WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic food restriction

  1. Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-02-01

    In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. PMID:25465889

  2. Peripheral and central alterations in a chronic model of food restriction : role of ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Méquinion, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic food restriction is one of the major features observed in anorexia nervosa (AN), especially in the restrictive type. This major eating disorder affects mainly teenager girls and young women. Additionally to the restriction behavior, important physical activity is observed in a large number of patients (40-80% of cases). This disease induces various physiological alterations that concern neuroendocrine, metabolic and bone (osteopenia, osteoporosis) pathways, which have dramatic consequ...

  3. The olfactory neuron AWC promotes avoidance of normally palatable food following chronic dietary restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Changes in metabolic state alter foraging behavior and food preference in animals. Here, I show that normally attractive food becomes repulsive to Caenorhabditis elegans if animals are chronically undernourished as a result of alimentary tract defects. This behavioral plasticity is achieved in two ways: increased food leaving and induction of aversive behavior towards food. A particularly strong food avoider is defective in the chitin synthase that makes the pharyngeal lining. Food avoidance ...

  4. Is it stress? The role of stress related systems in chronic food restriction-induced augmentation of heroin seeking in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eSedki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by recurring episodes of abstinence and relapse. The precise mechanisms underlying this pattern are yet to be elucidated, but stress is thought to be a major factor in relapse. Recently, we reported that rats under withdrawal and exposed to a mild chronic stressor, prolonged food restriction, show increased heroin seeking compared to sated controls. Previous studies demonstrated a critical role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and corticosterone, hormones involved in the stress response, in acute food deprivation-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking. However, the role of CRF and corticosterone in chronic food restriction-induced augmentation of drug seeking remains unknown. Here, male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 10 days in operant conditioning chambers. Rats were then removed from the training chambers, and subjected to 14 days of unrestricted (sated rats or a mildly restricted (FDR rats access to food, which maintained their body weight at 90% of their baseline weight. On day 14, different groups of rats were administered a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist (R121919; 0.0, 20.0 mg/kg; s.c., a non-selective CRF receptor antagonist (α-helical CRF; 0.0, 10.0, 25.0 μg/μl; i.c.v. or a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (RU486; 0.0, 30.0 mg/kg; i.p., and underwent a 1 h drug seeking test under extinction conditions. An additional group of rats was tested following adrenalectomy. All FDR rats showed a statistically significant increase in heroin seeking compared to the sated rats. No statistically significant effects for treatment with α-helical CRF, R121919, RU486 or adrenalectomy were observed. These findings suggest that stress may not be a critical factor in the augmentation of heroin seeking in food-restricted rats.

  5. The grey mouse lemur uses season-dependent fat or protein sparing strategies to face chronic food restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available During moderate calorie restriction (CR the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression or summering torpor avoidance. We investigated body composition, whole body protein turnover, and daily energy expenditure (DEE, during a graded (40 and 80% 35-day CR in short-days (winter; SD40 and SD80, respectively and long-days (summer; LD40 and LD80, respectively acclimated animals. LD40 animals showed no change in fat mass (FM but a 12% fat free mass (FFM reduction. Protein balance being positive after CR, the FFM loss was early and rapid. The 25% DEE reduction, in LD40 group was mainly explained by FFM changes. LD80 animals showed a steady body mass loss and were excluded from the CR trial at day 22, reaching a survival-threatened body mass. No data were available for this group. SD40 animals significantly decreased their FM level by 21%, but maintained FFM. Protein sparing was achieved through a 35 and 39% decrease in protein synthesis and catabolism (protein turnover, respectively, overall maintaining nitrogen balance. The 21% reduction in energy requirement was explained by the 30% nitrogen flux drop but also by torpor as DEE FFM-adjusted remained 13% lower compared to ad-libitum. SD80 animals were unable to maintain energy and nitrogen balances, losing both FM and FFM. Thus summering mouse lemurs equilibrate energy balance by a rapid loss of active metabolic mass without using torpor, whereas wintering animals spare protein and energy through increased torpor expression. Both strategies have direct fitness implication: 1 to maintain activities at a lower body size during the mating season and 2 to preserve an optimal wintering muscle mass and function.

  6. Achieving Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Emma J. McMahon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet.

  7. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  8. Food Restriction Increases Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Burst Firing of Dopamine Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, Sarah Y.; Goertz, R. Brandon; Sharpe, Amanda L.; Pierce, Janie; Roy, Sudip; Ko, Daijin; Paladini, Carlos A; Beckstead, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Restriction of food intake increases the acquisition of drug abuse behavior and enhances the reinforcing efficacy of those drugs. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms responsible for the interactions between feeding state and drug use are largely unknown. Here we show that chronic mild food restriction increases the burst firing of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine neurons from food-restricted mice exhibited increased burst firing in vivo, an effect that was enhanced by...

  9. Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Jean-François; Roussel, Damien; Simard, Gilles; Douay, Olivier; Foussard, Françoise; Malthiery, Yves; Ritz, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To examine the effect of 50% food restriction over a period of 3 days on mitochondrial energy metabolism, liver mitochondria were isolated from ad libitum and food-restricted rats. Mitochondrial enzyme activities and oxygen consumption were assessed spectrophotometrically and polarographically. With regard to body weight loss (-5%), food restriction decreased the liver to body mass ratio by 7%. Moreover, in food-restricted rats, liver mitochondria displayed diminished state 3 (-30%), state 4-...

  10. Down-regulation of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine channel in severely food-restricted rats

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    V.A. Vizotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that myocardial dysfunction induced by food restriction is related to calcium handling. Although cardiac function is depressed in food-restricted animals, there is limited information about the molecular mechanisms that lead to this abnormality. The present study evaluated the effects of food restriction on calcium cycling, focusing on sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2, phospholamban (PLB, and ryanodine channel (RYR2 mRNA expressions in rat myocardium. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 60 days old, were submitted to ad libitum feeding (control rats or 50% diet restriction for 90 days. The levels of left ventricle SERCA2, PLB, and RYR2 were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Body and ventricular weights were reduced in 50% food-restricted animals. RYR2 mRNA was significantly decreased in the left ventricle of the food-restricted group (control = 5.92 ± 0.48 vs food-restricted group = 4.84 ± 0.33, P < 0.01. The levels of SERCA2 and PLB mRNA were similar between groups (control = 8.38 ± 0.44 vs food-restricted group = 7.96 ± 0.45, and control = 1.52 ± 0.06 vs food-restricted group = 1.53 ± 0.10, respectively. Down-regulation of RYR2 mRNA expressions suggests that chronic food restriction promotes abnormalities in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

  11. Chronic calorie restriction attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Piccio, Laura; Stark, Jennifer L.; Cross, Anne H.

    2008-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) prevents many age-associated diseases and prolongs the lifespan. CR induces multiple metabolic and physiologic modifications, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present studies sought to determine whether CR or increased calorie intake alters the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the leading animal model for MS. SJL and C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 40% ...

  12. Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J.N.; Rao, K Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Ganeshan, Manisha; Kumar, K. Anand; Rao, Ch. Narasima; Harishankar, Nemani; Ismail, Ayesha; Raghunath, Manchala

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We demonstrated previously that chronic maternal micronutrient restriction altered the body composition in rat offspring and may predispose offspring to adult-onset diseases. Chromium (Cr) regulates glucose and fat metabolism. The objective of this study is to determine the long-term effects of maternal Cr restriction on adipose tissue development and function in a rat model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female weanling WNIN rats received, ad libitum, a control diet or the same with ...

  13. Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omodei, Daniela; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Life expectancy in the world has increased dramatically during the last century; the number of older adults is expected to rise while the number of youths will decline in the near future. This demographic shift has considerable public health and economic implications since aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective nutritional intervention for slowing aging and preventing chronic disease in rodents. In non-human and hum...

  14. Perspective food addiction, caloric restriction, and dopaminergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankowska, Arwen Urrsula Malgorzata; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    People attempt to change their lifestyle when obesity impairs their quality of life. The attempts often fail when multiple habits must be changed in unison. Here we explore relations among food addiction, the neurobiology of habits, and caloric restriction, when people seek to return to normal...... reduced activity in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex. The neurobiological characteristics suggest that obese people also have a pathological dependence in common with addicts, in the form of food addiction. Malnutrition and dieting both relate to binge eating, possibly as a compensation for a...... reduced cognitive reward condition. The combination of caloric restriction and food addiction imparts a high risk of relapse as a result of further reduction of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the subsequent loss of reward. As with drugs of abuse, ingestion of large quantities of sugar in circumstances...

  15. Photoperiod interacts with food restriction on performance in the Barnes maze in female California mice

    OpenAIRE

    Steinman, Michael Q.; Crean, Katie K.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Food restriction has been reported to have positive effects on cognition. This study examines how another environmental factor, daylength, can alter the impact of food restriction on the brain and behavior. Female California mice (Peromyscus californicus), housed on either long days (16L:8D) or short days (8L:16D) were restricted to 80% of their normal baseline food intake or provided food ad libitum. Testing in a Barnes maze revealed that the effects of food restriction depend on photoperiod...

  16. Membrane properties and lipid peroxidation in food restricted animals

    OpenAIRE

    Pieri, C.

    1997-01-01

    Food restriction (FR) is a well-recognized method of extending mean and maximum longevity of rodents, but the mode of its action remains to be uncovered. This article reviews the effect of FR on the physical-chemical properties and lipid peroxidizability of cellular membranes. FR prevents the age-dependent increase in microviscosity and peroxidizability of cellular membranes. It has been suggested that a decrease in the body temperature occurring in undernourished animals may play a fundament...

  17. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea. PMID:22717614

  18. Sweet/dessert foods are more appealing to adolescents after sleep restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Simon

    Full Text Available Examine the effect of experimental sleep restriction (SR on adolescents' subjective hunger and perceived appeal of sweet/dessert foods versus other foods. A secondary goal was to replicate previous findings on the effects of SR on dietary intake.Randomized cross-over sleep restriction-extension paradigm.Sleep was obtained and monitored at home. Outcome measures were gathered during office visits.31 typically-developing adolescents aged 14-17 years.The three-week protocol consisted of a baseline week, followed randomly by five consecutive nights of SR (6.5 hours in bed versus healthy sleep duration (HS; 10 hours in bed, a 2-night wash-out period, and a 5-night cross-over.Sleep was monitored via actigraphy. The morning after each experimental condition, teens rated their hunger, underwent a 24-hour diet recall interview, and rated the appeal of a series of pictures of sweet/dessert foods (e.g., ice cream, candy and non-sweets (meat, eggs, fruits, vegetables.Teens rated pictures of sweet/dessert foods to be more appealing after SR than after HS (Cohen's d = .41, t = 2.07, p = .045. The sleep manipulation did not affect self-reported hunger or the appeal of non-sweet foods (p >.10. Consistent with our prior work, intake of overall calories was 11% higher and consumption of sweet/dessert servings was 52% greater during SR than HS.Adolescent SR appears to increase the subjective appeal of sweet/dessert foods, indicating a potential mechanism by which SR might contribute to weight gain and the risk for obesity and chronic illness.

  19. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

  20. Altered Food-Cue Processing in Chronically Ill and Recovered Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole eSanders; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Danner, Unna N; Floor evan Meer; Hoek, Hans W.; Roger A Adan

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Thr...

  1. Energy budget, behavior and leptin in striped hamsters subjected to food restriction and refeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short "compensatory growth" rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight.

  2. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  3. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  4. Dietary sodium restriction : a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent

  5. Effect of food restriction on the energy metabolism of the Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, Qing-Jian; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jia-Qi; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Food resources play an important role in the regulation of animals’ physiology and behavior. We investigated the effect of short-term food restriction on metabolic thermogenesis of Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) by measuring changes in body mass, body fat, basic metabolic rate (BMR), and organ mass of wild-caught Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Short-term food restriction induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat but body mass returned to normal levels soon after fo...

  6. The impacts of time access restrictions and vehicle weight restrictions on food retailers and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Quak, Hans; Koster, René

    2006-01-01

    textabstractUrban freight transport has many sustainable aspects. It contributes to economic vitality and the competitiveness of a region. However, the less socially and environmentally friendly effects such as noise, pollutant emissions, and nuisance, are usually the central theme in designing urban freight transport policies. Restricting policies as time access restrictions and vehicle restrictions gain popularity among Dutch local authorities. More than half of the municipalities uses time...

  7. Enforcement of the Danish Bisphenol A restriction on Food Contact Materials and Articles for infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In Denmark a national restriction was implemented in 2010 banning the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in any Food Contact Materials intended for children in the age 0-3 years. The ban includes BPA in baby bottles, baby cups, food cans for infant formulas and lids for glass containers with baby food. To...

  8. Consequences of Food Restriction for Immune Defense, Parasite Infection, and Fitness in Monarch Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexa Fritzsche; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a finite pool of resources to allocate toward multiple competing needs, such as development, reproduction, and enemy defense. Abundant resources can support investment in multiple traits simultaneously, but limited resources might promote trade-offs between fitness-related traits and immune defenses. We asked how food restriction at both larval and adult life stages of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) affected measures of immunity, fitness, and immune-fitness interactions. We experimentally infected a subset of monarchs with a specialist protozoan parasite to determine whether parasitism further affected these relationships and whether food restriction influenced the outcome of infection. Larval food restriction reduced monarch fitness measures both within the same life stage (e.g., pupal mass) as well as later in life (e.g., adult lifespan); adult food restriction further reduced adult lifespan. Larval food restriction lowered both hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity at the larval stage, and the effects of larval food restriction on phenoloxidase activity persisted when immunity was sampled at the adult stage. Adult food restriction reduced only adult phenoloxidase activity but not hemocyte concentration. Parasite spore load decreased with one measure of larval immunity, but food restriction did not increase the probability of parasite infection. Across monarchs, we found a negative relationship between larval hemocyte concentration and pupal mass, and a trade-off between adult hemocyte concentration and adult life span was evident in parasitized female monarchs. Adult life span increased with phenoloxidase activity in some subsets of monarchs. Our results emphasize that food restriction can alter fitness and immunity across multiple life stages. Understanding the consequences of resource limitation for immune defense is therefore important for predicting how increasing constraints on wildlife resources will affect fitness and

  9. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the te...

  10. MUSCLE METABOLISM WITH BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTION IN CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    McCully, Kevin K; Smith, Sinclair; Rajaei, Sheeva; Leigh, John S.; Natelson, Benjamin H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with reduced blood flow and muscle oxidative metabolism. Patients with CFS according to CDC criteria (n=19) were compared to normal sedentary subjects (n = 11). Muscle blood flow was measured in the femoral artery with Doppler ultrasound after exercise. Muscle metabolism was measured in the medial gastrocnemius muscle using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Muscle oxygen saturation and blood vo...

  11. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  12. Influence of Chronic Moderate Sleep Restriction and Exercise on Inflammation and Carcinogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Mark R.; Davis, J. Mark; Fadel, James R.; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and exercise training on carcinogenesis were examined in adenomatous polyposis coli multiple intestinal neoplasma (APC Min+/-) mice, a genetic strain which is predisposed to developing adenomatous polyposis. The mice were randomized to one of four 11 week treatments in a 2×2 design involving sleep restriction (by 4 h/day) vs. normal sleep and exercise training (1 h/day) vs. sedentary control. Wild-type control mice underwent identical experime...

  13. Sleep allostasis in chronic sleep restriction: the role of the norepinephrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsoo; Chen, Lichao; McCarley, Robert W.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction may be very different from those observed after acute total sleep deprivation. Specifically, when sleep restriction is repeated for several consecutive days, animals express attenuated compensatory increases in sleep time and intensity during daily sleep opportunities. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these adaptive, or more specifically, allostatic, changes in sleep homeostasis are unknown. Several lines of evidence indicate that norepine...

  14. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction. PMID:26105046

  15. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Dixon

    Full Text Available Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R, and twice (2R or three times (3R this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R. This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  16. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

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    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  17. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiecki, Kalina; Hammond, Geoff; Rodger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW). We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j) and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻) mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets) they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies. PMID:23144936

  18. Balancing food and predator pressure induces chronic stress in songbirds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clinchy, Michael; Zanette, Liana; Boonstra, Rudy; Wingfield, John C.; Smith, James N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The never-ending tension between finding food and avoiding predators may be the most universal natural stressor wild animals experience. The 'chronic stress' hypothesis predicts: (i) an animal's stress profile will be a simultaneous function of food and predator pressures given the aforesaid tension; and (ii) these inseparable effects on physiology will produce inseparable effects on demography because of the resulting adverse health effects. This hypothesis was originally proposed to explain...

  19. Are hungry sheep more pessimistic? The effects of food restriction on cognitive bias and the involvement of ghrelin in its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Else; Ferguson, Drewe; Lee, Caroline

    2014-01-17

    Food restriction is considered to be a welfare issue in extensively reared animals. However, the effects of food restriction on the affective state, and its physiological regulation, are unknown. In Experiment 1, we aimed to assess the effects of increased plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin on judgement bias (an indicator of affective states) by fasting sheep for 24h or by ghrelin administration. In Experiment 2, we aimed to assess the effects of chronic food restriction on judgement bias and attention bias towards a food-related cue. For the judgement bias test, sheep were trained in an arena to approach a positive location cue associated with conspecifics and not approach a negative location cue associated with a dog. Three non-trained, non-reinforced ambiguous location cues were situated between the positive and negative locations. Attention bias towards a food-related cue was assessed by placing an empty food bucket against the wall of the arena halfway between the entry point and the positive location. In Experiment 1, sheep were divided into three treatments; 24h fast, ghrelin administration or control. Judgement bias, locomotor activity and plasma cortisol concentrations were assessed. The ghrelin treated group tended to express a more pessimistic bias compared to the control group (Pfood-related cue was presented, LF ewes took longer to reach the positive location (Pfood restriction alters judgement bias and attention bias towards a food-related cue which may indicate altered affective states of sheep. PMID:24096007

  20. Barriers to Engagement in Sleep Restriction and Stimulus Control in Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Norah; Lewycky, Samantha; Finnegan, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Sleep restriction (SRT) and stimulus control (SC) have been found to be effective interventions for chronic insomnia (Morgenthaler et al., 2006), and yet adherence to SRT and SC varies widely. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates to adherence to SC/SRT among 40 outpatients with primary or comorbid insomnia using a…

  1. Effects of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, DHPG, and injection stress on striatal cell signaling in food-restricted and ad libitum fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Kenneth D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic food restriction augments the rewarding effect of centrally administered psychostimulant drugs and this effect may involve a previously documented upregulation of D-1 dopamine receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc and caudate-putamen (CPu. Psychostimulants are known to induce striatal glutamate release, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR have been implicated in the cellular and behavioral responses to amphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chronic food restriction increases striatal MAP kinase signaling in response to the group I mGluR agonist, DHPG. Results Western immunoblotting was used to demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of DHPG (500 nmol produces greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted as compared to ad libitum fed rats. Fos-immunostaining induced by DHPG was also stronger in CPu and NAc core of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats. However, i.c.v. injection of saline-vehicle produced greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats, and this difference was not seen when subjects received no i.c.v. injection prior to sacrifice. In addition, although DHPG activated Akt, there was no difference in Akt activation between feeding groups. To probe whether the augmented ERK1/2 and CREB activation in vehicle-injected food-restricted rats are mediated by one or more GluR types, effects of an NMDA antagonist (MK-801, 100 nmol, AMPA antagonist (DNQX, 10 nmol, and group I mGluR antagonist (AIDA, 100 nmol were compared to saline-vehicle. Antagonist injections did not diminish activation of ERK1/2 or CREB. Conclusions These results indicate that a group I mGluR agonist induces phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and CREB in both CPu and NAc. However, group I mGluR-mediated signaling may not be upregulated in food-restricted rats

  2. Comparing the effects of food restriction and overeating on brain reward systems

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Nicole M.; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Both caloric restriction and overeating have been shown to affect neural processes associated with reinforcement. Both preclinical and some clinical studies have provided evidence that food restriction may increase reward sensitivity, and while there are mixed findings regarding the effects of overeating on reward sensitivity, there is strong evidence linking this behavior with changes in reward-related brain regions. Evidence of these changes comes in part from findings that show that such e...

  3. Disordered Eating and Food Restrictions in Children with PANDAS/PANS

    OpenAIRE

    Toufexis, Megan D.; Hommer, Rebecca; Gerardi, Diana M.; Grant, Paul; Rothschild, Leah; D'Souza, Precilla; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James; Swedo, Susan E.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sudden onset clinically significant eating restrictions are a defining feature of the clinical presentation of some of the cases of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Restrictions in food intake are typically fueled by contamination fears; fears of choking, vomiting, or swallowing; and/or sensory issues, such as texture, taste, or olfactory concerns. However, body image distortions may also be present. We investigate the clinical presentation of PANS disordered...

  4. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L B Lima

    Full Text Available Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C and chronic sleep restricted (CSR. Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR. Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19; OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17 mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9; OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18; OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16 UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10; OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  5. Effect of Restrictions on Television Food Advertising to Children on Exposure to Advertisements for ‘Less Healthy’ Foods: Repeat Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Adams; Rachel Tyrrell; Adamson, Ashley J.; Martin White(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA)

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. Methods: We conducted two cross-sectional studies of al...

  6. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingerman, Candice M; Williams, Wilbur P; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

  7. Food restriction-induced changes in gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone-immunoreactive cells are associated with sexual motivation and food hoarding, but not sexual performance and food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CandiceMKlingerman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3 and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH of energetically-challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.

  8. On the Necessity of International Disciplines on Food Export Restriction (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA Kazuhito

    2013-01-01

    The world food trade is distorted by agricultural trade policies. Import tariffs and non-tariff barriers are regulated by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and are disciplined as a result. On the other hand, export quantity restrictions and export taxes have been lightly regulated. This lack of regulation has led many exporting countries to resort to these export measures as world food prices increase. In 2008, as world grain prices soare...

  9. Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:23017320

  10. Efficacy of physical activity counseling plus sleep restriction therapy on the patients with chronic insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J.; Yin G; Li G.; Liang W; Wei Q

    2015-01-01

    Jihui Wang, Guangxia Yin, Guanying Li, Wenjing Liang, Qinling Wei Department of Psychiatry, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: Lack of physical activity (PA) is common in patients with chronic insomnia. Studies to increase PA and decrease sedentary behavior in those patients are limited. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of “PA counseling combined with sleep restriction (SR) therapy (PASR)&r...

  11. Illness anxiety and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Cognitive-behavioral conceptualization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren A; Urbach, John R; Stewart, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Eating difficulties are commonly present in medical and psychiatric settings. Some eating problems are resultant from fears about food consumption and can be conceptualized as anxiety disorders conditioned by perception of feared outcomes associated with eating and maintained by avoidance. The authors present a case in which a female patient with limited food intake is successfully treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Illness anxiety disorder and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, both newly included in DSM-V, are applied in this case. PMID:26276708

  12. Adaptive mechanisms during food restriction in Acomys russatus: the use of torpor for desert survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, N; Heldmaier, G; Exner, C

    2005-04-01

    The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) is an omnivorous desert rodent that does not store food, but can store large amounts of body fat. Thus, it provides a good animal model to study physiological and behavioural adaptations to changes in food availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of metabolic and behavioural responses to prolonged food restriction. Spiny mice were kept at an ambient temperature of 27 degrees C and for 3 weeks their food was reduced individually to 30% of their previous ad libitum food intake. When fed ad libitum, their average metabolic rate was 82.77+/-3.72 ml O(2) h(-1) during the photophase and 111.19+/-4.30 ml O(2) h(-1) during the scotophase. During food restriction they displayed episodes of daily torpor when the minimal metabolic rate gradually decreased to 16.07+/-1.07 ml O(2) h(-1), i.e. a metabolic rate depression of approximately 83%. During the hypometabolic bouts the minimum average body temperature T(b), decreased gradually from 32.6+/-0.1 degrees C to 29.0+/-0.4 degrees C, with increasing duration of consecutive bouts. In parallel, the animals increased their activity during the remaining daytime. Torpor as well as hyperactivity was suppressed immediately by refeeding. Thus golden spiny mice used two simultaneous strategies to adapt to shortened food supply, namely energysaving torpor during their resting period and an increase in locomotor activity pattern during their activity period. PMID:15742195

  13. The Role of Food Additives and Natural Foods Containing Vasoactive Amines in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

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    Sami Ozturk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU need long-term treatment but there is little known about the prognosis of CIU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of CIU and to find out if there are risk factors that predict the prognosis. In this prospective study, we obtained data from patients first diagnosed and treated for CIU between September 2003 and September 2005. This study was included 157 patients with CIU. We observed duration of the disease, effects of food additives and preservatives in CIU. As possible prognostic factors we observed sex, age, atopy, intolerance to food additives and preservatives. Allergic reactions were seen to appear in 37% (n=50 cases due to natural foods, in 36% (n=49 cases due to foods containing additives, and in 27% (n=37 cases due to both natural foods and foods containing additives. For patients with CIU, food colors, sweeteners and preservatives that are added into foods are an important etiological factor. Moreover, histamine and histamine-like endogen pharmacological agents can cause allergic reactions. Hence, these foods should be taken into consideration in etiology especially in patients with CIU, and due to potential etiology, elimination of patients from these foods for a while is a significant step in treatment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 351-356

  14. The Role of Food Additives and Natural Foods Containing Vasoactive Amines in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Erel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU need long-term treatment but there is little known about the prognosis of CIU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of CIU and to find out if there are risk factors that predict the prognosis. In this prospective study, we obtained data from patients first diagnosed and treated for CIU between September 2003 and September 2005. This study was included 157 patients with CIU. We observed duration of the disease, effects of food additives and preservatives in CIU. As possible prognostic factors we observed sex, age, atopy, intolerance to food additives and preservatives. Allergic reactions were seen to appear in 37% (n=50 cases due to natural foods, in 36% (n=49 cases due to foods containing additives, and in 27% (n=37 cases due to both natural foods and foods containing additives. For patients with CIU, food colors, sweeteners and preservatives that are added into foods are an important etiological factor. Moreover, histamine and histamine-like endogen pharmacological agents can cause allergic reactions. Hence, these foods should be taken into consideration in etiology especially in patients with CIU, and due to potential etiology, elimination of patients from these foods for a while is a significant step in treatment. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 351-356

  15. Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21974860

  16. Re-feeding evokes reproductive overcompensation of food-restricted Brandt's voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuehui; Wen, Yilei; Niu, Hongxing; Shi, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-02-01

    In natural conditions, animals have to cope with fluctuations of food resources. Animals having experienced prolonged decrease in feeding opportunities may increase their reproductive success when meeting abundant food. Though food restriction is well known to reduce reproductive success of animals, it is not clear whether re-feeding can restore or even overcompensate the reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the differences in reproductive parameters between food-restricted and refed (FR-RF) group and control group of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). For 4 weeks, FR-RF voles were provided with 70% of their normal daily food intake and then they were fed ad libitum for the next 4 weeks. Voles of control group were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks. Females (FR-RF or control) were mated to non-littermate males of the same group (FR-RF or control), and we found that the mean litter size and survival rate of F1 pups of FR-RF group were significantly higher than those of control group. We also provided a field example showing that the litter size of Brandt's voles tended to be higher if they experienced two consecutive dry and wet months than that of voles didn't have this experience. Our results suggest that re-feeding may have evoked an overcompensatory mechanism of food-restricted voles in reproductive success. This may be an adaptive strategy for Brandt's voles (with oscillating populations) to cope with the fluctuating food resources in natural conditions by adjusting their reproductive success. PMID:22019786

  17. Influence of Chronic Moderate Sleep Restriction and Exercise Training on Anxiety, Spatial Memory, and Associated Neurobiological Measures in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Mark R.; Davis, J. Mark; Fadel, James R.; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation can have deleterious effects on cognitive function and mental health. Moderate exercise training has myriad beneficial effects on cognition and mental health. However, physiological and behavioral effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and its interaction with common activities, such as moderate exercise training, have received little investigation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and moderate exercise training ...

  18. Food label use and awareness of nutritional information and recommendations among persons with chronic disease123

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John E.; Arheart, Kristopher L; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Dietz, Noella A.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clark, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because of the relation between chronic disease and poor nutritional habits, the use of food labels and adherence to dietary recommendations are important for chronic disease populations. We explored whether persons with chronic disease read nutrient information on food labels and whether they were aware of dietary guidelines.

  19. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus. PMID:15664731

  20. Protective effect of clenbuterol on duodenal epithelium during food restriction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Cardoso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the 2-adrenoceptor, clenbuterol, on the duodenal epithelium of food-restricted rats. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/kg diet to three groups of male Wistar rats (n =8 housed individually in metabolic cages and fed ad libitum for 15 days at 110 %and 160 %of the estimated requirement for energy maintenance. Untreated groups at each energy intake level were also included. Samples of the duodenum were examined by light microscopy. Compared with control animals, clenbuterol treatment significantly increased body mass in all diet groups, although it induced no changes in mean food intake. Gastrointestinal (GIT dry mass was increased by clenbuterol only in the most severely-restricted-diet group. In this group, clenbuterol treatment increased GIT tissue nitrogen (23 %, more than it did in the ad libitum group (13 %. In all treated groups, clenbuterol induced significant hypertrophy of duodenal enterocytes and circular muscle layers, and the diameter of lymphatic vessels increased. In the clenbuterol-treated, restricted-diet groups the height of the brush borders of enterocytes increased. It is concluded that clenbuterol has a protective effect on the intestinal structure in rats on restricted as well as ad libitum diets.

