polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Monov, A

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of chronic pyelonephritis are studied in 37 patients out of a total of 53 patients with proved renal polycystosis. A group of 71 patients with chronic pyelonephritis selected at random are used as a control group. The frequency of chronic pyelonephritis among the patients with renal polycystosis is 69.8%. The difference between the mean age of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and the patients with renal polycystosis without chronic pyelonephritis is 8.6 years. A significant difference is established between these two groups of patients concerning the frequency of symptomatic hypertension--89.2% for the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and 45% for the patients with uncomplicated renal polycystosis. A similar difference is established also for the renal failure--respectively 64.9% and 37.5%. The frequency of hypertension and chronic renal failure is lower in the control group of patients. 59% of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis have significant bacteriuria, E. coli and Proteus being the most frequently isolated bacteria but Pseudomonas shows the highest drug resistance. The isolated bacteria are most sensitive to nitroxoline and aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term that is used to include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or a combination of both conditions. Asthma is also a disease where it is difficult ... with COPD to also have some degree of asthma. What is chronic ... back to their original size. In emphysema, the walls of some of the alveoli have ...

  16. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  17. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years....... Eighty-five investigators reached by email. Proposed criteria were in the format of the International Classification of Headache Disorders III-beta (description, criteria, notes, comments and references). Following this evaluation eight drafts were prepared before the final. Twenty-four (28...

  18. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  19. Chronic hypophosphatemic osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, B.; Schmid, L.; Hofmann, E.; Sauer, E.

    1980-07-01

    The process of chronic hypophosphatemic vitamine D-resistant rickets is described by observation of two cases. With the male patient - our first case - the disease was sporadic and had not been recognized for a long time. In his early adulthood it manifested itself as Umbauzonen (pseudofractures) in the larger context of active osteomalacia. It was possible to observe the pseudofractures before and while the patient was medicamentously treated. High doses of vitamine D 3 and dosage of phosphate mitigated the complaints although with respect to the radiological, scintigraphical, humoral and histological findings there was only slow improvement or no improvement at all. The patient's daughter is affected by the disease as well. In her case the pathological signs of her bones became better when treated with vitamine D 3.

  20. Chronic endometritis and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE. PMID:28090456

  1. Efecto diferencial de la intoxicación crónica por aflatoxina B1 en el crecimiento y en la incidencia de lesiones hepáticas en truchas diploides y triploides (Oncorhynchus mykiss Differential effect of chronic aflatoxin B1 intoxication on the growth performance and incidence of hepatic lesions in triploid and diploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARANA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue comparar el crecimiento y la incidencia de lesiones hepáticas en truchas triploides y diploides tratadas con aflatoxina B1(AFB1. 240 truchas fueron divididas en 4 grupos: DC: truchas diploides alimentadas con ración sin AFB1; TC: truchas triploides alimentadas con ración sin AFB1; DT: truchas tratadas con ración con 80 ppb de AFB1 y TT: truchas triploides alimentadas con ración con 80 ppb de AFB1. Durante doce meses, mensualmente, cinco ejemplares de cada grupo fueron anestesiados y sacrificados. Con posteiroridad a la obtención del peso y medición del tamaño de los pesces, muestras hepáticas fueron fijadas en solución de formalina salina 10% y procesadas para análisis histopatológico. El análisis comparativo del rendimiento en crecimiento indicaron diferencias significativas entre truchas diploides del grupo control y del tratado, sugiriendo que AFB1 afecta el crecimiento de las truchas diploides. En truchas triploides no se observaron diferencias entre pesces del grupo control y los pesces tratados. El análisis histopatológico señaló que truchas triploides son más resistentes a AFB1, ya que ambos grupos tratados presentaron lesiones preneoplásicas, sin embargo, el grupo TT demostró menor incidencia de lesiones e igualmente un desarrollo más lento de las mismas. En cuanto a la ocurrencia de neoplasia, en el grupo DT 4 pesces desarrolaron carcinoma hepatocelular en el último trimestre del experimento, mientras que ningún animal triploide desarrolló lesión neoplásicaTriploid trout has been considered to be more resistant than diploid trout to many diseases and to some adverse aquaculture conditions. Considering the common problems with animal food contamination by aflatoxins, the purpose of this research was to compare the incidence of liver lesions and growth performance in triploid and diploid trout (O. mykiss exposed to chronic contamination with aflatoxin B1. A total of 240

  2. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W.; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential

  3. Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M E

    1993-11-01

    No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.

  4. [Conservative therapy of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe

    2012-01-01

    The chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as chronic inflammation of the nose and nasal sinuses, with or without nasal polyps. Patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis report about nasal obstruction and secretion, olfactory impairment, head and facial pain. These symptoms cause also considerable impact on quality of life. Therefore, an adequate rhinological diagnostics as well as therapies are essential. This paper reviews the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis. First choice of therapy should be topical glucocorticoids. The application of glucocorticoids causes anti-inflammatory and certain curative effects. Hypertonic salt solutions improve nasal symptoms. Long-term therapy with oral macrolides might improve median to severe symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. An additional therapy with antihistamines is possible in patients with an allergy. Adaptive desensitization in patients suffering from analgesic-intolerance associating among other with nasal polyps is currently the single causal therapy. Therefore, frequency of endonasal revision surgery is reduced after desensitization.

  5. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  6. Microbial Biofilms and Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Amin; Wright, J. Barry; Schultz, Gregory; Burrell, Robert; Nadworny, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background is provided on biofilms, including their formation, tolerance mechanisms, structure, and morphology within the context of chronic wounds. The features of biofilms in chronic wounds are discussed in detail, as is the impact of biofilm on wound chronicity. Difficulties associated with the use of standard susceptibility tests (minimum inhibitory concentrations or MICs) to determine appropriate treatment regimens for, or develop new treatments for use in, chronic wounds are discussed, with alternate test methods specific to biofilms being recommended. Animal models appropriate for evaluating biofilm treatments are also described. Current and potential future therapies for treatment of biofilm-containing chronic wounds, including probiotic therapy, virulence attenuation, biofilm phenotype expression attenuation, immune response suppression, and aggressive debridement combined with antimicrobial dressings, are described. PMID:28272369

  7. Chronic multifocal non-bacterial osteomyelitis in hypophosphatasia mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warmuth-Metz Monika

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypophosphatasia (HP is characterized by a genetic defect in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP gene and predominantly an autosomal recessive trait. HP patients suffer from reduced bone mineralization. Biochemically, elevated concentrations of substrates of TNSALP, including pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and inorganic pyrophosphate occur in serum, tissues and urine. The latter has been associated with chronic inflammation and hyperprostaglandinism. Case presentation We report on 2 affected children presenting with multifocal inflammatory bone lesions mimicking malignancy: A 6 years old girl with short stature had been treated with human growth hormone since 6 months. Then she started to complain about a painful swelling of her left cheek. MRI suggested a malignant bone lesion. Bone biopsy, however, revealed chronic inflammation. A bone scan showed a second rib lesion. Since biopsy was sterile, the descriptive diagnosis of chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO was established. The diagnostic tests related to growth failure were repeated and subsequent analyses demonstrated a molecular defect in the TNSALP gene. The second girl (10 years old complained about back pain after she had fallen from her bike. X rays of her spine revealed compressions of 2 thoracic vertebrae. At first these were considered trauma related, however a bone scan did show an additional lesion in the right 4th rib. A biopsy of this rib revealed a sterile lympho- plasmocytoid osteomyelitis suggesting multifocal CNO. Further analyses did show a decreased TNSALP in leukocytes and elevated pyridoxal phosphate in plasma, suggesting a heterozygous carrier status of HP. Conclusion Chronic bone oedema in adult HP and chronic hyper-prostaglandinism in childhood HP do suggest that in some HP patients bone inflammation is present in conjunction with the metabolic defect. Sterile multifocal osteomyelitis could be demonstrated. Non-steroidal anti

  8. Scientific Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  9. [Parenteral iron therapy in chronic kidney disease or chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenga, Michele F; Diepenbroek, Adry; Swinkels, Dorine W; Bakker, Stephan J L; van der Meer, Peter; Gaillard, Carlo A J M

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anaemia occur frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or chronic heart failure (CHF) and are associated with lower quality of life and higher mortality. Treating anaemia with erythropoietic growth factors produces no improvement. In recent years, the focus has therefore shifted to correction of iron deficiency. Chronic inflammation in CKD increases the production of hepcidin, which blocks iron absorption from the intestine and leads to less efficient re-use of iron from the macrophages. In absolute iron deficiency the body's iron stores are depleted, whereas in functional iron deficiency the supply of iron is not sufficient to meet demand from the bone marrow. Normal or high ferritin levels do not exclude iron deficiency at tissue level. The iron saturation fraction is a more useful indicator. Parenteral iron therapy ameliorates in CHF the symptoms of iron deficiency, irrespective of the effect on haemoglobin levels. The long-term effects of intravenous iron on mortality and morbidity are still unknown.

