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Sample records for chronic food restriction

  1. Hypothalamic neuropeptide expression following chronic food restriction in sedentary and wheel-running rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rijke, C E; Hillebrand, J J G; Verhagen, L A W; Roeling, T A P; Adan, R A H

    2005-10-01

    When rats are given access to a running-wheel in combination with food restriction, they will become hyperactive and decrease their food intake, a paradoxical phenomenon known as activity-based anorexia (ABA). Little is known about the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance during the development of ABA. Therefore, rats were killed during the development of ABA, before they entered a state of severe starvation. Neuropeptide mRNA expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR on punches of separate hypothalamic nuclei. As is expected in a state of negative energy balance, expression levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were increased 5-fold in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of food-restricted running ABA rats vs 2-fold in sedentary food-restricted controls. The co-regulated expression of AgRP and NPY strongly correlated with relative body weight and white adipose tissue mass. Arcuate expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was reduced 2-fold in the ABA group. In second-order neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA expression was upregulated 2-fold in food-restricted running rats, but not in food-restricted sedentary controls. Prepro-orexin, CART and corticotropin-releasing hormone expression levels in the LHA and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were unchanged in both food-restricted groups. From this study it was concluded that during the development of ABA, neuropeptides in first-order neurons in the ARC and MCH in the LHA are regulated in an adequate response to negative energy balance, whereas expression levels of the other studied neuropeptides in secondary neurons of the LHA and PVN are unchanged and are probably regulated by factors other than energy status alone.

  2. Effects of restriction on children’s intake differ by child temperament, food reinforcement, and parent’s chronic use of restriction.

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    Rollins, Brandi Y; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2014-02-01

    Parents’ use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children’s intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch’s (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children’s (3–5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child’s inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children’s regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that the use of restriction does not reduce children’s consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.

  3. Is it stress? The role of stress related systems in chronic food restriction-induced augmentation of heroin seeking in the rat

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    Firas eSedki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by recurring episodes of abstinence and relapse. The precise mechanisms underlying this pattern are yet to be elucidated, but stress is thought to be a major factor in relapse. Recently, we reported that rats under withdrawal and exposed to a mild chronic stressor, prolonged food restriction, show increased heroin seeking compared to sated controls. Previous studies demonstrated a critical role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and corticosterone, hormones involved in the stress response, in acute food deprivation-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking. However, the role of CRF and corticosterone in chronic food restriction-induced augmentation of drug seeking remains unknown. Here, male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 10 days in operant conditioning chambers. Rats were then removed from the training chambers, and subjected to 14 days of unrestricted (sated rats or a mildly restricted (FDR rats access to food, which maintained their body weight at 90% of their baseline weight. On day 14, different groups of rats were administered a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist (R121919; 0.0, 20.0 mg/kg; s.c., a non-selective CRF receptor antagonist (α-helical CRF; 0.0, 10.0, 25.0 μg/μl; i.c.v. or a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (RU486; 0.0, 30.0 mg/kg; i.p., and underwent a 1 h drug seeking test under extinction conditions. An additional group of rats was tested following adrenalectomy. All FDR rats showed a statistically significant increase in heroin seeking compared to the sated rats. No statistically significant effects for treatment with α-helical CRF, R121919, RU486 or adrenalectomy were observed. These findings suggest that stress may not be a critical factor in the augmentation of heroin seeking in food-restricted rats.

  4. The grey mouse lemur uses season-dependent fat or protein sparing strategies to face chronic food restriction.

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    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available During moderate calorie restriction (CR the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression or summering torpor avoidance. We investigated body composition, whole body protein turnover, and daily energy expenditure (DEE, during a graded (40 and 80% 35-day CR in short-days (winter; SD40 and SD80, respectively and long-days (summer; LD40 and LD80, respectively acclimated animals. LD40 animals showed no change in fat mass (FM but a 12% fat free mass (FFM reduction. Protein balance being positive after CR, the FFM loss was early and rapid. The 25% DEE reduction, in LD40 group was mainly explained by FFM changes. LD80 animals showed a steady body mass loss and were excluded from the CR trial at day 22, reaching a survival-threatened body mass. No data were available for this group. SD40 animals significantly decreased their FM level by 21%, but maintained FFM. Protein sparing was achieved through a 35 and 39% decrease in protein synthesis and catabolism (protein turnover, respectively, overall maintaining nitrogen balance. The 21% reduction in energy requirement was explained by the 30% nitrogen flux drop but also by torpor as DEE FFM-adjusted remained 13% lower compared to ad-libitum. SD80 animals were unable to maintain energy and nitrogen balances, losing both FM and FFM. Thus summering mouse lemurs equilibrate energy balance by a rapid loss of active metabolic mass without using torpor, whereas wintering animals spare protein and energy through increased torpor expression. Both strategies have direct fitness implication: 1 to maintain activities at a lower body size during the mating season and 2 to preserve an optimal wintering muscle mass and function.

  5. Achieving Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Emma J. McMahon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet.

  6. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  7. Food Restriction Increases Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Burst Firing of Dopamine Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, Sarah Y.; Goertz, R. Brandon; Sharpe, Amanda L.; Pierce, Janie; Roy, Sudip; Ko, Daijin; Paladini, Carlos A; Beckstead, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Restriction of food intake increases the acquisition of drug abuse behavior and enhances the reinforcing efficacy of those drugs. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms responsible for the interactions between feeding state and drug use are largely unknown. Here we show that chronic mild food restriction increases the burst firing of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine neurons from food-restricted mice exhibited increased burst firing in vivo, an effect that was enhanced by...

  8. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

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    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  9. Down-regulation of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine channel in severely food-restricted rats

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    V.A. Vizotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that myocardial dysfunction induced by food restriction is related to calcium handling. Although cardiac function is depressed in food-restricted animals, there is limited information about the molecular mechanisms that lead to this abnormality. The present study evaluated the effects of food restriction on calcium cycling, focusing on sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2, phospholamban (PLB, and ryanodine channel (RYR2 mRNA expressions in rat myocardium. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 60 days old, were submitted to ad libitum feeding (control rats or 50% diet restriction for 90 days. The levels of left ventricle SERCA2, PLB, and RYR2 were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Body and ventricular weights were reduced in 50% food-restricted animals. RYR2 mRNA was significantly decreased in the left ventricle of the food-restricted group (control = 5.92 ± 0.48 vs food-restricted group = 4.84 ± 0.33, P < 0.01. The levels of SERCA2 and PLB mRNA were similar between groups (control = 8.38 ± 0.44 vs food-restricted group = 7.96 ± 0.45, and control = 1.52 ± 0.06 vs food-restricted group = 1.53 ± 0.10, respectively. Down-regulation of RYR2 mRNA expressions suggests that chronic food restriction promotes abnormalities in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

  10. Reduced Automatic Motivational Orientation Towards Food in Restricting Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    A striking and characteristic feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that they are extremely successful in regulating their food intake in a destructive manner. A possible explanation for the persistent character of their restricted food intake could be a loss of the motivati

  11. Chronic calorie restriction attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Piccio, Laura; Stark, Jennifer L.; Cross, Anne H.

    2008-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) prevents many age-associated diseases and prolongs the lifespan. CR induces multiple metabolic and physiologic modifications, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present studies sought to determine whether CR or increased calorie intake alters the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the leading animal model for MS. SJL and C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 40% ...

  12. Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption.

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    Reynolds, Amy C; Banks, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption (also known as sleep fragmentation) have received less experimental attention. Recently, there has been increasing interest in sleep restriction and disruption as it has been recognized that they have a similar impact on cognitive functioning as a period of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss causes impairments in cognitive performance and simulated driving and induces sleepiness, fatigue and mood changes. This review examines recent research on the effects of sleep deprivation, restriction and disruption on cognition and neurophysiologic functioning in healthy adults, and contrasts the similarities and differences between these three modalities of sleep loss.

  13. Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J.N.; Rao, K Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Ganeshan, Manisha; Kumar, K. Anand; Rao, Ch. Narasima; Harishankar, Nemani; Ismail, Ayesha; Raghunath, Manchala

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We demonstrated previously that chronic maternal micronutrient restriction altered the body composition in rat offspring and may predispose offspring to adult-onset diseases. Chromium (Cr) regulates glucose and fat metabolism. The objective of this study is to determine the long-term effects of maternal Cr restriction on adipose tissue development and function in a rat model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female weanling WNIN rats received, ad libitum, a control diet or the same with ...

  14. Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omodei, Daniela; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Life expectancy in the world has increased dramatically during the last century; the number of older adults is expected to rise while the number of youths will decline in the near future. This demographic shift has considerable public health and economic implications since aging is associated with the development of serious chronic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective nutritional intervention for slowing aging and preventing chronic disease in rodents. In non-human and hum...

  15. Patterns of food avoidance in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a case for dietary recommendations?

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    J. Trabal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the dietary habits and food avoidance-behavior in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Methods: Cross-sectional pilot study with 28 patients diagnosed with severe CFS. Eating habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food records. We analyzed variables related to dietary restrictions induced by symptoms or external information. Results: The most prevalent restrictions were for dairy products and gluten-containing grains, with 22 and 15 restricting patients, respectively. Patients reported different digestive symptoms, which did not improve with the use of exclusion diets. Thirteen patients had received information against the intake of certain foods through different sources. Six cases of grains restriction and 11 of dairy were compatible with a counseling-induced pattern of exclusion. Conclusions: There is not a homogeneous pattern of food avoidance. Dietary restrictions should be based on a proven food allergy or intolerance. Dietary counseling should be based on sound nutritional knowledge.

  16. Perspective food addiction, caloric restriction, and dopaminergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankowska, Arwen Urrsula Malgorzata; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    for a reduced cognitive reward condition. The combination of caloric restriction and food addiction imparts a high risk of relapse as a result of further reduction of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the subsequent loss of reward. As with drugs of abuse, ingestion of large quantities of sugar in circumstances......, and reduced activity in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex. The neurobiological characteristics suggest that obese people also have a pathological dependence in common with addicts, in the form of food addiction. Malnutrition and dieting both relate to binge eating, possibly as a compensation...

  17. Photoperiod interacts with food restriction on performance in the Barnes maze in female California mice

    OpenAIRE

    Steinman, Michael Q.; Crean, Katie K.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Food restriction has been reported to have positive effects on cognition. This study examines how another environmental factor, daylength, can alter the impact of food restriction on the brain and behavior. Female California mice (Peromyscus californicus), housed on either long days (16L:8D) or short days (8L:16D) were restricted to 80% of their normal baseline food intake or provided food ad libitum. Testing in a Barnes maze revealed that the effects of food restriction depend on photoperiod...

  18. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea.

  19. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea. PMID:22717614

  20. Food restriction during pregnancy alters brain's antioxidant network in dams and their offspring.

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    Stone, Vinícius; August, Pauline M; Stocher, Daniela P; Klein, Caroline P; Couto, Pablo R G; Silva, Yasmini D; Sagini, João P; Salomon, Tiago B; Benfato, Mara S; Matté, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction increases life span and protects distinct organisms against a series of diseases, among which, those related to oxidative stress, like neurodegenerative diseases. Interferences in the maternal environment are known to reprogram the offspring metabolism response, impacting in the risk of chronic diseases development in adulthood. We aimed to assess the effects of 40% food restriction on reactive species levels, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, and oxidative damage parameters in the cerebellum and total cerebral cortex of pregnant rats and their offspring. Dams and pups showed oxidative modulation caused by food restriction in both structures. Dichlorofluorescein oxidation, reflecting reactive species levels, was reduced in the cerebellum of dams and offspring, while the cerebral cortex was not affected. Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels were found in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of pups, while nitric oxide was increased in the cortex. We also measured the activities of important antioxidant enzymes responsible by reactive oxygen species elimination. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in the cerebellum of dams and in both structures of pups, while it was decreased in dams' cerebral cortex. Both brain structures were affected concerning to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutaredoxin activities, which were reduced in pups and dams. Non-enzymatic defenses were decreased in pups, while dams showed an adaptive pattern in the cerebellum and no alteration in the cerebral cortex. Even though the results suggest increased oxidative status, lipids and proteins were not oxidatively affected. Our data suggest that intrauterine food restriction may disrupt oxidative status, impairing the antioxidant network. PMID:26857011

  1. Sweet/dessert foods are more appealing to adolescents after sleep restriction.

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    Stacey L Simon

    Full Text Available Examine the effect of experimental sleep restriction (SR on adolescents' subjective hunger and perceived appeal of sweet/dessert foods versus other foods. A secondary goal was to replicate previous findings on the effects of SR on dietary intake.Randomized cross-over sleep restriction-extension paradigm.Sleep was obtained and monitored at home. Outcome measures were gathered during office visits.31 typically-developing adolescents aged 14-17 years.The three-week protocol consisted of a baseline week, followed randomly by five consecutive nights of SR (6.5 hours in bed versus healthy sleep duration (HS; 10 hours in bed, a 2-night wash-out period, and a 5-night cross-over.Sleep was monitored via actigraphy. The morning after each experimental condition, teens rated their hunger, underwent a 24-hour diet recall interview, and rated the appeal of a series of pictures of sweet/dessert foods (e.g., ice cream, candy and non-sweets (meat, eggs, fruits, vegetables.Teens rated pictures of sweet/dessert foods to be more appealing after SR than after HS (Cohen's d = .41, t = 2.07, p = .045. The sleep manipulation did not affect self-reported hunger or the appeal of non-sweet foods (p >.10. Consistent with our prior work, intake of overall calories was 11% higher and consumption of sweet/dessert servings was 52% greater during SR than HS.Adolescent SR appears to increase the subjective appeal of sweet/dessert foods, indicating a potential mechanism by which SR might contribute to weight gain and the risk for obesity and chronic illness.

  2. Energy budget, behavior and leptin in striped hamsters subjected to food restriction and refeeding.

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    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short "compensatory growth" rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight.

  3. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

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    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  4. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  5. Dietary sodium restriction : a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent

  6. Altered Food-Cue Processing in Chronically Ill and Recovered Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole eSanders; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Danner, Unna N; Floor evan Meer; Hoek, Hans W.; Roger A Adan

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Thr...

  7. Effect of food restriction on the energy metabolism of the Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, Qing-Jian; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jia-Qi; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Food resources play an important role in the regulation of animals’ physiology and behavior. We investigated the effect of short-term food restriction on metabolic thermogenesis of Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) by measuring changes in body mass, body fat, basic metabolic rate (BMR), and organ mass of wild-caught Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Short-term food restriction induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat but body mass returned to normal levels soon after fo...

  8. Enforcement of the Danish Bisphenol A restriction on Food Contact Materials and Articles for infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In Denmark a national restriction was implemented in 2010 banning the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in any Food Contact Materials intended for children in the age 0-3 years. The ban includes BPA in baby bottles, baby cups, food cans for infant formulas and lids for glass containers with baby food. To ...

  9. Consequences of Food Restriction for Immune Defense, Parasite Infection, and Fitness in Monarch Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexa Fritzsche; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a finite pool of resources to allocate toward multiple competing needs, such as development, reproduction, and enemy defense. Abundant resources can support investment in multiple traits simultaneously, but limited resources might promote trade-offs between fitness-related traits and immune defenses. We asked how food restriction at both larval and adult life stages of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) affected measures of immunity, fitness, and immune-fitness interactions. We experimentally infected a subset of monarchs with a specialist protozoan parasite to determine whether parasitism further affected these relationships and whether food restriction influenced the outcome of infection. Larval food restriction reduced monarch fitness measures both within the same life stage (e.g., pupal mass) as well as later in life (e.g., adult lifespan); adult food restriction further reduced adult lifespan. Larval food restriction lowered both hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity at the larval stage, and the effects of larval food restriction on phenoloxidase activity persisted when immunity was sampled at the adult stage. Adult food restriction reduced only adult phenoloxidase activity but not hemocyte concentration. Parasite spore load decreased with one measure of larval immunity, but food restriction did not increase the probability of parasite infection. Across monarchs, we found a negative relationship between larval hemocyte concentration and pupal mass, and a trade-off between adult hemocyte concentration and adult life span was evident in parasitized female monarchs. Adult life span increased with phenoloxidase activity in some subsets of monarchs. Our results emphasize that food restriction can alter fitness and immunity across multiple life stages. Understanding the consequences of resource limitation for immune defense is therefore important for predicting how increasing constraints on wildlife resources will affect fitness and

  10. MUSCLE METABOLISM WITH BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTION IN CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    McCully, Kevin K; Smith, Sinclair; Rajaei, Sheeva; Leigh, John S.; Natelson, Benjamin H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with reduced blood flow and muscle oxidative metabolism. Patients with CFS according to CDC criteria (n=19) were compared to normal sedentary subjects (n = 11). Muscle blood flow was measured in the femoral artery with Doppler ultrasound after exercise. Muscle metabolism was measured in the medial gastrocnemius muscle using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Muscle oxygen saturation and blood vo...