  1. Effect of restrictions on television food advertising to children on exposure to advertisements for 'less healthy' foods: repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods--the first (week 1 six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2 six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs that were for HFSS foods. RESULTS: 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57. Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12. There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods.

  2. Behavioral teratogenicity induced by maternal food restriction: maternal cannibalism and poor reflex development in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Lopes Ricci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have attributed the presence of several toxic chemicals during pregnancy to maternal malnutrition. A deficit in maternal nutritional status may be crucial for the development of teratogenicity. However, nowadays, the concept of teratogenesis is not restricted to structural abnormalities, but, also, to functional changes, such as, for instance, those observed in behavior. This study investigated the effects of maternal food restriction (FR during pregnancy on the physical, behavioral, and reflex development of offspring. Pregnant female rats underwent feed restriction at different levels (15, 40, 55, and 70% of the daily feed intake when compared to the control group, starting on gestation day 6 (GD6 until GD17; the control group received food ad libitum. After birth, the physical and neurobehavioral development of offspring were assessed. The results showed that, except for weight reduction, the physical development of offsprings from the FR groups did not differ from that of the control group. However, the experimental groups showed deficits in neurological reflexes, particularly with regard to negative geotaxis and palmar reflex. In general activity, the offspring of the FR group 40% (E40 and E55 showed low frequencies of locomotion and rearing and long periods of immobility. The results show that maternal FR during pregnancy promotes neurological disorders in offspring, but it does not affect physical development, showing the importance of behavioral assessments.

  3. Food restriction attenuates oxidative stress in brown adipose tissue of striped hamsters acclimated to a warm temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Gui-Ying; Wang, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2016-05-01

    It has been suggested that the up-regulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, in which case there should be a negative relationship between UCPs expression and ROS levels. In this study, the effects of temperature and food restriction on ROS levels and metabolic rate, UCP1 mRNA expression and antioxidant levels were examined in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). The metabolic rate and food intake of hamsters which had been restricted to 80% of ad libitum food intake, and acclimated to a warm temperature (30°C), decreased significantly compared to a control group. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were 42.9% lower in food restricted hamsters than in the control. Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels of hamsters acclimated to 30°C that were fed ad libitum were significantly higher than those of the control group, but 60.1% lower than hamsters that had been acclimated to the same temperature but subject to food restriction. There were significantly positive correlations between H2O2 and, MDA levels, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Cytochrome c oxidase activity and UCP1 mRNA expression significantly decreased in food restricted hamsters compared to the control. These results suggest that warmer temperatures increase oxidative stress in BAT by causing the down-regulation of UCP1 expression and decreased antioxidant activity, but food restriction may attenuate the effects. PMID:27157336

  4. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the foodrestricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in foodrestricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk.

  5. Chronic hyperhydration and hematological changes in trained subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Yaroshenko, Michael N.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on the hemoglobin content of endurance trained athletes during hypokinesia (decreased number of steps from 10,000 to 3000 steps per day). The studies were performed on 30 long-distance runners who had a VO 2max average of 66 ml kg -1 min -1 and were in the age range of 19-24 years. Prior to their exposure to hypokinesia (HK) of 364 days, all volunteers were on an average of 10,000 steps per day. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the first group underwent normal ambulatory life (control subjects), the second group was kept under continuous restriction of motor activity (hypokinetic subjects) and the third group was placed under continuous restriction of motor activity and consumed 26 ml water kg -1 body weight daily and 0.1 g sodium chloride kg -1 body weight in the form of supplementation (hyperhydrated subjects). For simulation of the hypokinetic effect, the number of steps taken per day by the second and third groups of volunteers was restricted to an average of 3000. During the hypokinetic period we determined reticulocytes (Rt), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), plasma volume (PV), red blood cell (RBC) mass and VO 2max. In hyperhydrated volunteers the content of Hb and Hct decreased significantly, while PV, RBC mass and Rt count increased significantly. In hypokinetic volunteers Hb and Hct increased, while PV, RBC and Rt decreased significantly. It was concluded that chronic hyperhydration may be used to attentuate an increase in the Hb content of physically conditioned subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  6. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  7. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the [125I]iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span

  8. Protective effect of clenbuterol on duodenal epithelium during food restriction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Cardoso; Ferreira, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the 2-adrenoceptor, clenbuterol, on the duodenal epithelium of food-restricted rats. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/kg diet) to three groups of male Wistar rats (n =8) housed individually in metabolic cages and fed ad libitum for 15 days at 110 %and 160 %of the estimated requirement for energy maintenance. Untreated groups at each energy intake level were also included. Samples of the duodenum were examined by light ...

  9. Life Span Extension in Mice by Food Restriction Depends on an Energy Imbalance12

    OpenAIRE

    Sohal, Rajindar S.; Ferguson, Melissa; Sohal, Barbara H.; Forster, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, our main objective was to determine whether energy restriction (ER) affects the rate of oxygen consumption of mice transiently or lastingly and whether metabolic rate plays a role in the ER-related extension of life span. We compared rates of resting oxygen consumption between C57BL/6 mice, whose life span is prolonged by ER, and the DBA/2 mice where it is not, at 6 and 23 mo of age, following 40% ER for 2 and 19 mo, respectively. Mice of the 2 strains that consumed food ad lib...

  10. Influence of pro-algesic foods on chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian Edwin

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines current knowledge about putative "pro-algesic" dietary components, and discusses whether limiting the intake of these substances can help improve chronic pain. Although there is a common impression that numerous food components, natural and synthetic, can cause or worsen pain symptoms, very few of these substances have been investigated. This article focuses on four substances, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, arachidonic acid, and caffeine, where research shows that overconsumption may induce or worsen pain. For each substance, the mechanism whereby it may act to induce pain is examined, and any clinical trials examining the effectiveness of reducing the intake of the substance discussed. While all four substances are associated with pain, decreased consumption of them does not consistently reduce pain. PMID:26900907

  11. Serotonin suppresses food anticipatory activity and synchronizes the food-entrainable oscillator during time-restricted feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblit-Susan, Sigal; Chapnik, Nava; Genzer, Yoni; Froy, Oren

    2016-01-15

    The serotonergic and circadian systems are intertwined as serotonin modulates the response of the central brain suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) clock to light. Time-restricted feeding (RF) is characterized by increased food anticipatory activity (FAA) and controlled by the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) rather than the SCN. Our objective was to test whether serotonin affects the FEO. Mice were treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine (FLX) or the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and locomotor activity under ad libitum feeding, RF and different lighting conditions was monitored. Under AL, FLX administration did not affect 24-h locomotor activity, while mice treated with PCPA exhibited increased activity. RF-FLX-treated mice showed less FAA 2h before food availability (ZT2-ZT4) compared to RF- or RF-PCPA-fed mice. Under DD, RF-PCPA-treated mice displayed increased activity, as was seen under LD conditions. Surprisingly, RF-PCPA-treated mice showed free running in the FAA component. These results emphasize the role of serotonin in SCN-mediated activity inhibition and FEO entrainment and activity. PMID:26467604

  12. Effect of restricted access to food on metabolic changes in lethally X-irradiated rats. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in the reaction of glucose in blood and in that of glycogen in liver in animals with free access to food and in those with restricted food intake to lethal irradiation by X-rays were studied. SPF bred male rats of the Wistar strain were fed by common laboratory diet and by tap water ad libitum (AL group) or food was accessible to them (in unlimited amounts) only in the period between 09.00 a. m. and 11.00 a. m. (meal-fed group, MF), all under standard laboratory conditions. After more than three weeks of adaptation to the nutrition patterns and 22 h after the last food intake, animals of both groups were irradiated with a single whole-body 14.35 Gy dose of X-rays and/or sham irradiated, respectively. Glucose concentration in blood was increased in both groups during the experiment; terminal hyperglycaemia was more expressed in the MF group. Due to the high initial glycogen concentration in the liver of MF irradiated animals the accumulation of glycogen was substantially lower and started later than in irradiated AL animals. (author)

  13. Interventions in Small Food Stores to Change the Food Environment, Improve Diet, and Reduce Risk of Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Rowan, Megan; Gadhoke, Preety

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Many small-store intervention trials have been conducted in the United States and other countries to improve the food environment and dietary behaviors associated with chronic disease risk. However, no systematic reviews of the methods and outcomes of these trials have been published. The objective of this study was to identify small-store interventions and to determine their impact on food availability, dietary behaviors, and psychosocial factors that influence chronic disease r...

  14. Effect of pinealectomy and prolonged melatonin administration on circadian testicular function in food restricted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Kajdaniuk, D.; Gorski, J.; Buntner, B. [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of pinealectomy and exogenous melatonin on the circadian testosterone variations was investigated (using the radioimmunoassay method) after 3 weeks of 50% food restriction in sexually mature male Wistar rats at 3-h intervals under 12:12 light-dark cycle. The circadian periodicity of testosterone secretion was maintained after caloric deprivation, however its mean 24-h concentration was lower and rhythm disturbances appeared in the form of acrophase shifts from 18.00 to 0.50 h. In pinealectomized animals the mean 24-h testosterone level and amplitude values were significantly increased without the rhythm disturbances. As compared to the control animals, underfed pinealectomized rats had a partial recovery of reduced testosterone levels during the 24-h cycle and showed a normalization of the rhythm acrophase. Melatonin administration was found to inhibit the testosterone mesor value in pinealectomized rats with acrophase shifts from 16.58 to 14.51 h. In comparison with the pinealectomized ones the underfed pinealectomized rats had a greater reduction of the mesor and amplitude values after the melatonin administration. These findings indicate that long-term food restriction sensitizes the circadian testicular axis to antigonadotropic action of the pineal gland. (author). 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  15. Altered food cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eSanders

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa (AN is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss.This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012, that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD when compared to long term recovered AN (REC and healthy controls (HC. Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 y, 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 yr and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, after fasting overnight. Functional ROIs (fROIs were defined in BU (e.g. striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum, TD (e.g. medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, the insula and visual processing areas (VPA. Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs.We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC fROIs across BU, TD and VPA areas clustered, in AN one cluster span across BU, TD and insula, one across BU, TD and VPA areas and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC BU, TD and VPA or VPA and insula clustered.In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food cues is also altered in recovered AN patient

  16. Chronically Restricted Sleep Leads to Depression-Like Changes in Neurotransmitter Receptor Sensitivity and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novati, Arianna; Roman, Viktor; Cetin, Timur; Hagewoud, Roelina; den Boer, Johan A.; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our Western society. In the long run, insufficient sleep may have repercussions for health and may sensitize individuals to psychiatric diseases. In this context, we applied an animal model of chronic

  17. Effect of short-term food restriction on iron metabolism, relative well-being and depression symptoms in healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciak, Rafal W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The idea that iron deficiency anemia can be recognized in depressive patients has been around for a few years, as well as negative association between ferritin levels and depression. Iron deficiency anemia, associated with low iron intake, has been observed in women using restriction diets, for example in vegetarians or anorexics. There are no data on the influence of the short-term food restrictions, observed for example in slimming women, on iron management and its connection with behav...

  18. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... and food restriction on the skeleton of male rats. Most investigations initiated rather short-term interventions in 4- to 5-week-old animals and thus studied more the influence of growth than the influence of ageing on the skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of physical exercise and food...... to SE group. This decrease was counteracted by physical exercise (RW and TM groups) as well as by food restriction (PW group). In contrast, the strength of the femoral mid-diaphysis did not differ between BL and SE groups. CONCLUSIONS: The distal metaphysis in the male rat femur is more prone...

  19. Food restriction and streptozotocin treatment decrease 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor mediated behavioral effects in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun-Xu; France, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Food restriction and hypoinsulinemia can affect the synthesis, turnover and receptor function of serotonin (5-HT) in brain. This study explored the effects of food restriction and streptozotocin treatment on behavioral effects related to 5-HT1A (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-HT2A (DOI) receptor activation. Lower lip retraction and flat body posture (8-OH-DPAT) and head twitching (DOI) were measured in rats during free feeding, food restriction, after treatment with streptozotocin, and finally after insuli...

  20. Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine

    OpenAIRE

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R; Schmitt, Luke I.; Michael M. Halassa; Haydon, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5...

  1. Effects of the restriction of food and water intake on the distribution and retention of radioiodine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the restriction of food and water intakes on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to organs and excretion of 131I were investigated in C3H/He mice. The animals were divided into four groups and administered orally 37 kBq carrier-free Na 131I in 0.25 ml normal saline. One group of animals was given food and water ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Food and water to the remaining groups were restricted before and/or after the administration of 131I. The animals in each group were sacrificed 4 h and 24 h after administration, and the activity of 131I in thyroid, blood, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, urine, feces, and carcass was measured. There was a significant increase in the retention of 131I in the thyroid and the concentration of 131I in the blood due to the restriction of food and water after the administration of 131I. In contrast, a significant decrease in the urinary excretion was observed in these animals. In those animals, which fasted before administration only, the retention of 131I in the thyroid and other organs were decreased. Therefore, for an accurate diagnosis and effective therapy with radioiodine as well as effective radiation protection, the intake of food and water should be taken into account. (author)

  2. School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken To Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Because of concerns about trends in children's health and eating habits and interest in further understanding issues related to competitive foods in schools, this study addressed: which foods and school food practices fell under the term "competitive foods" and what federal restrictions existed on their sale; what was known about the types of…

  3. Patterns of food avoidance in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a case for dietary recommendations? Patrones de evitación alimenticia en el síndrome de fatiga crónica: ¿hay base para dar recomendaciones dietéticas?

    OpenAIRE

    J. Trabal; P. Leyes; J. Fernández-Solá; M.ª Forga; J. Fernández-Huerta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the dietary habits and food avoidance-behavior in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Methods: Cross-sectional pilot study with 28 patients diagnosed with severe CFS. Eating habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food records. We analyzed variables related to dietary restrictions induced by symptoms or external information. Results: The most prevalent restrictions were for dairy products and gluten-containing grains, with 22 and 15 r...

  4. Medical foods: products for the management of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sarah L; Baggott, Joseph E

    2006-11-01

    Medical foods are a specific category of therapeutic agents created under the Orphan Drug Act of 1988, which separated medical foods from drugs for regulatory purposes. Products in this category share the requirements that they are intended for the nutritional management of a specific disease, are used under the guidance of a physician, and contain ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). An example of medical foods are formulations intended to manage patients with inborn errors in amino acid metabolism. Newer medical foods are designed to manage hyperhomocysteinemia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, inflammatory conditions, cancer cachexia, and other diseases. PMID:17131945

  5. Water and sodium restriction on cardiovascular disease in young chronic hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xue; WANG Wei; LI Han

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients.It remains unclear whether efforts to correct fluid overload in young CHD can reverse LVH.This prospective single-center cohort study evaluated left ventricular masses index (LVMI) evolution in fluid overloaded young CHD patients with or without water-sodium control.Methods A total of t06 young patients aged between 22 and 44 years on CHD were enrolled in this prospective,control study.Patients were divided into three groups according to the percentage of interdialytic weight gain (PIDWG (%) =100% × (predialysis weight-dry weight)/dry weight) at baseline.Thirty-six patients with PIDWG more than 5% received health education to restrict water-sodium intake strictly (Group I).Other 36 patients with comparable fluid status levels (the PIDWG more than 5%) did not receive health education to restrict water-sodium intake strictly (Group Ⅱ) and those with PIDWG less than 5% (Group Ⅲ,n=34) were served as controls.Echocardiographic studies were performed to evaluate LVMI at baseline and then after 1,3 and 6 months.The total follow-up time was 6 months.Results There was no significant difference in clinical data (such as age,gender,aetiology of renal failure and nutritional state,etc.) among the three groups at baseline.At baseline,the prevalence of LVH in Group Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ was 75.0%,72.2% and 55.9%,respectively.LVMI was directly correlated with PIDWG (r =0.779,P <0.01).After 6 months,the PIDWG in Group I decreased in mean by (3.77±1.09)%,and LVMI decreased in mean by (27.59±12.15) g/m2.The prevalence of LVH decreased in mean by 25.0%,and the blood pressure decreased in mean by (14.69±11.50) mmHg/(7.14±7.51) mmHg.The medication category and total medication frequency of hypotensive drugs significantly decreased in Group I at 6 months.However the urine volume and the levels of serum creatinine and serum

  6. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula N Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein or control isocaloric diet (20% protein. On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  7. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito-Andrés, Jimena; Klenin, Natasha; Cross, James C.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein) or control isocaloric diet (20% protein). On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth. PMID:27018791

  8. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  9. [Psychophysiological mechanisms involved in the affective regulation and food restriction of women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Mata, José Luis; Moreno, Silvia; Fernández, Maria Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of visualizing food images under different mood states and food restriction conditions on the emotional modulation of two defense reflexes (startle reflex and cardiac defense). 72 women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa were assigned to two groups: 1) a group under induced positive, neutral, or negative mood state and, 2) a 6-hour-food-deprived group or a non-deprived group. Second-by-second heart rate and electromyogram activity from the orbiculari oculi region were recorded after the auditory stimulus. The results showed that, while viewing food images, non-deprived women under negative mood state potentiated the cardiac defense response and the startle motor reflex. Results are discussed in the context of emotional eating theories and Peter Lang's motivational priming model. PMID:17295980

  10. Obesity, food restriction, and implicit attitudes to healthy and unhealthy foods: Lessons learned from the implicit relational assessment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ian; Hughes, Sean; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; De Schryver, Maarten; Yoder, Ruth; O'Shea, Donal

    2016-05-01

    It has been argued that obese individuals evaluate high caloric, palatable foods more positively than their normal weight peers, and that this positivity bias causes them to consume such foods, even when healthy alternatives are available. Yet when self-reported and automatic food preferences are assessed no such evaluative biases tend to emerge. We argue that situational (food deprivation) and methodological factors may explain why implicit measures often fail to discriminate between the food-evaluations of these two groups. Across three studies we manipulated the food deprivation state of clinically obese and normal-weight participants and then exposed them to an indirect procedure (IRAP) and self-report questionnaires. We found that automatic food-related cognition was moderated by a person's weight status and food deprivation state. Our findings suggest that the diagnostic and predictive value of implicit measures may be increased when (a) situational moderators are taken into consideration and (b) we pay greater attention to the different ways in which people automatically relate rather than simply categorize food stimuli. PMID:26877215

  11. Effects of Chronic REM Sleep Restriction on D1 Receptor and Related Signal Pathways in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC mediates cognitive function that is sensitive to disruption by sleep loss, and molecular mechanisms regulating neural dysfunction induced by chronic sleep restriction (CSR, particularly in the PFC, have yet to be completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic REM sleep restriction (REM-CSR on the D1 receptor (D1R and key molecules in D1R’ signal pathways in PFC. We employed the modified multiple platform method to create the REM-CSR rat model. The ultrastructure of PFC was observed by electron microscopy. HPLC was performed to measure the DA level in PFC. The expressions of genes and proteins of related molecules were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The general state and morphology of PFC in rats were changed by CSR, and DA level and the expression of D1R in PFC were markedly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05; the expression of phosphor-PKAcα was significantly lowered in CSR rats (P<0.05. The present results suggested that the alteration of neuropathology and D1R expression in PFC may be associated with CSR induced cognitive dysfunction, and the PKA pathway of D1R may play an important role in the impairment of advanced neural function.

  12. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-07-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030. PMID:27429493

  13. A unified mathematical model to quantify performance impairment for both chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdev, Pooja; Thorsley, David; Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Rupp, Tracy L; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2013-08-21

    Performance prediction models based on the classical two-process model of sleep regulation are reasonably effective at predicting alertness and neurocognitive performance during total sleep deprivation (TSD). However, during sleep restriction (partial sleep loss) performance predictions based on such models have been found to be less accurate. Because most modern operational environments are predominantly characterized by chronic sleep restriction (CSR) rather than by episodic TSD, the practical utility of this class of models has been limited. To better quantify performance during both CSR and TSD, we developed a unified mathematical model that incorporates extant sleep debt as a function of a known sleep/wake history, with recent history exerting greater influence. This incorporation of sleep/wake history into the classical two-process model captures an individual's capacity to recover during sleep as a function of sleep debt and naturally bridges the continuum from CSR to TSD by reducing to the classical two-process model in the case of TSD. We validated the proposed unified model using psychomotor vigilance task data from three prior studies involving TSD, CSR, and sleep extension. We compared and contrasted the fits, within-study predictions, and across-study predictions from the unified model against predictions generated by two previously published models, and found that the unified model more accurately represented multiple experimental studies and consistently predicted sleep restriction scenarios better than the existing models. In addition, we found that the model parameters obtained by fitting TSD data could be used to predict performance in other sleep restriction scenarios for the same study populations, and vice versa. Furthermore, this model better accounted for the relatively slow recovery process that is known to characterize CSR, as well as the enhanced performance that has been shown to result from sleep banking. PMID:23623949

  14. Food restriction alters pramipexole-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: Evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M.; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-ind...

  15. Food restriction and streptozotocin differentially modify sensitivity to the hypothermic effects of direct- and indirect-acting serotonin receptor agonists in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun-Xu; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Food restriction and experimentally-induced diabetes (streptozotocin) can modify serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and sensitivity to drugs acting on 5-HT systems. This study examined the effects of food restriction and streptozotocin on the hypothermic effects of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), the 5-HT2 receptor agonist (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (DOM), the 5-HT releaser fenfluramine, and the selective 5...

  16. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Fachinelli C.; Torrecillas M.; Rodríguez Echandía E.L.

    2004-01-01

    We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pai...

  17. Effect of clenbuterol on growth, nitrogen and energy balances and endocrine status in food-restricted sheep : research communication

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Cardoso; O. Taveira

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the b2-adrenoceptor clenbuterol on food-restricted sheep. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/ kg diet) to a group of male Serra da Estrela sheep (n = 6).The animals were housed individually in metabolic cages and fed for 45 days at 65 % of estimated requirement for energy maintenance. An untreated group with the same energy intake level was included as a control. Changes in body mass, nitrogen and energy balances and in...

  18. Foods with added fiber improve stool frequency in individuals with chronic kidney disease with no impact on appetite or overall quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Salmean, Younis A.; Zello, Gordon A; Dahl, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Background Fiber intake may be low in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to diet restriction and/or poor appetite associated with uremic symptoms, contributing to constipation and reduced quality of life. This report describes the effects of foods with added fiber on gastrointestinal function and symptoms, clinical markers, and quality of life in CKD patients. Findings Adults with CKD (n = 15; 9 F, 6 M; 66 ± 15 y) were provided with cereal, cookies and snack bars without added ...

  19. Does chronic glycolysis accelerate aging? Could this explain how dietary restriction works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary restriction (DR) suppresses aging are not understood. Suppression of glycolysis by DR could contribute to controlling senescence. Many glycolytic intermediates can glycate proteins and other macromolecules. Methyglyoxal (MG), formed from dihydroxyacetone- and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates, rapidly glycates proteins, damages mitochondria, and induces a prooxidant state to create a senescent-like condition. Ad libitum-fed and DR animals differ in mitochondrial activity and glycolytic flux rates. Persistent glycolysis in the unrestricted condition would increase the intracellular load of glycating agents (e.g., MG) and increase ROS generation by inactive mitochondria. Occasional glycolysis during DR would decrease MG and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and could be hormetic, inducing synthesis of glyoxalase-1 and anti-glycating agents (carnosine and polyamines). PMID:16804012

  20. Food restriction promotes signaling effort in response to social challenge in a short-lived electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Stoddard, Philip K

    2012-09-01

    Vertebrates exposed to stressful conditions release glucocorticoids to sustain energy expenditure. In most species elevated glucocorticoids inhibit reproduction. However individuals with limited remaining reproductive opportunities cannot afford to forgo reproduction and should resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of reproductive behavior. The electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio has a single breeding season in its lifetime, thus we expect males to resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of their sexual advertisement signals. We studied stress resistance in male B. gauderio (i) by examining the effect of exogenous cortisol administration on the signal waveform and (ii) by investigating the effect of food limitation on androgen and cortisol levels, the amplitude of the electric signal waveform, the responsiveness of the electric signal waveform to social challenge, and the amount of feeding activity. Exogenous cortisol administration did reduce signal amplitude and pulse duration, but endogenous cortisol levels did not rise with food limitation or social challenge. Despite food limitation, males responded to social challenges by further increasing androgen levels and enhancing the amplitude and duration of their electric signal waveforms. Food-restricted males increased androgen levels and signal pulse duration more than males fed ad libitum. Socially challenged fish increased food consumption, probably to compensate for their elevated energy expenditure. Previous studies showed that socially challenged males of this species simultaneously elevate testosterone and cortisol in proportion to signal amplitude. Thus, B. gauderio appears to protect its cortisol-sensitive electric advertisement signal by increasing food intake, limiting cortisol release, and offsetting signal reduction from cortisol with signal-enhancing androgens. PMID:22801246

  1. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a ...

  2. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fachinelli

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  3. Seeking genes responsible for developmental origins of health and disease from the fetal mouse liver following maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Saito, Tomomi; Tamura, Gaku; Kuwagata, Makiko; Shioda, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    Low birthweight resulting from a non-optimal fetal environment is correlated epidemiologically to a higher risk of adult diseases, and which has also been demonstrated using animal models for maternal undernutrition. In this study, we subjected pregnant mice to 50% food restriction (FR), and profiled gene expression and promoter DNA methylation genome-wide using the fetal livers. The fact that effect of food restriction is opposite between before and after birth encouraged us to hunt for genes that are expressed oppositely to adult calorie restriction (CR) using the maternal livers. Among oppositely regulated genes, we identified trib1 (tribbles homolog 1). Using genetically modified mice, trib1 has been shown to have a demonstrable contribution to a risk of hypertriglyceridaemia and insulin resistance. Our data showed that the trib1 expression and its promoter DNA methylation could be affected physiologically (by maternal nutrition), and therefore might be a strong candidate gene for developmental origins of adult diseases. Furthermore, lepr (leptin receptor) gene was downregulated by maternal FR, indicating its potential role in induction of obesity and diabetes. Gene expression as well as promoter DNA methylation profiling revealed that glucocorticoid receptor target genes were regulated by maternal FR. This supports previous studies that suggest an important role of fetal glucocorticoid exposure in the mechanism of developmental origins of diseases. Our transcriptomics profiling data also suggested that maternal FR impaired development of the immune system. An inventory of candidate genes responsible for developmental origins of health and disease is presented and discussed in this study. PMID:24754856

  4. Probiotic foods: Can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Hajela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  5. The Role of Food Additives and Natural Foods Containing Vasoactive Amines in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Ozturk; Fuat Erel; A.Zafer Caliskaner; Mehmet Karaayvaz; Mustafa Gulec; Ozgur Kartal

    2007-01-01

    Most patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) need long-term treatment but there is little known about the prognosis of CIU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of CIU and to find out if there are risk factors that predict the prognosis. In this prospective study, we obtained data from patients first diagnosed and treated for CIU between September 2003 and September 2005. This study was included 157 patients with CIU. We observed duration of the disease, effects o...

  6. Dietary restriction and exercise for diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Van Huffel

    Full Text Available Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are major health problems and key features to develop cardiovascular disease. Data on the effects of lifestyle interventions in diabetics with chronic kidney disease (CKD have been conflicting.Systematic review.Diabetes patients with CKD stage 3 to 5. SEARCH STRATEGY AND SOURCES: Medline, Embase and Central were searched to identify papers.Effect of a negative energy balance on hard outcomes in diabetics with CKD.Death, cardiovascular events, glycaemic control, kidney function, metabolic parameters and body composition.We retained 11 studies. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effect on mortality to promote negative energy balance. None of the studies reported a difference in incidence of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events. Reduction of energy intake does not alter creatinine clearance but significantly reduces proteinuria (mean difference from -0.66 to -1.77 g/24 h. Interventions with combined exercise and diet resulted in a slower decline of eGFR (-9.2 vs. -20.7 mL/min over two year observation; p<0.001. Aerobic and resistance exercise reduced HbA1c (-0.51 (-0.87 to -0.14; p = 0.007 and -0.38 (-0.72 to -0.22; p = 0.038, respectively. Exercise interventions improve the overall functional status and quality of life in this subgroup. Aerobic exercise reduces BMI (-0.74% (-1.29 to -0.18; p = 0.009 and body weight (-2.2 kg (-3.9 to -0.6; p = 0.008. Resistance exercise reduces trunk fat mass (-0,7±0,1 vs. +0,8 kg ±0,1 kg; p = 0,001-0,005. In none of the studies did the intervention cause an increase in adverse events.All studies used a different intervention type and mixed patient groups.There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effect of negative energy balance interventions on mortality in diabetic patients with advanced CKD. Overall, these interventions have beneficial effects on glycaemic control, BMI and body composition, functional status and quality of life, and no harmful

  7. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  8. Sleep active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase are active after both acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, M R; Kim, Y; Karpova, S A; Winston, S; McCarley, R W; Strecker, R E; Gerashchenko, D

    2013-09-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (~0.5-4 Hz), also known as slow wave activity (SWA), is typically enhanced after acute sleep deprivation (SD) but not after chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Recently, sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were identified and associated with enhanced SWA after short acute bouts of SD (i.e., 6h). However, the relationship between cortical nNOS neuronal activity and SWA during CSR is unknown. We compared the activity of cortical neurons expressing nNOS (via c-Fos and nNOS immuno-reactivity, respectively) and sleep in rats in three conditions: (1) after 18-h of acute SD; (2) after five consecutive days of sleep restriction (SR) (18-h SD per day with 6h ad libitum sleep opportunity per day); (3) and time-of-day matched ad libitum sleep controls. Cortical nNOS neuronal activity was enhanced during sleep after both 18-h SD and 5 days of SR treatments compared to control treatments. SWA and NREM sleep delta energy (the product of NREM sleep duration and SWA) were positively correlated with enhanced cortical nNOS neuronal activity after 18-h SD but not 5days of SR. That neurons expressing nNOS were active after longer amounts of acute SD (18h vs. 6h reported in the literature) and were correlated with SWA further suggest that these cells might regulate SWA. However, since these neurons were active after CSR when SWA was not enhanced, these findings suggest that mechanisms downstream of their activation are altered during CSR. PMID:23685166

  9. The Effect of Lifestyle Food on Chronic Diseases: A Comparison between Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Nizar Issa Alrabadi

    2012-01-01

    Foods do certainly play an important role in human health. This cross sectional study investigated the effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases. In specific, it compared these diseases between vegetarians and non- vegetarians in Jordan in 2012. Questionnaires were distributed and the responses of 97 vegetarians and 97 non-vegetarians were analyzed. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. In particular, chronic disease...