  10. Matthias Falter und die frühe Halbleitertechnik in der DDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Frank

    Nach einer ganzen Reihe von Vorarbeiten weltweit1 konnten im Dezember 1947 die amerikanischen Physiker Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen und William Shockley in den Bell Laboratories den Transistoreffekt demonstrieren. Damit legten sie den Grundstein für die Mikroelektronik als Basistechnologie des Informationszeitalters.

  11. Faltering lemming cycles reduce productivity and population size of a migratory Arctic goose species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Bauer, S.; Feige, N.; Kokorev, Y.; Popov, I.Y.; Ebbinge, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    1. The huge changes in population sizes of Arctic-nesting geese offer a great opportunity to study population limitation in migratory animals. In geese, population limitation seems to have shifted from wintering to summering grounds. There, in the Arctic, climate is rapidly changing, and this may im

  12. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  13. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  14. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field.

  15. Multimodal Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rebecca; Stacey, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic pain receive multimodal treatment. There is scant literature to guide us, but when approaching combination pharmacotherapy, the practitioner and patient must weigh the benefits with the side effects; many medications have modest effect yet carry significant side effects that can be additive. Chronic pain often leads to depression, anxiety, and deconditioning, which are targets for treatment. Structured interdisciplinary programs are beneficial but costly. Interventions have their place in the treatment of chronic pain and should be a part of a multidisciplinary treatment plan. Further research is needed to validate many common combination treatments.

  16. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  17. Chronic nerve root entrapment: compression and degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoestenberghe, A.

    2013-02-01

    Electrode mounts are being developed to improve electrical stimulation and recording. Some are tight-fitting, or even re-shape the nervous structure they interact with, for a more selective, fascicular, access. If these are to be successfully used chronically with human nerve roots, we need to know more about the possible damage caused by the long-term entrapment and possible compression of the roots following electrode implantation. As there are, to date, no such data published, this paper presents a review of the relevant literature on alternative causes of nerve root compression, and a discussion of the degeneration mechanisms observed. A chronic compression below 40 mmHg would not compromise the functionality of the root as far as electrical stimulation and recording applications are concerned. Additionally, any temporary increase in pressure, due for example to post-operative swelling, should be limited to 20 mmHg below the patient’s mean arterial pressure, with a maximum of 100 mmHg. Connective tissue growth may cause a slower, but sustained, pressure increase. Therefore, mounts large enough to accommodate the root initially without compressing it, or compliant, elastic, mounts, that may stretch to free a larger cross-sectional area in the weeks after implantation, are recommended.

  18. Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on infant breast milk intake, total energy intake, and growth: a randomised intervention study in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R J; Brown, K H; Canahuati, J; Rivera, L L; Dewey, K G

    1994-07-30

    In developing countries, the age at which breastfed infants are first given complementary foods is of public health importance because of the risk of diarrhoeal disease from contaminated weaning foods, and the potential risk of growth faltering if foods are inappropriately delayed. To evaluate whether there are any advantage of complementary feeding prior to 6 months, low-income primiparous mothers who had exclusively breastfed for 4 months were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: continued exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months (EBF) (n = 50); introduction of complementary foods at 4 months with ad libitum nursing from 4-6 months (SF) (n = 47); and introduction of complementary foods at 4 months, with maintenance of baseline nursing frequency from 4-6 months (SF-M) (n = 44). Baby foods in jars were provided to the SF and SF-M groups from 4 to 6 months. Subjects were visited weekly and provided with lactation guidance; at 4, 5, and 6 months measurements were made of infant intake and breast milk composition. At 4 months, breast milk intake averaged 797 (139) g per day (no difference among groups). Between 4 and 6 months, breast milk intake was unchanged in EBF infants (+6) but decreased in the SF (-103), and SF-M (-62) groups (p < 0.001). Change in total energy intake (including solid foods) and infant weight and length gain did not differ significantly between groups. Weight and length gain from 4-6 months were comparable to those of breastfed infants in an affluent USA population. The results indicate that breastfed infants self-regulate their total energy intake when other foods are introduced. As a result, there is no advantage in introducing complementary foods before 6 months in this population, whereas there may be disadvantages if there is increased exposure to contaminated weaning foods.

  19. [Chronic ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ataxias are an heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the child at different ages. Thus, the congenital forms, generally non progressive are observed from first months of life and are expressed by hypotonia and motor delay long before the ataxia became evident. The cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be diagnostic in some pictures like Joubert syndrome. The group of progressive hereditary ataxias, usually begin after the infant period. The clinical signs are gait instability and ocular apraxia that can be associated with oculocutaneous telangiectasias (ataxia-telangiesctasia) or with sensory neuropathy (Friedreich ataxia). In this review are briefly described congenital ataxias and in more detailed form the progressive hereditary ataxias autosomal recessive, autosomal dominants and mitochondrials. The importance of genetic study is emphasized, because it is the key to obtain the diagnosis in the majority of these diseases. Although now there are no treatments for the majority of progressive hereditary ataxias, some they have like Refsum disease, vitamine E deficiency, Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and others, thus the diagnosis in these cases is even more important. At present the diagnosis of childhood hereditary ataxia not yet treatable is fundamental to obtain suitable handling, determine a precise outcome and to give to the family an opportune genetic counseling.

  20. [Chronic pain in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, B

    2001-06-01

    Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).

  1. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F; Eckardt, A; Kessler, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed description of the so-called "chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis" (CRMO). The clinical, radiological and histopathological results of an analysis of 29 cases (15 children/adolescents and 14 adults) are presented and correlated to current data from the literature. We could delinate the following points: 1. CRMO is a systemic aseptic inflammation of the bone marrow (Osteitis), it can occur polytopically and association with pustulous dermatologic symptoms is possible. 2. It is not a rare disease 3. Osteomyelitis is probably "reactive" and a plasma-cell sclerotic process with ist own characteristic histologic three-phase course. 4. We could observe 5 specific types of localization which can be documented by X-ray or bone scan. 5. Accompanying arthritis os often present, especially "sympathetic coxitis". 6. The use of drugs in treatment of CRMO (i.e. azithromycin, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates) is discussed. In conclusion we want to point out, that 1. 99mTC bone scan should always be performed when there is suspicion for CRMO to reveal the pattern of affection, 2. the rheumatologist and dermatologist should be contacted, 3. operation is normally not necessary for treatment of the mostly self-limitin disease, and 4. the term "SAPHO syndrome" should be avoided, further differentiation of the diagnosis is necessary.

  2. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Marion R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disease occurring primarily in children and adolescents. Episodes of systemic inflammation occur due to immune dysregulation without autoantibodies, pathogens or antigen-specific T cells. CRMO is characterised by the insidious onset of pain with swelling and tenderness over the affected bones. Clavicular involvement was the classical description; however, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones are frequently affected. Lesions may occur in any bone, including vertebrae. Characteristic imaging includes bone oedema, lytic areas, periosteal reaction and soft tissue reaction. Biopsies from affected areas display polymorphonuclear leucocytes with osteoclasts and necrosis in the early stages. Subsequently, lymphocytes and plasma cells predominate followed by fibrosis and signs of reactive new bone forming around the inflammation. Diagnosis is facilitated by the use of STIR MRI scanning, potentially obviating the need for biopsy and unnecessary long-term antibiotics due to incorrect diagnosis. Treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonates. Biologics have been tried in resistant cases with promising initial results. Gene identification has not proved easy although research in this area continues. Early descriptions of the disease suggested a benign course; however, longer-term follow up shows that it can cause significant morbidity and longer-term disability. Although it has always been thought of as very rare, the prevalence is likely to be vastly underestimated due to poor recognition of the disease.