  11. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ingrid L B; Rodrigues, Aline F A C; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R; Hirata, Aparecida E; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D P; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19); OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9); OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18); OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  12. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the te...

  13. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  14. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction. PMID:26105046

  15. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Dixon

    Full Text Available Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R, and twice (2R or three times (3R this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R. This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  16. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura M; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J; D'Eath, Rick B

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  17. Barriers to Engagement in Sleep Restriction and Stimulus Control in Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Norah; Lewycky, Samantha; Finnegan, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Sleep restriction (SRT) and stimulus control (SC) have been found to be effective interventions for chronic insomnia (Morgenthaler et al., 2006), and yet adherence to SRT and SC varies widely. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates to adherence to SC/SRT among 40 outpatients with primary or comorbid insomnia using a…

  18. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  19. Are hungry sheep more pessimistic? The effects of food restriction on cognitive bias and the involvement of ghrelin in its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Else; Ferguson, Drewe; Lee, Caroline

    2014-01-17

    Food restriction is considered to be a welfare issue in extensively reared animals. However, the effects of food restriction on the affective state, and its physiological regulation, are unknown. In Experiment 1, we aimed to assess the effects of increased plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin on judgement bias (an indicator of affective states) by fasting sheep for 24h or by ghrelin administration. In Experiment 2, we aimed to assess the effects of chronic food restriction on judgement bias and attention bias towards a food-related cue. For the judgement bias test, sheep were trained in an arena to approach a positive location cue associated with conspecifics and not approach a negative location cue associated with a dog. Three non-trained, non-reinforced ambiguous location cues were situated between the positive and negative locations. Attention bias towards a food-related cue was assessed by placing an empty food bucket against the wall of the arena halfway between the entry point and the positive location. In Experiment 1, sheep were divided into three treatments; 24h fast, ghrelin administration or control. Judgement bias, locomotor activity and plasma cortisol concentrations were assessed. The ghrelin treated group tended to express a more pessimistic bias compared to the control group (Pfood-related cue was presented, LF ewes took longer to reach the positive location (Pfood restriction alters judgement bias and attention bias towards a food-related cue which may indicate altered affective states of sheep. PMID:24096007

  20. Balancing food and predator pressure induces chronic stress in songbirds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clinchy, Michael; Zanette, Liana; Boonstra, Rudy; Wingfield, John C.; Smith, James N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The never-ending tension between finding food and avoiding predators may be the most universal natural stressor wild animals experience. The 'chronic stress' hypothesis predicts: (i) an animal's stress profile will be a simultaneous function of food and predator pressures given the aforesaid tension; and (ii) these inseparable effects on physiology will produce inseparable effects on demography because of the resulting adverse health effects. This hypothesis was originally proposed to explain...

  1. Distinct glucose lowering and beta cell protective effects of vanadium and food restriction in streptozotocin-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, M C; Rodrigues, B; McNeill, J H

    1999-11-01

    Vanadium is an oral insulin-mimetic agent that diminishes hyperglycemia, improves beta-cell insulin store and secretory function, and can reverse the diabetic state chronically after withdrawal from treatment. As food restriction has been reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin demand, we assessed the contribution of a reduced food intake to the glucose lowering and beta-cell protective effects of vanadium. Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats were untreated (D) or administered vanadyl sulfate in the drinking water (DT) at one week prior to and for 5 weeks following the administration of STZ. An additional group was pair-fed (DP) with an equal amount of food as that consumed by the DT group. Shortly after the induction of diabetes, hyperglycemic D rats demonstrated a significant rise in plasma insulin to levels that initially exceeded that of the controls. This was followed by a steady reduction over several weeks, suggesting a gradual depletion of functional beta-cells. Both vanadium treatment and pair-feeding abolished the insulin hypersecretory response following STZ administration. Glucose lowering was enhanced in DT animals when administered higher concentrations of vanadium, despite no further reduction in food intake, and all DT animals (10/10) were normoglycemic by 5 weeks. Mean pancreatic insulin content in DT rats was improved fourfold and was associated with a greater number of granulated beta-cells. Conversely, food restriction only modestly improved glycemia and the pancreatic insulin store and, unlike DT, DP rats remained highly glucose-intolerant. At 5 weeks of diabetes, fed circulating glucose and insulin levels were strongly correlated (P=0.0002) in the D and DP groups, supporting the notion that glucose lowering with food restriction is dependent on improved plasma insulin levels. A separate correlation was observed in DT animals within a lower range of plasma insulin, suggesting that vanadium, unlike food restriction, reduced

  2. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L B Lima

    Full Text Available Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C and chronic sleep restricted (CSR. Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR. Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19; OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17 mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9; OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18; OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16 UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10; OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  3. Chronic Sleep Restriction during Pregnancy - Repercussion on Cardiovascular and Renal Functioning of Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ingrid L. B.; Rodrigues, Aline F. A. C.; Bergamaschi, Cássia T.; Campos, Ruy R.; Hirata, Aparecida E.; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D. P.; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R.; Gomes, Guiomar N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi – tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127±2.6 (19); OCSR: 144±2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: −2.6±0.15 (9); OCRS: −1.6±0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4±15 (18); OSR: 60.2±3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4±0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4±0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring. PMID:25405471

  4. Comparing the effects of food restriction and overeating on brain reward systems

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Nicole M.; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Both caloric restriction and overeating have been shown to affect neural processes associated with reinforcement. Both preclinical and some clinical studies have provided evidence that food restriction may increase reward sensitivity, and while there are mixed findings regarding the effects of overeating on reward sensitivity, there is strong evidence linking this behavior with changes in reward-related brain regions. Evidence of these changes comes in part from findings that show that such e...

  5. Disordered Eating and Food Restrictions in Children with PANDAS/PANS

    OpenAIRE

    Toufexis, Megan D.; Hommer, Rebecca; Gerardi, Diana M.; Grant, Paul; Rothschild, Leah; D'Souza, Precilla; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James; Swedo, Susan E.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sudden onset clinically significant eating restrictions are a defining feature of the clinical presentation of some of the cases of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Restrictions in food intake are typically fueled by contamination fears; fears of choking, vomiting, or swallowing; and/or sensory issues, such as texture, taste, or olfactory concerns. However, body image distortions may also be present. We investigate the clinical presentation of PANS disordered...

  6. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders : Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and

  7. Attentional bias in restrictive eating disorders. Stronger attentional avoidance of high-fat food compared to healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake.

  8. Effect of Restrictions on Television Food Advertising to Children on Exposure to Advertisements for ‘Less Healthy’ Foods: Repeat Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Adams; Rachel Tyrrell; Adamson, Ashley J.; Martin White(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA)

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. Methods: We conducted two cross-sectional studies of al...

  9. On the Necessity of International Disciplines on Food Export Restriction (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA Kazuhito

    2013-01-01

    The world food trade is distorted by agricultural trade policies. Import tariffs and non-tariff barriers are regulated by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and are disciplined as a result. On the other hand, export quantity restrictions and export taxes have been lightly regulated. This lack of regulation has led many exporting countries to resort to these export measures as world food prices increase. In 2008, as world grain prices soare...

  10. Efficacy of physical activity counseling plus sleep restriction therapy on the patients with chronic insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang J.; Yin G; Li G.; Liang W; Wei Q

    2015-01-01

    Jihui Wang, Guangxia Yin, Guanying Li, Wenjing Liang, Qinling Wei Department of Psychiatry, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: Lack of physical activity (PA) is common in patients with chronic insomnia. Studies to increase PA and decrease sedentary behavior in those patients are limited. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of “PA counseling combined with sleep restriction (SR) therapy (PASR)&r...

  11. Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:23017320

  12. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability.

  13. Are hungry sheep more pessimistic? The effects of food restriction on cognitive bias and the involvement of ghrelin in its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Else; Ferguson, Drewe; Lee, Caroline

    2014-01-17

    Food restriction is considered to be a welfare issue in extensively reared animals. However, the effects of food restriction on the affective state, and its physiological regulation, are unknown. In Experiment 1, we aimed to assess the effects of increased plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin on judgement bias (an indicator of affective states) by fasting sheep for 24h or by ghrelin administration. In Experiment 2, we aimed to assess the effects of chronic food restriction on judgement bias and attention bias towards a food-related cue. For the judgement bias test, sheep were trained in an arena to approach a positive location cue associated with conspecifics and not approach a negative location cue associated with a dog. Three non-trained, non-reinforced ambiguous location cues were situated between the positive and negative locations. Attention bias towards a food-related cue was assessed by placing an empty food bucket against the wall of the arena halfway between the entry point and the positive location. In Experiment 1, sheep were divided into three treatments; 24h fast, ghrelin administration or control. Judgement bias, locomotor activity and plasma cortisol concentrations were assessed. The ghrelin treated group tended to express a more pessimistic bias compared to the control group (P<0.1), and plasma cortisol concentrations tended to be increased (P<0.1). In Experiment 2, sheep were subjected to a high feeding level (HF) or low feeding level (LF) for 7days. The LF group tended to show a more optimistic judgement bias (P<0.1). When the food-related cue was presented, LF ewes took longer to reach the positive location (P<0.001), spent longer with their head inside the bucket (P<0.001) and more time interacting with the bucket (P<0.01). This study provides preliminary evidence that food restriction alters judgement bias and attention bias towards a food-related cue which may indicate altered affective states of sheep.

  14. Adaptive mechanisms during food restriction in Acomys russatus: the use of torpor for desert survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, N; Heldmaier, G; Exner, C

    2005-04-01

    The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) is an omnivorous desert rodent that does not store food, but can store large amounts of body fat. Thus, it provides a good animal model to study physiological and behavioural adaptations to changes in food availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of metabolic and behavioural responses to prolonged food restriction. Spiny mice were kept at an ambient temperature of 27 degrees C and for 3 weeks their food was reduced individually to 30% of their previous ad libitum food intake. When fed ad libitum, their average metabolic rate was 82.77+/-3.72 ml O(2) h(-1) during the photophase and 111.19+/-4.30 ml O(2) h(-1) during the scotophase. During food restriction they displayed episodes of daily torpor when the minimal metabolic rate gradually decreased to 16.07+/-1.07 ml O(2) h(-1), i.e. a metabolic rate depression of approximately 83%. During the hypometabolic bouts the minimum average body temperature T(b), decreased gradually from 32.6+/-0.1 degrees C to 29.0+/-0.4 degrees C, with increasing duration of consecutive bouts. In parallel, the animals increased their activity during the remaining daytime. Torpor as well as hyperactivity was suppressed immediately by refeeding. Thus golden spiny mice used two simultaneous strategies to adapt to shortened food supply, namely energysaving torpor during their resting period and an increase in locomotor activity pattern during their activity period. PMID:15742195

  15. Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21974860

  16. Food intake regulating-neuropeptides are expressed and regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction in rat placenta

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    Cepeda Libia A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti related peptide (AgRP, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART and melanocortins, the products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC, are hypothalamic peptides involved in feeding regulation and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence has demonstrated their expression in rat and human placenta. Methods In the current study, we have investigated the expression of those neuropeptides in the rat placenta by real-time PCR using a model of maternal food restriction. Results Our results showed that placental-derived neuropeptides were regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction. Conclusion These data could indicate that placental-derived neuropeptides represent a local regulatory circuit that may fine-tune control of energy balance during pregnancy.

  17. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20633586

  18. Re-feeding evokes reproductive overcompensation of food-restricted Brandt's voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuehui; Wen, Yilei; Niu, Hongxing; Shi, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-02-01

    In natural conditions, animals have to cope with fluctuations of food resources. Animals having experienced prolonged decrease in feeding opportunities may increase their reproductive success when meeting abundant food. Though food restriction is well known to reduce reproductive success of animals, it is not clear whether re-feeding can restore or even overcompensate the reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the differences in reproductive parameters between food-restricted and refed (FR-RF) group and control group of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). For 4 weeks, FR-RF voles were provided with 70% of their normal daily food intake and then they were fed ad libitum for the next 4 weeks. Voles of control group were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks. Females (FR-RF or control) were mated to non-littermate males of the same group (FR-RF or control), and we found that the mean litter size and survival rate of F1 pups of FR-RF group were significantly higher than those of control group. We also provided a field example showing that the litter size of Brandt's voles tended to be higher if they experienced two consecutive dry and wet months than that of voles didn't have this experience. Our results suggest that re-feeding may have evoked an overcompensatory mechanism of food-restricted voles in reproductive success. This may be an adaptive strategy for Brandt's voles (with oscillating populations) to cope with the fluctuating food resources in natural conditions by adjusting their reproductive success. PMID:22019786

  19. Exploring the motives and mental health correlates of intentional food restriction prior to alcohol use in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, Kaley M; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of and motivations behind 'drunkorexia' – restricting food intake prior to drinking alcohol. For both male and female university students (N = 3409), intentionally changing eating behaviour prior to drinking alcohol was common practice (46%). Analyses performed on a targeted sample of women (n = 226) revealed that food restriction prior to alcohol use was associated with greater symptomology than eating more food. Those who restrict eating prior to drinking to avoid weight gain scored higher on measures of disordered eating, whereas those who restrict to get intoxicated faster scored higher on measures of alcohol abuse. PMID:26032803

  20. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  1. The Role of Food Additives and Natural Foods Containing Vasoactive Amines in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Erel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU need long-term treatment but there is little known about the prognosis of CIU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of CIU and to find out if there are risk factors that predict the prognosis. In this prospective study, we obtained data from patients first diagnosed and treated for CIU between September 2003 and September 2005. This study was included 157 patients with CIU. We observed duration of the disease, effects of food additives and preservatives in CIU. As possible prognostic factors we observed sex, age, atopy, intolerance to food additives and preservatives. Allergic reactions were seen to appear in 37% (n=50 cases due to natural foods, in 36% (n=49 cases due to foods containing additives, and in 27% (n=37 cases due to both natural foods and foods containing additives. For patients with CIU, food colors, sweeteners and preservatives that are added into foods are an important etiological factor. Moreover, histamine and histamine-like endogen pharmacological agents can cause allergic reactions. Hence, these foods should be taken into consideration in etiology especially in patients with CIU, and due to potential etiology, elimination of patients from these foods for a while is a significant step in treatment. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 351-356

  2. Food cravings discriminate between anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Implications for "success" versus "failure" in dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.

  3. Compensatory responses to food restriction in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Alison M; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the compensatory responses to food restriction and subsequent increased food availability in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Turtles were fed an ad libitum ration for 12 weeks (AL), a restricted ration for 12 weeks (R), or a restricted ration for 5 weeks and an ad libitum ration for 7 weeks (R-AL). Analysis of covariance was used to test the relationships between (1) growth and body size, (2) intake and body size, and (3) growth and intake for each of the three treatment groups. Body composition of turtles in each group was also evaluated at the beginning of the study and after weeks 5 and 12. After the switch to ad libitum feeding, R-AL turtles consumed comparable amounts of food and grew faster than AL turtles on a size-adjusted basis, but mean body sizes did not converge, although the overlap in their size ranges increased with time. The R-AL turtles also converted food to growth more efficiently and allocated proportionally more nutrients to protein accretion, thereby restoring body composition (except mineral content) to AL levels by the end of the study. Thus, accelerated size-specific growth without hyperphagia restored body condition but not size. These results indicate that (1) intake in juvenile green turtles is maximal when food is readily available and cannot be increased to compensate for a previous period of food limitation, (2) growth rates of ad libitum-fed turtles are only mildly plastic in response to past nutritional history, and (3) priority rules for nutrient allocation favor the attainment of an optimal condition rather than an optimal size. Nutritional setbacks experienced during the vulnerable juvenile stage could therefore have long-lasting consequences for wild turtles in terms of size-specific mortality risk, but these risks may be mitigated by the potential benefits of maintaining sufficient body stores.

  4. Blood glucose regulation during fasting in rats under food restriction since birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Vitoriano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of severe food restriction since birth on regulation of fasting glycemia in male Wistar rats was investigated. The control group (CG had free supply of chow, while the restriction group (RG received 50% of the amount ingested by the CG. The experiments were done in adult (60 days overnight fasted rats in which glycemia, liver free glucose levels and hepatic glycogen concentration were measured. In part of the experiments in situ liver perfusion was done. The results showed that livers from the RG had higher glycogenolysis rates but lower gluconeogenesis rates from L-alanine (10 mM. Since RG showed maintained glycemia during fasting, it could be concluded that livers from RG produced glucose preferentially from glycogenolysis in detriment of gluconeogenesis. These findings demonstrated that in spite of severe caloric restriction, the metabolic adaptations of the liver did exist to assure the maintenance of blood glucose for brain supply during fasting.