  10. Intensity of Food Stamp Use and Transient and Chronic Poverty: Evidence from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Atasoy, Sibel; Mills, Bradford F.; Mykerezi, Elton

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between food assistance and inter-annual family poverty dynamics is examined using data from the 1995-2003 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We generate expenditure-based poverty measures to examine the determinants of transient and chronic poverty, with particular focus on the differential role that Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation may have on each dimension of poverty. Results indicate that transient poverty accounts for a larger share of economic hardship than chronic ...

  11. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Mark L; Spettigue, Wendy J; Katzman, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients. PMID:26855577

  12. Frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related β-amyloid accumulation by chronic sleep restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyi; Wu, Huijuan; He, Jialin; Zhuang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yang; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-08-17

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by mitochondria-related β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is increasingly being considered a novel risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The close relationship between chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and cortical Aβ elevation was confirmed recently. By assessing frontal cortical mitochondrial function (electron microscopy manifestation, cytochrome C oxidase concentration, ATP level, and mitochondrial membrane potential) and the levels of mitochondria-related Aβ in 9-month-old adult male C57BL/6J mice subjected to CSR and as an environmental control (CO) group, we aimed to evaluate the association of CSR with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation. In this study, frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was significantly more severe in CSR mice compared with CO animals. Furthermore, CSR mice showed higher mitochondria-associated Aβ, total Aβ, and mitochondria-related β-amyloid protein precursor (AβPP) levels compared with CO mice. In the CSR model, mouse frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was correlated with mitochondria-associated Aβ and mitochondria-related AβPP levels. However, frontal cortical mitochondria-associated Aβ levels showed no significant association with cortical total Aβ and mitochondrial AβPP concentrations. These findings indicated that CSR-induced frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation, which was closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction under CSR. PMID:27341212

  13. Effect of clenbuterol on growth, nitrogen and energy balances and endocrine status in food-restricted sheep : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Cardoso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the b2-adrenoceptor clenbuterol on food-restricted sheep. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/ kg diet to a group of male Serra da Estrela sheep (n = 6.The animals were housed individually in metabolic cages and fed for 45 days at 65 % of estimated requirement for energy maintenance. An untreated group with the same energy intake level was included as a control. Changes in body mass, nitrogen and energy balances and insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, and triiodothyronine (T3 levels in the experimental animals were monitored. During the 4th week of the trial, clenbuterol-treated sheep showed increased mass gains, greater energy retention and serum IGF-1 levels and decreased T3 serum concentrations. This study showed that clenbuterol may induce a protective effect in sheep subjected to periods of food deprivation, based on the body mass and digestible energy effects manifested by treated animals.

  14. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  15. Physiological acclimation of a desert antelope, Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), to long-term food and water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Stéphane; Williams, Joseph B; Mésochina, Pascal; Sauerwein, Helga

    2006-03-01

    Desert mammals often experience scarcity of drinking water and food for prolonged periods. In this study, the first long-term acclimation experiment in a non-domesticated desert-adapted ungulate, we investigated the mechanisms used by the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, to adjust its physiology to progressive food and water restriction over 5 months, an experimental regimen and time course chosen to mimic what it typically experiences between spring and late summer in the desert. At the end of the acclimation period, oryx consumed less than one and half of food and water of animals in the control group and lost 8.2+/-2.6% of their initial body mass. Experimental animals reduced their mass-specific resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) by 16.2 and 25.7%, respectively, and maintained a digestive efficiency of about 70%. We found no support for the idea that reduced RMR in oryx correlated with a decreased thyroid hormone concentration in plasma. At the end of the 5 months acclimation, oryx continued to mobilize fatty acids to fuel metabolism, and did not use protein breakdown as a major source of gluconeogenesis. Oryx in the experimental group reduced their water intake by 70% and maintained constant plasma osmolality. They adjusted their water budget by reducing mass-specific TEWL, increasing urine osmolality and reducing urine volume by 40%, and excreting feces with <50% water content. Oryx have an unusually low TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates; both hydrated and water-deprived individuals have TEWL values, 51.7 and 39.3%, respectively, of allometric predictions for arid-zone ungulates. PMID:16283332

  16. Plasma cholesterol synthesis using deuterated water in humans: effect of short-term food restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to develop methods in humans to determine the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of plasma pool free cholesterol using the rate of deuterium incorporation from body water. The sensitivity of this method was examined by measuring FSR after periods of fasting and feeding. Five healthy men with normal lipoprotein levels were given a prepared diet containing 40% of calories as fat and a polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.25 for 8 days, except for day 7 when they were given only drinking water. Beginning after the supper meal on day 6, they received no food until 8 AM on day 8 when they consumed meals as normal. Over days 7 and 8 the subjects were given prime and constant deuterium oxide orally to maintain body water deuterium enrichment at about 0.05 atom % excess. Plasma samples were obtained at 0 hours (day 7, 8 AM) and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours thereafter. Free cholesterol was extracted, purified by thin-layer chromatography, and combusted to water. The water was reduced to H2 and analyzed for deuterium enrichment by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Analytic precision of this system was determined as 3.5 0/00 (parts per mil) vs Standard Mean Ocean Water. Deuterium enrichment of plasma water for the group during the 48-hour deuterium oxide administration period was 3143 0/00 +/- 310 0/00 (mean +/- SEM). Cholesterol deuterium enrichment for the group during the 12-hour period of fasting (10.9 0/00 +/- 4.1 0/00) was not different from that during feeding (14.2 0/00 +/- 6.2 0/00)

  17. Withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food induces depressive-like behavior in compulsive eating rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iemolo, Attilio; Valenza, Marta; Tozier, Lisa; Knapp, Clifford M.; Kornetsky, Conan; Steardo, Luca; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. This study was aimed at determining whether withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food was responsible for the emergence of ...

  18. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1–R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12–R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (Clinical

  19. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  20. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N; Rodriguez, Alexander V; Bellesi, Michele; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Funk, Chadd M; Harris, Julie; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25-P30, ≥ 50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  1. Improved leptin sensitivity as a potential candidate responsible for the spontaneous food restriction of the Lou/C rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Veyrat-Durebex

    Full Text Available The Lou/C rat, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, was described as a model of resistance to age- and diet-induced obesity. Although such a resistance involves many metabolic parameters described in our previous studies, Lou/C rats also exhibit a spontaneous food restriction due to decreased food consumption during the nocturnal period. We then attempted to delineate the leptin sensitivity and mechanisms implicated in this strain, using different protocols of acute central and peripheral leptin administration. A first analysis of the meal patterns revealed that Lou/C rats eat smaller meals, without any change in meal number compared to age-matched Wistar animals. Although the expression of the recognized leptin transporters (leptin receptors and megalin measured in the choroid plexus was normal in Lou/C rats, the decreased triglyceridemia observed in these animals is compatible with an increased leptin transport across the blood brain barrier. Improved hypothalamic leptin signaling in Lou/C rats was also suggested by the higher pSTAT3/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ratio observed following acute peripheral leptin administration, as well as by the lower hypothalamic mRNA expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3, known to downregulate leptin signaling. To conclude, spontaneous hypophagia of Lou/C rats appears to be related to improved leptin sensitivity. The main mechanism underlying such a phenomenon consists in improved leptin signaling through the Ob-Rb leptin receptor isoform, which seems to consequently lead to overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH.

  2. A predictive model of the dynamics of body weight and food intake in rats submitted to caloric restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucos...

  3. The Impact of Acute and Chronic Weight Restriction and Weight Regulation practices on Physiological, Osteogenic, Metabolic and Cognitive Function in Elite Jockeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Eimear

    2010-01-01

    Horse racing is a weight category sport. One of the key challenges facing jockeys is the pressure of “making weight” throughout the protracted racing season. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a chronically weight restrictive lifestyle and acute weight loss practices on aspects of physiological, osteogenic, metabolic and cognitive function in jockeys. Methods: The primary aim was achieved through the completion of four related studies. Study One: The effect of a 4% reduct...

  4. Food intake and meal patterns in rhesus monkeys: Significance of chronic hyperinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of plasma insulin on food intake, we have examined the effect of naturally occurring chronic hyperinsulinemia on the feeding behavior of male rhesus monkeys. Two groups of monkeys, a group with normal fasting insulin concentrations (52.4 +/- 2.2 microU/ml) (mean +/- SE) and a hyperinsulinemic group (148.6 +/- 14.5 microU/ml), were selected to be similar in weight, 13.0 +/- 1.0 and 15.3 +/- 0.5 kg, respectively, prior to study. Food intake and feeding patterns were recorded and analyzed. No differences in either daily caloric intake, 815.2 +/- 27.4 versus 890.0 +/- 64.2 kcal (p less than 0.32), or feeding patterns were found. The number of meals taken per day did not differ between the two groups, 8.7 +/- 1.7 versus 6.7 +/- 1.1 (p less than 0.35), nor did meal size differ, 129 +/- 16.5 versus 110.5 +/- 16.3 (p less than 0.45). We conclude that chronic endogenous hyperinsulinemia as it occurs naturally in some obese rhesus monkeys has no significant effect on daily feeding behavior

  5. The effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases: a comparison between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabadi, Nizar Issa

    2013-01-01

    Foods do certainly play an important role in human health. This cross sectional study investigated the effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases. In specific, it compared these diseases between vegetarians and non- vegetarians in Jordan in 2012. Questionnaires were distributed and the responses of 97 vegetarians and 97 non-vegetarians were analyzed. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. In particular, chronic diseases including Diabetes, Hypertension, and Obesity were more prevalence among non-vegetarians compared to vegetarian respondents. PMID:23283037

  6. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  7. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  8. Occurrence of respiratory symptoms in persons with restrictive ventilatory impairment compared with persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, Nívia L; Nascimento, Oliver A; Padilla, Rogelio P; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmen; López, Maria V; Celli, Bartolomé; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually complain of symptoms such as cough, sputum, wheezing, and dyspnea. Little is known about clinical symptoms in individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and type of respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD to those reported by individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment in the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar study. Between 2002 and 2004, individuals ≥40 years of age from five cities in Latin America performed pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry and had their respiratory symptoms recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Among the 5315 individuals evaluated, 260 (5.1%) had a restrictive spirometric diagnosis (forced vital capacity (FVC) normal (LLN) with forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) ≥ LLN; American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2005) and 610 (11.9%) were diagnosed with an obstructive pattern (FEV1/FVC < LLN; ATS/ERS 2005). Patients with mild restriction wheezed more ((30.8%) vs. (17.8%); p < 0.028). No difference was seen in dyspnea, cough, and sputum between the two groups after adjusting for severity stage. The health status scores for the short form 12 questionnaire were similar in restricted and obstructed patients for both physical (48.4 ± 9.4 vs. 48.3 ± 9.8) and mental (50.8 ± 10.6 vs. 50.0 ± 11.5) domains. Overall, respiratory symptoms are not frequently reported by patients with restricted and obstructed patterns as defined by spirometry. Wheezing was more frequent in patients with restricted pattern compared with those with obstructive ventilatory defect. However, the prevalence of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea are not different between the two groups when adjusted by the same severity stage. PMID:26041119

  9. The power of food: mediating social relationships in the care of chronically ill elderly people in urban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Eeuwijk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La préparation de nourriture et de boissons est considérée comme une activité vitale dans les soins pour personnes âgées souffrant d’une maladie chronique en Indonésie urbaine. Seuls de proches membres de la famille préparent et servent les repas aux patients âgés. La majorité de ceux-ci prennent part aux repas quotidiens conjointement avec la famille qui représentent pour eux des arènes d’interaction sociale et une source d’informations essentielles. Le commensalisme et le fait que les personnes âgées continuent de participer au partage rituel de nourriture dans le cadre de festivités et de cérémonies sont ainsi des éléments importants pour la construction de leur identité sociale et leur inclusion dans la société. Néanmoins, beaucoup des patients âgés inclus dans cette étude étaient atteints de maladies chroniques – telles que l’hypertonie, le diabète et le rhumatisme – et nécessitant un suivi diététique. Ainsi la maladie change la qualité de la relation entre le personnel soignant et les patients âgés et dépendants en introduisant les notions de confiance et de contrôle. Le patient doit faire confiance au traitement spécial, c’est-à-dire au régime sain qui lui est proposé par l’aide soignante. Celle-ci, de son côté, exerce un pouvoir de contrôle en surveillant l’alimentation du malade et par là, le respect des mesures préventives et thérapeutiques qui lui sont imposées.The preparation of food and drink is regarded as pivotal to care of chronically sick elderly people in urban Indonesia. Their meals are cooked solely by close household members. The majority of the elderly sick take part in the joint daily meals that serve as important arenas of social interaction and information sources. Continued commensality and participation in the sharing of food during festivities and ceremonies thus represents a vital source of social identity and social involvement for older people

  10. Relationships between variable time, percentage of food restriction and liver histology: which alternative is the best for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the hepatic effects of food restriction in an experimental rabbit model. The study comprised 105 rabbits divided into 6 groups. The two control groups were fed ad libitum (ADL) during the entire experiment (C1 and C2). The experimental groups were restricted between 42-49 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R1) or 65g (R2) of food per rabbit per day. Others were restricted between 35-42 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R3) or 65g (R4) of food per rabbit per day. For liver analysis, 5 rabbits per group were slaughtered at the ages of 49, 56, 63, 70 days from the R1, R2 groups and at 42, 49, 70 days from the R3, R4 groups. All animals from the C1 and C2 groups developed steatosis with inflammation. Animals from the R1 and R2 groups developed steatosis without inflammation while in the R3 and R4 groups steatosis was not visible. In C1 and C2 groups we observed mostly fatty deposit accumulations while in the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups, more PAS-positive material accumulations were visible. Liver steatosis correlated with inflammation development and interstitial tissue growth. These results can be used in clinical praxis as signs of NAFLD progression. Early food restriction had intense effects on liver morphology and it seems promising that similar approaches could be applied as preventive treatment for NAFLD development. PMID:26916089

  11. Food restriction alters N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole)-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H

    2008-05-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists, including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-induced yawning. Behavioral and molecular studies suggest that augmented dopaminergic responses observed in food-restricted animals result from a sensitization of the dopamine D2 receptor; however, little is known about how food restriction affects dopamine D3 receptor function. The current studies were aimed at better defining the effects of food restriction on D2 and D3 receptor function by assessing the capacity of N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole) to induce yawning, penile erection (PE), hypothermia, and locomotor activity in free-fed and food-restricted rats. Food restriction resulted in a suppression of pramipexole-induced yawning, a sensitized hypothermic response, and an enhanced locomotor response to pramipexole, effects that are suggestive of an enhanced D2 receptor activity; no effect on pramipexole-induced PE was observed. Antagonist studies further supported a food restriction-induced enhancement of the D2 receptor activity because the D2 antagonist 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole (L741,626) recovered pramipexole-induced yawning to free-fed levels, whereas yawning and PE were suppressed following pretreatment with the D3 antagonist N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride (PG01037). The results of the current studies suggest that food restriction sensitized rats to the D2-mediated effects of pramipexole while having no effect

  12. Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Elisabeth

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS, were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR products. The set of enzymes chosen differentiates most species of Lactobacillus genus and also co-isolated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia species. The in silico predictions of restriction patterns generated by the Lactobacillus shorter spacers digested with 11 restriction enzymes with 6 bp specificities allowed us to distinguish almost all isolates at the species level but not at the subspecies one. Simultaneous theoretical digestions of the three spacers (long, medium and short with the same set of enzymes provided more complex patterns and allowed us to distinguish the species without purifying and cloning of PCR products. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolates and several other strains of bacteria co-isolated on MRS medium from gastrointestinal ecosystem and fermented food products could be identified using DNA fingerprints generated by restriction endonucleases. The methodology based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA is easier, faster and more accurate than the current methodologies based on fermentation profiles, used in most laboratories for the purpose of identification of these bacteria in different prospecting studies.

  13. Inadequate awareness among chronic kidney disease patients regarding food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shutto

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Patients with CKD are advised to consume a low phosphate diet and are often prescribed phosphate-lowering drug therapy. However, commercially processed food and drinks often contain phosphate compounds, but the phosphate level is not usually provided in the ingredient list, which makes it difficult for CKD patients to choose a correct diet. We conducted a survey of the awareness of food/beverages containing artificially added phosphate among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The subjects were 153 patients (77 males and 76 females; average age 56±11 years who were randomly selected from the Dialysis Center of Hirosaki City, Japan. The subjects were provided with a list of questions. The survey results showed that 93% of the subjects were aware of the presence of high sugar content in soda, whereas only 25% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid in such drinks. Despite 78% of the subjects being aware of the detrimental effects of consumption of a high phosphate diet, 43% drank at least 1 to 5 cans of soda per week and about 17% consumed "fast food" once each week. We also assessed the immediate effects of high-phosphate containing carbonated soda consumption by determining urinary calcium, phosphate, protein and sugar contents in overnight fasted healthy volunteers (n = 55; average age 20.7±0.3 years old, 20 males and 35 females. Significantly higher urinary calcium (adjusted using urinary creatinine excretion was found 2 h after consuming 350 ml of carbonated soda compared to the fasting baseline level (0.15±0.01 vs. 0.09±0.01, p = 0.001. Our survey results suggest that CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis are not adequately aware of the hidden source of phosphate in their diet, and emphasize the need for educational initiatives to raise awareness of this issue among CKD patients.

  14. Fatal liver failure following food supplements during chronic treatment with montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, G C; Bugianesi, E; Ottobrelli, A; Rizzetto, M

    2007-10-01

    High aminotransferases and prolonged prothrombin time on entering our liver unit were revealing parenchymal collapse for this 45-year-old obese woman; treatment failure led her to death. Autoimmunity, paracetamol use, alcoholism, and Wilson's disease were all excluded as causes. Because of chronic asthma, she had been receiving a leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) for 5 years before the current presentation; 1 week before onset she had had 1 week of treatment with two dietary supplements for weight control; one of these included Garcinia Cambogia, a possible cause of two recent cases of hepatitis in the USA; in addition, both formulas contained a citrus derivative that interferes cytochrome functions. We speculate on a causal relationship between the assumption of the additives and the fatal hepatitis and envisage a synergy between the additives and montelukast, which per se has well been studied as a hepatotoxic drug. Despite the speculative nature of this presentation, we believe the warning may serve to focus attention on the uncontrolled escalation of food additives going on in these days. PMID:17157086

  15. Food: a new form of personalised (gut microbiome) medicine for chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Tess; Spector, Tim D

    2016-09-01

    Filling in the knowledge gaps between what we eat and the diseases we develop may lie in our guts, literally. The human large intestine houses the largest reservoir of microorganisms in or on the human body. With a 100-fold greater gene count than humans, the gut microbiome has huge potential to place a large metabolic burden (or advantage) on its host. The number of diverse gut microbial species is diminished in nearly all modern chronic conditions studied. The 'Western diet', rich in animal protein, fats and artificial additives, and lacking in fibre, beneficial microbes, plant phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals, is thought to drive these conditions by encouraging gut dysbiosis. Evidence from recent dietary intervention studies suggest adopting a plant-based, minimally processed high-fibre diet may rapidly reverse the effects of meat-based diets on the gut microbiome. However, recent work has shown that individual diet responses may be complicated by host genetics and the wide variation in the gut microbiome. Now that we measure genes and microbes more accurately, we are embarking on an exciting era of using both food and microbes as potential therapies. PMID:27609798

  16. A 1-night operant learning task without food-restriction differentiates among mouse strains in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmelink, Esther; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs

    2015-04-15

    Individuals are able to change their behavior based on its consequences, a process involving instrumental learning. Studying instrumental learning in mice can provide new insights in this elementary aspect of cognition. Conventional appetitive operant learning tasks that facilitate the study of this form of learning in mice, as well as more complex operant paradigms, require labor-intensive handling and food deprivation to motivate the animals. Here, we describe a 1-night operant learning protocol that exploits the advantages of automated home-cage testing and circumvents the interfering effects of food restriction. The task builds on behavior that is part of the spontaneous exploratory repertoire during the days before the task. We compared the behavior of C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ and DBA/2J mice and found various differences in behavior during this task, but no differences in learning curves. BALB/cJ mice showed the largest instrumental learning response, providing a superior dynamic range and statistical power to study instrumental learning by using this protocol. Insights gained with this home-cage-based learning protocol without food restriction will be valuable for the development of other, more complex, cognitive tasks in automated home-cages. PMID:25601577

  17. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Anand Kumar

    Full Text Available Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM, fat free mass (FFM, muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30 were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6 or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R (n = 24; after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF% in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  18. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  19. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure. PMID:26763577

  20. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional status can impact dopamine systems in a manner that might be important to understanding possible common neurobiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal compulsive food (e.g., obesity) and drug taking. Limiting food intake, for example, can increase sensitivity to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Much less is known regarding possible diet-induced changes in sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs. The present study investigated the...

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nicely, Terri A; Lane-Loney, Susan; Masciulli, Emily; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2014-01-01

    Background Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a “new” diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. Methods A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients wi...

  2. Effects of an exercise programme for chronically ill and mobility-restricted elderly with structured support by the general practitioner's practice (HOMEfit) : study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs Timo; Moschny Anna; Brach Michael; Wilm Stefan; Klaaßen-Mielke Renate; Trampisch Matthias; Platen Petra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise programmes can be administered successfully as therapeutic agents to patients with a number of chronic diseases and help to improve physical functioning in older adults. Usually, such programmes target either healthy and mobile community-dwelling seniors or elderly individuals living in nursing institutions or special residences. Chronically ill or mobility-restricted individuals, however, are difficult to reach when they live in their own homes. A pilot study has...

  3. Associations between chronic conditions, body functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions: a cross-sectional approach in Spanish non-clinical populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Damián, Javier; Andrés-Prado, María José; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Forjaz, Maria João; Castellote, Juan Manuel; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Comín, Magdalena; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the relationships between chronic conditions, body functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 2 geographical areas in the Autonomous Region of Aragon, Spain, namely, a rural area, Cinco Villas, and an urban area in the city of Zaragoza. Participants 864 individuals selected by simple random sampling from the register of Social Security card holders, aged 50 years and over, positive to disability screening. Main outcome measures ICF Checklist—body function domains, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, 36-item (WHODAS-36)) global scores and medical diagnoses (chronic conditions) from primary care records. Results Mild disability (WHODAS-36 level 5–24%) was present in 51.5% of the sample. In the adjusted ordinal regression model with WHODAS-36 as the dependent variable, disability was substantially associated with moderate-to-complete impairment in the following functions: mental, OR 212.8 (95% CI 72 to 628.9); neuromusculoskeletal, OR 44.8 (24.2 to 82.8); and sensory and pain, OR 6.3 (3.5 to 11.2). In the relationship between health conditions and body function impairments, the strongest links were seen for: dementia with mental functions, OR 50.6 (25.1 to 102.1); cerebrovascular disease with neuromusculoskeletal function, OR 5.8 (3.5 to 9.7); and chronic renal failure with sensory function and pain, OR 3.0 (1.49 to 6.4). Dementia, OR 8.1 (4.4 to 14.7) and cerebrovascular disease, OR 4.1 (2.7 to 6.4) were associated with WHODAS-36 scores. Conclusions Body functions are heterogeneously linked to limitations in activities and restrictions on participation, with the highest impact being due to mental and musculoskeletal functions. This may be relevant for disability assessment and intervention design, particularly if defined on a body function basis. Control of specific health

  4. Restricted access supramolecular solvents for sample treatment in enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay of mycotoxins in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fonseca, Sergio; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Rubio, Soledad

    2016-09-01

    A restricted access supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS-RAM) made up of tetradecanoic acid reverse micelles is proposed as a wide-scope and low-cost strategy for the treatment of agrifood samples prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The approach was assessed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines and spices and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in cereals, two ubiquitous mycotoxins that were selected as representative contaminants for this study. The samples were selected to cover a variety of matrices in terms diverse composition and high complexity. Macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates were not-co-extracted due to the restricted access properties of the SUPRAS that are provided by chemical and physical mechanisms. In this sense, analyte extraction and clean-up were carried out in a single step. Parameters determining the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Certified reference materials were used for method validation. Recoveries of OTA ranged between 83% and 96% in wines (with relative standard deviation, RSD, of about 10%) and between 81% and 93% in spices (RSD 7%). Recoveries for AFB1 in wheat ranged from 75% to 85% (RSD 8%). The detection limits were all below the maximum levels established for OTA and for AFB1 by EU directives. This method offers a green and low-cost alternative to the organic solvent-based extraction and/or immunoaffinity columns-based cleanup of complex samples prior to ELISA. PMID:27543022

  5. Effects of Chronic Restraint Stress on Body Weight, Food Intake, and Hypothalamic Gene Expressions in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Methods We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice the...

  6. Motivational effects of 12-week moderately restrictive diets with or without special attention to the Glycaemic Index of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A M; De Assis, M A; Kupek, E; Gerwig, U; Slama, G; Oppert, J M

    2007-04-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) diets may facilitate weight loss via behavioural and/or endocrine mechanisms. This study investigated whether the outcomes of the Weight Watchers POINTS Weight-Loss System could be improved by encouraging dieters to select low GI, high-carbohydrate foods. Ninety-six women (age 20-72 years; BMI 25-40 kg/m2) were recruited as they started the Weight Watchers POINTS programme for 12 weeks. Weekly classes were randomized so that seven (forty-five women) followed the regular programme while seven others (fifty-one women) followed a revised programme encouraging the selection of low GI foods. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the 12-week diets. Participants rated hunger and desire to eat using visual analogue scales on 1 d per week, several times per d. Attrition was the same in both groups (32 v. 30 %), as well as many benefits (5 % weight loss, decreases in insulinaemia and blood lipids, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure). Hunger and desire to eat were rated consistently lower in the low GI group over the 12-week diet. Group differences in subjective sensations were especially large in the afternoon. The 12-week weight management yielded many significant anthropometric and biochemical benefits that were not improved by encouraging dieters to select low GI foods. The subjective benefits (lower hunger and desire to eat) of the low GI diet may be a worthwhile contribution to the motivation of dieters that might affect adherence to the diet over the long term. PMID:17349094

  7. Influence of Reinforcement Schedule on Ethanol Consumption Patterns in Non-Food Restricted Male C57BL/6J Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Matthew M.; Fretwell, Andrea M.; Mark, Gregory P.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol reinforcement should ideally be evaluated in animals that are not food deprived to ensure that the motivation behind its consumption is pharmacological, and not caloric, in nature. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of reinforcement schedule on ethanol intake in non-deprived mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were trained to respond on an ethanol-reinforced lever on a fixed ratio (FR) 4 reinforcement schedule for 10% ethanol (10E). The appetitive and consummatory phases were...

  8. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of oral ibrutinib in healthy participants and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Jan; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Skee, Donna; Murphy, Joe; O’Brien, Susan; Byrd, John C.; James, Danelle; Hellemans, Peter; Loury, David J.; Jiao, Juhui; Chauhan, Vijay; Mannaert, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess ibrutinib pharmacokinetics under fasted and fed conditions, impact of food-intake timing, and the safety and tolerability. Methods Three studies were analyzed. Study 1 was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, four-way crossover study in 44 healthy participants. Study 2 was a randomized, repeat-dose crossover study in 16 patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Ibrutinib dose was 420 mg in both studies. Study 3 was an open-label, sequential study...

  9. How to Read a Food Label: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How to Read a Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program If you ... and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Kidney Disease Education Program 2

  10. Are more restrictive food cadmium standards justifiable health safety measures or opportunistic barriers to trade? An answer from economics and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa B, Eugenio [Department of Economics and National Center for the Environment (CENMA), Universidad de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 257, Of. 1604, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: efiguero@cenma.cl

    2008-01-15

    In the past, Cd regulations have imposed trade restrictions on foodstuffs from some developing countries seeking to access markets in the developed world and in recent years, there has been a trend towards imposing more rigorous standards. This trend seems to respond more to public and private sectors strategies in some developed countries to create disguised barriers to trade and to improve market competitiveness for their industries, than to scientifically justified health precautions (sanitary and phytosanitary measures) and/or technical barriers to trade acceptable under the Uruguay Round Agreement of the WTO. Applying more rigorous Cd standards in some developed countries will not only increase production costs in developing countries but it will also have a large impact on their economies highly dependent on international agricultural markets. In the current literature there are large uncertainties in the cause-effect relationship between current levels of Cd intakes and eventual health effects in human beings; even the risk of Cd to kidney function is under considerable debate. Recent works on the importance of zinc:Cd ratio rather than Cd levels alone to determine Cd risk factors, on the one hand, and on the declining trends of Cd level in foods and soils, on the other, also indicate a lack of scientific evidence justifying more restrictive cadmium standards. This shows that developing countries should fight for changing and making more transparent the current international structures and procedures for setting sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade.