  3. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  4. Design of a Recommendation System for Adding Support in the Treatment of Chronic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, Simon; Benedik, Peter; Rajkovič, Uroš; Šušteršič, Olga; Rajkovič, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth of chronic disease cases around the world is adding pressure on healthcare providers to ensure a structured patent follow-up during chronic disease management process. In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency, nursing roles have been specialized or enhanced in the primary health care setting. Nurses become key players in chronic disease management process. Study describes a system to help nurses manage the care process of patient with chronic disease. It supports focusing nurse's attention on those resources/solutions that are likely to be most relevant to their particular situation/problem in nursing domain. System is based on multi-relational property graph representing a flexible modeling construct. Graph allows modeling a nursing ontology and the indices that partition domain into an efficient, searchable space where the solution to a problem is seen as abstractly defined traversals through its vertices and edges.

  5. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Growth Plate Injuries? Key Words Information Box The Salter-Harris Classification of Growth Plate Injuries What Is ... of Growth Plate Injuries? Since the 1960s, the Salter-Harris classification, which divides most growth plate fractures ...

  6. Pregnancy and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, John M; Lindheimer, Marshall D

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the association of chronic renal disease and pregnancy. Included are discussions of guidelines for counseling pregnant women with underlying chronic renal disease who are considering conceiving as well as management of those already pregnant. Specifically highlighted are recent studies that question the validity of using estimated glomerular filtration rate and other formulae and questions of whether we should strive to replace the classic counseling approaches based primarily on serum creatinine levels with guidelines based on chronic kidney disease classification. The article concludes with a review as well as a critique of recent research on the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with underlying chronic renal disease, as well as if women with preeclampsia and underlying kidney disease have accelerated courses toward end-stage renal disease.

  7. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  8. Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data used in the chronic condition reports are based upon CMS administrative enrollment and claims data for Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the...

  9. Treatment of chronic inflammatory neuropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Eftimov

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the efficacy of existing and alternative treatments in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and explores predictors of treatment response in patients with CIDP treated with corticosteroids. The efficacy of intra

  10. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......: the study showed a high prevalence of detrimental life style factors including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity in elderly Danish men. Except for diabetes and respiratory disease, chronic diseases were underreported and in particular erectile dysfunction and osteoporosis were...

  11. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.

  12. Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163171.html Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation Drug designed to stimulate upper gastrointestinal tract To ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat persistent constipation of unknown (idiopathic) cause in adults. Some 42 ...

  13. Effects of Ganmaidazao Decoction,Sinisan and Sijunzi Decoction on endogenous nerve growth factor of rat with chronic stress%甘麦大枣汤、四逆散及四君子汤对慢性应激大鼠内源性神经生长因子水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小林; 刘秀杰; 罗德兵; 路长林

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Ganmaidazao Decoction (GMDZD), Sinisan(SNS) and Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) recipe on endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) of rat with chronic stress.Methods In order to establish the rat models with chronic stress, the feet of animals were stimulated with a pat-tern of electrical impulses (long term, high voltage and constant current). The alterations of behavior of animals were observed and quantified by open-field and tail-suspension test. Levels of NGF in pitttitary,hypetholamus and blood plasma were quantified using radio-immunoassay (RIA) method. Results 1) In comparision with the wild-type (WT) control rats, locomotor activity decreased significantly in the models and groups treated by Chinese medicinal herbs (P<0.01). In addition,the Chinese medicinal herbs treated groups exhibited increased locomotor activity than the model groups (P<0.01). 2) The cross time of the model groups decreased significantly compared with the WT controls (P < 0. 01). Meanwhile, three Chinese medicinal herbs treated groups displayed longer cross time than the model groups (P< 0. 01). 3)The vertical movement times of the model groups decreased significantly compared with the WT controls (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, three Chinese medicinal herbs treated groups displayed in-creased vertical movement times than the model groups (P <0.05). 4)In the tail-suspension test, the duration of immobility increased significantly in the model groups compared with the WT controls (P < 0. 01). However, the duration of immobility of three Chinese medicinal herbs treated groups were less than the model groups (P < 0.01). 5) Compared to the model groups,the level of NGF in pituitary of animals treated by GMDZD and SNS in-creased significantly (P<0.01). In the hypothalamus,the level of NGF in SJZD treated groups decreased in com-parision with the WT control and model groups (P<0.05). Whereas, GMDZD and SNS treated groups decreased significantly than WT control and model

  14. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  15. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.......Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  16. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Growth hormone (GH) treatment is a successful medical therapy for children and adults with GH deficiency as well as for growth retardation due to chronic renal disease, Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age. For all of these conditions, treatment is long term...... and patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance is injection pain. Besides the injection device used, pain perception and local tissue reaction following...

  17. 老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者的血清激活素A和转化生长因子β1与肺功能变化的相关性%Clinic significance and correlations of serum activin A,transforming growth factor beta 1 and pulmonary function of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊晓曦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinic significance and correlations of serum activin A,transforming growth factor β1 and pulmonary function of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods 95 patients with elderly COPD were collected as the research object from September 2014 to September 2015. Sixty healthy subjects served as controls. The concentrations of ACTA and TGF - β1 were deter-mined using ELISA. The pearson correlation test was performed to analyze the correlation between ACTA,TGF - β1 and pulmonary function in-dex. Results Compared with those in healthy controls,plasma ACTA and TGF - β1 levels in elderly COPD increased significantly( P < 0. 05). The higher of the COPD level,the higher the level of ACTA and TGF - beta 1( P < 0. 05). The higher the level of pulmonary function damage, the higher the level of ACTA and TGF - beta 1. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the serum levels of ACTA,TGF - β1 were negatively cor-related with FEV1%( r = - 0. 687,- 0. 751,P < 0. 05),and they were also negatively correlated with FEV1 / FVC( r = - 0. 613,- 0. 598, P < 0. 05). Conclusion ACTA and TGF - β1 play important roles in the progression of COPD,and have correlation with pulmonary function changes.%目的:探讨老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者的血清激活素 A(ACTA)和转化生长因子β1(TGF -β1)与肺功能变化的相关性。方法选择于2014年9月至2015年9月收治的老年 COPD 患者95例作为研究对象,选取同期60例健康体检者作为对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)法检测血清 ACTA 和 TGF -β1水平。采用 Pearson 相关性分析法分析 ACTA 和 TGF -β1水平与各肺功能指标的相关性。结果与健康对照组相比,老年 COPD 患者的 ACTA和 TGF -β1水平显著升高( P <0.05)。COPD 严重程度越高,ACTA 和 TGF -β1水平越高( P <0.05)。肺功能损伤等级越高,ACTA 和 TGF -β1水平随之显著增高( P <0.05

  18. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097

  19. Chronic Constipation: Current Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Wing Cheong Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada.

  20. Chronic Cough in Otorhinolaryngologic Routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic cough is sometimes manifested as an imprecise symptom, but of great importance for both the diagnosis and the prognosis. In an otorhinolaryngologic approach, several illnesses that can occur with it can be numbered, including 2 of the 3 main causes of chronic cough. Objective: To identify the main otorhinolaryngologic diseases showing the chronic cough as one of their manifestations. Method: A literature's revision was performed in several scientific articles, specialized books and consultation in Birene and Scielo databases. Literature's revision: cough production in the upper airways is usually associated with an inflammatory reaction by stimulating sensitive receptors of these areas or by mechanic stimulus. The main cause of the chronic cough in the otorhinolaryngology day-to-day is the post-nasal drip, gathering together by itself 02 of the most common diseases: rhinitis and sinusitis. Laryngitis as a result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER stands out in the index of chronic cough etiology, but it is not as severe as GER . Neoplasias are also somewhat frequent causes of cough, and the difficulty in diagnosing the cough cause is common in this disease group. Motility disorder, laryngeal irritation persistence, parasitic disease and injuries by inhalation of toxic products were also found as a cause of cough for longer than 03 months. Conclusion:Chronic cough is a frequent and important finding in otorhinolaryngology and cannot be underestimated, and a careful anamnesis is the best way to determine the etiology and perform a correct treatment for the patient's disease.