  5. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus. PMID:15664731

  6. Protective effect of clenbuterol on duodenal epithelium during food restriction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Cardoso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the 2-adrenoceptor, clenbuterol, on the duodenal epithelium of food-restricted rats. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/kg diet to three groups of male Wistar rats (n =8 housed individually in metabolic cages and fed ad libitum for 15 days at 110 %and 160 %of the estimated requirement for energy maintenance. Untreated groups at each energy intake level were also included. Samples of the duodenum were examined by light microscopy. Compared with control animals, clenbuterol treatment significantly increased body mass in all diet groups, although it induced no changes in mean food intake. Gastrointestinal (GIT dry mass was increased by clenbuterol only in the most severely-restricted-diet group. In this group, clenbuterol treatment increased GIT tissue nitrogen (23 %, more than it did in the ad libitum group (13 %. In all treated groups, clenbuterol induced significant hypertrophy of duodenal enterocytes and circular muscle layers, and the diameter of lymphatic vessels increased. In the clenbuterol-treated, restricted-diet groups the height of the brush borders of enterocytes increased. It is concluded that clenbuterol has a protective effect on the intestinal structure in rats on restricted as well as ad libitum diets.

  7. Food label use and awareness of nutritional information and recommendations among persons with chronic disease123

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John E.; Arheart, Kristopher L; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Dietz, Noella A.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clark, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because of the relation between chronic disease and poor nutritional habits, the use of food labels and adherence to dietary recommendations are important for chronic disease populations. We explored whether persons with chronic disease read nutrient information on food labels and whether they were aware of dietary guidelines.

  8. Chronic hyperhydration and hematological changes in trained subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Yaroshenko, Michael N.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on the hemoglobin content of endurance trained athletes during hypokinesia (decreased number of steps from 10,000 to 3000 steps per day). The studies were performed on 30 long-distance runners who had a VO 2max average of 66 ml kg -1 min -1 and were in the age range of 19-24 years. Prior to their exposure to hypokinesia (HK) of 364 days, all volunteers were on an average of 10,000 steps per day. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the first group underwent normal ambulatory life (control subjects), the second group was kept under continuous restriction of motor activity (hypokinetic subjects) and the third group was placed under continuous restriction of motor activity and consumed 26 ml water kg -1 body weight daily and 0.1 g sodium chloride kg -1 body weight in the form of supplementation (hyperhydrated subjects). For simulation of the hypokinetic effect, the number of steps taken per day by the second and third groups of volunteers was restricted to an average of 3000. During the hypokinetic period we determined reticulocytes (Rt), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), plasma volume (PV), red blood cell (RBC) mass and VO 2max. In hyperhydrated volunteers the content of Hb and Hct decreased significantly, while PV, RBC mass and Rt count increased significantly. In hypokinetic volunteers Hb and Hct increased, while PV, RBC and Rt decreased significantly. It was concluded that chronic hyperhydration may be used to attentuate an increase in the Hb content of physically conditioned subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  9. Behavioral teratogenicity induced by maternal food restriction: maternal cannibalism and poor reflex development in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Lopes Ricci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have attributed the presence of several toxic chemicals during pregnancy to maternal malnutrition. A deficit in maternal nutritional status may be crucial for the development of teratogenicity. However, nowadays, the concept of teratogenesis is not restricted to structural abnormalities, but, also, to functional changes, such as, for instance, those observed in behavior. This study investigated the effects of maternal food restriction (FR during pregnancy on the physical, behavioral, and reflex development of offspring. Pregnant female rats underwent feed restriction at different levels (15, 40, 55, and 70% of the daily feed intake when compared to the control group, starting on gestation day 6 (GD6 until GD17; the control group received food ad libitum. After birth, the physical and neurobehavioral development of offspring were assessed. The results showed that, except for weight reduction, the physical development of offsprings from the FR groups did not differ from that of the control group. However, the experimental groups showed deficits in neurological reflexes, particularly with regard to negative geotaxis and palmar reflex. In general activity, the offspring of the FR group 40% (E40 and E55 showed low frequencies of locomotion and rearing and long periods of immobility. The results show that maternal FR during pregnancy promotes neurological disorders in offspring, but it does not affect physical development, showing the importance of behavioral assessments.

  10. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the foodrestricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in foodrestricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk.

  11. Effect of restrictions on television food advertising to children on exposure to advertisements for 'less healthy' foods: repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods--the first (week 1 six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2 six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs that were for HFSS foods. RESULTS: 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57. Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12. There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods.

  12. Effect of Restrictions on Television Food Advertising to Children on Exposure to Advertisements for ‘Less Healthy’ Foods: Repeat Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; Adamson, Ashley J.; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to “reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising”. We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods – the first (week 1) six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2) six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs) that were for HFSS foods. Results 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57)). Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12)). There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. Conclusions Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods. PMID:22355376

  13. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  14. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the [125I]iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span

  15. Serotonin suppresses food anticipatory activity and synchronizes the food-entrainable oscillator during time-restricted feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblit-Susan, Sigal; Chapnik, Nava; Genzer, Yoni; Froy, Oren

    2016-01-15

    The serotonergic and circadian systems are intertwined as serotonin modulates the response of the central brain suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) clock to light. Time-restricted feeding (RF) is characterized by increased food anticipatory activity (FAA) and controlled by the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) rather than the SCN. Our objective was to test whether serotonin affects the FEO. Mice were treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine (FLX) or the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and locomotor activity under ad libitum feeding, RF and different lighting conditions was monitored. Under AL, FLX administration did not affect 24-h locomotor activity, while mice treated with PCPA exhibited increased activity. RF-FLX-treated mice showed less FAA 2h before food availability (ZT2-ZT4) compared to RF- or RF-PCPA-fed mice. Under DD, RF-PCPA-treated mice displayed increased activity, as was seen under LD conditions. Surprisingly, RF-PCPA-treated mice showed free running in the FAA component. These results emphasize the role of serotonin in SCN-mediated activity inhibition and FEO entrainment and activity. PMID:26467604

  16. Effect of restricted access to food on metabolic changes in lethally X-irradiated rats. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in the reaction of glucose in blood and in that of glycogen in liver in animals with free access to food and in those with restricted food intake to lethal irradiation by X-rays were studied. SPF bred male rats of the Wistar strain were fed by common laboratory diet and by tap water ad libitum (AL group) or food was accessible to them (in unlimited amounts) only in the period between 09.00 a. m. and 11.00 a. m. (meal-fed group, MF), all under standard laboratory conditions. After more than three weeks of adaptation to the nutrition patterns and 22 h after the last food intake, animals of both groups were irradiated with a single whole-body 14.35 Gy dose of X-rays and/or sham irradiated, respectively. Glucose concentration in blood was increased in both groups during the experiment; terminal hyperglycaemia was more expressed in the MF group. Due to the high initial glycogen concentration in the liver of MF irradiated animals the accumulation of glycogen was substantially lower and started later than in irradiated AL animals. (author)

  17. Effect of pinealectomy and prolonged melatonin administration on circadian testicular function in food restricted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Kajdaniuk, D.; Gorski, J.; Buntner, B. [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of pinealectomy and exogenous melatonin on the circadian testosterone variations was investigated (using the radioimmunoassay method) after 3 weeks of 50% food restriction in sexually mature male Wistar rats at 3-h intervals under 12:12 light-dark cycle. The circadian periodicity of testosterone secretion was maintained after caloric deprivation, however its mean 24-h concentration was lower and rhythm disturbances appeared in the form of acrophase shifts from 18.00 to 0.50 h. In pinealectomized animals the mean 24-h testosterone level and amplitude values were significantly increased without the rhythm disturbances. As compared to the control animals, underfed pinealectomized rats had a partial recovery of reduced testosterone levels during the 24-h cycle and showed a normalization of the rhythm acrophase. Melatonin administration was found to inhibit the testosterone mesor value in pinealectomized rats with acrophase shifts from 16.58 to 14.51 h. In comparison with the pinealectomized ones the underfed pinealectomized rats had a greater reduction of the mesor and amplitude values after the melatonin administration. These findings indicate that long-term food restriction sensitizes the circadian testicular axis to antigonadotropic action of the pineal gland. (author). 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset wa

  19. Chronically Restricted Sleep Leads to Depression-Like Changes in Neurotransmitter Receptor Sensitivity and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novati, Arianna; Roman, Viktor; Cetin, Timur; Hagewoud, Roelina; den Boer, Johan A.; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our Western society. In the long run, insufficient sleep may have repercussions for health and may sensitize individuals to psychiatric diseases. In this context, we applied an animal model of chronic

  20. Interventions in Small Food Stores to Change the Food Environment, Improve Diet, and Reduce Risk of Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Rowan, Megan; Gadhoke, Preety

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Many small-store intervention trials have been conducted in the United States and other countries to improve the food environment and dietary behaviors associated with chronic disease risk. However, no systematic reviews of the methods and outcomes of these trials have been published. The objective of this study was to identify small-store interventions and to determine their impact on food availability, dietary behaviors, and psychosocial factors that influence chronic disease r...

  1. Altered food cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eSanders

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa (AN is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss.This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012, that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD when compared to long term recovered AN (REC and healthy controls (HC. Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 y, 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 yr and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, after fasting overnight. Functional ROIs (fROIs were defined in BU (e.g. striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum, TD (e.g. medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, the insula and visual processing areas (VPA. Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs.We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC fROIs across BU, TD and VPA areas clustered, in AN one cluster span across BU, TD and insula, one across BU, TD and VPA areas and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC BU, TD and VPA or VPA and insula clustered.In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food cues is also altered in recovered AN patient

  2. Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.'s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  3. Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.'s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  4. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Food Refusal in Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Mary M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Chronic food refusal of four handicapped children (one-three years old) was modified by a procedure involving the delivery of reinforcement (social praise, access to preferred foods, brief toy play periods) contingent upon consumption of a targeted food item. (CL)

  5. Effect of short-term food restriction on iron metabolism, relative well-being and depression symptoms in healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciak, Rafal W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The idea that iron deficiency anemia can be recognized in depressive patients has been around for a few years, as well as negative association between ferritin levels and depression. Iron deficiency anemia, associated with low iron intake, has been observed in women using restriction diets, for example in vegetarians or anorexics. There are no data on the influence of the short-term food restrictions, observed for example in slimming women, on iron management and its connection with behav...

  6. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... and food restriction on the skeleton of male rats. Most investigations initiated rather short-term interventions in 4- to 5-week-old animals and thus studied more the influence of growth than the influence of ageing on the skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of physical exercise and food...... to SE group. This decrease was counteracted by physical exercise (RW and TM groups) as well as by food restriction (PW group). In contrast, the strength of the femoral mid-diaphysis did not differ between BL and SE groups. CONCLUSIONS: The distal metaphysis in the male rat femur is more prone...

  7. Food restriction and streptozotocin treatment decrease 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor mediated behavioral effects in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun-Xu; France, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Food restriction and hypoinsulinemia can affect the synthesis, turnover and receptor function of serotonin (5-HT) in brain. This study explored the effects of food restriction and streptozotocin treatment on behavioral effects related to 5-HT1A (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-HT2A (DOI) receptor activation. Lower lip retraction and flat body posture (8-OH-DPAT) and head twitching (DOI) were measured in rats during free feeding, food restriction, after treatment with streptozotocin, and finally after insuli...

  8. Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine

    OpenAIRE

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R; Schmitt, Luke I.; Michael M. Halassa; Haydon, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5...

  9. Predictors of chronic food insecurity among adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Tefera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the differential impacts of the global food crisis as it translates into chronic food insecurity locally is essential to design food security interventions targeting the most vulnerable population groups. There are no studies on the extent of chronic food insecurity or its predictors among adolescents in developing countries. In the context of increased food prices in Ethiopia, we hypothesized that adolescents in low income urban households are more likely to suffer from chronic food insecurity than those in the rural areas who may have direct access to agricultural products. Methods This report is based on data from the first two rounds of the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY. Both adolescents and households were selected using a stratified random sampling method. A total of 1911 adolescents aged 13-17 years were interviewed on their personal experiences of food insecurity both at baseline and at year two. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to compare chronic adolescent food insecurity by household income, household food insecurity, and socio-demographic variables after one year of follow-up. Results Overall, 20.5% of adolescents were food insecure in the first round survey, while the proportion of adolescents with food insecurity increased to 48.4% one year later. During the one year follow up period, more than half (54.8% of the youth encountered transient food insecurity – that is, either during the first or the second round survey. During the follow up period, 14.0% of adolescents had chronic food insecurity (i.e. were food insecure at both rounds. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents in the urban households with low (OR = 1.69, P = 0.008 and middle (OR = 1.80, P = 0.003 income tertiles were nearly twice as likely to suffer from chronic food insecurity compared with those in high income tertile, while this was not the case in

  10. Long-term food restriction, deprenyl, and nimodipine treatment on life expectancy and blood pressure of stroke-prone rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, H; Knollema, S; De Jong, G; Korf, J; Luiten, PGM

    1998-01-01

    We determined whether food restriction or the drugs nimodipine (Ca2+ antagonist) and deprenyl (a MAO-B inhibitor) prevent the development of stroke in the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHR-SP). Forty male SHR-SP rats, in the age of 34 weeks, were exposed to various treatments. During

  11. Water and sodium restriction on cardiovascular disease in young chronic hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xue; WANG Wei; LI Han

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients.It remains unclear whether efforts to correct fluid overload in young CHD can reverse LVH.This prospective single-center cohort study evaluated left ventricular masses index (LVMI) evolution in fluid overloaded young CHD patients with or without water-sodium control.Methods A total of t06 young patients aged between 22 and 44 years on CHD were enrolled in this prospective,control study.Patients were divided into three groups according to the percentage of interdialytic weight gain (PIDWG (%) =100% × (predialysis weight-dry weight)/dry weight) at baseline.Thirty-six patients with PIDWG more than 5% received health education to restrict water-sodium intake strictly (Group I).Other 36 patients with comparable fluid status levels (the PIDWG more than 5%) did not receive health education to restrict water-sodium intake strictly (Group Ⅱ) and those with PIDWG less than 5% (Group Ⅲ,n=34) were served as controls.Echocardiographic studies were performed to evaluate LVMI at baseline and then after 1,3 and 6 months.The total follow-up time was 6 months.Results There was no significant difference in clinical data (such as age,gender,aetiology of renal failure and nutritional state,etc.) among the three groups at baseline.At baseline,the prevalence of LVH in Group Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ was 75.0%,72.2% and 55.9%,respectively.LVMI was directly correlated with PIDWG (r =0.779,P <0.01).After 6 months,the PIDWG in Group I decreased in mean by (3.77±1.09)%,and LVMI decreased in mean by (27.59±12.15) g/m2.The prevalence of LVH decreased in mean by 25.0%,and the blood pressure decreased in mean by (14.69±11.50) mmHg/(7.14±7.51) mmHg.The medication category and total medication frequency of hypotensive drugs significantly decreased in Group I at 6 months.However the urine volume and the levels of serum creatinine and serum

  12. Effects of the restriction of food and water intake on the distribution and retention of radioiodine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the restriction of food and water intakes on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to organs and excretion of 131I were investigated in C3H/He mice. The animals were divided into four groups and administered orally 37 kBq carrier-free Na 131I in 0.25 ml normal saline. One group of animals was given food and water ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Food and water to the remaining groups were restricted before and/or after the administration of 131I. The animals in each group were sacrificed 4 h and 24 h after administration, and the activity of 131I in thyroid, blood, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, urine, feces, and carcass was measured. There was a significant increase in the retention of 131I in the thyroid and the concentration of 131I in the blood due to the restriction of food and water after the administration of 131I. In contrast, a significant decrease in the urinary excretion was observed in these animals. In those animals, which fasted before administration only, the retention of 131I in the thyroid and other organs were decreased. Therefore, for an accurate diagnosis and effective therapy with radioiodine as well as effective radiation protection, the intake of food and water should be taken into account. (author)

  13. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula N; Gasperowicz, Malgorzata; Barbeito-Andrés, Jimena; Klenin, Natasha; Cross, James C; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein) or control isocaloric diet (20% protein). On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  14. Chronic Protein Restriction in Mice Impacts Placental Function and Maternal Body Weight before Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula N Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of resource allocation are essential for maternal and fetal survival, particularly when the availability of nutrients is limited. We investigated the responses of feto-placental development to maternal chronic protein malnutrition to test the hypothesis that maternal low protein diet produces differential growth restriction of placental and fetal tissues, and adaptive changes in the placenta that may mitigate impacts on fetal growth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed either a low-protein diet (6% protein or control isocaloric diet (20% protein. On embryonic days E10.5, 17.5 and 18.5 tissue samples were prepared for morphometric, histological and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, which included markers of trophoblast cell subtypes. Potential endocrine adaptations were assessed by the expression of Prolactin-related hormone genes. In the low protein group, placenta weight was significantly lower at E10.5, followed by reduction of maternal weight at E17.5, while the fetuses became significantly lighter no earlier than at E18.5. Fetal head at E18.5 in the low protein group, though smaller than controls, was larger than expected for body size. The relative size and shape of the cranial vault and the flexion of the cranial base was affected by E17.5 and more severely by E18.5. The junctional zone, a placenta layer rich in endocrine and energy storing glycogen cells, was smaller in low protein placentas as well as the expression of Pcdh12, a marker of glycogen trophoblast cells. Placental hormone gene Prl3a1 was altered in response to low protein diet: expression was elevated at E17.5 when fetuses were still growing normally, but dropped sharply by E18.5 in parallel with the slowing of fetal growth. This model suggests that nutrients are preferentially allocated to sustain fetal and brain growth and suggests the placenta as a nutrient sensor in early gestation with a role in mitigating impacts of poor maternal nutrition on fetal growth.