  11. Are more restrictive food cadmium standards justifiable health safety measures or opportunistic barriers to trade? An answer from economics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa B, Eugenio

    2008-01-15

    In the past, Cd regulations have imposed trade restrictions on foodstuffs from some developing countries seeking to access markets in the developed world and in recent years, there has been a trend towards imposing more rigorous standards. This trend seems to respond more to public and private sectors strategies in some developed countries to create disguised barriers to trade and to improve market competitiveness for their industries, than to scientifically justified health precautions (sanitary and phytosanitary measures) and/or technical barriers to trade acceptable under the Uruguay Round Agreement of the WTO. Applying more rigorous Cd standards in some developed countries will not only increase production costs in developing countries but it will also have a large impact on their economies highly dependent on international agricultural markets. In the current literature there are large uncertainties in the cause-effect relationship between current levels of Cd intakes and eventual health effects in human beings; even the risk of Cd to kidney function is under considerable debate. Recent works on the importance of zinc:Cd ratio rather than Cd levels alone to determine Cd risk factors, on the one hand, and on the declining trends of Cd level in foods and soils, on the other, also indicate a lack of scientific evidence justifying more restrictive cadmium standards. This shows that developing countries should fight for changing and making more transparent the current international structures and procedures for setting sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade. PMID:17884142

  12. Caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Mitchell, Sharon E

    2011-06-01

    Restricting the intake of calories has been practiced as a method for increasing both the length and quality of life for over 500 years. Experimental work confirming the success of this approach in animals has accumulated over the last 100 years. Lifelong caloric restriction (CR) may extend life by up to 50% in rodents, with progressively less impact the later in life it is started. This effect is matched by profound impacts on age related diseases including reduced risk of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. The disposable soma theory of ageing suggests that CR evolved as a somatic protection response to enable animals to survive periods of food shortage. The shutdown of reproductive function during CR is consistent with this suggestion, but other features of the phenomenon are less consistent with this theory, and some have suggested that in rodents it may be mostly an artifact of domestication. CR induces profound effects on animals at all levels from the transcriptome to whole animal physiology and behavior. Animals under CR lose weight which is disproportionately contributed to by white adipose tissue. Generally animals on CR change their activity patterns so that they are more active prior to food delivery each day but total activity may be unchanged or reduced. Considerable debate has occurred over the effects of CR on resting metabolic rate (RMR). Total RMR declines, but as body mass and body composition also change it is unclear whether metabolism at the tissue level also declines, is unchanged or even increases. Body temperature universally decreases. Hunger is increased and does not seem to abate even with very long term restriction. Circulating adipokines are reduced reflecting the reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass under restriction and there is a large reduction in circulating insulin and glucose levels. There are profound tissue level changes in metabolism with a

  13. Treating chronic food refusal in young children: home-based parent training.

    OpenAIRE

    Werle, M A; Murphy, T.B.; Budd, K S

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of behavioral parent training program on parent and child feeding-related behaviors in the home. We trained mothers to initiate regular offerings of previously rejected (target) foods and to provide contingent attention (i.e., specific prompts, positive reinforcement) to increase their child's acceptance of nonpreferred foods. For 1 subject, we also directed training at increasing self-eating. Results of a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across 3 mother-child d...

  14. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis

  15. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.

  16. Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses to food restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P; Phipps-Costin, Silas K; Fujimoto, Chelsea K; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E; Regish, Amy M; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plasma Gh, Igf1, thyroid hormones and cortisol along with igfbp mRNA levels in fasted and fed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish were fasted for 3 or 10days near the peak of smoltification (late April to early May). Fasting reduced plasma glucose by 3days and condition factor by 10days. Plasma Gh, cortisol, and thyroxine (T4) were not altered in response to fasting, whereas Igf1 and 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) were slightly higher and lower than controls, respectively. Hepatic igfbp1b1, -1b2, -2a, -2b1 and -2b2 mRNA levels were not responsive to fasting, but there were marked increases in igfbp1a1 following 3 and 10days of fasting. Fasting did not alter hepatic igf1 or igf2; however, muscle igf1 was diminished by 10days of fasting. There were no signs that fasting compromised branchial ionoregulatory functions, as indicated by unchanged Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and ion pump/transporter mRNA levels. We conclude that dynamic hepatic igfbp1a1 and muscle igf1 expression participate in the modulation of Gh/Igf signaling in smolts undergoing catabolism. PMID:27210270

  17. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  18. Azodyl, a synbiotic, fails to alter azotemia in cats with chronic kidney disease when sprinkled onto food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Wynn, Susan G

    2011-06-01

    The effect of probiotic therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is poorly defined, but gaining in popularity. However, cat owners often prefer to administer probiotics by combining them with food, rather than administering capsules intact, as is prescribed by the manufacturer. The efficacy of such non-recommended administration is unknown. In this double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, 10 cats with naturally-occurring CKD were randomized to receive either a probiotic-prebiotic combination (synbiotic) or psyllium husk (prebiotic only) for 2 months. Medications were sprinkled and mixed into food or given as a slurry. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured twice prior to administration of medication, and then monthly for 2 months during the medication administration. Owners and clinicians were masked as to treatment. The maximal percentage change in BUN and creatinine was calculated for each cat. No differences in percentage change were detected between groups (P=0.8 for both BUN and creatinine). The synbiotic supplement used in this study, when applied to food or administered as a slurry fails to reduce azotemia in cats with CKD. Therefore, owners should not administer this synbiotic in this manner. PMID:21571563

  19. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  20. Long-term food consumption and body weight changes in neotame safety studies are consistent with the allometric relationship observed for other sweeteners and during dietary restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, W Gary; Blackburn, George L; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Stargel, W Wayne

    2003-10-01

    In long-term safety studies with neotame, a new high-intensity sweetener 7000-13,000 times sweeter than sucrose, the percent changes (%Delta) in body weight gain (BWG) in Sprague-Dawley rats were several-fold greater than the %Delta in overall food consumption (FC). This study investigates the question of whether the changes in BWG were adverse or secondary to small, long-term decrements in FC. The hypothesis tested in Sprague-Dawley rats was that the relationship between long-term %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG is linear and in a ratio of 1:1. The %Delta in FC were compared to %Delta in BWG after 52 weeks on study in one saccharin (825 rats), two sucralose (480 rats), two neotame (630 rats), and five dietary restriction (>1000 rats) studies. Non-transformed plotting of data points demonstrated an absence of linearity between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG; however, log-log evaluation demonstrated a robust (R2=0.97) linear relationship between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG. This relationship followed the well-known allometric equation, y=bxa where x is %DeltaFC, y is %DeltaBWG, b is %DeltaBWG when DeltaFC=1, and a is the log-log slope. Thus, in Sprague-Dawley rats at week 52, the long-term relationship between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG was determined to be: %DeltaBWG=3.45(%DeltaFC0.74) for males and %DeltaBWG=5.28(%DeltaFC0.68) for females. Sexes were statistically different but study types, i.e., the high-intensity sweeteners saccharin and sucralose versus dietary restriction, were not. The %Delta in BWG are allometrically consistent with the observed %Delta in FC for these high-intensity sweeteners, including neotame. BW parameters are not appropriate endpoints for setting no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) when materials with intense taste are admixed into food. An approach using objective criteria is proposed to delineate BW changes due to toxicity from those secondary to reduced FC. PMID:14550756

  1. Increases in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain during chronic sleep restriction in rats: possible role in initiating allostatic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, J K; Deurveilher, S; Currie, R W; Fawcett, J P; Semba, K

    2014-09-26

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) has various negative consequences on cognitive performance and health. Using a rat model of CSR that uses alternating cycles of 3h of sleep deprivation (using slowly rotating activity wheels) and 1h of sleep opportunity continuously for 4 days ('3/1' protocol), we previously observed not only homeostatic but also allostatic (adaptive) sleep responses to CSR. In particular, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) electroencephalogram (EEG) delta power, an index of sleep intensity, increased initially and then declined gradually during CSR, with no rebound during a 2-day recovery period. To study underlying mechanisms of these allostatic responses, we examined the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to regulate NREMS EEG delta activity, during the same CSR protocol. Mature BDNF protein levels were measured in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain, two brain regions involved in sleep and EEG regulation, and the hippocampus, using Western blot analysis. Adult male Wistar rats were housed in motorized activity wheels, and underwent the 3/1 CSR protocol for 27 h, for 99 h, or for 99 h followed by 24h of recovery. Additional rats were housed in either locked wheels (locked wheel controls [LWCs]) or unlocked wheels that rats could rotate freely (wheel-running controls [WRCs]). BDNF levels did not differ between WRC and LWC groups. BDNF levels were increased, compared to the control levels, in all three brain regions after 27 h, and were increased less strongly after 99 h, of CSR. After 24h of recovery, BDNF levels were at the control levels. This time course of BDNF levels parallels the previously reported changes in NREMS delta power during the same CSR protocol. Changes in BDNF protein levels in the cortex and basal forebrain may be part of the molecular mechanisms underlying allostatic sleep responses to CSR. PMID:25010399

  2. Food security

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean

    2011-01-01

    The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks); redistribution of food availability within the country or out through internationa...

  3. Chronic sublethal effects of San Francisco Bay sediments on nereis (neanthes) arenaceodentata; effect of food ration on sediment toxicity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.W.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report is designed to address concerns regarding the effect of food ration on toxicity during chronic sublethal sediment bioassays. To this end, a contaminated San Francisco Bay sediment and a clean control sediment were evaluated in a chronic sublethal test under a series of different food rations, with the marine polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata. Animals were exposed from early juvenile stage through the onset of gametogenesis. Treatments were 2.OX, 1.OX, 0.5X, and 0.25X where X is the recommended food ration for laboratory cultures. Test end points were survival, growth, and reproduction. The contaminated sediment was a composite of several cores taken to project depth (38 ft (11.6 m) below mean low water mark) from an area in Oakland Inner Harbor known to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. Comparisons were made with a clean control sediment. The control sediment is used in the laboratory cultures of N. arenaceodentata and was collected from Sequim, WA. Mean percent survival of Neanthes was high (>90 percent) in both the contaminated and control sediment across all food ration treatments. Individual wet weights were significantly reduced with decreasing food ration in both contaminated and control sediments. Significant differences in wet weight between sediment types were observed at the 1.OX, 0.5X, and 0.25X rations. Reproduction (fecundity and emergent juvenile (EJ) production) was also Chronic sublethal, Neanthes, Dredged material, San Francisco Bay, Food ration, Sediment.

  4. Do Economic Restrictions Improve Forecasts?

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Norwood, F. Bailey; Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    A previous study showed that imposing economic restrictions improves the forecasting ability of food demand systems, thus warranting their use even when they are rejected in-sample. This article evaluates whether this result is due to economic restrictions enhancing degrees of freedom or containing nonsample information. Results indicate that restrictions improve forecasting ability even when they are not derived from economic theory, but theoretical restrictions forecast best.

  5. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does not ...

  6. Exogenous progesterone exacerbates running response of adolescent female mice to repeated food restriction stress by changing α4-GABAA receptor activity of hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wable, G S; Chen, Y-W; Rashid, S; Aoki, C

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent females are particularly vulnerable to mental illnesses with co-morbidity of anxiety, such as anorexia nervosa (AN). We used an animal model of AN, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), to investigate the neurobiological basis of vulnerability to repeated, food restriction (FR) stress-evoked anxiety. Twenty-one of 23 adolescent female mice responded to the 1st FR with increased wheel-running activity (WRA), even during the limited period of food access, thereby capturing AN's symptoms of voluntary FR and over-exercise. Baseline WRA was an excellent predictor of FR-elicited WRA (severity of ABA, SOA), with high baseline runners responding to FR with minimal SOA (i.e., negative correlation). Nine gained resistance to ABA following the 1st FR. Even though allopregnanolone (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one, THP), the metabolite of progesterone (P4), is a well-recognized anxiolytic agent, subcutaneous P4 to these ABA-resistant animals during the 2nd FR was exacerbative, evoking greater WRA than the counterpart resistant group that received oil vehicle, only. Moreover, P4 had no WRA-reducing effect on animals that remained ABA-vulnerable. To explain the sensitizing effect of P4 upon the resistant mice, we examined the relationship between P4 treatment and levels of the α4 subunit of GABAARs at spines of pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1, a parameter previously shown to correlate with resistance to ABA. α4 levels at spine membrane correlated strongly and negatively with SOA during the 1st ABA (prior to P4 injection), confirming previous findings. α4 levels were greater among P4-treated animals that had gained resistance than of vehicle-treated resistant animals or of the vulnerable animals with or without P4. We propose that α4-GABAARs play a protective role by counterbalancing the ABA-induced increase in excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and although exogenous P4's metabolite, THP, enhances α4 expression, especially among those that can gain resistance

  7. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Silva Cunha

    Full Text Available We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib, receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR, receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF, receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels, abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females. Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters, probably through different biological mechanisms.

  8. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Piccolo; Bremer, Andrew A.; Michael Spurlock; Anthony Thomas; Megan Witbracht; Gertz, Erik R.; Sean H. Adams; Elaine Souza; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; VAN LOAN, MARTA D.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned ...

  9. The Chinese Herb Jianpijiedu Contributes to the Regulation of OATP1B2 and ABCC2 in a Rat Model of Orthotopic Transplantation Liver Cancer Pretreated with Food Restriction and Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Baoguo Sun; Yan Chen; Ting Xiang; Lei Zhang; Zexiong Chen; Shijun Zhang; Houming Zhou; Shuqing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Jianpijiedu decoction (JPJD) could improve the general status of liver cancer patients in clinics, especially the symptoms of decreased food intake and diarrhea. In this study, our results showed that the survival rate of the liver cancer with food restriction and diarrhea (FRD-LC) rats was lower than the liver cancer (LC) rats, and the tumor volume of the FRD-LC rats was higher than the LC rats. It was also shown that the high dose of JPJD significantly improved ...

  10. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25406801

  11. Absorption of food cobalamins assessed by the double isotope method in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make a food preparation containing radioactively labelled cobalamins, rabbits were given repeated injections with 57Co-labelled cyanocobalamin. The liver was removed, homogenized and fried for one min. or boiled for 30 min. Of the radioactivity in the fried homogenate, 41.7% was recovered in the centrifuged supernatant compared with 50.8% in the boiled homogenate. The radioactivity in the supernatants had a molecular size close to that of free 57Co-labelled cyanocobalamin. 42% of the radioactivity in the whole homogenate had been incorporated into 5-deoxyadenosyl-, 10% into methyl-and 16.5% into hydroxy-cobalamin. To assess the validity of a double-isotope method for measuring the intestinal absorption of doses of 57Co-labelled liver cobalamins, 51CrCl3 was used as a non-absorbable marker. In 14 healthy volunteers the correlation coefficient between the absorption measured by the double-isotope technique and the faecal excretion test was highly significant (r = 0.96, p 57Co/51Cr ratio in successive stool collections. In 11 patients with chronic diarrhoea there was a significant correlation between the absorption measured by the double-isotope technique and the faecal excretion test (r = 0.92, p 57/51Cr ratio in successive stool collections

  12. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  13. Restrictions on trade in distribution services

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleeswaran Kalirajan

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and quantifies restrictions affecting domestic and international trade in distribution services - mainly wholesaling and retailing - in 38 economies, including Australia. The paper also explores the price and cost implications of restrictions in food distribution services.

  14. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  15. Altérations périphériques et centrales dans un modèle murin de restriction alimentaire chronique : rôle de la ghréline

    OpenAIRE

    Méquinion, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic food restriction is one of the major features observed in anorexia nervosa (AN), especially in the restrictive type. This major eating disorder affects mainly teenager girls and young women. Additionally to the restriction behavior, important physical activity is observed in a large number of patients (40-80% of cases). This disease induces various physiological alterations that concern neuroendocrine, metabolic and bone (osteopenia, osteoporosis) pathways, which have dramatic consequ...

  16. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  17. Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2011-11-01

    Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens. PMID:22054189

  18. Effects of Food Restriction on Fat Metabolism Index of Monosodium Glutamate in Obese Rats and Human%限食对谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠及人体肥胖代谢指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关真民; 王慧; 程俊美; 鹿勇

    2013-01-01

    Investigation has been conducted to observe the effect of short-term food restriction on fat metabolism index of obesity and rat by means not only of animal experiment:glutamate obese rats have been divided into control group and food restriction group,and the Lee index weight,fat index and glycerin three greases' change of the two groups observed,but also of human experiment:the subjects were 21women,aged 22-45 years old.Limited food have been given seven days of fasting,first days for the buff er,the first 2-6 days for fasting days,seventh days for the restoration of day,food restriction for first days of acupuncture points and massage.Observation has been done on the body fat,body fat percentage,body weight,BMI and the change of waist circumference before and after food restriction.Results show that glutamate obese rats with food restriction group's weight,Lee index,fat index and glycerin three greases is markedly decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01) compared with the control group; 21 subjects in the dietary restriction of body fat,body fat percentage and waist circumference are also significantly decreased and had significant difference (p<0.05),and the body weight and BMI decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01).It is concluded that food restriction therapy has im portant significance for obesity treatment and prevention of complications.%目的 观察短期限食对肥胖人群及大鼠脂肪代谢指标的影响.方法 动物实验:将谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠分为对照组和限食组,并分别观察两组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯的变化;人体实验:受试者为21名女性,年龄22~45岁.限食者均限食7天,第1天为缓冲日,第2~6天为禁食日,第7天为恢复日.观察限食前后体脂、体脂百分率、体重、BMI和腰围的变化.结果 谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠限食组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯与对照组相比明显下降,

  19. Patterns of food avoidance in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a case for dietary recommendations? Patrones de evitación alimenticia en el síndrome de fatiga crónica: ¿hay base para dar recomendaciones dietéticas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the dietary habits and food avoidance-behavior in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Methods: Cross-sectional pilot study with 28 patients diagnosed with severe CFS. Eating habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food records. We analyzed variables related to dietary restrictions induced by symptoms or external information. Results: The most prevalent restrictions were for dairy products and gluten-containing grains, with 22 and 15 restricting patients, respectively. Patients reported different digestive symptoms, which did not improve with the use of exclusion diets. Thirteen patients had received information against the intake of certain foods through different sources. Six cases of grains restriction and 11 of dairy were compatible with a counseling-induced pattern of exclusion. Conclusions: There is not a homogeneous pattern of food avoidance. Dietary restrictions should be based on a proven food allergy or intolerance. Dietary counseling should be based on sound nutritional knowledge.Objetivos: Valorar los hábitos dietéticos y la conducta de evitación alimenticia en pacientes con Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica. Métodos: Estudio piloto transversal con 28 pacientes diagnosticados de Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica en grado severo. Los hábitos alimenticios se evaluaron mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo y registros dietéticos de 3 días. Se analizaron variables relacionadas con las restricciones dietéticas inducidas por síntomas o información externa. Resultados: Las restricciones más frecuentes fueron para los productos lácteos y cereales con gluten, con 22 y 15 pacientes que los restringían, respectivamente. Los pacientes informaron de diferentes síntomas digestivos, que no mejoraron con el uso de dietas de exclusión. Trece pacientes habían recibido información contraria al consumo de ciertos alimentos, a través de diferentes fuentes. Seis casos de

  20. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  1. Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread utilization by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and “hidden” phosphorus load in modern diets. These ...

  2. Fasting Leptin Is a Metabolic Determinant of Food Reward in Overweight and Obese Individuals during Chronic Aerobic Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in food reward have been implicated in exercise-induced compensatory eating behaviour. However, the underlying mechanisms of food reward, and the physiological correlates of exercise-induced changes in food reward, are unknown. Methods. Forty-six overweight and obese individuals completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Body composition, food intake, and fasting metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week six, and postintervention. On separate days, the reward value of high-and-low-fat food (explicit liking and implicit wanting was also assessed at baseline, week six, and postintervention. Results. Following the intervention, FM, FFM, and VO2peak improved significantly, while fasting leptin decreased. However, food intake or reward did not change significantly. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that FM (P=0.022 and FFM (P=0.046 were associated with explicit liking for high-fat food, but implicit wanting was associated with FM only (P=0.005. Fasting leptin was associated with liking (P=0.023 and wanting (P=0.021 for high-fat food. Furthermore, a greater exercise-induced decline in fasting leptin was associated with increased liking (P=0.018. Conclusion. These data indicate that food reward has a number of physiological correlates. In particular, fasting leptin appears to play an active role in mediating food reward during exercise-induced weight loss.

  3. [The use of food supplements - beverages and concentrated food products in tablets made from plants in sanatory and health resort rehabilitation of patients with chronic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Zaĭtsev, L M; Diudiakov, A A; Kaptsova, E V; Gruzdeva, A E

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of a recovery complex optimization in conditions of the sanatorium-resort rehabilitation of patients with chronic pathology by provision of the dietotherapy ration balance on nutrients, the use of natural (of the plant raw material cryopowders in the form of teas and tableted forms) and the "Centrum" synthetic vitamin-mineral complexes, probiotics was substantiated and demonstrated. PMID:15154365

  4. Effects of acute and chronic aripiprazole treatment on choice between cocaine self-administration and food under a concurrent schedule of reinforcement in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Woldbye, David;

    2008-01-01

    the hypothesis that aripiprazole, both as acute and as chronic treatment, would preferentially decrease cocaine self-administration while sparing behavior maintained by a natural reinforcer, resulting in a shift in the allocation of behavior from cocaine-taking towards the alternative reinforcer. MATERIALS...... performance in the choice procedure was assessed daily. RESULTS: An intermediate dose of aripiprazole decreased cocaine self-administration and shifted the cocaine choice curve to the right as an acute treatment. However, as a chronic treatment, aripiprazole failed to decrease cocaine self-administration...... or cocaine choice, despite a dose-dependent decrease in overall response rates and food-maintained behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm and extend earlier findings and indicate that acute administration of aripiprazole can decrease cocaine self-administration. However, based on the present data...

  5. A solid-phase microextraction GC/MS/MS method for rapid quantitative analysis of food and beverages for the presence of legally restricted biologically active flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousova, Katerina; Mittendorf, Klaus; Senyuva, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC/MS/MS to simultaneously determine the presence of seven biologically active flavoring substances whose levels of use in processed foods is controlled by statutory limits. The method can be applied to identify and quantify the presence of 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin), beta-asarone, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene (estragole), menthofuran, 4-allyl-1 ,2-dimethoxybenzene (methyl eugenol), pulegone, and thujone at levels ranging from 0.5 to 3000 mg/kg. The method has been optimized and validated for three different generic food types categorized on the basis of composition and anticipated use levels of flavorings and food ingredients. The food categories are alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages; semisolid processed foods (e.g., soups, sauces, confectionary, etc.); and solid foods (muesli, bakery products, etc.). The method is simple, inexpensive, and rapid, and eliminates the use of flammable and toxic solvents. There is no sample preparation, and using MSIMS, unequivocal confirmation of identification is achieved even in highly complex matrixes containing many potential interfering volatiles. The method precision for spiked samples ranged from 2 to 21%, with the greatest variability associated with solid matrixes. The LOD and LOQ values were well below 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively, in all cases for individual substances, fulfilling requirements for enforcement purposes. The robustness of the method was demonstrated in a small survey of retail samples of four spirits, five flavored milks, three energy drinks, five liqueurs, five soups, 10 sauces, five herbal teas, and three breakfast cereals. PMID:21919351

  6. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not aff...

  7. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  8. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat. PMID:24123563

  9. Chronic fatigue in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome: validation of a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragna Lind,1 Arnold Berstad,2 Jan Hatlebakk,1,3 Jørgen Valeur21Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 2Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Department of Medicine, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS, and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls.Methods: Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls.Results: Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001, indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8–105.3 than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0–29.0, P ≤0.0001.Conclusion: The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, food hypersensitivity, quality of life

  10. Protein-controlled versus restricted protein versus low protein diets in managing patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: a single centre experience in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has been an important part of medical management in patients with chronic kidney disease for more than a century. Since the 1970s, due to technological advances in renal replacement therapy (RRT) such as dialysis and transplantation, the importance of nutrition intervention in non-dialysis stages has diminished. In addition, it appears that there is a lack of high-level evidence to support the use of diet therapy, in particular the use of low protein diets to slow down disease progression. However, nutrition abnormalities are known to emerge well before dialysis is required and are associated with poor outcomes post-commencing dialysis. To improve clinical outcomes it is prudent to incorporate practice research and quality audits into routine care, as part of the continuous clinical practice improvement process. This article summarises the experience of and current practices in a metropolitan tertiary teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. PMID:27624699

  11. Central Agonism of GPR120 Acutely Inhibits Food Intake and Food Reward and Chronically Suppresses Anxiety-Like Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Alexandre; Fernandes, Maria F.; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background: GPR120 (FFAR4) is a G-protein coupled receptor implicated in the development of obesity and the antiinflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Increasing central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been shown to have both anorectic and anxiolytic actions. Despite the strong clinical interest in GPR120, its role in the brain is largely unknown, and thus we sought to determine the impact of central GPR120 pharmacological activation on energy balance, food reward, and anxiety-like behavior. Methods: Male C57Bl/6 mice with intracerebroventricular cannulae received a single injection (0.1 or 1 µM) or continuous 2-week infusion (1 µM/d; mini-pump) of a GPR120 agonist or vehicle. Free-feeding intake, operant lever-pressing for palatable food, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and body weight were measured. GPR120 mRNA expression was measured in pertinent brain areas. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated-plus maze and open field test. Results: GPR120 agonist injections substantially reduced chow intake during 4 hours postinjection, suppressed the rewarding effects of high-fat/-sugar food, and blunted approach-avoidance behavior in the open field. Conversely, prolonged central GPR120 agonist infusions reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze and open field, yet failed to affect free-feeding intake, energy expenditure, and body weight on a high-fat diet. Conclusion: Acute reductions in food intake and food reward suggest that GPR120 could mediate the effects of central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to inhibit appetite. The anxiolytic effect elicited by GPR120 agonist infusions favors the testing of compounds that can enter the brain to activate GPR120 for the mitigation of anxiety. PMID:26888796

  12. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  13. Effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight and food intake differ among pre-pubertal, gonadal-intact, and ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excessive body weight gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgen in female appetite and body weight regulation have not been fully studied. In this study, whether the roles of androgen in the regulation of body weight and appetite were different among ages and/or the estrogen milieu in females was evaluated. Body weight gain and food intake were increased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. Testosterone administration also affected the serum leptin level and adipose leptin gene expression levels differently in each experimental condition. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of ERα, which plays pivotal roles in regulation of body weight and metabolism, were decreased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. These results indicate that the effects of testosterone on body weight and appetite differed among ages and/or estrogen milieu in female rats, and that attenuation of estrogens' actions on the hypothalamus might be partly involved in the androgen-induced increases of body weight gain and food intake in females. PMID:27139935

  14. Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann Elisabeth; Teixeira Santuza MR; Horta Maria F; Mota Rodrigo M; Moreira João; Nicoli Jacques R.; Nunes Álvaro C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS), were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA i...

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of lactose digestion, its impact on intolerance and nutritional effects of dairy food restriction in inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Galiatsatos, Polymnia; Xue, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Relationships between inflammatory bowel disease and lactose containing foods remain controversial and poorly defined regarding symptoms, nutritional outcomes, and epidemiologic associations for lactose maldigestion. Methods A literature review was performed using Pub Med, Cochrane library and individual references, to extract data on lactose maldigestion prevalence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A meta-analysis was done using selected articles, to determine odds ratios of maldige...

  16. The Presence of HLA-E-Restricted, CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Blood of Lung Transplant Recipients Correlates with Chronic Allograft Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lucy C.; Westall, Glen P.; Widjaja, Jacqueline M. L.; Mifsud, Nicole A.; Nguyen, Thi H. O.; Meehan, Aislin C.; Kotsimbos, Tom C.; Brooks, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune evasion protein, UL40, shares an identical peptide sequence with that found in the leader sequence of many human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C alleles and when complexed with HLA-E, can modulate NK cell functions via interactions with the CD94-NKG2 receptors. However the UL40-derived sequence can also be immunogenic, eliciting robust CD8+ T cell responses. In the setting of solid organ transplantation these T cells may not only be involved in antiviral immunity but also can potentially contribute to allograft rejection when the UL40 epitope is also present in allograft-encoded HLA. Here we assessed 15 bilateral lung transplant recipients for the presence of HLA-E-restricted UL40 specific T cells by tetramer staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). UL40-specific T cells were observed in 7 patients post-transplant however the magnitude of the response varied significantly between patients. Moreover, unlike healthy CMV seropositive individuals, longitudinal analyses revealed that proportions of such T cells fluctuated markedly. Nine patients experienced low-grade acute cellular rejection, of which 6 also demonstrated UL40-specific T cells. Furthermore, the presence of UL40-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood was significantly associated with allograft dysfunction, which manifested as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS). Therefore, this study suggests that minor histocompatibility antigens presented by HLA-E can represent an additional risk factor following lung transplantation. PMID:26302084

  17. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... drug that was: (a) Purchased by a public or private hospital or other health care entity; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS:...