  1. Guideline of Chronic Urticaria Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Lauren M; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    Urticaria is a relatively common condition that if chronic can persist for weeks, months or years and affect quality of life significantly. The etiology is often difficult to determine, especially as it becomes chronic. Many cases of chronic urticaria are thought to be autoimmune, although there is no consensus that testing for autoimmunity alters the diagnostic or management strategies or outcomes. Many times, urticaria is easily managed with antihistamines and/or short courses of oral corticosteroids, but too often control is insufficient and additional therapies must be added. For years, immune modulating medications, such as cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil, have been used in cases refractory to antihistamines and oral corticosteroids, although the evidence supporting their efficacy and safety has been limited. Omalizumab was recently approved for the treatment of chronic urticaria unresponsive to H1-antagonists. This IgG anti-IgE monoclonal antibody has been well demonstrated to safely and effectively control chronic urticaria at least partially in approximately 2/3 of cases. However, the mechanism of action and duration of treatment for omalizumab is still unclear. It is hoped that as the pathobiology of chronic urticaria becomes better defined, future therapies that target specific mechanistic pathways will be developed that continue to improve the management of these often challenging patients.

  2. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mihaela Radu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment.

  3. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, Peter Y K; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2013-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common autoimmune neuropathy. The diagnosis depends on the clinical presentation with a progressive or relapsing course over at least 2 months and electrophysiological evidence of primary demyelination. Whereas typical CIDP is quite easily recognizable because virtually no other neuropathies present with both distal and proximal motor and sensory deficit, atypical CIDP, focal and multifocal variants in particular, may represent a difficult diagnostic challenge. CIDP very likely is an underdiagnosed condition as suggested also by a positive correlation between prevalence rates and sensitivity of electrophysiological criteria. Since no 'gold standard' diagnostic marker exists, electrophysiological criteria have been optimized to be at the same time as sensitive and as specific as possible. Additional supportive laboratory features, such as increased spinal fluid protein, MRI abnormalities of nerve segments, and in selected cases nerve biopsy lead to the correct diagnosis in the large majority of the cases. Objective clinical improvement following immune therapy is also a useful parameter to confirm the diagnosis. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CIDP remain poorly understood, but the available evidence for an inflammatory origin is quite convincing. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange (PE) have been proven to be effective treatments. IVIG usually leads to rapid improvement, which is useful in severely disabled patients. Repeat treatment over regular time intervals for many years is often necessary. The effect of steroids is slower and the side-effect profile may be problematic, but they may induce disease remission more frequently than IVIG. An important and as of yet uncompletely resolved issue is the evaluation of long-term outcome to determine whether the disease is still active and responsive to treatment.

  4. Patterns of Growth and Decline in Lung Function in Persistent Childhood Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGeachie, Michael J; Yates, Katherine P; Zhou, Xiaobo; Guo, Feng; Sternberg, Alice L; Van Natta, Mark L; Wise, Robert A; Szefler, Stanley J; Sharma, Sunita; Kho, Alvin T; Cho, Michael H; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Castaldi, Peter J; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R; Dekker, Job; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Covar, Ronina A; Zeiger, Robert S; Adkinson, N Franklin; Williams, Paul V; Kelly, H William; Grasemann, Hartmut; Vonk, Judith M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Raby, Benjamin A; Houston, Isaac; Lu, Quan; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Tantisira, Kelan G; Silverman, Edwin K; Tonascia, James; Weiss, Scott T; Strunk, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracking longitudinal measurements of growth and decline in lung function in patients with persistent childhood asthma may reveal links between asthma and subsequent chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: We classified children with asthma according to four characteristic patterns of lung

  5. Following the World Health Organization’s Recommendation of Exclusive Breastfeeding to 6 Months of Age Does Not Impact the Growth of Rural Gambian Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kamilla G; Johnson, William; Sonko, Bakary; Prentice, Andrew M; Darboe, Momodou K; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Background: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 mo of life. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the benefit of EBF to age 6 mo on growth in a large sample of rural Gambian infants at high risk of undernutrition. Methods: Infants with growth monitoring from birth to 2 y of age (n = 756) from the ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development) trial were categorized as exclusively breastfed if only breast milk and no other liquids or foods were given. EBF status was entered into confounder-adjusted multilevel models to test associations with growth trajectories by using >11,000 weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length (WLZ) z score observations. Results: Thirty-two percent of infants were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo. The mean age of discontinuation of EBF was 5.2 mo, and growth faltering started at ∼3.5 mo of age. Some evidence for a difference in WAZ and WHZ was found between infants who were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo (EBF-6) and those who were not (nEBF-6), at 6 and 12 mo of age, with EBF-6 children having a higher mean z score. The differences in z scores between the 2 groups were small in magnitude (at 6 mo of age: 0.147 WAZ; 95% CI: −0.001, 0.293 WAZ; 0.189 WHZ; 95% CI: 0.038, 0.341 WHZ). No evidence for a difference between EBF-6 and nEBF-6 infants was observed for LAZ at any time point (6, 12, and 24 mo of age). Furthermore, a higher mean WLZ at 3 mo of age was associated with a subsequent higher mean age at discontinuation of EBF, which implied reverse causality in this setting (coefficient: 0.060; 95% CI: 0.008, 0.120). Conclusion: This study suggests that EBF to age 6 mo has limited benefit to the growth of rural Gambian infants. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN49285450. PMID:28003540

  6. 慢性氨暴露对中华鳖幼鳖生长及非特异性免疫反应的影响%Effects of chronic ammonia exposure on growth and non specific immune responses of juvenile soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus immune responses of juvenile soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣然; 牛翠娟; 蒲丽君

    2006-01-01

    Soft-shelled turtles are often exposed to high ambient ammonia levels in intensive rearing conditions. This work evaluated the effects of chronic ammonia exposure on growth and nonspecific immune parameters in juvenile soft-shelled in juvenile soft-shelled turtles Pelodiscus sinensi. Turtles (body weight: 90.5±20.5 g) were subjected to three ammonia concentrations, 1.5 concentrations, 1.5mg/L (C1), 2.6 mg/L (C2) and 4.1 mg/L (C3) unionized ammonia nitrogen (UIA-N) for 84 days. A control group ntrol group (C0) was also set up, in which the animals were reared in tap water with no extrinsic NH4Cl. Consistent ambient temrinsic NH4Cl. Consistent ambient temperatures (29.5 ± 0.5℃ ) and pH (7.8 ± 0.1 ) in each treatment were maintained throughout the experiment. Body n each treatment were maintained throughout the experiment. Body weight was measured at 21, 42 and 84 days after initiation of ammonia exposure. Blood was sampled on day 84 after inixposure. Blood was sampled on day 84 after initiation of ammonia exposure. In the present concentration range, ammonia showed no clear influence on the turtle's ammonia showed no clear influence on the turtle's growth. Also, ammonia had no significant effects on non-specific immune parameters such as serum hemolytic activity, immune parameters such as serum hemolytic activity,bactericidal activity, bacteriolytic activity and the spleen index. However, the non-specific a-naphathyl acetate esterase However, the non-specific a-naphathyl acetate esterase (ANAE) positive ratios of the blood and spleen lymphocytes both declined in the ammonia treatment groups in relation to th declined in the ammonia treatment groups in relation to the control. The present results indicate that the turtle is fairly resistant to ammonia and may be able to endure much ant to ammonia and may be able to endure much higher ambient ammonia levels than fish.%在高密度养殖模式下,中华鳖经常暴露于高氨环境中.本研究评价了

  7. Nutritional status of young children in Mumbai slums: a follow-up anthropometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sushmita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic childhood malnutrition remains common in India. As part of an initiative to improve maternal and child health in urban slums, we collected anthropometric data from a sample of children followed up from birth. We described the proportions of underweight, stunting, and wasting in young children, and examined their relationships with age. Methods We used two linked datasets: one based on institutional birth weight records for 17 318 infants, collected prospectively, and one based on follow-up of a subsample of 1941 children under five, collected in early 2010. Results Mean birth weight was 2736 g (SD 530 g, with a low birth weight ( Discussion Our data support the idea that much of growth faltering was explained by faltering in height for age, rather than by wasting. Stunting appeared to be established early and the subsequent decline in height for age was limited. Our findings suggest a focus on a younger age-group than the children over the age of three who are prioritized by existing support systems. Funding The trial during which the birth weight data were collected was funded by the ICICI Foundation for Inclusive Growth (Centre for Child Health and Nutrition, and The Wellcome Trust (081052/Z/06/Z. Subsequent collection, analysis and development of the manuscript was funded by a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award: Population Science of Maternal and Child Survival (085417ma/Z/08/Z. D Osrin is funded by The Wellcome Trust (091561/Z/10/Z.