  15. Task-based and questionnaire measures of inhibitory control are differentially affected by acute food restriction and by motivationally salient food stimuli in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savani Bartholdy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger and the ability to control one’s own behavior (inhibitory control. Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a need state (hunger together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight and blood glucose obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards, and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may

  16. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  17. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  18. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  19. School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken To Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Because of concerns about trends in children's health and eating habits and interest in further understanding issues related to competitive foods in schools, this study addressed: which foods and school food practices fell under the term "competitive foods" and what federal restrictions existed on their sale; what was known about the types of…

  20. Medical foods: products for the management of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sarah L; Baggott, Joseph E

    2006-11-01

    Medical foods are a specific category of therapeutic agents created under the Orphan Drug Act of 1988, which separated medical foods from drugs for regulatory purposes. Products in this category share the requirements that they are intended for the nutritional management of a specific disease, are used under the guidance of a physician, and contain ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). An example of medical foods are formulations intended to manage patients with inborn errors in amino acid metabolism. Newer medical foods are designed to manage hyperhomocysteinemia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, inflammatory conditions, cancer cachexia, and other diseases. PMID:17131945

  1. Bone quality is affected by food restriction and by nutrition-induced catch-up growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Rakefet; Masarwi, Majdi; Shtaif, Biana; Idelevich, Anna; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-12-01

    Growth stunting constitutes the most common effect of malnutrition. When the primary cause of malnutrition is resolved, catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs. In this study, we have explored the effect of food restriction (RES) and refeeding on bone structure and mechanical properties. Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 24 days were subjected to 10 days of 40% RES, followed by refeeding for 1 (CU) or 26 days long-term CU (LTCU). The rats fed ad libitum served as controls. The growth plates were measured, osteoclasts were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and mechanical testing were used to study structure and mechanical properties. Micro-CT analysis showed that RES led to a significant reduction in trabecular BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N), concomitant with an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Trabecular BV/TV and Tb.N were significantly greater in the CU group than in the RES in both short- and long-term experiments. Mechanical testing showed that RES led to weaker and less compliant bones; interestingly, bones of the CU group were also more fragile after 1 day of CU. Longer term of refeeding enabled correction of the bone parameters; however, LTCU did not achieve full recovery. These results suggest that RES in young rats attenuated growth and reduced trabecular bone parameters. While nutrition-induced CU growth led to an immediate increase in epiphyseal growth plate height and active bone modeling, it was also associated with a transient reduction in bone quality. This should be taken into consideration when treating children undergoing CU growth. PMID:25248555

  2. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  3. [Psychophysiological mechanisms involved in the affective regulation and food restriction of women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Mata, José Luis; Moreno, Silvia; Fernández, Maria Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of visualizing food images under different mood states and food restriction conditions on the emotional modulation of two defense reflexes (startle reflex and cardiac defense). 72 women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa were assigned to two groups: 1) a group under induced positive, neutral, or negative mood state and, 2) a 6-hour-food-deprived group or a non-deprived group. Second-by-second heart rate and electromyogram activity from the orbiculari oculi region were recorded after the auditory stimulus. The results showed that, while viewing food images, non-deprived women under negative mood state potentiated the cardiac defense response and the startle motor reflex. Results are discussed in the context of emotional eating theories and Peter Lang's motivational priming model. PMID:17295980

  4. Evidence of viral adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudieri, Silvana; Rauch, Andri; Park, Lawrence P; Freitas, Elizabeth; Herrmann, Susan; Jeffrey, Gary; Cheng, Wendy; Pfafferott, Katja; Naidoo, Kiloshni; Chapman, Russell; Battegay, Manuel; Weber, Rainer; Telenti, Amalio; Furrer, Hansjakob; James, Ian; Lucas, Michaela; Mallal, Simon A

    2006-11-01

    Cellular immune responses are an important correlate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcome. These responses are governed by the host's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type, and HLA-restricted viral escape mutants are a critical aspect of this host-virus interaction. We examined the driving forces of HCV evolution by characterizing the in vivo selective pressure(s) exerted on single amino acid residues within nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) by the HLA types present in two host populations. Associations between polymorphisms within NS3 and HLA class I alleles were assessed in 118 individuals from Western Australia and Switzerland with chronic hepatitis C infection, of whom 82 (69%) were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The levels and locations of amino acid polymorphisms exhibited within NS3 were remarkably similar between the two cohorts and revealed regions under functional constraint and selective pressures. We identified specific HCV mutations within and flanking published epitopes with the correct HLA restriction and predicted escaped amino acid. Additional HLA-restricted mutations were identified that mark putative epitopes targeted by cell-mediated immune responses. This analysis of host-virus interaction reveals evidence of HCV adaptation to HLA class I-restricted immune pressure and identifies in vivo targets of cellular immune responses at the population level. PMID:17071929

  5. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Chronic Disease among Low-Income NHANES Participants12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Laraia, Barbara A.; Kushel, Margot B.

    2010-01-01

    Food insecurity refers to the inability to afford enough food for an active, healthy life. Numerous studies have shown associations between food insecurity and adverse health outcomes among children. Studies of the health effects of food insecurity among adults are more limited and generally focus on the association between food insecurity and self-reported disease. We therefore examined the association between food insecurity and clinical evidence of diet-sensitive chronic disease, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Our population-based sample included 5094 poor adults aged 18–65 y participating in the NHANES (1999–2004 waves). We estimated the association between food insecurity (assessed by the Food Security Survey Module) and self-reported or laboratory/examination evidence of diet-sensitive chronic disease using Poisson regression. We adjusted the models to account for differences in age, gender, race, educational attainment, and income. Food insecurity was associated with self-reported hypertension [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04–1.38] and hyperlipidemia (ARR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09–1.55), but not diabetes (ARR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89–1.58). Food insecurity was associated with laboratory or examination evidence of hypertension (ARR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04–1.41) and diabetes (ARR 1.48; 95% CI, 0.94–2.32). The association with laboratory evidence of diabetes did not reach significance in the fully adjusted model unless we used a stricter definition of food insecurity (ARR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.44–4.08). These data show that food insecurity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policy discussions should focus increased attention on ability to afford high-quality foods for adults with or at risk for chronic disease. PMID:20032485

  6. Short-term food restriction followed by controlled refeeding promotes gorging behavior, enhances fat deposition, and diminishes insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Lee, Hui-Young; Stout, Michael B; Cole, Rachel M; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Belury, Martha A

    2015-07-01

    Rodents are commonly used in food restriction refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24 h may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day's food allotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in mice fed ad libitum (nibbling). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of controls fed ad libitum. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to mice fed ad libitum, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intraabdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipid deposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons with mice fed ad libitum, or nibbling. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice.

  7. Effects of Chronic REM Sleep Restriction on D1 Receptor and Related Signal Pathways in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC mediates cognitive function that is sensitive to disruption by sleep loss, and molecular mechanisms regulating neural dysfunction induced by chronic sleep restriction (CSR, particularly in the PFC, have yet to be completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic REM sleep restriction (REM-CSR on the D1 receptor (D1R and key molecules in D1R’ signal pathways in PFC. We employed the modified multiple platform method to create the REM-CSR rat model. The ultrastructure of PFC was observed by electron microscopy. HPLC was performed to measure the DA level in PFC. The expressions of genes and proteins of related molecules were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The general state and morphology of PFC in rats were changed by CSR, and DA level and the expression of D1R in PFC were markedly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05; the expression of phosphor-PKAcα was significantly lowered in CSR rats (P<0.05. The present results suggested that the alteration of neuropathology and D1R expression in PFC may be associated with CSR induced cognitive dysfunction, and the PKA pathway of D1R may play an important role in the impairment of advanced neural function.

  8. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  9. A unified mathematical model to quantify performance impairment for both chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdev, Pooja; Thorsley, David; Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Rupp, Tracy L; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2013-08-21

    Performance prediction models based on the classical two-process model of sleep regulation are reasonably effective at predicting alertness and neurocognitive performance during total sleep deprivation (TSD). However, during sleep restriction (partial sleep loss) performance predictions based on such models have been found to be less accurate. Because most modern operational environments are predominantly characterized by chronic sleep restriction (CSR) rather than by episodic TSD, the practical utility of this class of models has been limited. To better quantify performance during both CSR and TSD, we developed a unified mathematical model that incorporates extant sleep debt as a function of a known sleep/wake history, with recent history exerting greater influence. This incorporation of sleep/wake history into the classical two-process model captures an individual's capacity to recover during sleep as a function of sleep debt and naturally bridges the continuum from CSR to TSD by reducing to the classical two-process model in the case of TSD. We validated the proposed unified model using psychomotor vigilance task data from three prior studies involving TSD, CSR, and sleep extension. We compared and contrasted the fits, within-study predictions, and across-study predictions from the unified model against predictions generated by two previously published models, and found that the unified model more accurately represented multiple experimental studies and consistently predicted sleep restriction scenarios better than the existing models. In addition, we found that the model parameters obtained by fitting TSD data could be used to predict performance in other sleep restriction scenarios for the same study populations, and vice versa. Furthermore, this model better accounted for the relatively slow recovery process that is known to characterize CSR, as well as the enhanced performance that has been shown to result from sleep banking. PMID:23623949

  10. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-07-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030.

  11. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-07-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030. PMID:27429493

  12. Food restriction alters pramipexole-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: Evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M.; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-ind...

  13. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Fachinelli C.; Torrecillas M.; Rodríguez Echandía E.L.

    2004-01-01

    We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pai...

  14. Does chronic glycolysis accelerate aging? Could this explain how dietary restriction works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary restriction (DR) suppresses aging are not understood. Suppression of glycolysis by DR could contribute to controlling senescence. Many glycolytic intermediates can glycate proteins and other macromolecules. Methyglyoxal (MG), formed from dihydroxyacetone- and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates, rapidly glycates proteins, damages mitochondria, and induces a prooxidant state to create a senescent-like condition. Ad libitum-fed and DR animals differ in mitochondrial activity and glycolytic flux rates. Persistent glycolysis in the unrestricted condition would increase the intracellular load of glycating agents (e.g., MG) and increase ROS generation by inactive mitochondria. Occasional glycolysis during DR would decrease MG and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and could be hormetic, inducing synthesis of glyoxalase-1 and anti-glycating agents (carnosine and polyamines). PMID:16804012

  15. Effect of Intermittent versus Chronic Calorie Restriction on Tumor Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yalan; Ling, Lifeng; Su, Guanglei; Han, Ming; Fan, Xikang; Xun, Pengcheng; Xu, Guangfei

    2016-01-01

    Both chronic calorie restriction (CCR) and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) have shown anticancer effects. However, the direct evidence comparing ICR to CCR with respect to cancer prevention is controversial and inconclusive. PubMed and Web of Science were searched on November 25, 2015. The relative risk (RR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] was calculated for tumor incidence, and the standardised mean difference (95% CI) was computed for levels of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin using a random-effects meta-analysis. Sixteen studies were identified, including 11 using genetically engineered mouse models (908 animals with 38–76 weeks of follow-up) and 5 using chemically induced rat models (379 animals with 7–18 weeks of follow-up). Compared to CCR, ICR decreased tumor incidence in genetically engineered models (RR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88) but increased the risk in chemically induced models (RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.06). It appears that ICR decreases IGF-1 and leptin and increases adiponectin in genetically engineered models. Thus, the evidence suggests that ICR exerts greater anticancer effect in genetically engineered mouse models but weaker cancer prevention benefit in chemically induced rat models as compared to CCR. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. PMID:27653140

  16. Foods with added fiber improve stool frequency in individuals with chronic kidney disease with no impact on appetite or overall quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Salmean, Younis A.; Zello, Gordon A; Dahl, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Background Fiber intake may be low in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to diet restriction and/or poor appetite associated with uremic symptoms, contributing to constipation and reduced quality of life. This report describes the effects of foods with added fiber on gastrointestinal function and symptoms, clinical markers, and quality of life in CKD patients. Findings Adults with CKD (n = 15; 9 F, 6 M; 66 ± 15 y) were provided with cereal, cookies and snack bars without added ...

  17. Food restriction promotes signaling effort in response to social challenge in a short-lived electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Stoddard, Philip K

    2012-09-01

    Vertebrates exposed to stressful conditions release glucocorticoids to sustain energy expenditure. In most species elevated glucocorticoids inhibit reproduction. However individuals with limited remaining reproductive opportunities cannot afford to forgo reproduction and should resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of reproductive behavior. The electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio has a single breeding season in its lifetime, thus we expect males to resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of their sexual advertisement signals. We studied stress resistance in male B. gauderio (i) by examining the effect of exogenous cortisol administration on the signal waveform and (ii) by investigating the effect of food limitation on androgen and cortisol levels, the amplitude of the electric signal waveform, the responsiveness of the electric signal waveform to social challenge, and the amount of feeding activity. Exogenous cortisol administration did reduce signal amplitude and pulse duration, but endogenous cortisol levels did not rise with food limitation or social challenge. Despite food limitation, males responded to social challenges by further increasing androgen levels and enhancing the amplitude and duration of their electric signal waveforms. Food-restricted males increased androgen levels and signal pulse duration more than males fed ad libitum. Socially challenged fish increased food consumption, probably to compensate for their elevated energy expenditure. Previous studies showed that socially challenged males of this species simultaneously elevate testosterone and cortisol in proportion to signal amplitude. Thus, B. gauderio appears to protect its cortisol-sensitive electric advertisement signal by increasing food intake, limiting cortisol release, and offsetting signal reduction from cortisol with signal-enhancing androgens. PMID:22801246

  18. Update on eating disorders: current perspectives on avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris ML

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark L Norris,1 Wendy J Spettigue,2 Debra K Katzman3 1Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients. Keywords: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, ARFID, eating disorder, picky eating, prevalence, treatment

  19. Seeking genes responsible for developmental origins of health and disease from the fetal mouse liver following maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Saito, Tomomi; Tamura, Gaku; Kuwagata, Makiko; Shioda, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    Low birthweight resulting from a non-optimal fetal environment is correlated epidemiologically to a higher risk of adult diseases, and which has also been demonstrated using animal models for maternal undernutrition. In this study, we subjected pregnant mice to 50% food restriction (FR), and profiled gene expression and promoter DNA methylation genome-wide using the fetal livers. The fact that effect of food restriction is opposite between before and after birth encouraged us to hunt for genes that are expressed oppositely to adult calorie restriction (CR) using the maternal livers. Among oppositely regulated genes, we identified trib1 (tribbles homolog 1). Using genetically modified mice, trib1 has been shown to have a demonstrable contribution to a risk of hypertriglyceridaemia and insulin resistance. Our data showed that the trib1 expression and its promoter DNA methylation could be affected physiologically (by maternal nutrition), and therefore might be a strong candidate gene for developmental origins of adult diseases. Furthermore, lepr (leptin receptor) gene was downregulated by maternal FR, indicating its potential role in induction of obesity and diabetes. Gene expression as well as promoter DNA methylation profiling revealed that glucocorticoid receptor target genes were regulated by maternal FR. This supports previous studies that suggest an important role of fetal glucocorticoid exposure in the mechanism of developmental origins of diseases. Our transcriptomics profiling data also suggested that maternal FR impaired development of the immune system. An inventory of candidate genes responsible for developmental origins of health and disease is presented and discussed in this study. PMID:24754856

  20. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachinelli C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N = 6 pairs. A pigeon in each pair received an sc dose of naloxone (1 mg kg-1 ml saline-1 and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 ± 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 ± 6.6 s; P < 0.05 and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 ± 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 ± 2.4 s; P < 0.05 than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 ± 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 ± 8.0 s; P < 0.05. The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  1. Hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression during recovery from food restriction superimposed on short-day photoperiod-induced weight loss in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoë A; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Reilly, Laura; Stevens, Valerie; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2007-09-01

    Previously, 40% food restriction of male Siberian hamsters over 21 days in short-day (SD) photoperiod induced characteristic changes in expression of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus energy balance genes; mRNAs for neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and leptin receptor were upregulated, and those of proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript were depressed. The present study examined the effect of refeeding hamsters for 6 days (approximately 50% recovery of weight differential) or 19 days (resumption of appropriate weight trajectory). Hyperphagia continued throughout refeeding, but differences in fat pad weights and leptin levels had disappeared after 19 days. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene expression was depressed by prior restriction in both refed groups. The depressive effect of prior restriction on proopiomelanocortin gene expression had disappeared after 19 days of refeeding. There was no effect of prior food restriction on neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide gene expression. Expression of the anorexigenic brain-derived neurotrophic factor was downregulated in the ventromedial nucleus after SD exposure for 12 wk. In the SD food restriction study, there were effects of photoperiod on brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but not of prior food restriction. Hypothalamic energy balance genes in the hamster respond asynchronously to return to a seasonally appropriate body weight. The achievement of this weight rather than the weight at which caloric restriction was imposed is the critical factor. The differential responses of hypothalamic energy balance genes to food restriction and refeeding are poorly characterized in any species, a critical issue given their potential relevance to human weight loss strategies that involve caloric restriction.