  18. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  19. The influence of food quantity on metal bioaccumulation and reproduction in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during chronic exposures to a metal mine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Jacob D; Dubé, Monique G; Niyogi, Som

    2013-05-01

    Metal mine effluents can impact fish in the receiving environment via both direct effects from exposure as well as indirect effects via food web. The main objective of the present study was to assess whether an indirect effect such as reduced food (prey) availability could influence metal accumulation and reproductive capacity in fish during chronic exposure to a metal mine effluent. Breeding pairs of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to either reference water (RW) or an environmentally relevant metal mine effluent [45 percent process water effluent (PWE)] for 21 days and fed either low food quantities [LF (a daily ration of 6-10 percent body weight)] or normal food quantities [NF (a daily ration of 20-30 percent body weight)] in artificial stream systems. Fish in RW treatments were fed Chironomus dilutus larvae cultured in RW (Treatments: RW-NF or RW-LF), while fish in PWE treatments were fed C. dilutus larvae cultured in PWE (Treatments: PWE-NF or PWE-LF). Tissue-specific (gill, liver, gonad and carcass) metal accumulation, egg production, and morphometric parameters in fish were analyzed. Fathead minnows that were exposed to LF rations had significantly smaller body, gonad and liver sizes, and were in a relatively poor condition compared to fathead minnows exposed to NF rations, regardless of the treatment water type (RW or PWE) (two-way ANOVA; pcopper, nickel, rubidium, selenium, and thallium were recorded in C. dilutus cultured in PWE, only the concentrations of rubidium, selenium and thallium increased in tissues of fish in PWE treatments. Interestingly though, despite the greater abundance of metal-contaminated food in the PWE-NF treatment, tissue metal accumulation pattern were almost similar between the PWE-NF and PWE-LF treatments, except for higher liver barium, cobalt and manganese concentrations in the latter treatment. This indicated that a higher food ration could help reduce the tissue burden of at least some metals and thereby

  20. Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E

    2008-01-01

    Vegetarians form a non-homogenous group consisting of semivegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs and fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and vegans (plant food only). According to pure vegetarian ideologists, people consuming vegetarian diet have better health and live longer than nonvegetarians, because persons consuming milk, dairy products, meat, eggs and fish are at health risk. In fact the most healthy people in Europe are inhabitants of Iceland, Switzerland and Scandinavia, consuming great amounts of food of animal origin. Meta-analysis of several prospective studies showed no significant differences in the mortality caused by colorectal, stomach, lung, prostate or breast cancers and stroke between vegetarians and "health-conscious" nonvegetarians. In vegetarians, a decrease of ischemic heart disease mortality was observed probably due to lower total serum cholesterol levels, lower prevalence of obesity and higher consumption of antioxidants. Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful. Now, the largest cohort study of diet and health on more than half million of persons, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, will bring new data on the relationships between diet, lifestyle and environmental factors and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Vegetarianism is a form of food restriction; and in our overfed society, food restriction is a plus unless it results in a nutritional deficiency (Fig. 1, Tab. 2, Ref. 18). PMID:19166134

  1. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    exclusion and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument in...

  2. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. PMID:27164487

  3. Secreción pulsátil diurna de la hormona foliculo estimulante (FSH en ovejas prepúberes con y sin restriccion alimenticia Pulsatile follicle stimulating hormone (FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep with and without food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. RECABARREN

    2003-12-01

    ón de LH que a una deficiencia en la secreción de FSHFood restriction delays the onset of puberty due to a low secretion of LH and probably the FSH as well. The objective of this work was to assess and to compare the diurnal pulsatile secretion of FSH in normal growing and in growth-retarded ewe lambs due to food restriction. Five Suffolk ewe lambs were fed at 2% of their body weight in two daily rations whereas the other 5 were fed ad-libitum from 20 and until 30 weeks of age and served as a control group. A FSH pulsatile study was conducted, before and after six and ten weeks of food restriction corresponding to 20, 26 and 30 weeks of age respectively. The FSH pulsatile study consisted in collecting blood samples every 10 minutes for 5 hours from 10 AM onwards. In the obtained plasma the FSH was measured by RIA. The characteristics of the pulsatile FSH secretion were assessed using the CLUSTER program. Data obtained from the CLUSTER program were analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measures. Mean plasma FSH concentrations (ng/mL/5h increased in almost 50% in control ewe lambs between 20 and 30 weeks of age but without statistical difference. At 30 weeks of age, control lambs had a 50% higher mean plasma FSH concentrations and mean FSH pulse amplitude than food-restricted lambs. FSH pulse frequency did not show any difference between ages within a group or between groups. Results suggest that food restriction has a partial suppressor effect on the FSH secretion. The delay on the onset of puberty due to food-restriction in the ewe lamb could be attributed more to an insufficient LH secretion GnRH-stimulated than to an inadequate FSH secretion

  4. Therapeutic potential of ghrelin in restricting-type anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Mari; Ohwada, Rina; Akamizu, Takashi; Shibasaki, Tamotsu; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by a decrease in caloric intake and malnutrition. It is associated with a variety of medical morbidities as well as significant mortality. Nutritional support is of paramount importance to prevent impaired quality of life later in life in affected patients. Some patients with restricting-type AN who are fully motivated to gain body weight cannot increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Chronicity of AN prevents participation in social activities and leads to increased medical expenses. Therefore, there is a pressing need for effective appetite-stimulating therapies for patients with AN. Ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone that can be given intravenously. Intravenous infusion of ghrelin is reported to increase food intake and body weight in healthy subjects as well as in patients with poor nutritional status. Here, we introduce the results of a pilot study that investigated the effects of ghrelin on appetite, energy intake, and nutritional parameters in five patients with restricting-type AN, who are fully motivated to gain body weight but could not increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:22975066

  5. [Food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M

    1998-09-21

    Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents

  6. Health promotion by dietary restriction--a focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, K M

    2006-01-01

    Food restriction, although long popular among gerontologists, has emerged as a new challenge in public health in postindustrial societies because this is the only intervention that repeatedly and strikingly increases maximum life span. The practice of food restriction is widespread for cosmetic, health, and economic reasons. The beneficial effects and the molecular mechanism of food restriction have been well established. The present review summarizes the rapidly accumulating evidence on the involvement of food restriction in various diseases and focuses on good dietary practices for health promotion in modern life style. PMID:16910315

  7. Effects of an exercise programme for chronically ill and mobility-restricted elderly with structured support by the general practitioner's practice (HOMEfit - study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichs Timo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise programmes can be administered successfully as therapeutic agents to patients with a number of chronic diseases and help to improve physical functioning in older adults. Usually, such programmes target either healthy and mobile community-dwelling seniors or elderly individuals living in nursing institutions or special residences. Chronically ill or mobility-restricted individuals, however, are difficult to reach when they live in their own homes. A pilot study has shown good feasibility of a home-based exercise programme that is delivered to this target group through cooperation between general practitioners and exercise therapists. A logical next step involves evaluation of the effects of the programme. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 210 patients (≥ 70 years in about 15 general practices. The experimental intervention (duration 12 weeks-a multidimensional home-based exercise programme-is delivered to the participant by an exercise therapist in counselling sessions at the general practitioner's practice and on the telephone. It is based on methods and strategies for facilitating behaviour change according to the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA. The control intervention-baseline physical activities-differs from the experimental intervention with regard to content of the counselling sessions as well as to content and frequency of the promoted activities. Primary outcome is functional lower body strength measured by the "chair-rise" test. Secondary outcomes are: physical function (battery of motor tests, physical activity (step count, health-related quality of life (SF-8, fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I, and exercise self-efficacy (SSA-Scale. The hypothesis that there will be differences between the two groups (experimental/control with respect to post-interventional chair-rise time will be tested using an ANCOVA with chair-rise time at baseline

  8. Food selection, growth and physiology in relation to dietary sodium chloride content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under chronic waterborne Cu exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, S; Kamunde, C N; Wood, C M

    2006-05-01

    demonstrate that a NaCl-enriched diet, although consumed in relatively reduced quantities due to the impairment of food selection and appetite, can help to protect freshwater fish against chronic waterborne Cu toxicity. PMID:16434110

  9. Restricting marketing to children: Consensus on policy interventions to address obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Lobstein, Tim; Landon, Jane; Kent, Monique Potvin; Pellerin, Suzie; Caulfield, Timothy; Finegood, Diane; Mongeau, Lyne; Neary, Neil; Spence, John C

    2013-01-01

    Obesity presents major challenges for public health and the evidence is strong. Lessons from tobacco control indicate a need for changing the policy and environments to make healthy choices easier and to create more opportunities for children to achieve healthy weights. In April 2011, the Alberta Policy Coalition for Chronic Disease Prevention convened a consensus conference on environmental determinants of obesity such as marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. We examine the political environment, evidence, issues, and challenges of placing restrictions on marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages within Canada. We recommend a national regulatory system prohibiting commercial marketing of foods and beverages to children and suggest that effective regulations must set minimum standards, monitor compliance, and enact penalties for non-compliance. PMID:23447026

  10. Behavioral and Physiological Consequences of Sleep Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Adequate sleep is essential for general healthy functioning. This paper reviews recent research on the effects of chronic sleep restriction on neurobehavioral and physiological functioning and discusses implications for health and lifestyle. Restricting sleep below an individual's optimal time in bed (TIB) can cause a range of neurobehavioral deficits, including lapses of attention, slowed working memory, reduced cognitive throughput, depressed mood, and perseveration of thought. Neurobehavio...

  11. Foods, health claims, and the law: comparisons of the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H L; Prior, T; Frier, H I

    2001-11-01

    Government, academia, and the food industry can play a significant role in the identification of healthy foods and ingredients important for weight management and health. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration developed regulations that define specific food categories for weight management and health. These categories include foods for special dietary uses and medical foods. Medical foods are classified for use in specific disease states and require a physician's recommendation and continuous monitoring. The European regulations specify energy-restricted foods as a subcategory of food for particular nutritional uses, which includes infant formula, medical foods, and foods for sports. European standards for energy-restricted diets have been established, leaving little flexibility for change. Three categories exist (i.e., very-low-calorie diets [450 to 800 kcal], low-calorie diets [800 to 1200 kcal], and meal replacements [200 to 400 kcal]). No claims on anticipated weight loss can be made even where significant clinical research has demonstrated long-term efficacy, thereby preventing informed choice management. Dramatic changes in lifestyle (e.g., disruption of the family unit, altered eating occasions, fast foods, and food grazing) have resulted in an epidemic of obesity and chronic disease. Regulating food selection or dietary patterns to limit the epidemic is not realistic. However, stimulating government health agencies and the food industry to increase public awareness through educational programs and regulating the definition of acceptable methods and products can provide an environment for change. A consensus is needed among academia, government, and industry for appropriate food labeling and claims. These actions are needed to help individuals make healthy food selections and maintain a healthy weight. Public health initiatives should change consumer attitudes with programs that are simple, affordable, effective, and accessible. PMID:11707554

  12. Cost-Utility Analysis of Protein-restricted Diet in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in China%限蛋白饮食治疗慢性肾脏病药物经济学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静静; 杨莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide basis for the selection of protein diet for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods By using Microsoft Excel to imitate the disease process of CKD patients with glomerular filtration rate ≤25ml/min/1.73m2 after taking three kinds of protein diets for the next 5 years, and based on the cost and the quality of life before and after dialysis, the cost-utility was analyzed. Results Very low protein diet combined with Ketosteril treatment, compared with total protein and low protein diet therapy, can save more than 180037.2 yuans and 163517.9 yuans of 5-year accumulative total treatment cost, respectively, and the QALY of CKD patients has been prolonged by 0.349 and 0.293 years, respectively. Conclusion Protein restricted-diet can delay CKD patients developed to the stage of dialysis, reduce their disease burden, and improve their quality of life.%目的:为慢性肾脏病患者的蛋白饮食选择提供依据。方法:使用Microsoft Excel模拟肾小球滤过率≤25ml/min/1.73m2的慢性肾脏病患者在三种蛋白饮食下5年的疾病进程,根据患者透析前后的治疗费用及生活质量,进行成本效用分析。结果:极低蛋白饮食联合开同治疗与全蛋白和低蛋白饮食治疗相比,5年累计治疗费用分别节省180037.2元和163517.9元,QALYs分别延长0.349年和0.293年。结论:限蛋白饮食可以延缓患者进入透析的时间,进而降低患者的疾病负担,改善患者生活质量。

  13. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  14. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Marotta; Gulcin Sagdicoglu Celep; Anna Cabeca; Ascanio Polimeni

    2012-01-01

    AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed...

  15. COMPETITIVE FOODS: SOFT DRINKS VS. MILK ; FOOD ASSISTANCE RESEARCH BRIEF

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Ralston, Katherine L.

    2003-01-01

    A USDA Report to Congress found that "competitive foods"-those available in schools in addition to USDA-provided school meals-have lower nutritional quality than school meals. These foods may contribute to overconsumption of food energy, dietary fat, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium, and underconsumption of calcium, fiber, fruits and vegetables, and whole grains. Restricting the availability of less nutritious foods, taxing such foods, and improved marketing of more nutritious food cho...

  16. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Bügel; Angelika Ploeger; Aneta Załęcka; Johannes Kahl; Machteld Huber

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may caus...

  17. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  18. Selectional Restrictions in HPSG

    OpenAIRE

    Androutsopoulos, Ion; Dale, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Selectional restrictions are semantic sortal constraints imposed on the participants of linguistic constructions to capture contextually-dependent constraints on interpretation. Despite their limitations, selectional restrictions have proven very useful in natural language applications, where they have been used frequently in word sense disambiguation, syntactic disambiguation, and anaphora resolution. Given their practical value, we explore two methods to incorporate selectional restrictions...

  19. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility. PMID:25451101

  20. Food Insecurity: Limitations of Emergency Food Resources for Our Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Crist, Michael; Moran, Alyssa; Rastogi, Natasha; Leng, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of ...

  1. ARRRG/FOOD, Doses from Radioactive Release to Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: ARRRG calculates radiation doses to humans for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim, or boat. FOOD calculates radiation doses to humans from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. With both programs, doses may be calculated for either a maximum- exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute, one-time, exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an 'infinite' flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness, and a modifying factor is used to compensate for finite extent in the shoreline calculations. The radionuclide concentrations in aquatic and irrigated food products are based on the radionuclide concentration in the contaminated water, which is based on the release rate of radioactive contamination and the characteristics of the receiving water body. Concentration of radionuclides in plants depends on the concentrations in the soil, air, and water. Concentration of radionuclides in farm animal products, such as milk, meat, or eggs, depends on the animal's consumption of feed, forage, and water containing radionuclides. For persons swimming in contaminated water, the dose is calculated assuming that the body of water is an infinite medium relative to the range of emitted radiations. Persons boating on the water are assumed to be exposed to a dose rate half that of swimmers. Internal doses are calculated as a function of

  2. Improving the food environment in UK schools: policy opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anu; Surender, Rebecca; Rayner, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Childhood obesity and nutrition are high on the UK policy agenda because of their association with chronic illnesses and related costs. In 2007, to improve children's nutrition, the Government introduced new standards for all school food sources, including products sold from vending machines. Our research explores the factors influencing schools' decisions and children's food choices in relation to vending machines. We conducted in-depth interviews with staff and pupils in one English Local Education Authority. We found that pupils made food decisions based on cost considerations, and convenience, and they strongly valued individual choice. Schools' decisions to provide vending were influenced predominantly by fiscal and structural constraints. Although unhappy with the current quality of school food, staff and pupils criticised initiatives to restrict unhealthy foods. It appears that achieving a healthier school environment is a long-term project involving multiple strategies of education and incentives, as well as regulation. These must involve parents as well as pupils and schools. PMID:20535103

  3. 饮食蛋白的限制对高龄患者营养状况和慢性肾脏病进展的影响%Effects of dietary protein restriction on the nutritional status and renal function in the very elderly with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭利; 程庆砾; 刘胜; 王小丹; 赵佳慧; 李青霖; 张晓英

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察饮食蛋白的限制对老年慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者营养状况及肾功能进展的影响.方法 对168例高龄(75 ~94岁)男性CKD 3期患者的低蛋白饮食(LPD)治疗情况进行回顾性分析.采用Maroni公式估算患者平均每日蛋白质入量(eDPI)以评估患者对LPD的依从性,并依据eDPI水平及是否服用复方α-酮酸制剂(KA)治疗将患者分为单纯限制蛋白组、限制蛋白+KA组、未限制蛋白组及未限制蛋白+KA组,比较分析18个月病程中四组患者的营养状况和肾功能的进展.结果 单纯限制蛋白组患者的血清白蛋白水平和前白蛋白水平降低(P<0.05);未限制蛋白组患者的血磷水平明显升高(P<0.05),服用KA制剂两组患者的血钙水平明显升高(P<0.05);较未限制蛋白组及单纯限制蛋白组,限制蛋白+KA组患者的eGFR下降幅度最小(P<0.05).结论 高龄CKD患者单纯给予限制蛋白治疗,可能会导致营养不良;KA可以改善CKD患者的营养状况和血钙水平;限制蛋白并辅以KA治疗可以有效延缓老年CKD进展.%Objective To investigate the effects of dietary protein restriction supplemented with or without α-ketoacids(KA) on nutritional status and renal function in the very elderly with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods The clinical data of 168 elderly patients with CKD stage 3 were analyzed in this retrospective cohort study.The compliance to LPD was evaluated using estimated daily protein intake (eDPI).According to the level of eDPI and supplementation with or without KA,the patients were divided into four groups including protein-restriction alone,protein-restriction + KA,non protein-restriction and non protein-restriction + KA.The nutritional status and the changes of eGFR were recorded and followed up for 18 months.Results The levels of serum albumin,serum prealbumin and serum calcium in protein-restriction + KA group and non protein-restriction + KA group were higher than that in

  4. Neuroendocrine involvement in aging: evidence from studies of reproductive aging and caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J F; Karelus, K; Bergman, M D; Felicio, L S

    1995-01-01

    Neuroendocrine changes contribute to female reproductive aging, but changes in other tissues also play a role. In C57BL/6J mice, neuroendocrine changes contribute to estrous cycle lengthening and reduced plasma estradiol levels, but the midlife loss of cyclicity is mainly due to ovarian failure. Hypothalamic estrogen receptor dynamics and estrogenic modulation of gene expression are altered in middle-aged cycling mice. Although insufficient to arrest cyclicity, these neuroendocrine changes may contribute to other reproductive aging phenomena, such as altered gonadotropin secretion and lengthened estrous cycles. In women, the loss of ovarian oocytes, the cause of menopause, accelerates in the decade before menopause. Accelerated oocyte loss may in turn be caused by a selective elevation of plasma follicle stimulating hormone, and neuroendocrine involvement may thus be implicated in menopausal oocyte loss. Chronic calorie restriction retards both neural and ovarian reproductive aging processes, as well as age-related change in many other physiological systems. The diverse effects of food restriction raises the possibility of an underlying coordinated regulatory response of the organism to reduced caloric intake, possibly effected through alterations of neural and/or endocrine signalling. We are therefore attempting to identify neuroendocrine changes that may coordinate the life prolonging response of animals to food restriction. Our initial focus is on the glucocorticoid system. Food restricted rats exhibit daily periods of hyperadrenocorticism, manifest as elevated free corticosterone during the diurnal peak. We hypothesize that this hyperadrenocortical state potentiates cellular and organismic homeostasis throughout life in a manner similar to that achieved during acute stress, thereby retarding aging processes and extending life span. PMID:8532119

  5. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  6. A Consistent Food Demand Framework for International Food Security Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Beghin, John C.; Meade, Birgit; Rosen, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We present a parsimonious demand modeling approach developed for the annual USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment. The assessment focuses on chronic food insecurity. The approach incorporates price effects, food quality variation across income deciles, and consistent aggregation over income deciles and food qualities. The approach is based on a simple demand approach for four food categories. It relies on the existing sparse data available for the Assessment, complemented ...

  7. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  8. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  9. Cornering the market: restriction of retail supermarket locations

    OpenAIRE

    Nairne Cameron; Carl G Amrhein; Karen E Smoyer-Tomic; Raine, Kim D; Lee Yen Chong

    2010-01-01

    A major source of healthy foods, North American supermarkets have become larger in recent years, with new stores opening and older stores closing. Upon closure, there is evidence of some supermarket sites being placed under restrictive covenants, a practice that restricts future use of the site. The purpose is usually to limit food sales at the location, thus minimizing competition for a chain’s nearby stores. In Edmonton, Alberta eighteen covenants have been documented on former supermarket ...

  10. Benefits of short-term dietary restriction in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Lauren T.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary or calorie restriction (DR, CR), defined as reduced food intake without malnutrition, imparts many benefits in model organisms. Extended longevity is the most popularized benefit but the least clinically relevant due to the requirement for long-term food restriction. DR also promotes stress resistance and metabolic fitness. Emerging data in experimental models and in humans indicate that these benefits occur rapidly upon initiation of DR, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Here ...

  11. Blood flow-restricted exercise in space

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, Kyle J; Everett, Meghan; Scott, Jessica M; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequences of weightlessness during spaceflight missions, crewmembers perform moderate- to high-load resistance exercise in conjunction with aerobic (cycle and treadmill) exercise. Recent evidence from ground-based studies suggests that low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise tr...

  12. Restrictions of stable bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2011-01-01

    The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.

  13. Intermediation under Trade Restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, G Michael

    1989-01-01

    Intermediation is the activity of buying and selling simultaneously in one market. In this paper, intermediation in the market for an arbitrary good is derived from trade restrictions in a general equilibrium exchange model. The trade restrictions are given by a trade feasibility relation defined on the set of households, and they necessitate dropping the one price assumption of standard general equilibrium theory. It is shown that, in this setting, equilibria need not exist in spite of well-...

  14. Testing the disgust conditioning theory of food-avoidance in adolescents with recent onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Grotzinger, Andrew; Reddan, Marianne; Greif, Rebecca; Levy, Ifat; Goodman, Wayne; Schiller, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa is characterized by chronic food avoidance that is resistant to change. Disgust conditioning offers one potential unexplored mechanism for explaining this behavioral disturbance because of its specific role in facilitating food avoidance in adaptive situations. A food based reversal learning paradigm was used to study response flexibility in 14 adolescent females with restricting subtype anorexia nervosa (AN-R) and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Expectancy ratings were coded as a behavioral measure of flexibility and electromyography recordings from the levator labii (disgust), zygomaticus major (pleasure), and corrugator (general negative affect) provided psychophysiological measures of emotion. Response inflexibility was higher for participants with AN-R, as evidenced by lower extinction and updated expectancy ratings during reversal. EMG responses to food stimuli were predictive of both extinction and new learning. Among AN-R patients, disgust specific responses to food were associated with impaired extinction, as were elevated pleasure responses to the cued absence of food. Disgust conditioning appears to influence food learning in acutely ill patients with AN-R and may be maintained by counter-regulatory acquisition of a pleasure response to food avoidance and an aversive response to food presence. Developing strategies to target disgust may improve existing interventions for patients with AN. PMID:26131915

  15. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  16. Food irradiation in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  17. Enlargement of Axo-Somatic Contacts Formed by GAD-Immunoreactive Axon Terminals onto Layer V Pyramidal Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Adolescent Female Mice Is Associated with Suppression of Food Restriction-Evoked Hyperactivity and Resilience to Activity-Based Anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wable, Gauri Satish; Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Aoki, Chiye

    2016-06-01

    Many, but not all, adolescent female mice that are exposed to a running wheel while food restricted (FR) become excessive wheel runners, choosing to run even during the hours of food availability, to the point of death. This phenomenon is called activity-based anorexia (ABA). We used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to ask whether individual differences in ABA resilience may correlate with the lengths of axo-somatic contacts made by GABAergic axon terminals onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5P) in the prefrontal cortex. Contact lengths were, on average, 40% greater for the ABA-induced mice, relative to controls. Correspondingly, the proportion of L5P perikaryal plasma membrane contacted by GABAergic terminals was 45% greater for the ABA mice. Contact lengths in the anterior cingulate cortex correlated negatively and strongly with the overall wheel activity after FR (R = -0.87, P < 0.01), whereas those in the prelimbic cortex correlated negatively with wheel running specifically during the hours of food availability of the FR days (R = -0.84, P < 0.05). These negative correlations support the idea that increases in the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) terminal contact lengths onto L5P contribute toward ABA resilience through suppression of wheel running, a behavior that is intrinsically rewarding and helpful for foraging but maladaptive within a cage. PMID:25979087

  18. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  19. Chronic cough hypersensitivity syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Morice, Alyn H.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic cough has been suggested to be due to three conditions, asthma, post nasal drip, and reflux disease. A different paradigm has evolved in which cough is viewed as the primary condition characterised by afferent neuronal hypersensitivity and different aspects of this syndrome are manifest in the different phenotypes of cough. There are several advantages to viewing cough hypersensitivity as the unifying diagnosis; Communication with patients is aided, aetiology is not restricted and the...

  20. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    OpenAIRE

    Hut, Roelof A.; Violetta Pilorz; Ate S Boerema; Arjen M Strijkstra; Serge Daan

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice that work for food we show that reduced food intake alone shifts the activity phase from the night into the day and eventually causes nocturnal torpor (natural hypothermia). Release into continuous...

  1. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  2. Bilinear Fourier restriction theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Demeter, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general scheme for proving $L^p$ estimates for certain bilinear Fourier restrictions outside the locally $L^2$ setting. As an application, we show how such estimates follow for the lacunary polygon. In contrast with prior approaches, our argument avoids any use of the Rubio de Francia Littlewood--Paley inequality.

  3. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  4. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  5. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  6. Nutrition in Chronic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Silva; Sara Gomes; Armando Peixoto; Paulo Torres-Ramalho; Hélder Cardoso; Rosa Azevedo; Carla Cunha; Guilherme Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition is a transversal condition to all stages of chronic liver disease. Early recognition of micro or macronutrient deficiencies is essential, because the use of nutritional supplements reduces the risk of complications. The diet of patients with chronic liver disease is based on a standard diet with supplements addition as necessary. Restrictions may be harmful and should be individualized. Treatment management should aim to maintain an adequate protein and caloric...

  7. Clinical characteristics of 53 chronic diarrhea in children associate with food allergy%儿童食物过敏相关性迁延性、慢性腹泻53例的临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 孙梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the cause , clinical characteristics and treatment effect of children with chronic diarrhea associate with food allergy . Methods The related clinical informations of children with chronic diarrhea who were treated in department of pediatrics of shengjing hospital from September 2006 to March 2010 were recorded and analysed in detail. To analyze the distribution of allergen , the variation of related clinical informations. Results 88. 33% chronic diarrhea children had food allergy especially for 1 to 10 foods. The positive rate of IgG test : milk > egg > tomato > cod = soy > crab = rice > beef = shrimp = wheat > chicken = maize > mushroom = pork. IgM of allergy group was higher than non -allergy group (P = 0.01 ). There were no significant differences between the two groups in neutrophils , acidophilus , stool, intestinal bacteria, total protein, albumin and immunoglobulin (P > 0. 05 ) . Curative efficacy of avoid allergen, mucosa protector, micro ecological bacteria of allergy group was favorable and different from non -allergy group (P = 0. 01 ). Conclusions Most of chronic diarrhea in children whose pathogenesis is still unknown exist food allergy. The patients' clinical character and normal laboratory tests are similar . Diarrhea are relieved after diagnostic treatment of avoid allergic food . The test of allergen is meaningful for chronic diarrhea in children whose pathogenesis is still unknown .%目的 分析食物过敏相关性儿童迁延性、慢性腹泻病的病因、临床特点、治疗以及疗效.方法 对2006年9月至2010年3月在中国医科大学附属盛京医院小儿消化内科病房住院,病因未明的诊断为迁延性、慢性腹泻病60例患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析,其中过敏组53例,非过敏组7例.分析过敏原的分布、相关化验结果的变化情况以及食物过敏相关性迁延性、慢性腹泻的临床特点.结果 88.33%的患儿存在1~10种不等的食物

  8. Ethanol in low chronic dose level attenuates major organic effects in malnourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    ALINE S DE AGUIAR; GILSON T BOAVENTURA; RAFAEL F ABRAHÃO; THATIANA L FREITAS; Takiya, Christina M; PORPHIRIO J S FILHO; VILMA A DA SILVA

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of ethanol low blood levels in malnourished rats. Female Wistar rats (220 g) were subjected to either an ad libitum diet (W, well-nourished, n=10) or food restriction (M, malnourished, n=10). Water (WW and MW) or ethanol solution (W5% and M5%) was offered to half of each nutritional group (n=5) as the only fluid source. The treatment was continued for two months. After sacrifice, blood biochemical parameters and macroscopic, hi...