  8. Designing plasmas for chronic wound disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, T.; Shimizu, T.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-11-01

    Irradiation with low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma provides a promising method for chronic wound disinfection. To be efficient for this purpose, plasma should meet the following criteria: it should significantly reduce bacterial density in the wounded area, cause a long-term post-irradiation inhibition of bacterial growth, yet without causing any negative effect on human cells. In order to design plasmas that would satisfy these requirements, we assessed the relative contribution of different components with respect to bactericidal properties due to irradiation with argon plasma. We demonstrate that plasma-generated UV radiation is the main short-term sterilizing factor of argon plasma. On the other hand, plasma-generated reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a long-term 'after-irradiation' inhibition of bacterial growth and, therefore, are important for preventing wound recolonization with bacteria between two treatments. We also demonstrate that at certain concentrations plasma-generated RNS and ROS cause significant reduction of bacterial density, but have no adverse effect on human skin cells. Possible mechanisms of the different effects of plasma-generated reactive species on bacteria and human cells are discussed. The results of this study suggest that argon plasma for therapeutic purposes should be optimized in the direction of reducing the intensity of plasma-generated UV radiation and increasing the density of non-UV plasma products.

  9. Dysfunction of brain pericytes in chronic neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Yuri; Hill, Jeremy; Zhang, Ming; Dykstra, Holly; Winfield, Malika; Reichenbach, Nancy L; Potula, Raghava; Mukherjee, Abir; Ramirez, Servio H; Rom, Slava

    2016-04-01

    Brain pericytes are uniquely positioned within the neurovascular unit to provide support to blood brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. Neurologic conditions, such as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder, are associated with BBB compromise due to chronic inflammation. Little is known about pericyte dysfunction during HIV-1 infection. We found decreased expression of pericyte markers in human brains from HIV-1-infected patients (even those on antiretroviral therapy). Using primary human brain pericytes, we assessed expression of pericyte markers (α1-integrin, α-smooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor-B receptor β, CX-43) and found their downregulation after treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or interleukin-1 β (IL-1β). Pericyte exposure to virus or cytokines resulted in decreased secretion of factors promoting BBB formation (angiopoietin-1, transforming growth factor-β1) and mRNA for basement membrane components. TNFα and IL-1β enhanced expression of adhesion molecules in pericytes paralleling increased monocyte adhesion to pericytes. Monocyte migration across BBB models composed of human brain endothelial cells and pericytes demonstrated a diminished rate in baseline migration compared to constructs composed only of brain endothelial cells. However, exposure to the relevant chemokine, CCL2, enhanced the magnitude of monocyte migration when compared to BBB models composed of brain endothelial cells only. These data suggest an important role of pericytes in BBB regulation in neuroinflammation.

  10. Comparison of short-term chronic and chronic silver toxicity to fathead minnows in unamended and sodium chloride-amended waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Rehner, Anita B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Kramer, James R; Wood, Chris M; Paquin, Paul R; Stubblefield, William A

    2007-09-01

    The chronic (early life stage [ELS]) and short-term chronic (STC) toxicity of silver (as silver nitrate) to fathead minnows (FHM) was determined concurrently in flow-through exposures (33 volume additions/d). Paired ELS (approximately 30 d) and STC (7 d) studies were conducted with and without the addition of 60 mg/L Cl (as NaCl). The paired studies in unamended water were later repeated using standard flow conditions (9 volume additions/d). The purpose of the paired studies was to determine if short-term chronic endpoints can be used to predict effects in ELS studies. For each experiment, a "split-chamber" design (organisms were held in a common exposure chamber) allowed the direct comparison between short-term and chronic exposures. It appeared that the chronic toxicity of silver was mitigated to some extent by NaCl addition. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for growth in the ELS study was 0.53 microg dissolved Ag/L under standard flow conditions. Early life stage and STC endpoints in all three studies typically agreed within a factor of two. Whole-body sodium and silver concentrations measured in individual fathead minnows during these studies showed an increase in silver body burdens and a decrease in sodium concentration. These results indicate that the STC study could be used as a surrogate test to estimate chronic toxicity and that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity may be the same as for acute toxicity.

  11. Chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: shifting boundaries and attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A R

    1998-09-28

    The subjective symptom of "fatigue" is one of the most widespread in the general population and is a major source of healthcare utilization. Prolonged fatigue is often associated with neuropsychological and musculoskeletal symptoms that form the basis of several syndromal diagnoses including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and neurasthenia, and is clearly not simply the result of a lack of force generation from the muscle. Current epidemiologic research in this area relies predominantly on self-report data to document the prevalence and associations of chronic fatigue. Of necessity, this subjective data source gives rise to uncertain diagnostic boundaries and consequent divergent epidemiologic, clinical, and pathophysiologic research findings. This review will highlight the impact of the case definition and ascertainment methods on the varying prevalence estimates of chronic fatigue syndrome and patterns of reported psychological comorbidty. It will also evaluate the evidence for a true postinfective fatigue syndrome.

  12. Short-term effect of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Grønbaek, M;

    1994-01-01

    As growth hormone possesses anabolic properties that are active on protein metabolism, and thus of potential benefit to patients with chronic liver disease, we determined the metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) its specific binding proteins...... an increase in very low levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, even in patients with cirrhosis with advanced disease, but the clinical benefits remain to be demonstrated....

  13. Management of chronic refractory cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G; Vertigan, Anne E

    2015-12-14

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is defined as a cough that persists despite guideline based treatment. It is seen in 20-46% of patients presenting to specialist cough clinics and it has a substantial impact on quality of life and healthcare utilization. Several terms have been used to describe this condition, including the recently introduced term cough hypersensitivity syndrome. Key symptoms include a dry irritated cough localized around the laryngeal region. Symptoms are not restricted to cough and can include globus, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Chronic refractory cough has factors in common with laryngeal hypersensitivity syndromes and chronic pain syndromes, and these similarities help to shed light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Its pathophysiology is complex and includes cough reflex sensitivity, central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Chronic refractory cough often occurs after a viral infection. The diagnosis is made once the main diseases that cause chronic cough have been excluded (or treated) and cough remains refractory to medical treatment. Several treatments have been developed over the past decade. These include speech pathology interventions using techniques adapted from the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders, as well as the use of centrally acting neuromodulators such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Potential new treatments in development also show promise.

  14. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.

  15. [Chronic polyradiculoneuritis and its frontiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, J M; Tabaraud, F; Magy, L; Macian, F

    2002-12-01

    The Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDP) constitute a syndrome whose incidence is difficult to evaluate, and is probably underestimated. In the course of this presentation, we deliberately restricted discussion to issues raised in recent years concerning the extent of this syndrome. We discuss diagnostic criteria, especially electrophysiological ones. As the criteria proposed by the ad hoc committee of the American Academy of Neurology in 1991 have been questioned due to lack of sensitivity, new ones have been proposed recently. We briefly discuss the different types of chronic dysimmune demyelinating neuropathy: not only the CIDP, but also the Lewis and Sumner syndrome or multifocal inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and the multiple conduction block neuropathies. At last, we point out the consistent finding of axonal involvement in the course of a chronic demyelinating neuropathy; over time, it can become pre-dominant, which may make diagnosis difficult by suggesting a chronic axonal neuropathy that may be assumed to be primary. Consideration of these points may help clinicians recognize more chronic dysimmune neuropathies, for which immunosuppressive therapy has been found to be effective.

  16. Chronic Inflammation and  T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S Fay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial tissues of the skin, lungs, reproductive tract, and intestines are the largest physical barriers the body has to protect against infection. Epithelial tissues are woven with a matrix of immune cells programmed to mobilize the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Included among these immune cells are  T cells that are unique in their TCR usage, location, and functions in the body. Stress reception by  T cells as a result of traumatic epithelial injury, malignancy, and/or infection induces  T cell activation. Once activated,  T cells function to repair tissue, induce inflammation, recruit leukocytes, and lyse cells. Many of these functions are mediated via the production of cytokines and growth factors upon  T cell activation. Pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases involve  T cells; some of which are exacerbated by their presence, while others are improved.  T cells require a delicate balance between their need for acute inflammatory mediators to function normally and the detrimental impact imparted by chronic inflammation. This review will focus on the recent progress made in understanding how epithelial  T cells influence the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and how a balance between acute and chronic inflammation impacts  T cell function. Future studies will be important to understand how this balance is achieved.

  17. Faculty Growth Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Peter

    Growth contracts, described as faculty plans for personal and professional growth proposed by each member of the faculty, are examined. The rationale for growth contracts is explained and a list of some institutions using growth contracts or variations of the concept is provided. Growth contract advantages, the role of the evaluation committee or…

  18. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  19. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2015-02-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications.