  2. Restricted temporal access to food and anorexia in mice: Microstructure of eating within feeding opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Neil E; Cervantez, Melissa; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2016-01-01

    Intake and body weight were recorded in a closed economy as male and female C57BL/6 mice progressed through either fixed interval (FI) or fixed unit price (FUP) schedules of cost for 20-mg food pellets. Access to food was constrained to four 40 min food opportunities (FOs) per day, spaced 4-h apart through the dark phase. Nose poke responses and pellet deliveries were collected at 10-s resolution to allow pellet-by-pellet analysis. In the FI protocol, mice maintained adequate food intake and body weight through the study, even though at the highest FI (50-s) they spent the entire 40-min FOs engaged in eating at or near the maximum rate allowed by the schedule. In the FUP protocol, mice greatly reduced their intake and lost weight at the highest FUP (50 responses/pellet). The analysis of response and pellet distributions showed these mice were not filling the FOs with responding and ate less at dusk (FO #1) and dawn (FO #4) than at FOs #2 and 3 in the middle of the night. The principal, and unexpected, sex difference was that females tended to eat more than males despite lower body weight, but behavioral changes as a function of feeding cost or schedule were qualitatively similar in both sexes. These results show that slow eating as imposed by an FI is not sufficient to produce hypophagia and, in the FUP protocol, hypophagia cannot be explained by slowed eating due to response requirements. We discuss the role of effort or time in FUP-induced anorexia, and suggest this murine model may emulate some aspects of human anorexia nervosa better than current activity-based protocols.

  3. Dietary restriction and exercise for diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Van Huffel

    Full Text Available Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are major health problems and key features to develop cardiovascular disease. Data on the effects of lifestyle interventions in diabetics with chronic kidney disease (CKD have been conflicting.Systematic review.Diabetes patients with CKD stage 3 to 5. SEARCH STRATEGY AND SOURCES: Medline, Embase and Central were searched to identify papers.Effect of a negative energy balance on hard outcomes in diabetics with CKD.Death, cardiovascular events, glycaemic control, kidney function, metabolic parameters and body composition.We retained 11 studies. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effect on mortality to promote negative energy balance. None of the studies reported a difference in incidence of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events. Reduction of energy intake does not alter creatinine clearance but significantly reduces proteinuria (mean difference from -0.66 to -1.77 g/24 h. Interventions with combined exercise and diet resulted in a slower decline of eGFR (-9.2 vs. -20.7 mL/min over two year observation; p<0.001. Aerobic and resistance exercise reduced HbA1c (-0.51 (-0.87 to -0.14; p = 0.007 and -0.38 (-0.72 to -0.22; p = 0.038, respectively. Exercise interventions improve the overall functional status and quality of life in this subgroup. Aerobic exercise reduces BMI (-0.74% (-1.29 to -0.18; p = 0.009 and body weight (-2.2 kg (-3.9 to -0.6; p = 0.008. Resistance exercise reduces trunk fat mass (-0,7±0,1 vs. +0,8 kg ±0,1 kg; p = 0,001-0,005. In none of the studies did the intervention cause an increase in adverse events.All studies used a different intervention type and mixed patient groups.There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effect of negative energy balance interventions on mortality in diabetic patients with advanced CKD. Overall, these interventions have beneficial effects on glycaemic control, BMI and body composition, functional status and quality of life, and no harmful

  4. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehoe Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives.

  5. Sleep active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase are active after both acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, M R; Kim, Y; Karpova, S A; Winston, S; McCarley, R W; Strecker, R E; Gerashchenko, D

    2013-09-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (~0.5-4 Hz), also known as slow wave activity (SWA), is typically enhanced after acute sleep deprivation (SD) but not after chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Recently, sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were identified and associated with enhanced SWA after short acute bouts of SD (i.e., 6h). However, the relationship between cortical nNOS neuronal activity and SWA during CSR is unknown. We compared the activity of cortical neurons expressing nNOS (via c-Fos and nNOS immuno-reactivity, respectively) and sleep in rats in three conditions: (1) after 18-h of acute SD; (2) after five consecutive days of sleep restriction (SR) (18-h SD per day with 6h ad libitum sleep opportunity per day); (3) and time-of-day matched ad libitum sleep controls. Cortical nNOS neuronal activity was enhanced during sleep after both 18-h SD and 5 days of SR treatments compared to control treatments. SWA and NREM sleep delta energy (the product of NREM sleep duration and SWA) were positively correlated with enhanced cortical nNOS neuronal activity after 18-h SD but not 5days of SR. That neurons expressing nNOS were active after longer amounts of acute SD (18h vs. 6h reported in the literature) and were correlated with SWA further suggest that these cells might regulate SWA. However, since these neurons were active after CSR when SWA was not enhanced, these findings suggest that mechanisms downstream of their activation are altered during CSR. PMID:23685166

  6. Effects of chronic calorie restriction or dietary resveratrol supplementation on insulin sensitivity markers in a primate, Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marchal

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes and hyperinsulinemia increases with age, inducing metabolic failure and limiting lifespan. Calorie restriction (CR without malnutrition delays the aging process, but its long-term application to humans seems difficult. Resveratrol (RSV, a dietary polyphenol, appears to be a promising CR mimetic that can be easily administered in humans. In this work, we hypothesized that both CR and RSV impact insulin sensitivity in a non-human primate compared to standard-fed control (CTL animals. Four- to five-year-old male grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were assigned to three dietary groups: a CTL group, a CR group receiving 30% fewer calories than the CTL and a RSV group receiving the CTL diet supplemented with RSV (200 mg·day(-1·kg(-1. Insulin sensitivity and glycemia were assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index evaluation after 21 or 33 months of chronic treatment. Resting metabolic rate was also measured to assess the potential relationships between this energy expenditure parameter and insulin sensitivity markers. No differences were found after a 21-month period of treatment, except for lower glucose levels 30 min after glucose loading in CR animals. After 33 months, CR and RSV decreased glycemia after the oral glucose loading without decreasing fasting blood insulin. A general effect of treatment was observed on the HOMA-IR index, with an 81% reduction in CR animals and 53% in RSV animals after 33 months of treatment compared to CTL. Chronic CR and dietary supplementation with RSV affected insulin sensitivity by improving the glucose tolerance of animals without disturbing their baseline insulin secretion. These results suggest that both CR and RSV have beneficial effects on metabolic alterations, although these effects are different in amplitude between the two anti-aging treatments and potentially rely on different metabolic

  7. Probiotic foods: Can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

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    Neerja Hajela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  8. The Role of Food Additives and Natural Foods Containing Vasoactive Amines in Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Ozturk; Fuat Erel; A.Zafer Caliskaner; Mehmet Karaayvaz; Mustafa Gulec; Ozgur Kartal

    2007-01-01

    Most patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) need long-term treatment but there is little known about the prognosis of CIU. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural course of CIU and to find out if there are risk factors that predict the prognosis. In this prospective study, we obtained data from patients first diagnosed and treated for CIU between September 2003 and September 2005. This study was included 157 patients with CIU. We observed duration of the disease, effects o...

  9. Frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related β-amyloid accumulation by chronic sleep restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyi; Wu, Huijuan; He, Jialin; Zhuang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yang; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-08-17

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by mitochondria-related β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is increasingly being considered a novel risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The close relationship between chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and cortical Aβ elevation was confirmed recently. By assessing frontal cortical mitochondrial function (electron microscopy manifestation, cytochrome C oxidase concentration, ATP level, and mitochondrial membrane potential) and the levels of mitochondria-related Aβ in 9-month-old adult male C57BL/6J mice subjected to CSR and as an environmental control (CO) group, we aimed to evaluate the association of CSR with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation. In this study, frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was significantly more severe in CSR mice compared with CO animals. Furthermore, CSR mice showed higher mitochondria-associated Aβ, total Aβ, and mitochondria-related β-amyloid protein precursor (AβPP) levels compared with CO mice. In the CSR model, mouse frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was correlated with mitochondria-associated Aβ and mitochondria-related AβPP levels. However, frontal cortical mitochondria-associated Aβ levels showed no significant association with cortical total Aβ and mitochondrial AβPP concentrations. These findings indicated that CSR-induced frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation, which was closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction under CSR.

  10. Frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related β-amyloid accumulation by chronic sleep restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyi; Wu, Huijuan; He, Jialin; Zhuang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yang; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-08-17

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by mitochondria-related β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is increasingly being considered a novel risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The close relationship between chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and cortical Aβ elevation was confirmed recently. By assessing frontal cortical mitochondrial function (electron microscopy manifestation, cytochrome C oxidase concentration, ATP level, and mitochondrial membrane potential) and the levels of mitochondria-related Aβ in 9-month-old adult male C57BL/6J mice subjected to CSR and as an environmental control (CO) group, we aimed to evaluate the association of CSR with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation. In this study, frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was significantly more severe in CSR mice compared with CO animals. Furthermore, CSR mice showed higher mitochondria-associated Aβ, total Aβ, and mitochondria-related β-amyloid protein precursor (AβPP) levels compared with CO mice. In the CSR model, mouse frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was correlated with mitochondria-associated Aβ and mitochondria-related AβPP levels. However, frontal cortical mitochondria-associated Aβ levels showed no significant association with cortical total Aβ and mitochondrial AβPP concentrations. These findings indicated that CSR-induced frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation, which was closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction under CSR. PMID:27341212

  11. Effect of clenbuterol on growth, nitrogen and energy balances and endocrine status in food-restricted sheep : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Cardoso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the b2-adrenoceptor clenbuterol on food-restricted sheep. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/ kg diet to a group of male Serra da Estrela sheep (n = 6.The animals were housed individually in metabolic cages and fed for 45 days at 65 % of estimated requirement for energy maintenance. An untreated group with the same energy intake level was included as a control. Changes in body mass, nitrogen and energy balances and insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, and triiodothyronine (T3 levels in the experimental animals were monitored. During the 4th week of the trial, clenbuterol-treated sheep showed increased mass gains, greater energy retention and serum IGF-1 levels and decreased T3 serum concentrations. This study showed that clenbuterol may induce a protective effect in sheep subjected to periods of food deprivation, based on the body mass and digestible energy effects manifested by treated animals.

  12. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

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    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  13. Enhanced Glutamatergic Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA1 Field of Food-Restricted Rats: Involvement of CB1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talani, Giuseppe; Licheri, Valentina; Biggio, Francesca; Locci, Valentina; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Melis, Valentina; Dazzi, Laura; Carta, Gianfranca; Banni, Sebastiano; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    The endogenous endocannabinoid system has a crucial role in regulating appetite and feeding behavior in mammals, as well as working memory and reward mechanisms. In order to elucidate the possible role of cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the regulation of hippocampal plasticity in animals exposed to food restriction (FR), we limited the availability of food to a 2-h daily period for 3 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. FR rats showed a higher long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 excitatory synapses with a parallel increase in glutamate release when compared with animals fed ad libitum. FR rats showed a significant increase in the long-term spatial memory determined by Barnes maze. FR was also associated with a decreased inhibitory effect of the CB1R agonist win55,212-2 on glutamatergic field excitatory postsynaptic potentials, together with a decrease in hippocampal CB1R protein expression. In addition, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels and mushroom dendritic spine density were significantly enhanced in FR rats. Altogether, our data suggest that alterations of hippocampal CB1R expression and function in FR rats are associated with dendritic spine remodeling and functional potentiation of CA1 excitatory synapses, and these findings are consistent with increasing evidence supporting the idea that FR may improve cognitive functions.

  14. Physiological acclimation of a desert antelope, Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), to long-term food and water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Stéphane; Williams, Joseph B; Mésochina, Pascal; Sauerwein, Helga

    2006-03-01

    Desert mammals often experience scarcity of drinking water and food for prolonged periods. In this study, the first long-term acclimation experiment in a non-domesticated desert-adapted ungulate, we investigated the mechanisms used by the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, to adjust its physiology to progressive food and water restriction over 5 months, an experimental regimen and time course chosen to mimic what it typically experiences between spring and late summer in the desert. At the end of the acclimation period, oryx consumed less than one and half of food and water of animals in the control group and lost 8.2+/-2.6% of their initial body mass. Experimental animals reduced their mass-specific resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) by 16.2 and 25.7%, respectively, and maintained a digestive efficiency of about 70%. We found no support for the idea that reduced RMR in oryx correlated with a decreased thyroid hormone concentration in plasma. At the end of the 5 months acclimation, oryx continued to mobilize fatty acids to fuel metabolism, and did not use protein breakdown as a major source of gluconeogenesis. Oryx in the experimental group reduced their water intake by 70% and maintained constant plasma osmolality. They adjusted their water budget by reducing mass-specific TEWL, increasing urine osmolality and reducing urine volume by 40%, and excreting feces with <50% water content. Oryx have an unusually low TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates; both hydrated and water-deprived individuals have TEWL values, 51.7 and 39.3%, respectively, of allometric predictions for arid-zone ungulates. PMID:16283332

  15. Differential effect of prolonged food restriction and fasting on hypothalamic malonyl-CoA concentration and expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides genes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucajtys-Szulc, Elzbieta; Turyn, Jacek; Goyke, Elzbieta; Korczynska, Justyna; Stelmanska, Ewa; Slominska, Ewa; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Swierczynski, Julian

    2010-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus plays an important role in monitoring and modulating body energy balance. In fasted state the level of malonyl-CoA concentration significantly decreases. Simultaneously, orexigenic neuropeptides (NPY - neuropeptide Y, AgRP - agouti-related peptide) genes are expressed at high level, whereas anorexigenic neuropeptides (CART - cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript, POMC - proopiomelanocortin) genes are expressed at low level. When food intake resumes, opposite effect is observed. This study examined the effect of prolonged food restriction, common in humans trying to lose body weight on expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides genes and on malonyl-CoA content in rat whole hypothalamus. We observed an increase of NPY and AgRP mRNA levels in hypothalamus of rats kept on 30 days-long food restriction (50% of the amount of food consumed by controls). Simultaneously, a decrease of CART and POMC mRNA levels occurred. Refeeding caused a decrease in NPY and POMC mRNA levels without effect on AgRP and CART mRNA. Surprisingly, both prolonged food restriction and food restriction/refeeding caused the increase of malonyl-CoA level in whole hypothalamus. In contrast, fasting for 24h caused the decrease of malonyl-CoA level, which was associated with the up-regulation of NPY and AgRP genes expression and down-regulation of CART and POMC genes expression. After refeeding opposite effect was observed. These results indicate that prolonged food restriction and acute fasting, conditions in which energy expenditure exceeds intake, differentially affect malonyl-CoA concentration and similarly affect orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes expression in whole rat hypothalamus.

  16. Plasma cholesterol synthesis using deuterated water in humans: effect of short-term food restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to develop methods in humans to determine the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of plasma pool free cholesterol using the rate of deuterium incorporation from body water. The sensitivity of this method was examined by measuring FSR after periods of fasting and feeding. Five healthy men with normal lipoprotein levels were given a prepared diet containing 40% of calories as fat and a polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.25 for 8 days, except for day 7 when they were given only drinking water. Beginning after the supper meal on day 6, they received no food until 8 AM on day 8 when they consumed meals as normal. Over days 7 and 8 the subjects were given prime and constant deuterium oxide orally to maintain body water deuterium enrichment at about 0.05 atom % excess. Plasma samples were obtained at 0 hours (day 7, 8 AM) and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours thereafter. Free cholesterol was extracted, purified by thin-layer chromatography, and combusted to water. The water was reduced to H2 and analyzed for deuterium enrichment by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Analytic precision of this system was determined as 3.5 0/00 (parts per mil) vs Standard Mean Ocean Water. Deuterium enrichment of plasma water for the group during the 48-hour deuterium oxide administration period was 3143 0/00 +/- 310 0/00 (mean +/- SEM). Cholesterol deuterium enrichment for the group during the 12-hour period of fasting (10.9 0/00 +/- 4.1 0/00) was not different from that during feeding (14.2 0/00 +/- 6.2 0/00)

  17. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1–R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12–R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (Clinical

  18. DIFFERENTIAL KINETICS IN ALTERATION AND RECOVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES FROM A CHRONIC SLEEP RESTRICTION IN YOUNG HEALTHY MEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  19. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741

  20. Selenium and Zinc Status in Chronic Myofascial Pain: Serum and Erythrocyte Concentrations and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Neto, João Araújo; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Kraychete, Durval Campos; de Jesus, Rosangela Passos; Cortes, Matheus Lopes; Lima, Michele dos Santos; Freitas, Mariana Carvalho; Santos, Tascya Morganna de Morais; Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Aim To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II). Dietary record in five days for assessing food intake were used. The serum and erythrocyte concentrations of selenium and zinc were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. Results The group of patients with chronic myofascial pain, compared with the control group, showed a lower erythrocyte concentration of selenium (79.46 ± 19.79 μg/L vs. 90.80 ± 23.12 μg/L; p = 0.041) and zinc (30.56 ± 7.74 μgZn/gHb vs. 38.48 ± 14.86 μgZn/gHb, respectively; p = 0.004). In this study, a compromised food intake of zinc was observed in the majority of the subjects in both groups. The selenium intake was considered to be safe in 80% of the subjects in both groups; however, the likelihood of inadequate intake of this mineral was twice as high in group I (49.5% vs. 24.4%, respectively). In the logistic regression analysis, the erythrocyte concentration of zinc was associated with the presence of pain. In each additional 1 mg of Zn2+ per gram of hemoglobin, a reduction of 12.5% was observed in the risk of the individual having chronic myofascial pain (B = -0.133; adjusted OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.803 to 0.954, Wald = 9.187, standard error = 0.044, p = 0.002). Physical inactivity and obesity were noted more commonly in group I compared with the control group. Conclusion In this study, patients with chronic myofascial pain showed lower intracellular stores of zinc and selenium and inadequate food intake of these nutrients. PMID:27755562

  1. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  2. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N; Rodriguez, Alexander V; Bellesi, Michele; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Funk, Chadd M; Harris, Julie; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25-P30, ≥ 50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  3. Withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food induces depressive-like behavior in compulsive eating rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iemolo, Attilio; Valenza, Marta; Tozier, Lisa; Knapp, Clifford M.; Kornetsky, Conan; Steardo, Luca; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. This study was aimed at determining whether withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food was responsible for the emergence of ...