  9. Secreción pulsátil diurna y nocturna de hormona del crecimiento en ovejas prepúberes con y sin restricción alimentaria Diurnal and nocturnal pulsatile growth hormone secretion in ewe lambs with and without food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. RECABARREN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios sobre las características de la secreción pulsátil ultradiana de GH en la borrega en crecimiento son escasos, y en particular, respecto de posibles diferencias entre la secreción diurna y nocturna, y si la restricción alimentaria es capaz de modificar los patrones de secreción pulsátil. En el presente estudio se comparó la frecuencia y la amplitud de pulsos de hormona del crecimiento (GH diurnos y nocturnos durante el desarrollo prepuberal de borregas Suffolk con y sin restricción alimentaria Para ello, se realizaron estudios de pulsatilidad de GH a las 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad, en borregas sometidas a restricción alimentaria (GR por 5, 11 y 15 semanas. Borregas de la misma edad sirvieron de control (GC. El estudio de pulsatilidad de GH se repitió en las borregas GR luego de 2 semanas de realimentación. El estudio de pulsatilidad de GH consistió en la colección de muestras de sangre desde la vena yugular cada 10 min por seis horas desde las 08:00 h para la determinación de la pulsatilidad diurna y desde las 20:00 h para la pulsatilidad nocturna. La definición de las características de la secreción pulsátil de GH se obtuvo con el programa CLUSTER. La concentración promedio (ng/ml, la amplitud de pulsos (ng/ml y la frecuencia de pulsos (nº de pulsos/6h diurna fue similar a la nocturna tanto en las borregas GC como en las borregas GR, en las 3 edades estudiadas. Aunque los parámetros de secreción diurnos y nocturnos fueron iguales entre sí en cada grupo, la concentración promedio diurna y nocturna del grupo GR fue siempre mayor (p The aim of the study was to characterise and to compare diurnal (D and nocturnal (N GH secretion in normal growing and in food-restricted Suffolk ewe lambs. Pulsatile GH secretion was studied in 6, 20, 26 and 30 week-old lambs (group GC and in six other lambs of the same age, after 5, 11 and 15 weeks of food restriction (group GR. At the end of the food restriction period, GR lambs

  10. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2015-10-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  11. Restriction of Helmholtz Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Polunin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental studies of physical mechanisms of energy dissipation in the oscillating system in which air cavity held by the forces of magnetic levitation is used as the elastic element, and magnetic fluid prepared on the basis of dispersing media with different viscosity level is used as the inertial element are considered in the article. Based on the obtained results the conclusion on the restriction of the applicability of Helmholtz equation, caused by boundary effects is made.

  12. Oriental Medical Treatment of chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hae-Yeon Lee; Jung-Han Park; Hyun-Seok Cho; Jung-Chul Kim; Tae-Hyun Baik; Jong-Seong Wi

    2004-01-01

    Chronic acalculous cholecystitis gets possession of about 12 to 13 percent of patients with chronic cholecystitis. Pathologically it is characterised by chronic inflammation and thickening of the gallbladder wall but doesn't come across stones. Clinical symptoms are vague and include abdominal discomfort and distension, nausea, flatulence and intolerance of fatty foods. A patient on chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed from his clinical symtoms and abdominal ultrasonogram was treated by...

  13. License restrictions at Barnwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autry, V.R. [S.C. Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States). Bureau of Radiological Health

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  14. Influence of inflammatory disorders and infection on iron absorption and efficacy of iron-fortified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    The provision of iron- fortified foods is a common strategy to prevent iron deficiency; however, ensuring adequate iron absorption is a challenge. Iron bioavailability depends on the choice of iron compound, the presence enhancers and inhibitors of absorption in the food matrix, and the physiological state of the consumer, including iron status, other nutritional deficiencies and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation associated with infections and inflammatory disorders would be expected to decrease iron absorption and reduce the efficacy of iron- fortified foods. The decreased absorption is due to an increase in circulating hepcidin in response to inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin degrades ferroportin and blocks the passage of iron from the intestinal cell to the plasma. This is the innate immune response to infections and aims to restrict pathogen growth by restricting iron supply. Stable isotope studies have reported women and children with chronic malaria parasitemia or febrile malaria to have increased inflammatory cytokines, increased hepcidin and much decreased iron absorption. No studies have specifically investigated the efficacy of iron- fortified foods in the absence and presence of infections. In contrast, inflammation and increased hepcidin associated with adiposity in overweight have been linked to both lower iron absorption and the decreased efficacy of iron- fortified foods. PMID:25762975

  15. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  16. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  17. Appetite for reproduction: dietary restriction, aging and the mammalian gonad

    OpenAIRE

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Scott D Pletcher; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    The major physiologic theory of aging, the disposable soma theory, links dietary restriction (DR), also known as calorie or food restriction, to prolonged lifespan and makes specific predictions about the effects of aging and DR on reproduction. A recent study in BMC Biology profiling the effects of aging and DR on gonadal gene expression provides novel molecular evidence that has a significant impact on this theory of aging.

  18. Transboundary Trade in Genetically Modified Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bracht

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the regulatory approach to GM foods at three levels: Codex Alimentarius, the WTO and the EU. The key issue is the latitude of the EU to have regional food safety measures that impose import restrictions on GM foods from third countries. This latitude is limited by the EU...

  19. Diagnosing food allergy in children, peanuts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, F.C. van

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Although food allergic patients usually do not experience daily symptoms, they are faced with dietary restrictions and the risk for a severe reaction every day. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is important to presc

  20. Sleep Restriction Worsens Mood and Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally induced chronic sleep restriction on…

  1. Food Allergies in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ersin Aydin; Ercan Karabacak; Ali Kutlu; Bilal Dogan

    2013-01-01

    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disease, associated with food and inhalant allergies. The relationship between food and AD is controversial. Greater than 90% parents and 60 % of primary care providers considers that food allergies as the cause for AD. However, it is difficult to reveal that food aggravating AD. In this article the relationship between AD and food allergy was reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000): 105-110

  2. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  3. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  4. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  5. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  6. Efecto de melatonina sobre la secreción pulsátil de hormona luteinizante y de hormona del crecimiento en borregas con restricción alimenticia Effect of melatonin on the pulsatile luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion in ewe lambs under food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. RECABARREN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar la secreción pulsátil de LH y GH en borregas sometidas a restricción alimenticia (n=5, grupo R-MEL, a las 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad, tratadas diariamente con melatonina (3 mg/día, a las 16:00 h, desde las 10 semanas de edad. La restricción alimenticia se inició a las 16 semanas de edad. Borregas de la misma edad con restricción alimenticia sin administración de melatonina actuaron como grupo comparativo (n=6, R-SOL. El promedio transversal de LH tendió a aumentar desde 0,35± 0,04 a las 20 sem. hasta 0,61±0,15 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem en las borregas del grupo R-MEL, mientras que en las borregas del grupo R-SOL el promedio no cambió entre ambas edades: 0,34± 0,03 a las 20 sem y 0,25±0,05 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem. La frecuencia de pulsos de LH no cambió y no fue diferente entre los 2 grupos. La amplitud de pulsos de LH tendió a ser mayor en las borregas R-MEL a las 30 sem: 0,76± 0,28 y 0,38± 0,09 ng/ml respectivamente (PThe aim of the present work was to characterize the pulsatile LH and GH secretion in food restricted Suffolk ewe lambs (n=5, R-MEL group receiving daily oral administration of melatonin (3mg/20 mL, at 16:00 h, at 20-26- and 30 weeks of age, after 4,10 and 14 weeks of food restriction. Melatonin treatment was initiated at 10 weeks of age. Food restricted lambs of the same age, without melatonin treatment acted as comparative group (n=6, R-SOL. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein by means of an indwelling catheter at 10 min-intervals for 6 hours, from 09:00 h. LH and GH were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations of both hormones were analyzed by the Cluster program to define pulse frequency (n° pulses/6h, and pulse amplitude (ng/mL. The transversal mean of LH and GH was also calculated (ng/mL/6h. In the R-MEL group, the transversal mean of LH tended to increase from 0.35± 0.04 in 20 weeks old lambs to 0.61± 0.15 ng/mL/6h in 30 weeks old

  7. Deconfinement from action restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of restricting the plaquette to be greater than a certain cutoff value is studied. The action considered is the standard Wilson action with the addition of a plaquette restriction, which should not affect the continuum limit of the theory. In this investigation, the strong coupling limit is also taken. It is found that a deconfining phase transition occurs as the cutoff is increased, on all lattices studied (up to 204). The critical cutoff on the infinite lattice appears to be around 0.55. For cutoffs above this, a fixed point behavior is observed in the normalized fourth cumulant of the Polyakov loop, suggesting the existence of a line of critical points corresponding to a massless gluon phase, not unlike the situation in compact U(1). The Polyakov loop susceptibility also appears to be diverging with lattice size at these cutoffs. A strong finite volume behavior is observed in the pseudo-specific heat. It is discussed whether these results could still be consistent with the standard crossover picture which precludes the existence of a deconfining phase transition on an infinite symmetric lattice. (orig.)

  8. 21 CFR 610.42 - Restrictions on use for further manufacture of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on use for further manufacture of medical devices. 610.42 Section 610.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents §...

  9. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author)

  10. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  11. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of Genomic Digests Demonstrates Linkages among Food, Food Handlers, and Patrons in a Food-Borne Salmonella javiana Outbreak in Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Roger; Peppe, Joseph; George, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    A total of 66 isolates of Salmonella javiana isolated from food, food handlers, and patrons that were epidemiologically linked to an outbreak of gastroenteritis were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Analysis with restriction endonucleases XbaI and SpeI supported the epidemiologic association and suggested a pathway of transmission among food, food handlers, and patrons.

  12. MRI of restrictive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI in combination of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging for the identification of restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Methods: One hundred sixteen patients with RCM underwent ECG, thoracic radiography, echocardiography and MRI. The final diagnosis was made on comprehensive evaluation in consideration of patient history, clinical symptoms and imaging appearances. Fifty-five normal subjects were used as the controls. All patients were divided into two groups according to contrast-enhanced MRI patterns: RCM with delayed enhancement (RCM with DE, n=35) and RCM without delayed enhancement (RCM without DE, n=81). Bi-atrial and bi-ventricular size, ventricular septal and left free wall thickness were measured. A paired t-test was used for statistic analysis. Results: Bi-atrial size, right ventricular diastolic diameter (RVDD), ventricular septal and left free wall thickness were significantly larger in RCM patients than in normal subjects (P0.05). Visual observation showed mild mitral regurgitation (50 cases), moderate mitral regurgitation (24 cases ), mild tricuspid regurgitation (32 cases) and severe tricuspid regurgitation (46 cases). Thirty-five RCMs with DE presented diffuse (15 cases) or segmental (20 cases) enhancement. Twelve RCMs with diffuse delayed enhancement showed powdery, enhancement, and 3 showed petaline enhancement. Three cases with powdery enhancement were histologically proven as myocardial amyloidosis. Ventricular septum was the most vulnerable segment in patients with segmental enhancement. Six cases presented subendocardial enhancement that corresponded to apical obliteration, of which one case was confirmed as hypereosinophilia by bone marrow biopsy and the other 14 cases didn't present any regular enhancement. In 81 RCMs without DE, marked bi-atrial dilation, near-normal ventricular chambers and near-normal ventricular thickness were presented. Conclusion: MRI is an excellent imaging modality for

  13. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  14. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments on the...

  15. Vegetarianism: advantages and drawbacks in patients with chronic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Combe, Christian; Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Vegetarian diet is a very old practice that is liable to confer some health benefits. Recent studies have demonstrated that modification of the dietary pattern with a reduction of animal protein intake and increased consumption of plant-based foods could influence cardiovascular risk profile and mortality rate. Moreover, phosphate bioavailability from plant proteins is reduced. These statements could lead to some benefits for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This review summarizes the characteristics and benefits of vegetarian diets in the general population and the potential beneficial effects of such a diet on phosphate balance, insulin sensitivity, and the control of metabolic acidosis in CKD patients. Potential drawbacks exist when a vegetarian diet is associated with protein intake that is too restrictive and/or insufficient energy intake, justifying an early and regular nutritional follow-up jointly assumed by a nephrologist and a renal dietitian. PMID:24070587

  16. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantar-Zadeh K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Kalantar-ZadehHarold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine’s School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USAObjectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia.Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed.Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels.Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, renal diet, phosphorus binders, educational programs, food fatigue, concordance

  17. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  18. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  19. Repeated sleep restriction in rats leads to homeostatic and allostatic responses during recovery sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsoo; Laposky, Aaron D.; Bergmann, Bernard M.; TUREK, FRED W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic sleep restriction can have negative consequences for brain function and peripheral physiology and can contribute to the allostatic load throughout the body. Interestingly, few studies have examined how the sleep–wake system itself responds to repeated sleep restriction. In this study, rats were subjected to a sleep-restriction protocol consisting of 20 h of sleep deprivation (SD) followed by a 4-h sleep opportunity each day for 5 consecutive days. In respo...

  20. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food-packaging materials. 181.22 Section 181.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... of food-packaging materials. Prior to the enactment of the food additives amendment to the Federal... manufacturing practice for food-packaging materials includes the restriction that the quantity of any......

  1. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  2. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  3. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  4. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  5. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bügel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may cause problems in changing the food based on single constituents or attributes when applying the concept of functional food to organic food production. Claims of the influence of the food positively on health can only be accepted as true when the claims have been tested and then validated by the EU-Commission. Whereas functional food focuses on product comparison based on specific constituents or attributes, organic food as a whole has no placebo for comparison and effects on environment and society are not part of the health claim regulation. Therefore it seems rather difficult to establish the health claims of organic foods. Consumers buy organic food out of an emotional attitude and associate the food with naturalness. In contrast, the decision for buying functional food is related to rationality and consumers associate functional food with a more technological approach. For this reason, the authors conclude that the concept of functional food seems not to support organic food production in Europe.

  6. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  7. The psychology of food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew J

    2007-05-01

    Cravings are hedonic responses to food, characterised by their intensity and their specificity. Food cravings are extremely common, reported by the majority of young adults. They are closely associated with liking but not synonymous with increased intake. Structured interviews and prospective incident accounts of food cravings have succeeded in revealing a richness of information about their character, their antecedents and their consequences. In addition, laboratory investigations are adding to what is being learned from field and clinical studies. Taking dieting as an example of an assumed influence on food craving, the outcomes of cross-sectional studies are mixed and unconvincing. Prospective and experimental research shows a clearer relationship. Dieting or restrained eating generally increase the likelihood of food craving while fasting makes craving, like hunger, diminish. Attempted restriction or deprivation of a particular food is associated with an increase in craving for the unavailable food. This relationship suggests a variety of underlying cognitive, conditioning and emotional processes, of which ironic cognitive processes, conditioned cue reactivity and dysphoric mood are prominent. Food cravings may also be self-attributions, accounting for why a highly-palatable but self-restricted food is (over-)consumed. Overall, the popularised account of cravings as elicited by specific nutritional need is having to give way to a more subtle and complex appreciation of human eating behaviour. PMID:17466108

  8. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  9. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leniszewski Stefanie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  10. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. PMID:24291541

  11. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  12. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of...

  13. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally the......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  14. Antiretroviral Restriction Factors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Smita; Rein, Alan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in contemporary retrovirus research is the discovery of “restriction factors”. These are cellular proteins that act after virus entry to inhibit infection by or replication of retroviruses (and other viruses and intracellular pathogens). We briefly discuss here three antiretroviral restriction factors in mice: Fv1, APOBEC3, and tetherin, touching on both biological and molecular aspects of these restriction systems.

  15. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  16. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  17. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  18. Agricultural Recovery: Food Security and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Morris, Michael; Glaesener, Vincent; Zoyem, Jean-Paul; Larbouret, Patricia; Moens, Marc; Dianga, Evalyne; Mdaye, Ba; Kavalec, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Burundi is still experiencing a major food crisis. One important element that will help to avoid new episodes of violence is revised agricultural policies that support sustainable food security. Food crops and livestock supply 91 percent of agricultural GDP and the major livelihood for most households, thus it is essential to promote production and commercialization of subsistence crops and livestock. These subsectors currently perform poorly and foster a chronic food deficit, a condition tha...

  19. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  1. Stroke and restricted sensory syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been sporadic case reports of a restricted sensory syndrome caused by stroke, most often as a cheiro-oral syndrome. We describe 14 patients with stroke who showed various restricted sensory syndromes and correlated their symptoms with the radiological findings. (orig./MG)

  2. Special Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

  3. Neuroimmune interactions in itch: Do chronic itch, chronic pain, and chronic cough share similar mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Itch and pain are closely related but also clearly distinct sensations. Pain is known to suppress itch, while analgesics such as morphine can provoke itch. However, in pathological and chronic conditions, pain and itch also have similarities. Dysfunction of the nervous system, as manifested by neural plastic changes in primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (peripheral sensitization) and spinal cord and brain stem neurons in the central nervous system (central sensitization) will result in chronic pain and itch. Importantly, these diseases also result from immune dysfunction, since inflammatory mediators can directly activate or sensitize nociceptive and pruriceptive neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system, leading to pain and itch hypersensitivity. In this mini-review, I discuss the roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel, and Nav1.7 sodium channel in regulating itch and inflammation, with special emphasis of neuronal TLR signaling and the interaction of TLR7 and TRPA1. Chronic pain and chronic itch are debilitating diseases and dramatically impact the life quality of patients. Targeting TLRs for the control of inflammation, neuroinflammation (inflammation restricted in the nervous system), and hyperexcitability of nociceptors and pruriceptors will lead to new therapeutics for the relief of chronic pain and chronic itch. Finally, given the shared mechanisms among chronic cough, chronic pain, and chronic itch and the demonstrated efficacy of the neuropathic pain drug gabapentin in treating chronic cough, novel therapeutics targeting TRPA1, Nav1.7, and TLRs may also help to alleviate refractory cough via modulating neuron-immune interaction. PMID:26351759

  4. First-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of imatinib just over a decade ago, there has been a dramatic change in the treatment and prognosis of early chronic phase chronic myeloid Leukaemia (CML). This review article focuses on recent advances, culminating in the approval of nilotinib by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed CML in the chronic phase.

  5. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem

    OpenAIRE

    DE O'Donnell; Gebke KB

    2014-01-01

    Denis E O'Donnell,1 Kevin B Gebke2 1Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, patients may not seek medical help unt...

  6. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  7. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  8. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  9. Avaliação dos marcadores de consumo alimentar do VIGITEL (2007-2009 Evaluation of food intake markers in the Brazilian surveillance system for chronic diseases - VIGITEL (2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as questões marcadoras de consumo alimentar do Sistema Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico e sua evolução temporal. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 135.249 indivíduos de 27 cidades brasileiras, entrevistados nos anos de 2007 - 2009. Os marcadores de consumo alimentar foram descritos a partir da frequência de consumo de frutas, hortaliças, feijão, leite integral e desnatado, refrigerante normal e diet/light, e consumo de gordura aparente das carnes e a pele do frango. Avaliou-se a evolução temporal desses marcadores e, adicionalmente, testou-se a elaboração de um escore de alimentação saudável e a identificação de padrões alimentares por meio da análise de cluster. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento estatisticamente significativo nas frequências de consumo de feijão, leite integral e refrigerante normal e diminuição no consumo de leite desnatado. Mesmo com aumento de 11 para 13% de indivíduos que referiram consumir feijão diariamente, esses percentuais são baixos; assim como o consumo recomendado de 3 porções de frutas e 3 porções de hortaliças por dia, que foi referido por menos de 15% da população em todos os anos, com queda de 5 para 3% para as hortaliças. O refrigerante não diet foi o item com maior aumento no consumo, passando de 60 para 67%. Os itens avaliados apresentaram fraca correlação e não configuram um constructo único de alimentação saudável. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade da dieta dos brasileiros tem piorado e é necessária melhor qualificação dos marcadores alimentares considerados de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate markers of food intake of the telephone-based risk factor surveillance system for chronic diseases (VIGITEL and the trend of these markers. METHODS: A total of 135,249 subjects from 27 Brazilian cities interviewed in the 2007 - 2009 surveys were evaluated. Eating habits

  10. Respiratory Conditions Update: Restrictive Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H Coleman

    2016-09-01

    Restrictive lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by a restrictive pattern on spirometry and confirmed by a reduction in total lung volume. Patients with more severe symptoms may have a reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Etiologies can be intrinsic with lung parenchymal involvement, as in interstitial lung diseases, or extrinsic to the lung, as in obesity and neuromuscular disorders. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis for which treatment is primarily supportive with oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and management of comorbid conditions. Newer drugs for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, such as pirfenidone and nintedanib, can slow disease progression. Referral for evaluation for lung transplantation is recommended for appropriate patients. Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome increasingly are common health issues, with symptoms that can include snoring, daytime somnolence, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, witnessed apneas, and morning headaches. Serum bicarbonate may serve as a biomarker in screening for subclinical obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Preoperative evaluations should assess pulmonary risk in addition to cardiac risk with a thorough history, laboratory tests, and functional capacity assessments. Optimization of management may include weight loss, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and respiratory support. PMID:27576233

  11. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  12. Removal of high-fat diet after chronic exposure drives binge behavior and dopaminergic dysregulation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jesse L; McKee, Sarah E; Hill-Smith, Tiffany; Grissom, Nicola M; George, Robert; Lucki, Irwin; Reyes, Teresa M

    2016-06-21

    A significant contributor to the obesity epidemic is the overconsumption of highly palatable, energy dense foods. Chronic intake of palatable foods is associated with neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system adaptations which may lead to behavioral changes, such as overconsumption or bingeing. We examined behavioral and molecular outcomes in mice that were given chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD; 12weeks), with the onset of the diet either in adolescence or adulthood. To examine whether observed effects could be reversed upon removal of the HFD, animals were also studied 4weeks after a return to chow feeding. Most notably, female mice, particularly those exposed to HFD starting in adolescence, demonstrated the emergence of binge-like behavior when given restricted access to a palatable food. Further, changes in dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine content in the prefrontal cortex were observed. Some of these HFD-driven phenotypes reversed upon removal of the diet, whereas others were initiated by removal of the diet. These findings have implications for obesity management and interventions, as both pharmacological and behavioral therapies are often combined with dietary interventions (e.g., reduction in calorie dense foods). PMID:27063418

  13. Food labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their products to help us make healthier food choices. The consistent format helps you directly compare the ... CONTENT CLAIMS A nutrient content claim is a word or phrase on a food package that makes a comment about the nutritional ...

  14. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & ...

  15. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

  16. How harmful are adaptation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, B.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  17. Oriental Medical Treatment of chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic acalculous cholecystitis gets possession of about 12 to 13 percent of patients with chronic cholecystitis. Pathologically it is characterised by chronic inflammation and thickening of the gallbladder wall but doesn't come across stones. Clinical symptoms are vague and include abdominal discomfort and distension, nausea, flatulence and intolerance of fatty foods. A patient on chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed from his clinical symtoms and abdominal ultrasonogram was treated by Geonbihwan, acupuncture and herbal acupuncture. Satisfactory symptomatic improvement was achieved and findings of abdominal ultrasonogram came also normal.

  18. The precipitation of symptoms by common foods in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, H A; Potter, P C

    1994-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and disabling condition that has a major impact on financial and social resources of the individual and the community. Its incidence is increasing dramatically, and no cure is available. Pharmacological treatment is only partially effective. The evidence that diet plays a role in children with atopic dermatitis is now irrefutable. Prophylactic measures can prevent or limit the development of AD, and partially restricted diets can modify the disease's course or severity. This study reports the reactions to various foods as perceived by parents of 112 children affected by AD. It demonstrates that many foods exacerbate AD and that reactions are caused by two distinct groups of food. The commonest triggers of cutaneous symptoms are tomatoes, oranges, sweets, pineapple, chocolate, and softdrinks preserved with sulfur dioxide. These foods result in symptoms in 30% to 49% of the children. The traditional IgE reaction type foods, namely egg, fish, milk, and peanut, resulted in reactions in 14% to 25% of the children, and with many non-cutaneous symptoms. The study further shows that allergen avoidance measures are not practiced in our community, and that sound advice is not often proffered. Practical advice on prophylactic dietary preventative measures and dietary management of children with atopic dermatitis is presented. PMID:7806078

  19. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  20. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.

  1. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass..., Medical devices. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and under authority delegated... warning in labeling and advertising by restricting the device under section 520(e) of the Federal...

  2. Role of food-type in yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement of food-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, S. G.; Gray, S.M.; Ghitza, U.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have recently adapted a reinstatement model, commonly used to study relapse to drugs of abuse, to study the role of stress and anxiety in relapse to palatable food seeking [20]. We found that the anxiogenic drug yohimbine, as well as pellet-priming, reinstate food seeking in food restricted rats previously trained to lever press for palatable food pellets (25% fat, 48% carbohydrate). Here, we studied the generality of the effect of yohimbine and pellet-priming on reinstatement of food seek...

  3. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Estrup Olesen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby affect absorption of the drug. As stated above many factors can influence drug absorption and metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The factors may not have clinical relevance, but may explain inter-individual variations in responses to a given drug, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  4. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

  5. Effect of chronic undernutrition on body mass and mechanical bone quality under normoxic and altitude hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezon, Christian; Bozzini, Clarisa; Agûero Romero, Alan; Pinto, Patricia; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2016-05-01

    Both undernutrition and hypoxia exert a negative influence on both growth pattern and bone mechanical properties in developing rats. The present study explored the effects of chronic food restriction on both variables in growing rats exposed to simulated high-altitude hypoxia. Male rats (n 80) aged 28 d were divided into normoxic (Nx) and hypoxic (Hx) groups. Hx rats were exposed to hypobaric air (380 mmHg) in decompression chambers. At T0, Nx and Hx rats were subdivided into four equal subgroups: normoxic control and hypoxic controls, and normoxic growth-restricted and hypoxic growth-restricted received 80 % of the amount of food consumed freely by their respective controls for a 4-week period. Half of these animals were studied at the end of this period (T4). The remaining rats in each group continued under the same environmental conditions, but food was offered ad libitum to explore the type of catch-up growth during 8 weeks. Structural bone properties (strength and stiffness) were evaluated in the right femur midshaft by the mechanical three-point bending test; geometric properties (length, cross-sectional area, cortical mass, bending cross-sectional moment of inertia) and intrinsic properties of the bone tissue (elastic modulus) were measured or derived from appropriate equations. Bone mineralisation was assessed by ash measurement of the left femur. These data indicate that the growth-retarded effects of diminished food intake, induced either by food restriction or hypoxia-related inhibition of appetite, generated the formation of corresponding smaller bones in which subnormal structural and geometric properties were observed. However, they seemed to be appropriate to the body mass of the animals and suggest, therefore, that the bones were not osteopenic. When food restriction was imposed in Hx rats, the combined effects of both variables were additive, inducing a further reduction of bone mass and bone load-carrying capacity. In all cases, the mechanical

  6. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  7. Organic and Inorganic Dietary Phosphorus and Its Management in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Noori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phosphorus control is often a main strategy in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. Dietary protein is a major source of phosphorus intake. Recent data indicate that imposed dietary phosphorus restriction may compromise the need for adequate protein intake, leading to protein-energy wasting and possibly to increased mortality. The two main sources of dietary phosphorus are organic, including animal and vegetarian proteins, and inorganic, mostly food preservatives. Animal-based foods and plant are abundant in organic phosphorus. Usually 40% to 60% of animal-based phosphorus is absorbed; this varies by degree of gastrointestinal vitamin-D-receptor activation, whereas plant phosphorus, mostly associated with phytates, is less absorbable by human gastrointestinal tract. Up to 100% of inorganic phosphorus in processed foods may be absorbed; ie, phosphorus in processed cheese and some soda (cola drinks. A recent study suggests that a higher dietary phosphorus-protein intake ratio is associated with incremental death risk in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Hence, for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease, in addition to absolute dietary phosphorus content, the chemical structure (inorganic versus organic, type (animal versus plant, and phosphorus-protein ratio should be considered. We recommend foods and supplements with no or lowest quantity of inorganic phosphorus additives, more plant-based proteins, and a dietary phosphorus-protein ratio of less than 10 mg/g. Fresh (nonprocessed egg white (phosphorus-protein ratio less than 2 mg/g is a good example of desirable food, which contains a high proportion of essential amino acids with low amounts of fat, cholesterol, and phosphorus.

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  9. Roentgenofunctional diagnosis of chronic enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonovich, V.B.; Khashem, U.Kh. (Tsentral' nyj Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej, Moscow (USSR))

    The paper is concerned with the findings of multimodality roentgenofunctional diagnosis of chronic enterocolitis in 100 patients. A radiofunctional study was performed under the conditions of X-ray TV and videomagnetic recording of the stomach, duodenum and small intestine using barium swallow. Simultaneously the gall bladder and bile ducts condition was studied. All the patients underwent colon examination with the help of a contrast enema (primary double contrast examination) and 24 h after taking barium swallow and food. The study showed that changes in the small intestine in chronic enterocolitis were combined with a certain regularity of those in the stomach, duodenum, colon and gall bladder.

  10. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions familial restrictive cardiomyopathy familial restrictive cardiomyopathy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. For ...

  12. Proceedings of a seminar on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International interest in the industrial use of ionizing radiation as a means of food preservation has increased rapidly following the favourable outcome of many years of intensive research on the health implications of food irradiation. The introduction in the U.S. and elsewhere of legislation restricting the use of chemical additives to foods for both human and animal consumption has contributed to this development. A high priority must be given to coordinating legislation on food irradiation within the European Community if international trade in irradiated foods is to make progress and food losses by spoilage and by insect infestation are to be minimised. Speakers from the United Kigdom, France and Germany describe the legislative and developmental situation in their respective countries. The implication for the Irish food industry is presented by scientists working on food research and development and regulatory aspects in Ireland are also discussed

  13. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie Heilman Bell; Marja Verhoef; Stacey Page; Cynthia Mannion

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., ...