  20. Peripheral neuromodulation in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, F; De Boni, A

    2012-05-01

    Patients with chronic migraines are often refractory to medical treatment. Therefore, they might need other strategies to modulate their pain, according to their level of disability. Neuromodulation can be achieved with several tools: meditation, biofeedback, physical therapy, drugs and electric neurostimulation (ENS). ENS can be applied to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), either invasively (cortical or deep brain) or non-invasively [cranial electrotherapy stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation]. Among chronic primary headaches, cluster headaches are most often treated either through deep brain stimulation or occipital nerve stimulation because there is a high level of disability related to this condition. ENS, employed through several modalities such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential currents and pulsed radiofrequency, has been applied to the peripheral nervous system at several sites. We briefly review the indications for the use of peripheral ENS at the site of the occipital nerves for the treatment of chronic migraine.

  1. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids...

  2. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  3. Prevention Of Chronic Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it. This postulate is a foundation stone of the contemporary medicine, furthermore its mission. The Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD, amongst them the Chronic Pyelonephrites (CP and the mass kidney reduction  take an important  place in human pathologies in general, and in particular in renal ones. The Chronic Pyelonephrites  are chronic renal pathologies, which on one side are of various causes and on the other side are multi systemic. At the same time they tend, earlier or later, depending on their course, to bring the patient towards the Chronic Kidney Insufficiency  in stage of uremia, consequently in need of substitution therapies e.g. dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant. It is worthy to emphasize that from the prevention and correct cure of CP make profit the patients, the family, the state and in the last analyses  the entire society, because in that way the budget expense destined for the fore going substitution cures, dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant, is considerably  reduced. The same should be mentioned  in relation to the CP and the mass kidney reduction, speaking about our country, which are still at the first place as the very cause of Chronic Kidney  Insufficiencies (CRI, later on advancing toward uremia and terminal uremia along with its grave consequences. In general  the very foundation of the CP is on  the  infections of urinary roads, in particular on the complicated ones, among them it should be mentioned-congenital kidney anomalies, renal calculosis  so much present in our country, and pathologies of segment or vesical-ureteral reflux, and rarely the pathologies of prostate.

  4. ADAM12: a potential target for the treatment of chronic wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsha, Asheesh; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Brem, Harold;

    2008-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process involving multiple cellular events, including cell proliferation, migration, and tissue remodeling. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) is a membrane-anchored metalloprotease, which has been implicated in activation-inactivation of growth factors...... that play an important role in wound healing, including heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and insulin growth factor (IGF) binding proteins. Here, we report that expression of ADAM12 is fivefold upregulated in the nonhealing edge of chronic ulcers compared to healthy...... skin, based on microarrays of biopsies taken from five patients and from healthy controls (p = 0.013). The increase in ADAM12 expression in chronic ulcers was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a pronounced...

  5. Management of chronic visceral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S

    2016-01-01

    ' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations......Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological...... in central pain processing....

  6. Growth hormone treatment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, J M

    1997-04-01

    GH therapy increases final height in GH-deficient children. Short-term growth acceleration is also seen in children with many other causes of shortness. This review covers the diagnosis of GH-deficiency (GHD) and the details of GH treatment and its long-term results in GH-deficient patients and in those with other conditions, including "idiopathic short stature" and Turner syndrome. The efficacy of GH in enhancing adult stature in children with diagnoses other than GHD and Turner syndrome has not been established, and the only other indication for which it is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is chronic renal insufficiency. Broadening of the indications for GH use in childhood can only occur if supported by the results of carefully performed clinical trials. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:92-97). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  7. 慢性肾衰继发性甲旁亢甲状旁腺细胞对FGF-23抵抗性的研究%The Study of secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure hyparathroid cell resistant to fibrob1ast growth factor-23

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建荣; 孙振学; 耿燕秋; 邵素荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the resistance of secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure. Methods A comparison analysis was conducted between the control group of six healthy parathyroid glands and SHPT group from 30 patients with SHPT in between January 2009 and June 2011. Protein expression of FGFR1, Klotho, Ki67, VDR in parathyroid tissue were detected from Immunohistochemistry. All the objects were remained blood serum of empty stomach before operation. Serum fibrob1ast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) was detected by ELISA. Related Serum biochemical indicators were assessed by autobiochemistry. PTH was detected by the chemical immunoluminescence. Results Levels of serum FGF-23 and PTH of SHPT group were increased significantly compared with control group [(926.60±373.68) pg/ml vs (30.70±11.27)pg/ml, P<0.05], [(2666.56± 953.41)pg/ml vs (35.00 ± 9.64)pg/ml, P<0.05]. Serum FGF-23 was positively correlated with serum PTH in SHPT patients (R2=0.547, P <0.05). There were 18 parathyroid glands with nodular hyperplasia and 12 parathyroid glands with diffuse hyperplasia in SHPT group. The expression of FGFR1, Klotho and VDR were significantly lower in parathyroid glands with nodular hyperplasia and diffuse hyperplasia compared with the control group [(176.25±75.33) vs (326.48±65.93) vs (702.00±35.59), P<0.05;(101.07±73.88) vs (253.12±46.23) vs (574.67 ± 23.63), P<0.05; (30.96 ± 11.06)% vs (49.03 ± 12.23)% vs (86.87 ± 2.74)%, P<0.05]. Ki67 wassignificantly higher in parathyroid tissue of SHPT patients compared with control group [(23.50 ± 11.47)% vs (14.09±6.21)%vs (0.70±0.95)%, P<0.05]. The expression of FGFR1,Klotho and VDR were lower in parathyroid glands with SHPT patients included nodular hyperplasia and diffuse hyperplasia compared with the control group [(265.35±20.53) vs (702.00±35.59), P<0.05;(173.17±30.12) vs (574.67±23.63), P<0.05;(40.14±9.17)%vs (86.87±2.74)%,P<0.05]. Ki67 was lower in parathyroid tissue of SHPT patients compared with

  8. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  9. Growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dosage of the medicine. Serious side effects of growth hormone treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid ... years. The rate of growth then slowly decreases. Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, ...

  10. Chronic Cadmium Exposure Stimulates SDF-1 Expression in an ERα Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate,...

  11. Meningococcemia crónica Chronic menigococcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge V. Martínez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La meningococcemia crónica es una forma clínica infrecuente dentro del espectro de infecciones producido por Neisseria meningitidis. Clásicamente esta forma clínica se caracteriza por fiebre, lesiones cutáneas, compromiso articular, y desarrollo en hemocultivo de la bacteria responsable, habitualmente con ausencia de compromiso meníngeo. Generalmente afecta a adultos jóvenes previamente sanos. Se desconoce la razón por la cual estos pacientes, a diferencia de los que presentan meningitis aguda por Neisseria meningitidis y meningococcemia aguda, pueden sobrevivir sin complicaciones durante semanas en ausencia de tratamiento antibiótico útil. Se ha planteado que debido a la alta sensibilidad de esta bacteria a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos, muchos casos podrían ser tratados inadvertidamente. Describimos un caso de meningococcemia crónica en una mujer joven que presenta un cuadro clásico no reconocido inicialmente.Chronic meningococcemia is an unfrequent clinical picture within the spectrum of infections produced by Neisseria meningitidis. It is classically characterized by fever, skin lesions and joint involvement, usually without meningeal involvement, and with blood culture growth of the responsible bacteria. It generally affects previously healthy young people. It is unknown why these patients, unlike patients with Neisseria meningitidis’s acute meningitis and with acute meningococcemia, can survive without complications during weeks, in abscence of an useful antibiotic treatment. It has been hypothesized that owing to high susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics of Neisseria meningitidis, many cases may be treated inadvertently. We describe a case of chronic meningococcemia in a young woman who presented a classical clinical picture, not recognized initially.