  4. The Impact of Acute and Chronic Weight Restriction and Weight Regulation practices on Physiological, Osteogenic, Metabolic and Cognitive Function in Elite Jockeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Eimear

    2010-01-01

    Horse racing is a weight category sport. One of the key challenges facing jockeys is the pressure of “making weight” throughout the protracted racing season. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a chronically weight restrictive lifestyle and acute weight loss practices on aspects of physiological, osteogenic, metabolic and cognitive function in jockeys. Methods: The primary aim was achieved through the completion of four related studies. Study One: The effect of a 4% reduct...

  5. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  6. Improved leptin sensitivity as a potential candidate responsible for the spontaneous food restriction of the Lou/C rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Veyrat-Durebex

    Full Text Available The Lou/C rat, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, was described as a model of resistance to age- and diet-induced obesity. Although such a resistance involves many metabolic parameters described in our previous studies, Lou/C rats also exhibit a spontaneous food restriction due to decreased food consumption during the nocturnal period. We then attempted to delineate the leptin sensitivity and mechanisms implicated in this strain, using different protocols of acute central and peripheral leptin administration. A first analysis of the meal patterns revealed that Lou/C rats eat smaller meals, without any change in meal number compared to age-matched Wistar animals. Although the expression of the recognized leptin transporters (leptin receptors and megalin measured in the choroid plexus was normal in Lou/C rats, the decreased triglyceridemia observed in these animals is compatible with an increased leptin transport across the blood brain barrier. Improved hypothalamic leptin signaling in Lou/C rats was also suggested by the higher pSTAT3/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ratio observed following acute peripheral leptin administration, as well as by the lower hypothalamic mRNA expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3, known to downregulate leptin signaling. To conclude, spontaneous hypophagia of Lou/C rats appears to be related to improved leptin sensitivity. The main mechanism underlying such a phenomenon consists in improved leptin signaling through the Ob-Rb leptin receptor isoform, which seems to consequently lead to overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH.

  7. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions.

  8. Food intake and meal patterns in rhesus monkeys: Significance of chronic hyperinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of plasma insulin on food intake, we have examined the effect of naturally occurring chronic hyperinsulinemia on the feeding behavior of male rhesus monkeys. Two groups of monkeys, a group with normal fasting insulin concentrations (52.4 +/- 2.2 microU/ml) (mean +/- SE) and a hyperinsulinemic group (148.6 +/- 14.5 microU/ml), were selected to be similar in weight, 13.0 +/- 1.0 and 15.3 +/- 0.5 kg, respectively, prior to study. Food intake and feeding patterns were recorded and analyzed. No differences in either daily caloric intake, 815.2 +/- 27.4 versus 890.0 +/- 64.2 kcal (p less than 0.32), or feeding patterns were found. The number of meals taken per day did not differ between the two groups, 8.7 +/- 1.7 versus 6.7 +/- 1.1 (p less than 0.35), nor did meal size differ, 129 +/- 16.5 versus 110.5 +/- 16.3 (p less than 0.45). We conclude that chronic endogenous hyperinsulinemia as it occurs naturally in some obese rhesus monkeys has no significant effect on daily feeding behavior

  9. Chronic dietary risk for pesticide residues in food in Brazil: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    The objective was to conduct a dietary risk assessment of pesticides registered in Brazil up to 14 January 2004. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) was calculated for 275 compounds using the Brazilian maximum residue limits (MRL) and food consumption. The chronic dietary risk assessment was conducted by comparing the TMDI with the Brazilian acceptable daily intake (ADI) or, when not available, with the ADI from other sources. The TMDI was higher than the ADI (%ADI>100) in at least one Brazilian region for eight pesticides, including five organophosphorus insecticides. For these compounds, the higher TMDI (expressed as %ADI) ranged from 140 (metam sodium) to 14,000 (methyl bromide). Rice, beans, citrus and tomato were the commodities that contributed most to ingestion. Change in pesticide use patterns and the establishment of ADIs by the Brazilian government have reduced the number of compounds for which the TMDI exceeded the ADI in the last 4 years. Risk assessment methodology based on TMDI calculation, however, is conservative as it assumes that the food supply is always treated with all the registered pesticides for that crop and that one always consumes food containing residues at the tolerance level. Furthermore, for six compounds with TMDI exceeding the ADI, a more realistic estimation of the pesticide daily intake was conducted using monitoring residue data from the Brazilian National Pesticide Residue Program. For these compounds, the higher refined intakes ranged from 2% (dimethoate) to 180% (fenitrothion) of the ADIs. The implementation of a national pesticide residue monitoring programme by the government was important to allow the refinement of the risk assessment. However, adequate daily food consumption data are still needed to assess better the public health risk to Brazilian consumers from food produced from crops treated with pesticides.

  10. Occurrence of respiratory symptoms in persons with restrictive ventilatory impairment compared with persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, Nívia L; Nascimento, Oliver A; Padilla, Rogelio P; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmen; López, Maria V; Celli, Bartolomé; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually complain of symptoms such as cough, sputum, wheezing, and dyspnea. Little is known about clinical symptoms in individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and type of respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD to those reported by individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment in the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar study. Between 2002 and 2004, individuals ≥40 years of age from five cities in Latin America performed pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry and had their respiratory symptoms recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Among the 5315 individuals evaluated, 260 (5.1%) had a restrictive spirometric diagnosis (forced vital capacity (FVC) normal (LLN) with forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) ≥ LLN; American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2005) and 610 (11.9%) were diagnosed with an obstructive pattern (FEV1/FVC < LLN; ATS/ERS 2005). Patients with mild restriction wheezed more ((30.8%) vs. (17.8%); p < 0.028). No difference was seen in dyspnea, cough, and sputum between the two groups after adjusting for severity stage. The health status scores for the short form 12 questionnaire were similar in restricted and obstructed patients for both physical (48.4 ± 9.4 vs. 48.3 ± 9.8) and mental (50.8 ± 10.6 vs. 50.0 ± 11.5) domains. Overall, respiratory symptoms are not frequently reported by patients with restricted and obstructed patterns as defined by spirometry. Wheezing was more frequent in patients with restricted pattern compared with those with obstructive ventilatory defect. However, the prevalence of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea are not different between the two groups when adjusted by the same severity stage. PMID:26041119

  11. Long-term effects of gestational nicotine exposure and food-restriction on gene expression in the striatum of adolescent rats.

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    Nicholas E Ilott

    Full Text Available Gestational exposure to environmental toxins such as nicotine may result in detectable gene expression changes in later life. To investigate the direct toxic effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on later brain development, we have used transcriptomic analysis of striatal samples to identify gene expression differences between adolescent Lister Hooded rats exposed to nicotine in utero and controls. Using an additional group of animals matched for the reduced food intake experienced in the nicotine group, we were also able to assess the impact of imposed food-restriction on gene expression profiles. We found little evidence for a role of gestational nicotine exposure on altered gene expression in the striatum of adolescent offspring at a significance level of p0.5|, although we cannot exclude the possibility of nicotine-induced changes in other brain regions, or at other time points. We did, however, find marked gene expression differences in response to imposed food-restriction. Food-restriction resulted in significant group differences for a number of immediate early genes (IEGs including Fos, Fosb, Fosl2, Arc, Junb, Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. These genes are associated with stress response pathways and therefore may reflect long-term effects of nutritional deprivation on the development of the stress system.

  12. Relationships between variable time, percentage of food restriction and liver histology: which alternative is the best for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the hepatic effects of food restriction in an experimental rabbit model. The study comprised 105 rabbits divided into 6 groups. The two control groups were fed ad libitum (ADL) during the entire experiment (C1 and C2). The experimental groups were restricted between 42-49 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R1) or 65g (R2) of food per rabbit per day. Others were restricted between 35-42 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R3) or 65g (R4) of food per rabbit per day. For liver analysis, 5 rabbits per group were slaughtered at the ages of 49, 56, 63, 70 days from the R1, R2 groups and at 42, 49, 70 days from the R3, R4 groups. All animals from the C1 and C2 groups developed steatosis with inflammation. Animals from the R1 and R2 groups developed steatosis without inflammation while in the R3 and R4 groups steatosis was not visible. In C1 and C2 groups we observed mostly fatty deposit accumulations while in the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups, more PAS-positive material accumulations were visible. Liver steatosis correlated with inflammation development and interstitial tissue growth. These results can be used in clinical praxis as signs of NAFLD progression. Early food restriction had intense effects on liver morphology and it seems promising that similar approaches could be applied as preventive treatment for NAFLD development. PMID:26916089

  13. Relationships between variable time, percentage of food restriction and liver histology: which alternative is the best for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovicky, Peter; Tumova, Eva; Volek, Zdenek; Makovicky, Pavol; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the hepatic effects of food restriction in an experimental rabbit model. The study comprised 105 rabbits divided into 6 groups. The two control groups were fed ad libitum (ADL) during the entire experiment (C1 and C2). The experimental groups were restricted between 42-49 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R1) or 65g (R2) of food per rabbit per day. Others were restricted between 35-42 days of age, where the rabbits received 50g (R3) or 65g (R4) of food per rabbit per day. For liver analysis, 5 rabbits per group were slaughtered at the ages of 49, 56, 63, 70 days from the R1, R2 groups and at 42, 49, 70 days from the R3, R4 groups. All animals from the C1 and C2 groups developed steatosis with inflammation. Animals from the R1 and R2 groups developed steatosis without inflammation while in the R3 and R4 groups steatosis was not visible. In C1 and C2 groups we observed mostly fatty deposit accumulations while in the R1, R2, R3 and R4 groups, more PAS-positive material accumulations were visible. Liver steatosis correlated with inflammation development and interstitial tissue growth. These results can be used in clinical praxis as signs of NAFLD progression. Early food restriction had intense effects on liver morphology and it seems promising that similar approaches could be applied as preventive treatment for NAFLD development.

  14. The power of food: mediating social relationships in the care of chronically ill elderly people in urban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Eeuwijk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La préparation de nourriture et de boissons est considérée comme une activité vitale dans les soins pour personnes âgées souffrant d’une maladie chronique en Indonésie urbaine. Seuls de proches membres de la famille préparent et servent les repas aux patients âgés. La majorité de ceux-ci prennent part aux repas quotidiens conjointement avec la famille qui représentent pour eux des arènes d’interaction sociale et une source d’informations essentielles. Le commensalisme et le fait que les personnes âgées continuent de participer au partage rituel de nourriture dans le cadre de festivités et de cérémonies sont ainsi des éléments importants pour la construction de leur identité sociale et leur inclusion dans la société. Néanmoins, beaucoup des patients âgés inclus dans cette étude étaient atteints de maladies chroniques – telles que l’hypertonie, le diabète et le rhumatisme – et nécessitant un suivi diététique. Ainsi la maladie change la qualité de la relation entre le personnel soignant et les patients âgés et dépendants en introduisant les notions de confiance et de contrôle. Le patient doit faire confiance au traitement spécial, c’est-à-dire au régime sain qui lui est proposé par l’aide soignante. Celle-ci, de son côté, exerce un pouvoir de contrôle en surveillant l’alimentation du malade et par là, le respect des mesures préventives et thérapeutiques qui lui sont imposées.The preparation of food and drink is regarded as pivotal to care of chronically sick elderly people in urban Indonesia. Their meals are cooked solely by close household members. The majority of the elderly sick take part in the joint daily meals that serve as important arenas of social interaction and information sources. Continued commensality and participation in the sharing of food during festivities and ceremonies thus represents a vital source of social identity and social involvement for older people

  15. Chronic food administration of Salvia sclarea oil reduces animals' anxious and dominant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Raz, Olga; Pinhasov, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that an oil extract from Salvia sclarea may provide clinical benefits in various pathological conditions. In comparison to extracts from other Salvia species, S. sclarea oil contains twice as much omega-3 fatty acids, which are involved in eicosanoid synthesis pathways, and has been found to contain significant levels of the psychoactive monoterpane linalool. In the present study, we examined the mood stabilizing and anxiolytic-like effects of chronic food administration of S. sclarea oil extract on behavioral and physiological parameters of mice with prominent dominant and submissive features in behavioral assays used to test mood stabilizing and antidepressant drugs. Experimental animals received oil supplemented food from the age of 4 weeks or from conception via their pregnant dams. Each age group received either S. sclarea oil- or sunflower oil-enriched feed. Dominant animals, whose pregnant mothers received S. sclarea oil-enriched feed from the date of conception, showed a significant reduction of dominant and anxiety-like behavior, in comparison to their sunflower oil-treated counterparts. S. sclarea oil-treated submissive animals exhibited a similar tendency, and showed a significant reduction in blood corticosterone levels. These findings enforce the hypothesis that S. sclarea oil possesses anxiolytic properties.

  16. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  17. Food restriction alters N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole)-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H

    2008-05-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists, including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-induced yawning. Behavioral and molecular studies suggest that augmented dopaminergic responses observed in food-restricted animals result from a sensitization of the dopamine D2 receptor; however, little is known about how food restriction affects dopamine D3 receptor function. The current studies were aimed at better defining the effects of food restriction on D2 and D3 receptor function by assessing the capacity of N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole) to induce yawning, penile erection (PE), hypothermia, and locomotor activity in free-fed and food-restricted rats. Food restriction resulted in a suppression of pramipexole-induced yawning, a sensitized hypothermic response, and an enhanced locomotor response to pramipexole, effects that are suggestive of an enhanced D2 receptor activity; no effect on pramipexole-induced PE was observed. Antagonist studies further supported a food restriction-induced enhancement of the D2 receptor activity because the D2 antagonist 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole (L741,626) recovered pramipexole-induced yawning to free-fed levels, whereas yawning and PE were suppressed following pretreatment with the D3 antagonist N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride (PG01037). The results of the current studies suggest that food restriction sensitized rats to the D2-mediated effects of pramipexole while having no effect

  18. Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Elisabeth

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS, were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR products. The set of enzymes chosen differentiates most species of Lactobacillus genus and also co-isolated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia species. The in silico predictions of restriction patterns generated by the Lactobacillus shorter spacers digested with 11 restriction enzymes with 6 bp specificities allowed us to distinguish almost all isolates at the species level but not at the subspecies one. Simultaneous theoretical digestions of the three spacers (long, medium and short with the same set of enzymes provided more complex patterns and allowed us to distinguish the species without purifying and cloning of PCR products. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolates and several other strains of bacteria co-isolated on MRS medium from gastrointestinal ecosystem and fermented food products could be identified using DNA fingerprints generated by restriction endonucleases. The methodology based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA is easier, faster and more accurate than the current methodologies based on fermentation profiles, used in most laboratories for the purpose of identification of these bacteria in different prospecting studies.

  19. [Incurable keratitis and chronic palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with hypertyrosinemia. Cure using a tyrosine-restricted diet. Type II tyrosinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, F; Moreno, J L; Ogier, H; Saudubray, J M; De Prost, Y; Duffier, J L; Charpentier, C; Lemonnier, F; Frézal, J

    1986-01-01

    One should henceforth systematically search for hypertyrosinemia which, too often, goes unrecognized for years, in patients presenting chronic keratitis associated with palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis. As a matter of fact, this highly crippling disease may be cured with an appropriate diet and the diagnosis, once suspected, is easily confirmed by simple investigations.