  14. Entanglement with restricted measurement setups

    CERN Document Server

    Meznaric, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    We consider what is the effective amount of entanglement when the measurement operators one has at their disposal are restricted. Such a scenario occurs when superselection rules are in effect or when there are imperfections in our measurement setup. Given a quantum state and the restrictions on measurements, we consider the following scenario. Imagine we have an ideal, or non-restricted, measurement setup and a state $\\rho_1$ and a non-ideal, or restricted, measurement setup and a state $\\rho_2$. Then the minimum amount of entanglement in $\\rho_1$ so that all quantum communication protocols still perform with the same fidelity as with $\\rho_2$ is effectively the entanglement with restricted measurement setup. For indistinguishable particles, we find that any quantum communication protocol that can be performed with indistinguishable particles, can thus be performed with a ``normal'' state of no more than $E_P$ of entanglement. For the imperfect measurement apparatus we find an upper bound for the effective e...

  15. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  17. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2011-01-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted...

  18. The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lisa C.; Obeid, Amani E. El; Jensen, Helen H.

    2000-01-01

    At the 1996 World Food Summit, 186 countries made a commitment to reduce the number of chronically undernourished people by half by 2015. In order to formulate effective policies for reaching this goal, a thorough understanding of the location and causes of food insecurity is needed. This paper provides a broad overview of the current character of food insecurity in developing countries, focusing on two questions: (1) Why are they food insecure? and (2) Why are the food insecure? To answer th...

  19. Sustainable Agriculture: A Way Out of Food Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Tuya Altangerel; Fernando Henao

    2010-01-01

    The most fundamental human right is the right to food (UN General Assembly, 2002). Proper nutritious food is the precondition for normal human development. Well-nourished children are more likely to succeed in learning and are less susceptible to diseases. But low-income, food-importing economies are facing increasing difficulties in accessing staple food items. Chronic food insecurity persists, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The recent economic crisis drove more than 100 million people in...

  20. Interactive Effects of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus and Time-Restricted Feeding on Fractal Motor Activity Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wei-Yin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M; Hu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    One evolutionary adaptation in motor activity control of animals is the anticipation of food that drives foraging under natural conditions and is mimicked in laboratory with daily scheduled food availability. Food anticipation is characterized by increased activity a few hours before the feeding period. Here we report that 2-h food availability during the normal inactive phase of rats not only increases activity levels before the feeding period but also alters the temporal organization of motor activity fluctuations over a wide range of time scales from minutes up to 24 h. We demonstrate this multiscale alteration by assessing fractal patterns in motor activity fluctuations-similar fluctuation structure at different time scales-that are robust in intact animals with ad libitum food access but are disrupted under food restriction. In addition, we show that fractal activity patterns in rats with ad libitum food access are also perturbed by lesion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH)-a neural node that is involved in food anticipatory behavior. Instead of further disrupting fractal regulation, food restriction restores the disrupted fractal patterns in these animals after the DMH lesion despite the persistence of the 24-h rhythms. This compensatory effect of food restriction is more clearly pronounced in the same animals after the additional lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-the central master clock in the circadian system that generates and orchestrates circadian rhythms in behavior and physiological functions in synchrony with day-night cycles. Moreover, all observed influences of food restriction persist even when data during the food anticipatory and feeding period are excluded. These results indicate that food restriction impacts dynamics of motor activity at different time scales across the entire circadian/daily cycle, which is likely caused by the competition between the food-induced time cue and the light-entrained circadian rhythm of the SCN. The

  1. Interactive Effects of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus and Time-Restricted Feeding on Fractal Motor Activity Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wei-Yin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    One evolutionary adaptation in motor activity control of animals is the anticipation of food that drives foraging under natural conditions and is mimicked in laboratory with daily scheduled food availability. Food anticipation is characterized by increased activity a few hours before the feeding period. Here we report that 2-h food availability during the normal inactive phase of rats not only increases activity levels before the feeding period but also alters the temporal organization of motor activity fluctuations over a wide range of time scales from minutes up to 24 h. We demonstrate this multiscale alteration by assessing fractal patterns in motor activity fluctuations—similar fluctuation structure at different time scales—that are robust in intact animals with ad libitum food access but are disrupted under food restriction. In addition, we show that fractal activity patterns in rats with ad libitum food access are also perturbed by lesion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH)—a neural node that is involved in food anticipatory behavior. Instead of further disrupting fractal regulation, food restriction restores the disrupted fractal patterns in these animals after the DMH lesion despite the persistence of the 24-h rhythms. This compensatory effect of food restriction is more clearly pronounced in the same animals after the additional lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)—the central master clock in the circadian system that generates and orchestrates circadian rhythms in behavior and physiological functions in synchrony with day-night cycles. Moreover, all observed influences of food restriction persist even when data during the food anticipatory and feeding period are excluded. These results indicate that food restriction impacts dynamics of motor activity at different time scales across the entire circadian/daily cycle, which is likely caused by the competition between the food-induced time cue and the light-entrained circadian rhythm of the

  2. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  3. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  4. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  5. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  6. Bridge Decomposition of Restriction Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by Kesten's bridge decomposition for two-dimensional self-avoiding walks in the upper half plane, we show that the conjectured scaling limit of the half-plane SAW, the SLE(8/3) process, also has an appropriately defined bridge decomposition. This continuum decomposition turns out to entirely be a consequence of the restriction property of SLE(8/3), and as a result can be generalized to the wider class of restriction measures. Specifically we show that the restriction hulls with index less than one can be decomposed into a Poisson Point Process of irreducible bridges in a way that is similar to Ito's excursion decomposition of a Brownian motion according to its zeros.

  7. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  8. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention for the...... two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted with...

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  10. CDRL - company dose restriction level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of year's close constraints and controls have been used as effective measures in aiding restricting exposure to ionising radiation. Predecessor companies to British Energy Generation (BEG) originally established the Company Dose Restriction Level (CDRL) as a consequence of the revision of risk estimates, then with the revised Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) the CDRL for BEG was also revised. The background, influences and consequences of CDRL appliance in a commercial organisation in calendar year 2000/1 are presented below. (author)

  11. HFB in a restricted space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A restricted Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method is developed with a restriction on the angular momenta of the Cooper pairs that conform the vacuum (SD or SDG). The method is applied to 176Yb. The quadrupole moment in the SD subspace is found to be 80% for neutrons and 91% for protons of its value in the full space. The inclusion of the G part of the Cooper pairs improves that agreement. The descriptions in terms of boson condensate and coherent states are discussed. (author)

  12. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  13. Time scarcity and food choices: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M

    2006-09-01

    Time scarcity, the feeling of not having enough time, has been implicated in changes in food consumption patterns such as a decrease in food preparation at home, an increase in the consumption of fast foods, a decrease in family meals, and an increase in the consumption of convenience or ready-prepared foods. These food choices are associated with less healthful diets and may contribute to obesity and chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In spite of the potential importance for health, there has been little study of how time scarcity influences people's food choices. This paper presents an overview of time issues related to food choices and discuss applications of time research for nutrition and health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners interested in food choice. PMID:16698116

  14. Global food security

    OpenAIRE

    Teichmann, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    According to the current report on the Millennium Development Goals (UN 2015), the share of undernourished people living in the developing world has fallen from 23.3% in 1990-1992 to 12.9% in 2014-2016 (projection). Despite this progress towards global food security, about 795 million people worldwide (or 780 million people in developing regions) will remain undernourished in 2014-2016 (UN 2015). Put differently, more than 10% of the world population still suffers from chronic hunger (FAO et ...

  15. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  16. Importance of Weight Loss and Sodium Restriction in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Essential Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Janssens, Marion; Vanderspeeten, Francine; Rorive, Georges

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of non pharmacological treatment of chronic arterial hypertension has been evaluated in 116 treated or not primary hypertensive out-patients. Those receiving diuretics were however excluded. This population was requested to follow for 3 months a modification of their usual diet characterized by salt restriction combined with energy intake restriction when the patients were above their ideal body weight. Only 62 patients (53%) completed the study. However, this approach was e...

  17. The world food problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  18. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  19. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  20. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  1. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  2. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of

  3. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1980-01-01

    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  4. Alphavirus Restriction by IFITM Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Stuart; Czieso, Stephanie; White, Ian J; Smith, Sarah E; Wash, Rachael S; Diaz-Soria, Carmen; Kellam, Paul; Marsh, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are broad-spectrum antiviral factors. In cell culture the entry of many enveloped viruses, including orthomyxo-, flavi-, and filoviruses, is inhibited by IFITMs, though the mechanism(s) involved remain unclear and may vary between viruses. We demonstrate that Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which both use endocytosis and acid-induced membrane fusion in early endosomes to infect cells, are restricted by the early endosomal IFITM3. The late endosomal IFITM2 is less restrictive and the plasma membrane IFITM1 does not inhibit normal infection by either virus. IFITM3 inhibits release of the SFV capsid into the cytosol, without inhibiting binding, internalization, trafficking to endosomes or low pH-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein. Infection by SFV fusion at the cell surface was inhibited by IFITM1, but was equally inhibited by IFITM3. Furthermore, an IFITM3 mutant (Y20A) that is localized to the plasma membrane inhibited infection by cell surface fusion more potently than IFITM1. Together, these results indicate that IFITMs, in particular IFITM3, can restrict alphavirus infection by inhibiting viral fusion with cellular membranes. That IFITM3 can restrict SFV infection by fusion at the cell surface equivalently to IFITM1 suggests that IFITM3 has greater antiviral potency against SFV. PMID:27219333

  5. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  6. 禁食、轮替疗法配合药物治疗食物不耐受的慢性荨麻疹的疗效观察%ClinicaI observations on the chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive treatment by fasting and spell.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨啸宇; 邱雄; 金泽龙; 汪平; 牟双梦; 杨闯; 陆小琴; 陈德宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of fasting and spell combined with antihistamines therapy on the chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive. Methods The cases were divided into three groups, group A was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG negative which were treated by mizolastine and ketotifen, group B was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive which were treated the same treatment as group A, group C was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive which were treated by mizolastine and ketotifen, simultaneously fasting and spell. The effects of three groups should be observed after 2 and 6 months treatment. The data analyzed by SPSS 17. 0 software. Results After two months treatment, the effective rate of the group A and C were no significant difference, but two of them were significant different from group B. After 6 months treatment, the effective rates of group A and C were no significant difference. , while the effective rates and the cure rates of group A and C were higher than group B. Conclusion The result show that the fasting and spell combined with antihistamines therapy was better for the chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive. This treatment was worth popularizing.%目的 旨在采用禁食、轮替疗法联合药物对食物特异性IgG阳性的慢性荨麻疹患者进行治疗,观察其疗效.方法 慢性荨麻疹患者分为A、B、C 3组,A组为食物耐受组30例,采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗;B组为食物不耐受组30例,同样采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗;C组也为食物不耐受组30例,采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗同时,配合禁食轮替疗法.治疗2、6个月后观察其疗效,结果应用SPSS17.0统计软件包作统计学分析.结果 治疗2个月后A组与C组的有效率相差不大,差异无统计学意义,不过均优于B组;治疗6个月后,A组与C组的有效率差异无统计学意义,但均优于B组.痊愈

  7. Feeding Health: Thoughts on Healthy Food for a Healthy Planet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-19

    In this podcast, Food Rules author Michael Pollan discusses American food culture and gives his thoughts on how food can impact human and environmental health.  Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability.   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  8. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  9. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beneficent use and little understood of the radiation it is the one that allows to try to the foods to avoid that they break down. This lengthens their shelf life and it allows to lower the costs in the commercialization of foods. (Author)

  11. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat Fruits Food Gallery Vegetables All About the Vegetable Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans ... Updated: Jun 16, 2015 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker ...

  12. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. Food preferences change with time, so a child may ... Allowing your child to be in control of food intake may seem hard at first. However, it will help promote healthy eating habits for a lifetime.

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  14. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences. PMID:22306437

  15. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  16. Nullity Restrictions and Comparative Static Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chavas, Jean-Paul; Pope, Rulon

    1992-01-01

    While homogeneity restrictions of optimal choice functions are well known in the context of neoclassical economic theory, the existence and implications of "homogeneity-like" restrictions in more general optimization models have not received much attention in the literature. The authors call such restrictions "nullity" restrictions since they involve the null space of the matrix of slopes of choice functions. The existence, nature, and implications of nullity restrictions are investigated in ...

  17. Developmental trajectories in food allergy: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, A

    2009-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the relationships between perceptions, emotions, behaviors and health has changed the way health and disease are portrayed and researched. A chronic condition may affect and\\/or interact with already existing normative demands and changes in socialization. Although the prevalence of food allergy and anaphylaxis have been reportedly increasing, the emotional and social impact of growing up with food allergy has received little emphasis. In this paper, we present current findings on the biopsychosocial impact of food allergy on children in order to gain insight into the food allergy experience, from the perspective of the child, teen, and parent living with food allergy, with particular attention to developmental aspects. Due to the scarcity of publications on the psychosocial dimensions of food allergy, we also draw on selected literature on children\\'s and parent\\'s experience of, and coping with chronic disease that may inform research into food allergy. To this end, we review some general developmental mechanisms that may underpin and explain normative age-graded shifts in patterns of coping across childhood and adolescence. We also highlight gaps in the literature and assess implications of current research in food allergy and other chronic diseases for intervention and prevention of negative short and long term outcomes.

  18. Food Prices and the Multiplier Effect of Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Giordani; Nadia Rocha; Michele Ruta

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between trade policy and food prices. We show that, when individuals are loss averse, governments may use trade policy to shield the domestic economy from large food price shocks. This creates a complementarity between the price of food in international markets and trade policy. Specifically, unilateral actions give rise to a "multiplier effect": when a shock drives up the price of food, exporters respond by imposing restrictions while importers wind down p...

  19. THE ROLE OF LABELLING IN CONSUMERS’ FUNCTIONAL FOOD CHOICES

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Ning Ning (Helen); Hobbs, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    Given the credence nature of functional food attributes labelling plays a key role in allowing consumers to make informed choices about foods with enhanced health attributes. The degree to which a particular jurisdiction permits health claims for food products and the type of allowable health claim influence the information set available to consumers. In Canada the regulatory environment governing health claims for functional food products is somewhat more restrictive than in other jurisdicti...

  20. Hepatic autophagy contributes to the metabolic response to dietary protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henagan, Tara M; Laeger, Thomas; Navard, Alexandra M; Albarado, Diana; Noland, Robert C; Stadler, Krisztian; Elks, Carrie M; Burk, David; Morrison, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular response which acts to release stored cellular substrates during nutrient restriction, and particularly plays a key role in the cellular response to amino acid restriction. However, there has been limited work testing whether the induction of autophagy is required for adaptive metabolic responses to dietary protein restriction in the whole animal. Here, we found that moderate dietary protein restriction led to a series of metabolic changes in rats, including increases in food intake and energy expenditure, the downregulation of hepatic fatty acid synthesis gene expression and reduced markers of hepatic mitochondrial number. Importantly, these effects were also associated with an induction of hepatic autophagy. To determine if the induction of autophagy contributes to these metabolic effects, we tested the metabolic response to dietary protein restriction in BCL2-AAA mice, which bear a genetic mutation that impairs autophagy induction. Interestingly, BCL2-AAA mice exhibit exaggerated responses in terms of both food intake and energy expenditure, whereas the effects of protein restriction on hepatic metabolism were significantly blunted. These data demonstrate that restriction of dietary protein is sufficient to trigger hepatic autophagy, and that disruption of autophagy significantly alters both hepatic and whole animal metabolic response to dietary protein restriction. PMID:27173459

  1. Importancia de los problemas reumáticos en la población de Cataluña: prevalencia y repercusión en la salud percibida, restricción de actividades y utilización de recursos sanitarios Importance of chronic musculoskeletal problems in the population of Catalonia (Spain: prevalence and effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Pueyo

    2012-02-01

    population of Catalonia (Spain and their effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Methods: A population-based survey of 15,926 adults was performed. Multistage stratified sampling was performed. The variables gathered were sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported chronic health problems, self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Musculoskeletal problems were grouped into four categories: osteoarthritis-arthritis or rheumatism (OA, chronic dorsal or lumbar pain (LBP, chronic cervical pain (UBP, and osteoporosis. Results: Chronic health problems were reported by 77.4% of the adult population. The most frequent health problem was LBP, followed by UBP and OA. After adjustment by age was performed, female sex increased the risk of reporting OA, LBP, UBP and osteoporosis (OR=2.6, 1.5, 2.3, and 5.3, respectively. The prevalence increased with greater age and with lower socioeconomic status. After adjustment was performed by age, sex, social class and obesity, self-perceived health was worse in people with these problems (42.7% vs 11%. The four categories were the main causes of activity restriction in the last year (OR 2.70 and the last 15 days (OR=2.32 and were associated with a higher use of health services. Conclusiones: Los problemas reumáticos son los principales problemas de salud crónicos declarados por la población adulta. La prevalencia es mayor es las mujeres, aumenta con la edad y en las clases desfavorecidas. Hay una asociación significativa entre declarar problemas musculoesqueléticos y salud autopercibida mala o regular, y mayor restricción de actividades y uso de servicios sanitarios.

  2. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Leniszewski; Richard Mauseth

    2009-01-01

    Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for t...

  3. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Leniszewski Stefanie; Mauseth Richard

    2009-01-01

    Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for ...

  4. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing postharvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage losses of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygienic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region

  5. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing post harvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage loss of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygenic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region. (author)

  6. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  7. A history of caloric restriction induces neurochemical and behavioral changes in rats consistent with models of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler-Laney, P.C.; Castaneda, E; Pritchett, C.E.; M. L. Smith; Giddings, M.; Artiga, A.I.; Boggiano, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    A history of dieting is common in individuals suffering from eating disorders for which depression and mood disturbances are also comorbid. We investigated the effect of a history of caloric restriction (HCR) in rats that involved cyclic food restriction and refeeding with varying levels of access to palatable food (PF) on: 1) responses to the SSRI, fluoxetine; 2) monoamine levels in brain regions central to the control of feeding, reward, and mood regulation; and 3) behavioral tests of anxie...

  8. Decision Making and Cooperation Restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  9. Decision making and cooperation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Slikker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  10. Management of fetal growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Alberry, M; Soothill, P

    2007-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is challenging because of the difficulties in reaching a definitive diagnosis of the cause and planning management. FGR is associated not only with a marked increased risk in perinatal mortality and morbidity but also with long‐term outcome risks. Combinations of fetal biometry, amniotic fluid volume, heart rate patterns, arterial and venous Doppler, and biophysical variables allow a comprehensive fetal evaluation of FGR. However, no evidence supports that the u...

  11. Judgment aggregation on restricted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich Franz; List Christian

    2006-01-01

    We show that, when a group takes independent majority votes on interconnected propositions, the outcome is consistent once the profile of individual judgment sets respects appropriate structural conditions. We introduce several such conditions on profiles, based on ordering the propositions or ordering the individuals, and we clarify the relations between these conditions. By restricting the conditions to appropriate subagendas, we obtain local conditions that are less demanding but still gua...

  12. Rebel Food

    OpenAIRE

    Agerholm, Caroline Groes; Liljendahl, Pernille; Andersen, Nikita Hoffmann; Minch Heyman, Marie Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the street food brand Rebel Food and an installation we as a group made, that was showcased the market on Den Røde Plads on Nørrebro in Copenhagen from May 5th to May 7th 2016. The installation was a photo booth that allowed Rebel Food’s visitors to interact with the installation and each other. Our hopes was that the guests would use the photo booth to take photos and later on upload these on their social media in order to brand the company Rebel Food. 4 The p...

  13. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (2): common food allergen sources in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Ralf S.; Olivry, Thierry; Prélaud, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background To diagnose cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats, dietary restriction-provocation trials are performed. Knowing the most common offending food allergens for these species would help determining the order of food challenges to optimize the time to diagnosis. Results The search for, and review and analysis of the best evidence available as of January 16, 2015 suggests that the most likely food allergens contributing to canine CAFRs are beef, dairy products, chick...

  14. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  15. Regulação da expressão gênica das UCP2 e UCP3 pela restrição energética,jejum e exercício físico UCP2 and UCP3 genic expression: regulation by food restriction, fasting and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Polessi Boschini

    2005-12-01

    activity increases UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA but it is now being questioned if this is due to changes in lipid metabolism or energy metabolism. During food restriction and fasting, there is a decrease in the amount of body adipose tissue and increase in the plasmatic free fatty acid concentration, with up-regulation of the UCP2 and UCP3 in the muscle, and an increase in lipid oxidation. The increase in free fatty acids represents an important intracellular indication of the induction of the UCP expression in the muscle, which can be connected to its use as fuel until there is an increased demand by the organism to dissipate energy. However the discussion continues about whether the UCP2 and UCP3 in the skeletal muscle function to mediate thermogenesis or in the regulation of lipid oxidation.

  16. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a rare, non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy primarily diagnosed in infancy, but has also been reported in older children and adults. Acute FPIES reactions typically present with delayed, repetitive vomiting, lethargy, and pallor within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion. Chronic FPIES typically presents with protracted vomiting and/or diarrhea, and weight loss or poor growth. Common foods triggering FPIES include cow's milk, soy, rice, oats, fish, and egg. More detailed diagnostic criteria may help in increasing awareness of FPIES and reducing delayed diagnoses or misdiagnoses. PMID:26456444

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment

  18. Food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

  19. Analysis on the Characteristics of Food Allergy and Short-term Prognosis in Children with Chronic Persistent Diarrhea%慢性迁延性腹泻儿童食物过敏的特征及近期预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳文献; 游洁玉; 唐硕; 刘莉; 段伯平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性迁延性腹泻儿童食物过敏的特征及近期预后.方法 采用ELISA法,检测患儿血清中14种食物过敏原特异性IgG抗体浓度及血清总IgE水平,根据IgG浓度结果采取"安全进食"、"轮替"进食和"忌食"等不同的健康饮食指导,观察患儿症状改善及食物耐受的情况.3~6个月后复测食物过敏原特异性IgG抗体浓度.结果 112例慢性迁延性腹泻患儿中,有99例有1~12种不等的食物过敏原特异性IgG升高,阳性率88.4%,而对照组阳性率仅为26.7%(χ2=48.58,P<0 001);腹泻组中对牛奶、蛋清/黄敏感性最高,分别为75.8%和59.6%.腹泻组与正常儿童的血清总IgE水平差异无统计学意义(t=1.359,P>0.10).53.3%病人经过健康饮食指导治疗2周内症状明显缓解,总有效率为80.8%.19.2%的病人症状在3个月后无改善.食物过敏患儿1年、2年和3年后的耐受率分别为46.5%、78.9%和92.0%.结论 慢性迁延性腹泻儿童食物过敏常见,并以多种食物过敏为主,主要为 IgG介导的迟发型变态反应起主要作用.慢性迁延性腹泻患儿的大部分致敏食物可较短时间内获得耐受.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of food allergy and short - term prognosis in children with chronic persistent diarrhea Methods Serum levels of specific IgG antibody to 14 kinds of food and total serum IgE levels were detected using ELISA. The patients received a diet treatment based on the different results of food specific IgG antibody detection. Improvement of symptoms and food tolerance situation were observed. Food allergen specific IgG antibody levels after 3 months to 12 months were retested. Results Of the 112 patients with chronic persistent diarrhea, 99 (88.4% ) had increased specifiC IgG levela for 1 to 12 kinds of 14 food compared to 8 ( 26. 7% ) of the cantrols (X2 = 48. 58 ,P < 0. 001 ) . The majority of patients showed increased specific IgG levels for milk ( 75. 8% ) and egg (59. 6

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  1. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  2. Toxicological studies on irradiated food and food constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected aspects of the genotoxicology and chemistry of irradiated foods and food components are critically examined and compared with other food processing operations such as cooking, and intentional use of food additives. For example, it is estimated that if 10% of an average daily diet contained irradiated (<1.0Mrad) foods, the daily consumption of radiolytic products would be 2-20mg/d compared with a total of approximately 4000mg/d of intentional food additives and approximately 80mg/d of toxic inorganic and organic environmentally derived contaminants. Several recommendations for the genotoxicological testing of irradiated foods are given, including: (1) that feeding tests include a control diet consisting of food processed by one of the standard methods such as thermalization; (2) that more use be made of positive controls so as to have a 'built-in' measure of sensitivity and responsiveness; (3) that a battery of in vitro and in vivo short-term mutagenicity tests be performed prior to the carrying out of the long-term feeding tests; and (4) that an irradiated food be tested after it is cooked in the manner normally consumed, which may, of course, include the raw or uncooked state as well. An outline of current genetic-toxicological testing schemes is provided and examined. Emphasis is given to a modification in the protocols for the Ames mutagenicity tests leading to a reduction in the evidence of false positives and false negatives. Also described is a procedure for systematically studying combined or interactive effects, acute or chronic, which requires no more effort than that needed for testing a single agent and which yields complete dose-response curves. It is concluded that food irradiation, as a physical process, appears more advantageous from the genotoxicological, chemical, and pollution aspects than well-accepted, but actually rarely tested, physical processes such as canning. (author)

  3. Toxicological Studies on Irradiated Food and Food Constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected aspects of the genotoxicology and chemistry of irradiated foods and food components are critically examined and compared with other food processing operations such as cooking, and intentional use of food additives. For example, it is estimated that if 10% of an average daily diet contained irradiated (< 1.0 Mrad) foods, the daily consumption of radiolytic products would be 2-20 mg/d compared with a total of ∼4000 mg/d of intentional food additives and ∼ 80 mg/d of toxic inorganic and organic environmentally derived contaminants. Several recommendations for the genotoxicological testing of irradiated foods are given, including: (1) that feeding tests include a control diet consisting of food processed by one of the standard methods such as thermalization; (2) that more use be made of positive controls so as to have a 'built-in' measure of sensitivity and responsiveness; (3) that a battery of in vitro and in vivo short-term mutagenicity tests be performed prior to the carrying out of the long-term feeding tests; and (4) that an irradiated food be tested after it is cooked in the manner normally consumed, which may, of course, include the raw or uncooked state as well. An outline of current genetic-toxicological testing schemes is provided and examined. Emphasis is given to a modification in the protocols for the Ames mutagenicity tests leading to a reduction in the evidence of false positives and false negatives. Also described is a procedure for systematically studying combined or interactive effects, acute or chronic, which requires no more effort than that needed for testing a single agent and which yields complete dose-response curves. It is concluded that food irradiation, as a physical process, appears more advantageous from the genotoxicological, chemical, and pollution aspects than well-accepted, but actually rarely tested, physical processes such as canning. (author)

  4. Development of data base on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Izumi, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author).

  5. Development of data base on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author)

  6. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  7. Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient rest...

  8. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show that this......In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show...

  9. Towards more ecoefficient food production: MFA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Risku-Norja, H.; Mäenpää, I.; Koikkalainen, K.; Rikkonen, P.; Vanhala, P.

    2004-01-01

    The key for the sustainable development is dematerialisation and ecoefficiency. Applied to agriculture ecoefficiency means production of nutritionally better food by using less inputs and by reducing the environmental burden. In restricting the material throughput it is essential to identify the most voluminous material flows and to direct the measures to them. Improving ecoefficiency of the food production requires that the benefits and the inputs are quantified in an unambigu...

  10. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  11. Effects of sleep restriction on the human plasma metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lauren N; Kilkus, Jennifer M; Booth, John N; Bromley, Lindsay E; Imperial, Jacqueline G; Penev, Plamen D

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the effects of recurrent sleep restriction on the plasma metabolome of adults with familial risk of type 2 diabetes. Eleven healthy adults (6M/5F; mean [SD] age: 26 [3]years; BMI 23.5 [2.3]kg/m(2)) with parental history of type 2 diabetes participated in a two-condition, two-period randomized crossover study at the Clinical Resource Center at an academic hospital. Each participant completed two 8-night inpatient sessions with restricted (5.5-h time-in-bed) vs. adequate (8.5-h time-in-bed) sleep opportunity while daily food intake and physical activity were carefully controlled. A combination of two UHPLC/MS/MS platforms and one GC/MS platform was used to measure 362 biochemicals in fasting plasma samples collected from study participants the morning after each 8-night sleep treatment. Relative concentrations of 12 amino acids and related metabolites were increased when sleep was curtailed. Sleep restriction also induced elevations in several fatty acid, bile acid, steroid hormone, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, some monosaccharides, gluconate, and five-carbon sugar alcohols tended to decline when sleep was reduced. Recurrent sleep curtailment affected multiple pathways of intermediary metabolism in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. An elevation in plasma amino acids and related biochemicals was the most pronounced metabolic signature seen in response to 8 nights of sleep restriction. PMID:23954406

  12. Conformal restriction: the chordal case

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory; Schramm, Oded; Werner, Wendelin

    2002-01-01

    We characterize and describe all random subsets $K$ of a given simply connected planar domain (the upper half-plane $\\H$, say) which satisfy the ``conformal restriction'' property, i.e., $K$ connects two fixed boundary points (0 and $\\infty$, say) and the law of $K$ conditioned to remain in a simply connected open subset $D$ of $\\H$ is identical to that of $\\Phi(K)$, where $\\Phi$ is a conformal map from $\\H$ onto $D$ with $\\Phi(0)=0$ and $\\Phi(\\infty)=\\infty$. The construction of this family ...