  12. Murine Model Imitating Chronic Wound Infections for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kasimova, Kamola; Arenas, Yaxal; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Grinholc, Mariusz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Lilge, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the age of antibiotics could come to an end, due to their widespread, and inappropriate use. Particularly for chronic wounds alternatives are being thought. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) is a potential candidate, and while approved for some indications, such as periodontitis, chronic sinusitis and other niche indications, its use in chronic wounds is not established. To further facilitate the development of APDT in chronic wounds we present an easy to use animal model exhibiting the key hallmarks of chronic wounds, based on full-thickness skin wounds paired with an optically transparent cover. The moisture-retaining wound exhibited rapid expansion of pathogen colonies up to 8 days while not jeopardizing the host survival. Use of two bioluminescent pathogens; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa permits real time monitoring of the pathogens. The murine model was employed to evaluate the performance of four different photosensitizers as mediators in Photodynamic Therapy. While all four photosensitizers, Rose Bengal, porphyrin TMPyP, New Methylene Blue, and TLD1411 demonstrated good to excellent antimicrobial efficacy in planktonic solutions at 1 to 50 μM concentrations, whereas in in vivo the growth delay was limited with 24–48 h delay in pathogen expansion for MRSA, and we noticed longer growth suppression of P. aeruginosa with TLD1411 mediated Photodynamic Therapy. The murine model will enable developing new strategies for enhancement of APDT for chronic wound infections. PMID:27555843

  13. Population growth and economic growth: any connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, J R

    1982-12-01

    The author examines the current evidence concerning the relationship between population growth and economic growth, with particular reference to the justification for U.S. assistance to programs designed to slow rates of population growth in developing countries. It is concluded that "the results of economic theory and research do not support the oft-repeated claims that population growth inhibits economic growth." The author suggests that the reason for continued U.S. support for population programs is the effectiveness of a population lobby that has a vested interest in the continuation of such assistance.

  14. 慢性肾脏病患者成纤维细胞生长因子23与心脏瓣膜钙化的关系研究%The relationship between serum level of fibroblast growth factor 23 and valvular calcification in chronic kidney disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丰博; 刘惠兰; 孙懿; 李国刚; 朱颖辉

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察慢性肾脏病(chronic kidney disease,CKD)患者血中成纤维细胞生长因子23(fibroblast growth factor 23,FGF23)水平,探讨CKD患者FGF23的水平与心脏瓣膜钙化之间的关系.方法 选择CKD患者89例为CKD组,28例非CKD患者为对照组;将CKD组患者根据肾脏病/透析的临床实践指南(Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative,K/DOQI),按估算肾小球滤过率(estimated glomerular filtration rate,eGFR)水平分为CKD 1~2期组16例,CKD 3~4期组20例,CKD 5期组16例及CKD 5D期组37例.应用酶联免疫分析法测定血清FGF23,同时测定血清全段甲状旁腺激素水平(parathyroid hormone,iPTH)、血钙、血磷、三酰甘油、血总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇等指标.所有患者应用超声心动检测心脏瓣膜是否存在钙化.比较对照组及CKD 1~2期组、CKD 3~4期组、CKD 5期组及CKD 5D期组年龄、血钙、血磷、三酰甘油、血总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、iPTH、FGF23水平及糖尿病、心血管疾病、瓣膜钙化比例.根据是否存在心脏瓣膜钙化将CKD患者89例分为瓣膜钙化组14例和无瓣膜钙化组75例,比较2组间年龄、相关指标、糖尿病、冠心病及透析所占比例.结果 ①CKD 5期组Log iPTH(2.40±0.26)及CKD 5D期组(2.47±0.20)较对照组(1.57±0.14)、CKD 1~2期组(1.54±0.10)、CKD 3~4期组(1.82±0.29)明显升高(P<0.001),CKD 5D期组(2.67±0.54)的Log FGF23较对照组(1.37±0.11)、CKD 1~2期组(1.42±0.12)、CKD 3~4期组(1.62±0.26)、CKD 5期组(1.83±0.37)明显升高(P<0.001).CKD 5D期组的心脏瓣膜钙化比例(12/37)明显高于对照组(2/28)、CKD 1~2期组(2/26)、CKD 3~4期组(1/20)及CKD 5期组(0/16),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);②瓣膜钙化组的年龄[(73.3±9.9)岁]、三酰甘油[(4.10±2.09) mmol/L]、Log FGF23 (2.52±0.71)、透析患者所占比例(11/14)较无钙化组的年龄[(64.8

  15. Correlation analysis on fibroblast growth factor 23 and renal impairment in patients with chronic heart failure%慢性心力衰竭患者肾脏损害与成纤维细胞生长因子23的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓云; 罗翊芝

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性心力衰竭患者肾脏损害与成纤维细胞生长因子23(FGF23)的相关性.方法 289例慢性心力衰竭患者,根据肾小球滤过率(eGFR)结果将入选的289例患者分为3组:肾功能正常组,肾功能轻度下降组和肾功能中、重度下降组.入院时采血测定患者血清FGF23水平、N末端B型钠尿肽(NT-proBNP)及肾功能指标肌酐、尿素氮和计算eGFR,心脏彩色超声测定左室射血分数(LVEF)和左心室舒张末内径(LVEDD)等.结果 3组患者心肾功能的恶化趋势一致.FGF23水平随着肾功能的恶化明显升高,肾功能中重度下降的患者血清FGF223明显高于肾功能轻度下降和正常组患者(P<0.05).在慢性心力衰竭患者中,血清FGF23水平与肾功能指标尿素氮、肌酐和eGFR均呈正相关,相关系数分别为0.532、0.686、0.783,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).血清FGF23水平与心功能指标NT-proBNP呈正相关(r=0.652,P<0.05),与射血分数呈负相关(r=-0.521,P<0.05).结论 心力衰竭程度、心力衰竭肾脏损伤程度与血清高水平FGF23有关.%Objective To explore the correlation between fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23) and renal impairment in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods 289 patients with CHF were included in the present study.According to the glomerular filtration rate,289 patients were divided into three groups,including the normal renal function group,the mild renal dysfunction group and the moderate and severe renal dysfunction group.On admission,the serum FGF23,N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP),creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were analyzed.The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated.Left ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension were measured by ultrasonic cardiogram.Results The same trend of cardiac and renal function deterioration was observed in patients of the three groups.With the deterioration of renal function

  16. 慢性肾脏病患者血清成纤维细胞生长因子23与肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系%Association of fibroblast growth factor 23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖辉; 李国刚

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者不同分期血中成纤维细胞生长因子23(FGF-23)的变化,探讨 FGF-23与 CKD 患者肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系。方法选择 CKD 患者124例,健康对照组32例,测定患者的血清 FGF-23、血钙、血磷、甲状旁腺激素(iPTH)、血清尿素氮(BUN)和肌酐(SCr),按照 CKD-EPI 公式计算肾小球滤过率(eGFR),分析 FGF-23与肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系。结果 CKD 患者血 FGF-23水平较对照组显著升高(P <0.01)。随着肾功能减退,CKD 患者血 FGF-23和 iPTH 水平逐渐增高,在 CKD3~4期与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(均 P <0.01),在 CKD5期明显高于对照组、CKD1~2期、CKD3~4期。随着肾功能减退血钙水平逐渐降低、血磷水平逐渐增高,CKD 患者在 CKD5期与对照组、CKD1~2期、CKD3~4期比较差异有显著统计学意义(均 P <0.01)。相关分析显示,LogFGF-23与血磷、LogiPTH、BUN、SCr 呈正相关,与 eGFR 呈负相关。多元线性回归表明,FGF-23与 CKD 患者 BUN、SCr 呈正相关。结论 CKD 患者血清 FGF-23在 CKD3~4期就显著增高,变化早于血磷的增高。肾功能状态、血磷、iPTH 与 FGF-23相关。肾功能状态可能是 CKD 患者血 FGF-23升高的主要影响因素。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the change of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 )in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease(CKD);To analyze the association of FGF-23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism.Methods A total of 124 CKD patients were selected,and 32 healthy people were studied as control group.The levels of FGF-23,serum calcium,serum phosphorus,intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH),blood urea nitrogen(BUN)and serum creatinine(SCr)were measured in all subjects.The glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) was estimated according to CKD-EPI formula.The association of FGF-23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism were analyzed.Results The serum FGF-23 in CKD patients increased

  17. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Esmeralda; Aquino, Natalie B; Louie, Maggie C

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7) M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  18. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  19. Pancreatic Stellate Cells and Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a disease often characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain accompanied by progressive pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency [1] and it sometimes requires multiple hospitalizations. Obstructive jaundice, duodenal stenosis, left-sided portal hypertension, pseudocyst and mass formation, and pancreatic carcinoma may occur as complications of chronic pancreatitis. The disease is frequently the result of chronic alcohol abuse, even if other factors such as genetic alterations, autoimmune disorders, and obstructive disease of the biliary tract and the pancreas may cause the disease [2]. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice for most patients and it is based on substitutive therapy for either exocrine or endocrine insufficiency and on analgesics for pain control. In the presence of intractable pain, surgical management is the main option [3] even if, in recent years, other therapeutic options such as endoscopic therapy [4], thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy [5], and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy have been applied in clinical practice [6]. From a pathological point of view, chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irregular sclerosis with destruction and loss of the exocrine parenchyma, and complete replacement of acinar, ductal and endocrine tissue by fibrotic tissue. It has recently been reported that acute alcoholic pancreatitis develops in a pancreas already affected by chronic pancreatitis [7]. In 1982, Watari et al. [8] reported the presence of vitamin A-containing cells in the vitamin A-fed rat pancreas. These were later described and characterized as stellate cells in the rat and the human pancreas [9, 10]. Pancreatic stellate cells are morphologically similar to hepatic stellate cells. They bear long cytoplasmic processes and are situated close to the pancreatic acini. In the quiescent state, these cells contain lipid droplets, store vitamin A and express markers such as desmin, glial

  20. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  1. Industrial fluoride pollution: chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.