  20. Non-nutritional effects of food: an underutilized and understudied therapeutic tool in chronic gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter R; Muir, Jane G

    2013-12-01

    The use of diet has traditionally been used to improve the nutrition of patients. However, diet also can be utilized to modify disease processes and manage symptoms independently of its nutritional role. There are few chronic gastrointestinal conditions where dietary modification is utilized therapeutically and backed by a high degree of evidence. This is not due to a lack of ideas but is more likely to lie in the difficulties associated with translating those ideas into evidence-based practice. Long lead-in times and low incidence hinders interventional studies of prevention for many conditions. The design and execution of dietary clinical trials is challenging and funding them even more so. The knowledge base of doctors in nutrition and food composition is often poor, and attitudes toward the success of and adherence to dietary therapies create additional problems. However, ideas can be successfully translated into evidence-based practice, as exemplified but the low fermentable, oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) (poorly-absorbed short-chain carbohydrates) diet for patients with functional bowel symptoms. Showing efficacy is, however, insufficient for non-nutritional dietary manipulations. Adverse effects, such as nutritional adequacy of the diet and effect on pathogenesis of other diseases, must also be carefully addressed. The physiological principles upon which the diet is based should be matched to the physiology associated with the condition being targeted, as it can be hazardous to extrapolate findings in healthy persons. There is a need for greater attention to the evaluation of dietary therapies for many chronic gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:24251702

  1. A 1-night operant learning task without food-restriction differentiates among mouse strains in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmelink, Esther; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs

    2015-04-15

    Individuals are able to change their behavior based on its consequences, a process involving instrumental learning. Studying instrumental learning in mice can provide new insights in this elementary aspect of cognition. Conventional appetitive operant learning tasks that facilitate the study of this form of learning in mice, as well as more complex operant paradigms, require labor-intensive handling and food deprivation to motivate the animals. Here, we describe a 1-night operant learning protocol that exploits the advantages of automated home-cage testing and circumvents the interfering effects of food restriction. The task builds on behavior that is part of the spontaneous exploratory repertoire during the days before the task. We compared the behavior of C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ and DBA/2J mice and found various differences in behavior during this task, but no differences in learning curves. BALB/cJ mice showed the largest instrumental learning response, providing a superior dynamic range and statistical power to study instrumental learning by using this protocol. Insights gained with this home-cage-based learning protocol without food restriction will be valuable for the development of other, more complex, cognitive tasks in automated home-cages.

  2. A 1-night operant learning task without food-restriction differentiates among mouse strains in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmelink, Esther; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs

    2015-04-15

    Individuals are able to change their behavior based on its consequences, a process involving instrumental learning. Studying instrumental learning in mice can provide new insights in this elementary aspect of cognition. Conventional appetitive operant learning tasks that facilitate the study of this form of learning in mice, as well as more complex operant paradigms, require labor-intensive handling and food deprivation to motivate the animals. Here, we describe a 1-night operant learning protocol that exploits the advantages of automated home-cage testing and circumvents the interfering effects of food restriction. The task builds on behavior that is part of the spontaneous exploratory repertoire during the days before the task. We compared the behavior of C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ and DBA/2J mice and found various differences in behavior during this task, but no differences in learning curves. BALB/cJ mice showed the largest instrumental learning response, providing a superior dynamic range and statistical power to study instrumental learning by using this protocol. Insights gained with this home-cage-based learning protocol without food restriction will be valuable for the development of other, more complex, cognitive tasks in automated home-cages. PMID:25601577

  3. Inadequate awareness among chronic kidney disease patients regarding food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shutto

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Patients with CKD are advised to consume a low phosphate diet and are often prescribed phosphate-lowering drug therapy. However, commercially processed food and drinks often contain phosphate compounds, but the phosphate level is not usually provided in the ingredient list, which makes it difficult for CKD patients to choose a correct diet. We conducted a survey of the awareness of food/beverages containing artificially added phosphate among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The subjects were 153 patients (77 males and 76 females; average age 56±11 years who were randomly selected from the Dialysis Center of Hirosaki City, Japan. The subjects were provided with a list of questions. The survey results showed that 93% of the subjects were aware of the presence of high sugar content in soda, whereas only 25% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid in such drinks. Despite 78% of the subjects being aware of the detrimental effects of consumption of a high phosphate diet, 43% drank at least 1 to 5 cans of soda per week and about 17% consumed "fast food" once each week. We also assessed the immediate effects of high-phosphate containing carbonated soda consumption by determining urinary calcium, phosphate, protein and sugar contents in overnight fasted healthy volunteers (n = 55; average age 20.7±0.3 years old, 20 males and 35 females. Significantly higher urinary calcium (adjusted using urinary creatinine excretion was found 2 h after consuming 350 ml of carbonated soda compared to the fasting baseline level (0.15±0.01 vs. 0.09±0.01, p = 0.001. Our survey results suggest that CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis are not adequately aware of the hidden source of phosphate in their diet, and emphasize the need for educational initiatives to raise awareness of this issue among CKD patients.

  4. Food: a new form of personalised (gut microbiome) medicine for chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Tess; Spector, Tim D

    2016-09-01

    Filling in the knowledge gaps between what we eat and the diseases we develop may lie in our guts, literally. The human large intestine houses the largest reservoir of microorganisms in or on the human body. With a 100-fold greater gene count than humans, the gut microbiome has huge potential to place a large metabolic burden (or advantage) on its host. The number of diverse gut microbial species is diminished in nearly all modern chronic conditions studied. The 'Western diet', rich in animal protein, fats and artificial additives, and lacking in fibre, beneficial microbes, plant phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals, is thought to drive these conditions by encouraging gut dysbiosis. Evidence from recent dietary intervention studies suggest adopting a plant-based, minimally processed high-fibre diet may rapidly reverse the effects of meat-based diets on the gut microbiome. However, recent work has shown that individual diet responses may be complicated by host genetics and the wide variation in the gut microbiome. Now that we measure genes and microbes more accurately, we are embarking on an exciting era of using both food and microbes as potential therapies. PMID:27609798

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nicely, Terri A; Lane-Loney, Susan; Masciulli, Emily; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2014-01-01

    Background Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a “new” diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. Methods A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients wi...

  6. Sustained Liver Glucose Release in Response to Adrenaline Can Improve Hypoglycaemic Episodes in Rats under Food Restriction Subjected to Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas K. R. Babata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As the liver is important for blood glucose regulation, this study aimed at relating liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline to in vivo episodes of hypoglycaemia. Methods. The blood glucose profile during an episode of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in exercised and nonexercised male Wistar control (GC and food-restricted (GR, 50% rats and liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline were investigated. Results. In the GR, the hypoglycaemic episodes showed severe decreases in blood glucose, persistent hypoglycaemia, and less complete glycaemic recovery. An exercise session prior to the episode of hypoglycaemia raised the basal blood glucose, reduced the magnitude of the hypoglycaemia, and improved the recovery of blood glucose. In fed animals of both groups, liver glucose release was activated by glucagon and adrenaline. In fasted GR rats, liver glycogenolysis activated by glucagon was impaired, despite a significant basal glycogenolysis, while an adrenaline-stimulated liver glucose release was recorded. Conclusions. The lack of liver response to glucagon in the GR rats could be partially responsible for the more severe episodes of hypoglycaemia observed in vivo in nonexercised animals. The preserved liver response to adrenaline can partially account for the less severe hypoglycaemia in the food-restricted animals after acute exercise.

  7. Effects of an exercise programme for chronically ill and mobility-restricted elderly with structured support by the general practitioner's practice (HOMEfit) : study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs Timo; Moschny Anna; Brach Michael; Wilm Stefan; Klaaßen-Mielke Renate; Trampisch Matthias; Platen Petra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise programmes can be administered successfully as therapeutic agents to patients with a number of chronic diseases and help to improve physical functioning in older adults. Usually, such programmes target either healthy and mobile community-dwelling seniors or elderly individuals living in nursing institutions or special residences. Chronically ill or mobility-restricted individuals, however, are difficult to reach when they live in their own homes. A pilot study has...

  8. Plasma nesfatin-1 is not affected by long-term food restriction and does not predict rematuration among iteroparous female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius K Caldwell

    Full Text Available The metabolic peptide hormone nesfatin-1 has been linked to the reproductive axis in fishes. The purpose of this study was to determine how energy availability after spawning affects plasma levels of nesfatin-1, the metabolic peptide hormone ghrelin, and sex steroid hormones in rematuring female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. To limit reproductive maturation, a group of female trout was food-restricted after spawning and compared with a control group that was fed a standard broodstock ration. The experiment was conducted twice, once using two-year-old trout (second-time spawners and once using three-year-old trout (third-time spawners. During monthly sampling, blood was collected from all fish, and a subset of fish from each treatment was sacrificed for pituitaries. Pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone-beta (fsh-β mRNA expression was analyzed with q-RT-PCR; plasma hormone levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay (17β-estradiol and ghrelin and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (11-keto-testosterone and nesfatin-1. Although plasma nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly in the months immediately after spawning within both feeding treatments, plasma nesfatin-1 did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Similarly, plasma ghrelin levels did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Food restriction arrested ovarian development by 15-20 weeks after spawning, shown by significantly lower plasma E2 levels among restricted-ration fish. Pituitary fsh-β mRNA levels were higher among control-ration fish than restricted-ration fish starting at 20 weeks, but did not differ significantly between treatment groups until 30 weeks after spawning. Within both treatment groups, plasma 11-KT was elevated immediately after spawning and rapidly decreased to and persisted at low levels; starting between 20 and 25 weeks after spawning, plasma 11-KT was higher among control-ration fish than restricted

  9. Provision of straw as a foraging substrate reduces the development of excessive chain and bar manipulation in food restricted sows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burbidge, J.A.; Edwards, S.A.; Simmins, P.H.; Lawrence, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Pregnant sows fed at commercial levels remain highly food motivated for most of the day. The inability to express this behaviour appropriately may, under certain conditions, result in the development of abnormal oral activities such as stereotypic chain and bar manipulation. Ninety-six gilts, all be

  10. Restricted access supramolecular solvents for sample treatment in enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay of mycotoxins in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fonseca, Sergio; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Rubio, Soledad

    2016-09-01

    A restricted access supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS-RAM) made up of tetradecanoic acid reverse micelles is proposed as a wide-scope and low-cost strategy for the treatment of agrifood samples prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The approach was assessed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines and spices and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in cereals, two ubiquitous mycotoxins that were selected as representative contaminants for this study. The samples were selected to cover a variety of matrices in terms diverse composition and high complexity. Macromolecules such as proteins and carbohydrates were not-co-extracted due to the restricted access properties of the SUPRAS that are provided by chemical and physical mechanisms. In this sense, analyte extraction and clean-up were carried out in a single step. Parameters determining the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Certified reference materials were used for method validation. Recoveries of OTA ranged between 83% and 96% in wines (with relative standard deviation, RSD, of about 10%) and between 81% and 93% in spices (RSD 7%). Recoveries for AFB1 in wheat ranged from 75% to 85% (RSD 8%). The detection limits were all below the maximum levels established for OTA and for AFB1 by EU directives. This method offers a green and low-cost alternative to the organic solvent-based extraction and/or immunoaffinity columns-based cleanup of complex samples prior to ELISA. PMID:27543022

  11. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  12. Are more restrictive food cadmium standards justifiable health safety measures or opportunistic barriers to trade? An answer from economics and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa B, Eugenio [Department of Economics and National Center for the Environment (CENMA), Universidad de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 257, Of. 1604, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: efiguero@cenma.cl

    2008-01-15

    In the past, Cd regulations have imposed trade restrictions on foodstuffs from some developing countries seeking to access markets in the developed world and in recent years, there has been a trend towards imposing more rigorous standards. This trend seems to respond more to public and private sectors strategies in some developed countries to create disguised barriers to trade and to improve market competitiveness for their industries, than to scientifically justified health precautions (sanitary and phytosanitary measures) and/or technical barriers to trade acceptable under the Uruguay Round Agreement of the WTO. Applying more rigorous Cd standards in some developed countries will not only increase production costs in developing countries but it will also have a large impact on their economies highly dependent on international agricultural markets. In the current literature there are large uncertainties in the cause-effect relationship between current levels of Cd intakes and eventual health effects in human beings; even the risk of Cd to kidney function is under considerable debate. Recent works on the importance of zinc:Cd ratio rather than Cd levels alone to determine Cd risk factors, on the one hand, and on the declining trends of Cd level in foods and soils, on the other, also indicate a lack of scientific evidence justifying more restrictive cadmium standards. This shows that developing countries should fight for changing and making more transparent the current international structures and procedures for setting sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade.

  13. Are more restrictive food cadmium standards justifiable health safety measures or opportunistic barriers to trade? An answer from economics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa B, Eugenio

    2008-01-15

    In the past, Cd regulations have imposed trade restrictions on foodstuffs from some developing countries seeking to access markets in the developed world and in recent years, there has been a trend towards imposing more rigorous standards. This trend seems to respond more to public and private sectors strategies in some developed countries to create disguised barriers to trade and to improve market competitiveness for their industries, than to scientifically justified health precautions (sanitary and phytosanitary measures) and/or technical barriers to trade acceptable under the Uruguay Round Agreement of the WTO. Applying more rigorous Cd standards in some developed countries will not only increase production costs in developing countries but it will also have a large impact on their economies highly dependent on international agricultural markets. In the current literature there are large uncertainties in the cause-effect relationship between current levels of Cd intakes and eventual health effects in human beings; even the risk of Cd to kidney function is under considerable debate. Recent works on the importance of zinc:Cd ratio rather than Cd levels alone to determine Cd risk factors, on the one hand, and on the declining trends of Cd level in foods and soils, on the other, also indicate a lack of scientific evidence justifying more restrictive cadmium standards. This shows that developing countries should fight for changing and making more transparent the current international structures and procedures for setting sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade. PMID:17884142

  14. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of oral ibrutinib in healthy participants and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Jan; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Skee, Donna; Murphy, Joe; O’Brien, Susan; Byrd, John C.; James, Danelle; Hellemans, Peter; Loury, David J.; Jiao, Juhui; Chauhan, Vijay; Mannaert, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess ibrutinib pharmacokinetics under fasted and fed conditions, impact of food-intake timing, and the safety and tolerability. Methods Three studies were analyzed. Study 1 was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, four-way crossover study in 44 healthy participants. Study 2 was a randomized, repeat-dose crossover study in 16 patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Ibrutinib dose was 420 mg in both studies. Study 3 was an open-label, sequential study...

  15. How to Read a Food Label: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How to Read a Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program If you ... and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Kidney Disease Education Program 2

  16. Understanding the consequences of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy from impairments to activity and participation restrictions and reduced quality of life: the ICE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkies, Ingemar S J; Hughes, Richard A C; Donofrio, Peter; Bril, Vera; Dalakas, Marinos C; Hanna, Kim; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Latov, Norman; van Doorn, Pieter A; Deng, Chunqin

    2010-09-01

    A randomized trial (ICE trial) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) demonstrated significantly more improvement with intravenous immunoglobulin (Gamunex(®), Talecris Biotherapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC) than placebo. To understand the relationship between CIDP impairments, activity and participation restrictions, and quality of life (QoL) in this trial, we investigated the association between scales representing these outcome levels. Gamunex or placebo was given every 3 weeks for up to 24 weeks to 117 patients in an initial treatment period after which treatment failures were crossed over (alternative treatment). We assessed impairments, activity and participation, and SF-36 component mental (MCS) and physical summaries (PCS). Regression analyses of baseline data were performed (all subjects) and change from baseline to endpoint (Gamunex-treated group only) to determine correlations between outcomes. Grip strength, medical research council (MRC) sum score, and inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory sum score were the strongest explanatory variables of disability (at baseline: r(2) = 0.46; change from baseline: r(2) = 0.66). Only up to half of the variance in QoL scores (PCS at baseline: r(2) = 0.30; change from baseline: r(2) = 0.41; MCS: at baseline: r(2) = 0.10; change from baseline: r(2) = 0.24) was explained by impairment and activity and participation measures. Future studies are required to elucidate the impact of CIDP on disability and QoL changes, because the obtained correlations provide only partial explanation.