  13. Electromagnetic Fields Restrictions and Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Katsenelenbaum, Boris Z

    2003-01-01

    The fields scattered by metallic bodies or radiated by some types of antennas are created by the surfaces currents and therefore they are subject to some restrictions. The book is the first one where the properties of these fields are investigated in details. The properties have the important significance for the antenna synthesis, body shape reconstruction and other diffraction problems. The material of the book lies in the meetingpoint of the antenna theory, highfrequency electrodynamics and inverse scattering problems. The author is an internationally renowned investigator in the field of e

  14. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  15. Dealing with food budget constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    How does an economic crisis influence food related practices? This study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed in Danish households as a consequence of experienced restraints on food budgets. The study applied a mixed method design. The qualitative data source...... consisted of interviews with 30 individuals from Danish households with different socio-economic characteristics, who experienced food budget constraint. The quantitative data consists of a survey among 1650 members of a household consumer panel. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of...... application of various types of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, first seemed to appear when food budget...

  16. Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-25

    In this audio podcast, listen to Michigan State University authors Lorraine J. Weatherspoon, PhD, RD, and Elizabeth Taylor Quilliam, PhD, talk about the impact food advertising may have on children’s eating behaviors.  Created: 9/25/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/25/2013.

  17. Chronic Salmonella eimsbuettel septicaemia presenting with intermittent sweats and haematuria.

    OpenAIRE

    Lowes, J A; Clark, A J; Britten, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    An unusual presentation is reported of salmonellosis, frank haematuria and chronic septicaemia arising during an outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella eimsbuettel. The patient whose gut was colonized gave a history of chronic pyrexia and weight loss and suffered an intermittent urinary infection but had no gastroenteritis.

  18. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Bains; Alka Dogra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive...

  19. Digestive response to restricted feeding in migratory yellow-rumped warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly A; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Smaller guts and slow initial mass gains at stopover sites have led to the idea that digestive physiology limits refueling rates in migrating birds. We tested the digestive-limitation hypothesis in yellow-rumped warblers using food restriction to simulate infrequent feeding during migration, which may cause a reduction in alimentary tract mass. Restricted birds had small intestine, pancreas, and liver masses 18%-22% lower than ad lib.-fed controls. Total activities of sucrase, maltase, aminopeptidase, and amylase were significantly lower in restricted birds, while those of trypsin and chymotrypsin were not. Only aminopeptidase mass-specific activity was significantly lower in restricted birds. Previously restricted birds were able to feed and digest at a high rate immediately following return to ad lib. feeding. Digestive efficiency did not differ between groups. These results suggest that before migration yellow-rumped warblers have some spare digestive capacity to compensate for declines in their digestive organ masses during migration. PMID:12177834

  20. Bronchial Responsiveness in Patients with Restrictive Spirometry

    OpenAIRE

    Keddissi, Jean I.; Elya, Marwan K.; Farooq, Saif U.; Youness, Houssein A.; Kellie R. Jones; Ahmed Awab; Kinasewitz, Gary T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Improvement in PFT after bronchodilators is characteristic of obstructive airway diseases such as COPD. However, improvement in patients with restrictive pattern is occasionally seen. We aim to determine the clinical significance of a bronchodilator responsive restrictive defect. Methods. Patients with restrictive spirometry and a bronchodilator study were identified at the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma City VAMC between September 2003 and December 2009. Restriction was defi...

  1. Profiling Consumer Trend-setters in the Canadian Healthy-foods Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gale E. West; Larue, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The agri-food industry faces new challenges as consumer demand for new, healthier foods increases. Media headlines frequently mention health benefits from certain foods and food components, and consumers are more health conscious because they are aging. They realize their food choices can reduce their risk of developing chronic illnesses such as cancer and heart disease. The competitive advantages for firms who are the first to bring their food innovations to market will depend in part on the...

  2. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  3. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  4. Oxygen restriction increases the infection potential of Listeria monocytogenes - a transcriptional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Bergström, Anders; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Boye, Mette; Ebersbach, Tine; Licht, Tine Rask

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease during the last two decades. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. This is highly relevant for safety...... assessment of this organism in food. We have previously shown (Andersen et al., BMC Microbiology; 2007, 7:55) that the environmental conditions to which L. monocytogenes is exposed prior to ingestion are decisive for its in vivo infective potential in the gastrointestinal tract after passage of the gastric...... barrier. Infection of Caco-2 cells revealed that Listeria cultivated under oxygen-restricted conditions were approximately 100 fold more invasive than similar cultures grown without oxygen restriction. This means that not only the number of Listeria present in a given food item, but that also the...

  5. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bin Abdullah*, Mehboob.M.Kalburgi, Sahana Shetty and Satyasrinivas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a 28 years old male presenting with heart failure. A thorough clinical evaluation directed us towards restrictive heart disease. Doppler echocardiographic study was used as a main modality of diagnosis and cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis of idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy. We express the contribution of clinical findings and appropriate diagnostic measures in approaching a case of Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM.

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of food is based on irradiation by gamma radiation from a 60Co source or X-ray with energy < 5 MeV or electron beam with energy < 10 MeV. This technique is now completely mastered. About 30 countries use this technique to extend the storage life of food but the total quantity processed is weak, only 30000 tons a year for France. Some countries like Morocco or Tunisia have launched technical programmes about the radiation processing of dates and vegetable oil. These programmes may lead to the creation of a quality label. A joint laboratory between CEA and the Aix-Marseille-3 university is working on the detection of food irradiation in order to fight the fraud. 3 techniques are being investigated: thermoluminescence, electronic paramagnetism resonance and a chemical method. (A.C.)

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  9. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  10. Thrombocytopenia in Preterm Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda,Miwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sick preterm infants often have thrombocytopenia at birth, and this is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, or birth weights less than the 10th percentile. The pathogenesis of the thrombocytopenia and its importance in IUGR are still unclear. We studied the characteristics of preterm IUGR infants with thrombocytopenia. Twenty-seven singleton Japanese preterm IUGR infants were born between January 2002 and June 2007 at Okayama University Hospital. Infants with malformation, chromosomal abnormalities, alloimmune thrombocytopenia, sepsis, and maternal aspirin ingestion were excluded. The infants were divided into group A (n=8, which had thrombocytopenia within 72h after birth, and group B (n=19, which did not. There were significant differences in birth weight, head circumference, umbilical artery (UA-pulsatility index (PI, middle cerebral artery-PI, UA-pH, UA-pO2, and UA-pCO2. The infants in group A were smaller, had abnormal blood flow patterns, and were hypoxic at birth. We speculate that the infants with thrombocytopenia were more severely growth-restricted by chronic hypoxia. Thrombocytopenia is an important parameter for chronic hypoxia in the uterine.

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations (60Co, 137Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

  12. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter;

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy.......Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  13. Effects of chronic forced circadian desynchronization on body weight and metabolism in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Leandro P; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Chiesa, Juan J; Golombek, Diego A

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic functions are synchronized by the circadian clock setting daily patterns of food intake, nutrient delivery, and behavioral activity. Here, we study the impact of chronic jet-lag (CJL) on metabolism, and test manipulations aimed to overcome potential alterations. We recorded weight gain in C57Bl/6 mice under chronic 6 h advances or delays of the light-dark cycle every 2 days (ChrA and ChrD, respectively). We have previously reported ChrA, but not ChrD, to induce forced desynchronization of locomotor activity rhythms in mice (Casiraghi et al. 2012). Body weight was rapidly increased under ChrA, with animals tripling the mean weight gain observed in controls by day 10, and doubling it by day 30 (6% vs. 2%, and 15% vs. 7%, respectively). Significant increases in retroperitoneal and epidydimal adipose tissue masses (172% and 61%, respectively), adipocytes size (28%), and circulating triglycerides (39%) were also detected. Daily patterns of food and water intake were abolished under ChrA In contrast, ChrD had no effect on body weight. Wheel-running, housing of animals in groups, and restriction of food availability to hours of darkness prevented abnormal increase in body weight under ChrA Our findings suggest that the observed alterations under ChrA may arise either from a direct effect of circadian disruption on metabolism, from desynchronization between feeding and metabolic rhythms, or both. Direction of shifts, timing of feeding episodes, and other reinforcing signals deeply affect the outcome of metabolic function under CJL Such features should be taken into account in further studies of shift working schedules in humans. PMID:27125665

  14. Scary food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mykletun, Reidar Johan

    2009-01-01

    region had developed a new commodifi cation approach to a culinary heritage. Smalahove is marketed not only as a nostalgic and authentic rural dish, but also as a challenging culinary trophy appealing to thrillseeking consumers. The implications of the Sheep's head case are twofold. First, it represents...... destinations and regional food products....

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.)

  16. Food Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst; Matzen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The project investigates the learning outcome and the identity work going on at the course in a setting that provides opportunities to develop new activities, products and knowledge within the food and health industry. The study is based on qualitative interviews with five participants from the...

  17. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  18. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    consumers, who emphasise social properties of production more than providers. Experience marketing and events may create diffusion of a local food concept, but only when communication is massive and long-lasting. So far this has not been the case, hence there is no agreement in either theory or among...

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in outline the present status of industrial gamma irradiation plants for food and medical sterilization and in particular lists commercial irradiation plants currently operating in the U.K., considering briefly plant design, efficiency, costs and dose control. (UK)

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colloquium has been held on the occasion of the commissioning of a new linear electron accelerator. The 17 papers presented by the experts give a survey of the present status of food irradiation and related aspects. Every paper has been analysed and prepared for retrieval from the database. (orig.)

  1. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  2. Asymptotics for restricted integer compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Malandro, Martin E

    2011-01-01

    We study the compositions of an integer n where the part sizes of the compositions are restricted to lie in a finite set. We obtain asymptotic formulas for the number of such compositions, the total and average number of parts among all such compositions, and the total and average number of times a particular part size appears among all such compositions. Several of our asymptotics have the additional property that their absolute errors---not just their percentage errors---go to 0 as n goes to infinity. Along the way we also obtain recurrences and generating functions for calculating several of these quantities. Our asymptotic formulas come from the meromorphic analysis of our generating functions. Our results also apply to questions about certain kinds of tilings and rhythm patterns.

  3. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  4. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Srivatsan; M V N Murthy; R K Bhaduri

    2006-03-01

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured partitions $p_{k}^{s} (n)$, which is the number of partitions of an integer into the summand of th powers of integers such that each power of a given integer may occur utmost times. While the method is not rigorous, it reproduces the well-known asymptotic results for = 1 apart from yielding more general results for arbitrary values of .

  5. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  6. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran;

    2014-01-01

    . Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion...... often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby...

  7. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  8. [Behavioral treatment for chronic insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiko; Yamagami, Toshiko

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention for chronic insomnia has been proven by several meta-analytic reviews, an NIH report, an American Academy of Sleep Medicine review, and numerous clinical trials. Behavior therapy for chronic insomnia consists of relaxation, stimulus control, sleep restriction, cognitive restructuring and sleep hygiene education, which has produced reliable and durable changes in total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number and duration of awakening. These studies also showed that the post-treatment effect of behavior therapy is equal to that of hypnotic therapy, and that these effects were maintained for 6 months on follow-up assessment. Elderly insomniac patients would gain considerable benefit from behavioral treatments because there are no adverse physical effects as there are from pharmacological therapy. The authors present the basic theory, techniques of behavior therapy for insomnia, and the results of two important key meta-analytic reviews. Any behavioral approach such as convenient education, self-care enhancement by bibliotherapy, and individual face-to-face counseling, seem to be fruitful not only for American but also Japanese insomnia patients. Nonetheless, there are no currently actual intervention studies using behavior therapy in Japan. We have discussed the methodology of intervention study and published a behavioral self-help manual for people with sleep problems. Development of a behavioral approach to chronic insomnia seemed to be very beneficial and a useful contribution to mental health services. PMID:12373807

  9. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Chengyan [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Departments of Applied Economics and Horticultural Science, Bachman Endowed Chair in Horticultural Marketing (United States); Zhao, Shuoli [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Department of Applied Economics (United States); Cummings, Christopher [Nanyang Technological University, Division of Communication Research, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore); Kuzma, Jennifer, E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, Genetic Engineering & Society Center (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer’s WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk–benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about “modifying life” with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products.

  10. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer’s WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk–benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about “modifying life” with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products

  11. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  12. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  13. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns. PMID:26652250

  14. Aflatoxins in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Pietri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The aflatoxin group is comprised of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. In addition, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a hydroxylated metabolite of AFB1, is excreted in the milk of dairy cows consuming an AFB1-contaminated ration. AFB1 has shown extreme acute and chronic toxicity and carcinogenic activity in animals; the acute toxicity of AFM1 is nearly equal to that of AFB1, but its potential carcinogenic hazard is about one order of magnitude less than that of AFB1. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified AFB1 as a human carcinogen (group 1 and AFM1 as a possible carcinogen (group 2A. Recently, the possibility of a synergistic carcinogenic interaction between HBV chronic infection and dietary exposure to AFB1 arose from the observation of their co-existence in countries with high incidences of HCC and was confirmed by further experimental and epidemiological studies. However, the carcinogenic potency of AFB1 is considered much lower in populations where chronic hepatitis infections are rare. For the first time in 2003, significant problems arose in Italy, due to the aflatoxin contamination of maize. The summer was extremely hot and dry and A. flavus is very competitive under these conditions as the plants are stressed. Maize grain is normally utilized in the food supply for dairy cows and as such led to the severe and widespread contamination of milk with AFM1. In the following years (2004-2006, different climatic conditions as well as better compliance with guidelines by farmers, led to a dramatic reduction of the problem.

  15. Difference between functional residual capacity and elastic equilibrium volume in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, M. J.; Madgwick, R. G.; Lane, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was performed to determine the elastic equilibrium volume (Vr) of the respiratory system in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Voluntary relaxed expiration from total lung capacity (TLC) was studied in three groups of subjects: seven patients with severe chronic airways obstruction (COPD), 10 normal subjects, and 15 subjects with restrictive disease. RESULTS: In the normal subjects and the patients with restrictive disease voluntary relaxe...

  16. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  17. Food fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  18. Nutritional behavior and attitudes in food allergic children and their mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Polloni, Laura; Toniolo, Alice; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Baldi, Ileana; Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Background Avoidance of food allergens requires adapting dietetic habits, changing nutritional approach. A restriction of food choice can result in a monotonous diet and impact social life. This study investigated the impact of food allergy on nutritional behavior and attitudes of patients and their families. Methods A survey involving mothers of food allergic children aged 0–16 years was carried out. We primarily studied the variables related to the child (age, gender, clinical history, food...

  19. High-dose irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies performed on behalf of the International Project on Food Irradiation in the period from 1971 until 1980 resulted in the concluding statement that ''.the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard; hence, toxicological testing of foods so treated is no longer required.'' Since then, licenses for food irradiation have been restricted to this maximum dose in any country applying this technology. Further testing programmes have been carried out investigating the wholesomeness or hazards of high-dose irradiation, but there has been little demand so far by the food industry for licensing of high-dose irradiation, as there is only a small range of products whose irradiation at higher doses offers advantages for given, intended use. These include eg. spices, dried herbs, meat products in flexible pouch packagings for astronauts, or patients with immune deficiencies. (orig./CB)

  20. Countermeasures of radioactive substances in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It consists of four chapters such as contamination in food, reference value of food, people's feeling, and roles of scientist. On contamination in food, many countermeasures are described, for example, establishment of the provisional regulation values of radioactive nuclides in food, shipment restriction of some kinds of vegetables, milk, tea, beef, and fish. The interim measures of protection for radioactive nuclides in food are stated in detail. New standard was established in April, 2012. Background of Japanese feeling on radiation and soil contamination from atomic bombs in 1945 to 2013 is explained. There is a need for establishment of risk management project and regulatory science by all scientists, for example, natural science, social science, and humanities. (S.Y.)

  1. [Facts and speculations on viruses in food (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    1979-03-01

    The danger to which man is exposed as a result of viruses contained in food differs basically from the risk to man caused by bacteria, fungi or their toxins. With respect to viral injuries it is not the specific diseases (e.g. hepatitis and polio) that are in the foreground but the much more dangerous noxious groups whose cause/effect relationships are rather complex. 1. the oncogenic risk, 2. synergistic interactions with opportunistic problem viruses, 3. slowly developing chronic diseases and persistent infections with their indirect injuries, 4. new infectious pathogens (viroids). Viral contamination of food can be exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous contamination is possible by: 1. specific human-pathogenic viruses, 2. polyphagous, human-pathogenic and animal-pathogenic viruses (zoonosis), 3. animal-pathogenic viruses only, 4. fish viruses, 6. bacteriophages, 7. fungal viruses. The viruses of group 1 and 2 are of practical importance, those of group 6 and 7 are it occasionally. Endogenous contamination is caused when an animal suffered from a viral infection at the time of slaughter or product extraction (e.g. milk, egg, fish) or when the animal has picked up a virus shortly beforhand. As far as endogenous contamination is concerned, a distinction must be made between 1. primarily biological and 2. primarily mechanical contamination. For the first, mainly the clinically inapparent especially persistent infections and viraemic stages at the end of incubation are dangerous. In both cases the animal is clinically healthy. In primarily biological contamination the zoonosis viruses predominate. In addition the bacteriophages must be taken into account. Primarily mechanical contamination is restricted to fish, molluscs, milk and eggs. The possibilities and consequences of exogenous and endogenous contamination are discussed. The risk of viral transmission by foodstuffs depends chiefly on the tenacity of the virus in the affected food, but also on its virulence and

  2. Functional foods for weight management: Dietary Fiber – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Boaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIt has been estimated that more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide [1], rendering obesity a global epidemic [2]. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers [3]. Thus, obesity is clearly a medical issue, its costs impacting heavily on health care systems in both developed and developing nations [4]. The combined impact of transmissible and chronic disease in the third world is particularly devastating to the very health care systems with fewest resources [5].Because obesity has been identified as a major health issue, treating obesity is an important goal. However, weight loss management has proven notoriously difficult. It is well documented that reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure may reduce body weight in the short term, but obesity relapse is the long term is anticipated [6]. In a study of overweight or obese US adults who weighed ≥ 10% less than their maximum body weight the year prior to the survey (n=1310, 33.5% regained > 5% during that year [7].Despite its somewhat unimpressive success rate, "lifestyle" weight management remains the first line intervention for obesity treatment [8]. Lifestyle weight management can be defined as interventions based on energy restriction (weight loss diet; increased energy output (exercise; and/or behavioral change (cognitive or behavior therapy. Functional foods have been explored as a tool for enhancing lifestyle weight management.Functional foods evaluated for their efficacy as obesity interventions can be divided into two broad categories: 1 foods which suppress appetite and increase satiety; and 2 foods which enhance thermogenesis. The present review will focus on those foods thought to act by increasing satiety and suppressing appetite.Key words: Obesity, weight loss, systematic review, dietary fiber

  3. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations.

    OpenAIRE

    Haerter, Jan O.; Namiko Mitarai; Kim Sneppen

    2016-01-01

    In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show that this requirement is equivalent to demanding that each species be part of a non-overlapping pairing, which substantially constrains the food web structure. We demonstrate that a stable food web can always ...

  4. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Haerter, Jan O.; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show that this requirement is equivalent to demanding that each species be part of a non-overlapping pairing, which substantially constrains the food web structure. We demonstrate that a stable food web can always ...

  5. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living together in one community.- Cy...

  6. Transgenic expression of replication-restricted enteroviral genomes in heart muscle induces defective excitation-contraction coupling and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessely, R; Klingel, K; L. F. Santana; Dalton, N.; Hongo, M; Jonathan Lederer, W; Kandolf, R; Knowlton, K U

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have implicated Coxsackievirus in acute and chronic heart failure. Although enteroviral nucleic acids have been detected in selected patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, the significance of such persistent nucleic acids is unknown. To investigate the mechanisms by which restricted viral replication with low level expression of Coxsackieviral proteins may be able to induce cardiomyopathy, we generated transgenic mice which express a replication-restricted full-length Coxsacki...

  7. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  8. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  9. Direct Marketing Local Foods: Food Safety Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kynda R.

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the food safety issues relevant to direct marketers of fresh and processed foods, as well as suggestions for establishing food safety controls and increasing consumer confidence in local products.

  10. Interaction of Metabolic Stress with Chronic Mild Stress in Altering Brain Cytokines and Sucrose Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Luke T.; Camp, Robert M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Johnson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism’s risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight two bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on day 5 and 10, then food and water de...

  11. Probiotics, prebiotics and antioxidants as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajek, Włodzimierz; Olejnik, Anna; Sip, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The term "functional foods" comprises some bacterial strains and products of plant and animal origin containing physiologically active compounds beneficial for human health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Among the best known functional compounds probiotics, prebiotics and natural antioxidants should be given as examples. These substances can be obtained by biotechnological methods and by extraction from plant or animal tissues. PMID:16086074

  12. Tumor Restrictions to Oncolytic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Vähä-Koskela

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has advanced since the days of its conception but therapeutic efficacy in the clinics does not seem to reach the same level as in animal models. One reason is premature oncolytic virus clearance in humans, which is a reasonable assumption considering the immune-stimulating nature of the oncolytic agents. However, several studies are beginning to reveal layers of restriction to oncolytic virotherapy that are present before an adaptive neutralizing immune response. Some of these barriers are present constitutively halting infection before it even begins, whereas others are raised by minute cues triggered by virus infection. Indeed, we and others have noticed that delivering viruses to tumors may not be the biggest obstacle to successful therapy, but instead the physical make-up of the tumor and its capacity to mount antiviral defenses seem to be the most important efficacy determinants. In this review, we summarize the constitutive and innate barriers to oncolytic virotherapy and discuss strategies to overcome them.

  13. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  14. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  15. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  16. The consequences of the Chernobyl fall-out on the food chain and in the food control activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective dose equivalent from food for the most exposed population group should not exceed 5 mSv in any year and it should not exceed 1 mSv per annum over a period of several years: - All foods offered for sale in Sweden can be eaten without special restrictions; - Foods with high levels of radioactivity to be kept off the market by establishing and applying action guidelines (131I and 137Cs); - National Food Administration issues recommendations concerning foods which are not marketed, e.g. game, home-grown fruit and vegetables, wild berries and fungi

  17. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...

  18. Food irradiation: A contribution to food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For food security at the national level every country needs to evolve its own strategies to maintain a continuous supply of food between seasons. Research and development over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Nonparametric estimation and inference under shape restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Joel; LEE, Sokbae

    2015-01-01

    Economic theory often provides shape restrictions on functions of interest in applications, such as monotonicity, convexity, non-increasing (non-decreasing) returns to scale, or the Slutsky inequality of consumer theory; but economic theory does not provide finite-dimensional parametric models. This motivates nonparametric estimation under shape restrictions. Nonparametric estimates are often very noisy. Shape restrictions stabilize nonparametric estimates without imposing arbitrary restricti...

  20. Massively parallel characterization of restriction endonucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Kamps-Hughes, Nick; Quimby, Aine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Johnson, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases are highly specific in recognizing the particular DNA sequence they act on. However, their activity is affected by sequence context, enzyme concentration and buffer composition. Changes in these factors may lead to either ineffective cleavage at the cognate restriction site or relaxed specificity allowing cleavage of degenerate ‘star’ sites. Additionally, uncharacterized restriction endonucleases and engineered variants present novel activities. Traditionally, restri...

  1. Measuring Regulatory Restrictions in Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hollweg, Claire; Marn-Heong WONG

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the extent of restrictions on trade in logistics services in the ASEAN+6 economies by constructing a logistics regulatory restrictiveness index for each economy that quantifies the extent of government regulations faced by logistics service providers. This is the first study of its kind to construct a regulatory index of the entire logistics sector, which includes the main modes of international transport and customs restrictions. The indices show that large differences ex...

  2. Measuring the Restrictiveness of International Trade Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James E.; Neary, J. Peter

    1994-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the trade restrictiveness index (TRI), which equals the uniform tariff that is welfare equivalent to a given pattern of trade protection. Unlike standard measures of trade restrictiveness, the TRI has a solid theoretical basis, can incorporate both tariffs and quantitative restrictions, and can be adapted to construct the trade policy equivalent of domestic distortions, the article compares a number of applications and describes procedures for operatio...

  3. Quest to identify geochemical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in an endemic region of Sri Lanka-a multimedia laboratory analysis of biological, food, and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Keith E; Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Smith, Kristin; Munoz, Breda; Waduge, Vajira A; Periris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Harrington, James M; Womack, Donna S; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors. The objective of this limited geochemical laboratory analysis was to determine the concentration of a suite of heavy metals and trace element nutrients in biological samples (human whole blood and hair) and environmental samples (drinking water, rice, soil, and freshwater fish) collected from two towns within the endemic NCP region in 2012 and 2013. This broad panel, metallomics/mineralomics approach was used to shed light on potential geochemical risk factors associated with CKDu. Based on prior literature documentation of potential nephrotoxins that may play a role in the genesis and progression of CKDu, heavy metals and fluoride were selected for analysis. The geochemical concentrations in biological and environmental media areas were quantified. Basic statistical measurements were subsequently used to compare media against applicable benchmark values, such as US soil screening levels. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were detected at concentrations exceeding US reference values in many of the biological samples, suggesting that study participants are subjected to chronic, low-level exposure to these elements. Within the limited number of environmental media samples, arsenic was determined to exceed initial risk screening and background concentration values in soil, while data collected from drinking water samples reflected the unique hydrogeochemistry of the region, including the prevalence of hard or very hard water, and

  4. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nutrition Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the role of school nutrition professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/13/2015.

  5. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Mental Health Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  6. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Transportation Staff

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of bus drivers and transportation staff in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  7. Managing Food Allergies at School: Teachers and Paraeducators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of teachers and paraeducators in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  8. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  9. Evaluation of Food Intake in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Faghfoori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon of unknown cause that is associated with important nutrition deficiencies such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Because no study has been carried out to date in Iran, the aim of this pilot study was the assessment of dietary intake of these patients. Methods: In this pilot study, 41 UC patients whose disease severity was mild or moderate were selected. Data about diet restrictions were collected via a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed 3 times during a 2 month period with 30 days interval and 3-day food-recall (9days in general. Results: Subjects were 26 men and 15 women and 65.9% patients avoided completely or limited milk intake. Dietary limitation about fruits and vegetables was 24.4 and 43.9 percent, respectively and legumes intake was 58.5%. Mean calorie intake in 41 patients was 2125.14±60.83 calories/day and in two groups, calcium and fiber intake was significantly less than the standard dietary recommendation. Conclusion: Dietary intake examination showed some deficiencies such as calcium and iron deficiency and fiber intake was low because the intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes was limited.

  10. Performance of safety management systems in Spanish food service establishments in view of their context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Chinchilla, A.C.; Jacxsens, L.; Kirezieva, K.K.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Food service establishments (FSE) operate under restricted technological and organisational circumstances, making them susceptible to food safety problems as reported frequently. Aim of this study was to get insight in Food Safety Management System (FSMS) performance in different types of FSE in vie

  11. 27 CFR 17.136 - Compliance with Food and Drug Administration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Compliance with Food and Drug Administration requirements. A product is not a medicine, medicinal preparation... violate a ban or restriction of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pertaining to such products... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with Food...

  12. Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Niekerk, R.E. van; Ouwens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogeni

  13. Medication Treatment Efficacy and Chronic Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Glenn T; Padilla, Mariela; Dionne, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain in the orofacial region has always been a vexing problem for dentists to diagnose and treat effectively. For trigeminal neuropathic pain, there are 3 medications (gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) to use plus topical anesthetics that have therapeutic efficacy. For chronic daily headaches (often migraine in origin), 3 prophylactic medications have reasonable therapeutic efficacy (β-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and antiepileptic drugs). The 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for fibromyalgia (pregabalin, duloxetine, and milnacipran) are not robust, with poor efficacy. For osteroarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have therapeutic efficacy and when gastritis contraindicates them, corticosteriod injections are helpful. PMID:27475515

  14. Comparing food costing approaches in British Columbia and Nova Scotia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Clarissa Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Food security is a determinant of health and a basic human right. Food insecurity is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes varying from nutrient deficiencies to chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Therefore, the availability and affordability of a basic nutritious diet is a public health concern. Food costing is one method used to address affordability of a basic nutritious diet and is completed annually across Canada. In British Columbia, dieticians ...

  15. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a bioactive food blend

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira; Priscila Aiko Hiane; Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães; Maria Isabel Lima Ramos; Daniel Pecoraro Demarque; Júnia Elisa Carvalho de Meira

    2014-01-01

    The potential of functional foods to decrease the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases has motivated the development of products with beneficial effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The present study aimed at analyzing the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of a bioactive food blend developed to help the nutritional therapy provided to hypolipidemic and hyperglycemic patients with HIV/AIDS treated with antiretroviral therapy. The food blend was evaluated for...

  16. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (pfoods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  17. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  18. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted commodities. 402.2... SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.2 Restricted commodities. The...

  19. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gregory A. K.; Kiers, E. Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  20. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted experiments. 73.13 Section 73.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING... restricted experiment with a HHS select agent or toxin unless approved by and conducted in accordance...