  2. Polymicrobial chronic endophthalmitis diagnosed by culture and molecular technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate etiological diagnosis is the key to prevention of ocular morbidity in endophthalmitis cases. A 66 year old male was suffering from chronic endophthalmitis post-cataract surgery. Polymerase chain reaction examination on anterior chamber fluid was positive for Propionibacterium acnes but negative for the panfungal genome. He was advised vitrectomy with intravitreal injections. Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous aspirate was positive for P.acnes as well as panfungal genome. The vitreous sample also grew yeast in culture which was identified as Candida pseudotropicalis. Patient was treated on an alternate day regimen of intravitreal Vancomycin and Amphotericin B in the post-operative period. There was improvement in vision at final follow up. Chronic endophthalmitis can have polymicrobial etiology which will require appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The role of molecular testing is vital in these cases as growth in culture is often negative.

  3. Growth Phase dependent gene regulation in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetellae are Gram negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, is a human-restricted variant of Bordetella bronchiseptica, which infects a broad range of mammals causing chronic and often asymptomatic infections. Growth phase dependent gen...

  4. Insulin-like growth factor system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilczak, N; de Keyser, J; Cianfarani, S; Clemmons, DR; Savage, MO

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a neurotrophic factor with insulin-like metabolic activities, and possesses potential clinical applications, particularly in neurodegenerative disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive devastating disorder of the central nervous s

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and dietary factors in renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Cunha Baia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and mineral metabolism: novel therapy for cardiovascular disease in renal patients? Deregulations in mineral metabolism, particularly related to phosphate and its regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), are common in patients with chronic kidney d

  6. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  7. Electroacupuncture treatment of chronic insomniacs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Jing-wen; WANG Chu-huai; LIAO Xin-xue; YAN Ying-shuo; HU Yue-hua; RAO Zhong-dong; WEN Ming; ZENG Xiao-xiang; LAI Xin-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the quick rhythm of life and work pressure, more and more people suffer from sleep quality problems. In this study, we investigated the effect of electroacupuncture on sleep quality of chronic insomniacs and the safety of electroacupuncture therapy.Methods Four courses of electroacupuncture treatment were applied to 47 patients. With pre-treatment and post-treatment self-control statistical method, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores were used for evaluating sleep quality. Polysomnogram was used for detecting insomniacs' changes in sleep architecture. The safety of electroacupuncture was evaluated by monitoring the self-designed adverse events and side effects during treatment and post-treatment.Results Electroacupuncture considerably improved insomniacs' sleep quality and social function during the daytime.Electroacupuncture had certain repairing effect on the disruption in sleep architecture. At the same time,electroacupuncture prolonged slow wave sleep (SWS) time and relatively rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) time.There was no hangover, addiction or decrements in vigilance during the daytime (incidence rate was 0). However,insomnia rebound rate was about 23% within one month.Conclusions These results suggest that electroacupuncture has beneficial effect on sleep quality improvement in the patients with chronic insomnia, which may be associated with repairing sleep architecture, reconstructing sleep continuity,as well as prolonging SWS time and REM sleep time. Electroacupuncture treatment for chronic insomnia is safe.Therefore, electroacupuncture therapy could be a promising avenue of treatment for chronic insomnia.

  8. [Chronic prostatitis and Bechterew's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlicek, J; Svec, V

    1977-11-01

    A group of patients between 35 and 65 years old with chronic prostatitis were examined for the presence of Becherew's disease. In this connection the New York and Roman criterions for morbus Bechterew were applied. There were found one ankyosing spondylarthritis, one ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, and 11 times a tentative sacroileitis were stated. Altogether the proved and tentative findings were only 3.68 per cent of all examinations. In our countries the morbus Bechterew is found in 0,21 per cent of the normal population. So the protion of the Bechterew's disease in patients with chronic prostatitis is indeed a little higher than average, but not so frequent as often pretended in recent times. After a second series 58 patients being treated because of Bechterew's disease of different stages and different terms were examined for the possibility of a simultaneously elapsing chronic prostatitis. A chronic prostatitis was found in 38 per cent of these patients which correspondents to the incidence published in literature for the medium-age manhood. Nobody of the test persons had complaints on the part of the urologenital tract.

  9. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  10. [Operative treatment of chronic pleuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzhyĭ, I D; Hres'ko, I Ia; Chumak, S O; Elastal, R Z

    2008-09-01

    Basing on the literature data and own experience, grounded on results of follow-up on 2000 patients, suffering an acute pleuritis and performance of more than 200 operative interventions--pleurectomy, the clinic-radiological classification of chronic pleuritis, mostly answering the practical health care necessities, was proposed by the authors.

  11. Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis: management challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charakorn N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natamon Charakorn, Kornkiat Snidvongs Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis is a spectrum of inflammatory diseases in isolated sphenoid sinus which may persist over a period of 12 weeks. It is a different entity from other types of rhinosinusitis because clinical presentations include headache, visual loss or diplopia, and patients may or may not have nasal obstruction or nasal discharge. Nasal endoscopic examination is useful, and computed tomography is mandatory. The disease requires comprehensive knowledge and appropriate imaging technique for diagnosis. To treat patients with chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis, surgical treatment with endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy is often required. As there are no recent updated reviews of chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis, in this article, we review the anatomy of the sphenoid sinus and its clinical relationship with the clinical signs and symptoms of the disease, the imaging findings of each diagnosis and the comprehensive surgical techniques. Keywords: sphenoid sinus, sphenoid sinusitis, chronic, rhinosinusitis, fungal rhinosinusitis, mucocele

  12. Management of chronic hand eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Agner, Tove; Aberer, Werner; Berth-Jones, John; Cambazard, Frederic; Elsner, Peter; McFadden, John; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-01-01

    Hand eczema (HE) is one of the most frequent skin diseases and has often a chronically relapsing course with a poor prognosis resulting in a high social and economic impact for the individual and the society. In this article, we highlight the results of an expert workshop on the 'management of sever

  13. Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674

  14. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  15. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  16. Chronic Nosebleeds: What to Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  17. Developmental Origins of Chronic Renal Disease: An Integrative Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boubred

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality. Hypertension (HT is one of the principal risk factors associated with death. Chronic kidney disease (CKD, which is probably underestimated, increases the risk and the severity of adverse cardiovascular events. It is now recognized that low birth weight is a risk factor for these diseases, and this relationship is amplified by a rapid catch-up growth or overfeeding during infancy or childhood. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the “early programming” of CKD are multiple and partially understood. It has been proposed that the developmental programming of arterial hypertension and chronic kidney disease is related to a reduced nephron endowment. However, this mechanism is still discussed. This review discusses the complex relationship between birth weight and nephron endowment and how early growth and nutrition influence long term HT and CKD. We hypothesize that fetal environment reduces moderately the nephron number which appears insufficient by itself to induce long term diseases. Reduced nephron number constitutes a “factor of vulnerability” when additional factors, in particular a rapid postnatal growth or overfeeding, promote the early onset of diseases through a complex combination of various pathophysiological pathways.

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  19. Pregabalin for Pain Treatment in Chronic Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Schou; Bowense, S; Wilder-Smith, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Intractable pain usually dominates the clinical presentation of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Slowing of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythmicity has been associated with abnormal cortical pain processing in other chronic pain disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectral distribution...

  20. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...