  17. Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses to food restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P; Phipps-Costin, Silas K; Fujimoto, Chelsea K; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E; Regish, Amy M; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plasma Gh, Igf1, thyroid hormones and cortisol along with igfbp mRNA levels in fasted and fed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish were fasted for 3 or 10days near the peak of smoltification (late April to early May). Fasting reduced plasma glucose by 3days and condition factor by 10days. Plasma Gh, cortisol, and thyroxine (T4) were not altered in response to fasting, whereas Igf1 and 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) were slightly higher and lower than controls, respectively. Hepatic igfbp1b1, -1b2, -2a, -2b1 and -2b2 mRNA levels were not responsive to fasting, but there were marked increases in igfbp1a1 following 3 and 10days of fasting. Fasting did not alter hepatic igf1 or igf2; however, muscle igf1 was diminished by 10days of fasting. There were no signs that fasting compromised branchial ionoregulatory functions, as indicated by unchanged Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and ion pump/transporter mRNA levels. We conclude that dynamic hepatic igfbp1a1 and muscle igf1 expression participate in the modulation of Gh/Igf signaling in smolts undergoing catabolism. PMID:27210270

  18. Treating chronic food refusal in young children: home-based parent training.

    OpenAIRE

    Werle, M A; Murphy, T.B.; Budd, K S

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of behavioral parent training program on parent and child feeding-related behaviors in the home. We trained mothers to initiate regular offerings of previously rejected (target) foods and to provide contingent attention (i.e., specific prompts, positive reinforcement) to increase their child's acceptance of nonpreferred foods. For 1 subject, we also directed training at increasing self-eating. Results of a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across 3 mother-child d...

  19. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis

  20. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.

  1. Evaluation of antiviral resistant hepatitis B virus subpopulations in patients with chronic hepatitis B by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ergin

    2015-12-01

    Antiviral therapies with nucleotide analogues (NA) is crucial in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B as it substantially protects patients from the complications of the disease . However in most of the available NA therapies, resistance emerges in the patients' HBV populations. Therefore, detection of antiviral resistance as early as possible by means of genotypically monitoring the patients' HBV pool during NA therapy is critical to manage treatment regime. In this research study we have investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method in detecting HBV subpopulations carrying antiviral resistance mutations. For this aim, differentiation of mutant strains from wild type strains was demonstrated by PCR-RFLP method. With using recombinant plasmids containing mutant and wild type HBV genomes, we constructed artificial HBV genome populations in order to determine the sensitivity of PCR-T-RFLP method in detecting antiviral resistant minor HBV populations. Finally by comparing with the DNA sequencing method, we demonstrated the specificity of T-RFLP method in genotyping HBV populations. As a result we showed that T-RFLP is able to detect HBV subpopulations representing as low as 1 % of the whole viral population. Additionally T-RFLP showed 100 % concordance with the DNA sequencing method in genotyping HBV populations. As a conclusion, considering the other genotyping methods used in evaluating HBV populations, T-RFLP showed high sensitivity and specificity profiles in detecting antiviral resistant HBV subpopulations. Therefore T-RFLP method can be easily employed in genotypic evaluation of patients' HBV populations during the course of antiviral treatment.

  2. Increases in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain during chronic sleep restriction in rats: possible role in initiating allostatic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, J K; Deurveilher, S; Currie, R W; Fawcett, J P; Semba, K

    2014-09-26

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) has various negative consequences on cognitive performance and health. Using a rat model of CSR that uses alternating cycles of 3h of sleep deprivation (using slowly rotating activity wheels) and 1h of sleep opportunity continuously for 4 days ('3/1' protocol), we previously observed not only homeostatic but also allostatic (adaptive) sleep responses to CSR. In particular, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) electroencephalogram (EEG) delta power, an index of sleep intensity, increased initially and then declined gradually during CSR, with no rebound during a 2-day recovery period. To study underlying mechanisms of these allostatic responses, we examined the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to regulate NREMS EEG delta activity, during the same CSR protocol. Mature BDNF protein levels were measured in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain, two brain regions involved in sleep and EEG regulation, and the hippocampus, using Western blot analysis. Adult male Wistar rats were housed in motorized activity wheels, and underwent the 3/1 CSR protocol for 27 h, for 99 h, or for 99 h followed by 24h of recovery. Additional rats were housed in either locked wheels (locked wheel controls [LWCs]) or unlocked wheels that rats could rotate freely (wheel-running controls [WRCs]). BDNF levels did not differ between WRC and LWC groups. BDNF levels were increased, compared to the control levels, in all three brain regions after 27 h, and were increased less strongly after 99 h, of CSR. After 24h of recovery, BDNF levels were at the control levels. This time course of BDNF levels parallels the previously reported changes in NREMS delta power during the same CSR protocol. Changes in BDNF protein levels in the cortex and basal forebrain may be part of the molecular mechanisms underlying allostatic sleep responses to CSR. PMID:25010399

  3. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  4. Long-term food consumption and body weight changes in neotame safety studies are consistent with the allometric relationship observed for other sweeteners and during dietary restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, W Gary; Blackburn, George L; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Stargel, W Wayne

    2003-10-01

    In long-term safety studies with neotame, a new high-intensity sweetener 7000-13,000 times sweeter than sucrose, the percent changes (%Delta) in body weight gain (BWG) in Sprague-Dawley rats were several-fold greater than the %Delta in overall food consumption (FC). This study investigates the question of whether the changes in BWG were adverse or secondary to small, long-term decrements in FC. The hypothesis tested in Sprague-Dawley rats was that the relationship between long-term %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG is linear and in a ratio of 1:1. The %Delta in FC were compared to %Delta in BWG after 52 weeks on study in one saccharin (825 rats), two sucralose (480 rats), two neotame (630 rats), and five dietary restriction (>1000 rats) studies. Non-transformed plotting of data points demonstrated an absence of linearity between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG; however, log-log evaluation demonstrated a robust (R2=0.97) linear relationship between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG. This relationship followed the well-known allometric equation, y=bxa where x is %DeltaFC, y is %DeltaBWG, b is %DeltaBWG when DeltaFC=1, and a is the log-log slope. Thus, in Sprague-Dawley rats at week 52, the long-term relationship between %Delta in FC and %Delta in BWG was determined to be: %DeltaBWG=3.45(%DeltaFC0.74) for males and %DeltaBWG=5.28(%DeltaFC0.68) for females. Sexes were statistically different but study types, i.e., the high-intensity sweeteners saccharin and sucralose versus dietary restriction, were not. The %Delta in BWG are allometrically consistent with the observed %Delta in FC for these high-intensity sweeteners, including neotame. BW parameters are not appropriate endpoints for setting no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) when materials with intense taste are admixed into food. An approach using objective criteria is proposed to delineate BW changes due to toxicity from those secondary to reduced FC. PMID:14550756

  5. Azodyl, a synbiotic, fails to alter azotemia in cats with chronic kidney disease when sprinkled onto food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Wynn, Susan G

    2011-06-01

    The effect of probiotic therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is poorly defined, but gaining in popularity. However, cat owners often prefer to administer probiotics by combining them with food, rather than administering capsules intact, as is prescribed by the manufacturer. The efficacy of such non-recommended administration is unknown. In this double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, 10 cats with naturally-occurring CKD were randomized to receive either a probiotic-prebiotic combination (synbiotic) or psyllium husk (prebiotic only) for 2 months. Medications were sprinkled and mixed into food or given as a slurry. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured twice prior to administration of medication, and then monthly for 2 months during the medication administration. Owners and clinicians were masked as to treatment. The maximal percentage change in BUN and creatinine was calculated for each cat. No differences in percentage change were detected between groups (P=0.8 for both BUN and creatinine). The synbiotic supplement used in this study, when applied to food or administered as a slurry fails to reduce azotemia in cats with CKD. Therefore, owners should not administer this synbiotic in this manner. PMID:21571563

  6. Enhanced Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference and Associated Brain Regional Levels of BDNF, P-ERK1/2 and P-Ser845-GluA1 in Food-Restricted Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Zheng, Danielle; Peng, Xing-Xiang; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, a learning-free measure was used to demonstrate that chronic food restriction (FR) increases the reward magnitude of a wide range of abused drugs. Moreover, a variety of striatal neuroadaptations were detected in FR subjects, some of which are known to be involved in synaptic plasticity but have been ruled out as modulators of acute drug reward magnitude. Little is known about effects of FR on drug-conditioned place preference (CPP) and brain regional mechanisms that may enhance CPP in FR subjects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the expression and persistence of a conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by a relatively low dose of cocaine (7.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in ad libitum fed (AL) and FR rats and take several brain regional biochemical measures following the first CPP conditioning session to probe candidate mechanisms that may underlie the more robust CPP observed in FR subjects. Behaviorally, AL subjects displayed a CPP upon initial testing which extinguished rapidly over the course of subsequent test sessions while CPP in FR subjects persisted. Despite previous reports of elevated BDNF protein in forebrain regions of FR rats, the FR protocol used in the present study did not alter BDNF levels in dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens or medial prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, FR rats, whether injected with cocaine or vehicle, displayed elevated p-ERK1/2 and p-Ser845-GluA1 in dorsal hippocampus. FR rats also displayed elevated p-ERK1/2 in medial prefrontal cortex and elevated p-ERK1 in nucleus accumbens, with further increases produced by cocaine. The one effect observed exclusively in cocaine-treated FR rats was increased p-Ser845-GluA1 in nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest a number of avenues for continuing investigation with potential translational significance. PMID:21640333

  7. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does not ...

  8. Chronic dietary risk characterization for pesticide residues: a ranking and scoring method integrating agricultural uses and food contamination data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Reninger, Jean-Cédric; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2011-07-01

    A method has been developed to identify pesticide residues and foodstuffs for inclusion in national monitoring programs with different priority levels. It combines two chronic dietary intake indicators: ATMDI based on maximum residue levels and agricultural uses, and EDI on food contamination data. The mean and 95th percentile of exposure were calculated for 490 substances using individual and national consumption data. The results show that mean ATMDI exceeds the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 10% of the pesticides, and the mean upper-bound EDI is above the ADI for 1.8% of substances. A seven-level risk scale is presented for substances already analyzed in food in France and substances not currently sought. Of 336 substances analyzed, 70 pesticides of concern (levels 2-5) should be particularly monitored, 22 of which are priority pesticides (levels 4 and 5). Of 154 substances not sought, 36 pesticides of concern (levels 2-4) should be included in monitoring programs, including 8 priority pesticides (level 4). In order to refine exposure assessment, analytical improvements and developments are needed to lower the analytical limits for priority pesticide/commodity combinations. Developed nationally, this method could be applied at different geographic scales.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and protective effects of food intake: from hypothesis to evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriëtte A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence for a role of diet in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been accumulating rapidly over the past decade. Associations have been reported between the intake of fruit, fish, antioxidant vitamins, fatty acids, sodium or magnesium, and indicators of asthma and COPD. Several issues need to be addressed before causality of these associations can be established. The role of diet in the development of disease and the induction time and reversibility of the effect needs further investigation. The role of smoking habits in the relation of diet and respiratory disease also needs to be elucidated. Nevertheless, based on the available evidence, dietary guidelines could be proposed for the primary and secondary prevention of asthma and COPD that are in line with existing dietary guidelines for the prevention of coronary heart disease and cancer.

  10. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  11. Cueing, demand fading, and positive reinforcement to establish self-feeding and oral consumption in a child with chronic food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, J K

    2000-07-01

    A 3-year-old child with multiple medical disorders and chronic food refusal was treated successfully using a program that incorporated antecedent control procedures combined with positive reinforcement. The antecedent manipulations included visual cueing of a criterion number of self-feeding responses that were required during meals to receive reinforcement and a gradual increase in the imposed criterion (demand fading) that was based on improved frequency of oral consumption. As evaluated in a changing criterion design, the child learned to feed himself as an outcome of treatment. One year following intervention, he was consuming a variety of foods and had gained weight. Advantages of antecedent control methods for the treatment of chronic food refusal are discussed.

  12. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Piccolo; Bremer, Andrew A.; Michael Spurlock; Anthony Thomas; Megan Witbracht; Gertz, Erik R.; Sean H. Adams; Elaine Souza; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; VAN LOAN, MARTA D.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned ...

  13. Restrictions on trade in distribution services

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleeswaran Kalirajan

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and quantifies restrictions affecting domestic and international trade in distribution services - mainly wholesaling and retailing - in 38 economies, including Australia. The paper also explores the price and cost implications of restrictions in food distribution services.

  14. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  15. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25406801

  16. Altérations périphériques et centrales dans un modèle murin de restriction alimentaire chronique : rôle de la ghréline

    OpenAIRE

    Méquinion, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic food restriction is one of the major features observed in anorexia nervosa (AN), especially in the restrictive type. This major eating disorder affects mainly teenager girls and young women. Additionally to the restriction behavior, important physical activity is observed in a large number of patients (40-80% of cases). This disease induces various physiological alterations that concern neuroendocrine, metabolic and bone (osteopenia, osteoporosis) pathways, which have dramatic consequ...

  17. Crescimento e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas Wistar, em restrição alimentar desde o nascimento = Growth and reproductive parameters of female Wistar rats under food restriction since birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Montoro Mazeti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o desenvolvimento de ratas Wistar, submetidas à restrição alimentar desde o nascimento, investigando algumas alterações quantitativas e funcionais resultantes desta deficiência. A restrição alimentar foi imposta por duplicação do tamanho da ninhada experimental (grupo-restrição, 12 filhotes em relação à ninhada-controle (grupo-controle, seis filhotes durante a lactação, e por redução de 50% no alimento ofertado desde o desmame até os 90 dias de idade. As ratas do grupo-restrição, comparadas às do grupo-controle, apresentaram crescimento ponderal e linear inferior, menor peso de órgãos e depósitos abdominais de gordura pouco desenvolvidos e retardo na idade da abertura vaginal. Por outro lado, seu crescimento prosseguiu por todo o período de 90 dias. Após o cruzamento, as ratas do grupo-controletiveram ninhadas numerosas, enquanto nenhuma das ratas do grupo-restrição emprenhou. Concluiu-se que a restrição alimentar, durante e após a lactação, interferiu negativamente no desenvolvimento corporal das ratas, retardou o início da puberdade, indicado pela idadeda abertura vaginal, comprometeu o crescimento dos órgãos internos e a deposição de gordura, e impediu a concepção.This work had the purpose of characterizing the development of female Wistar rats subjected to food restriction since birth, investigatingsome quantitative and functional changes resulting from this deficiency. Food restriction was imposed through duplication of the litter size (restriction group, 12 pups relative to the control litter (control group, six pups during lactation, and through reduction in 50% of the food supplied from weaning to 90 days of age. The female rats of the restriction group, when compared to the controls, had smaller linear and ponderal growth, lower organweight and poorly developed abdominal fat deposits, and delayed vaginal opening. On the other hand, their growth

  18. Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2011-11-01

    Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens. PMID:22054189

  19. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  20. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  1. Effects of Food Restriction on Fat Metabolism Index of Monosodium Glutamate in Obese Rats and Human%限食对谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠及人体肥胖代谢指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关真民; 王慧; 程俊美; 鹿勇

    2013-01-01

    Investigation has been conducted to observe the effect of short-term food restriction on fat metabolism index of obesity and rat by means not only of animal experiment:glutamate obese rats have been divided into control group and food restriction group,and the Lee index weight,fat index and glycerin three greases' change of the two groups observed,but also of human experiment:the subjects were 21women,aged 22-45 years old.Limited food have been given seven days of fasting,first days for the buff er,the first 2-6 days for fasting days,seventh days for the restoration of day,food restriction for first days of acupuncture points and massage.Observation has been done on the body fat,body fat percentage,body weight,BMI and the change of waist circumference before and after food restriction.Results show that glutamate obese rats with food restriction group's weight,Lee index,fat index and glycerin three greases is markedly decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01) compared with the control group; 21 subjects in the dietary restriction of body fat,body fat percentage and waist circumference are also significantly decreased and had significant difference (p<0.05),and the body weight and BMI decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01).It is concluded that food restriction therapy has im portant significance for obesity treatment and prevention of complications.%目的 观察短期限食对肥胖人群及大鼠脂肪代谢指标的影响.方法 动物实验:将谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠分为对照组和限食组,并分别观察两组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯的变化;人体实验:受试者为21名女性,年龄22~45岁.限食者均限食7天,第1天为缓冲日,第2~6天为禁食日,第7天为恢复日.观察限食前后体脂、体脂百分率、体重、BMI和腰围的变化.结果 谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠限食组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯与对照组相比明显下降,

  2. 限食程度对KM小鼠体重和能量代谢的影响%Effect of Mild and Sever Food Restriction on Body Mass and Energy Budget in KM Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈可新; 王守山; 孟喜龙; 王桂英; 李玉保; 马飞; 赵志军

    2011-01-01

    为阐明体重和能量代谢的生理调节对动物适应食物短缺的作用和意义,将成年KM小鼠按自由取食量的75%和50%随机限食四周,再重喂食四周.分别测定了摄食量、基础代谢率(BMR)和脂肪含量.限食75%和50%使BMR和消化道重量显著增加,体重、胴体重、脂肪含量显著降低;重喂食后,BMR和体重恢复到对照组水平,脂肪含量显著高于对照组.结果表明,动物通过能量代谢和体重调节以适应不同程度的食物资源短缺的应激环境,通过增加身体能量贮存以增强应对食物短缺的适应能力.%The present study aimed to examine the significance and the role of physiological regulations of body mass and energy budget in small mammals in the adaptation to variations of food availability.Adult male KM mice were stochastically restricted to 75% and 50% of ad libitum food intake for four weeks and then refed ad libitum for another four weeks.Body mass,food intake,basal metabolic rate(BMR) and body composition were measured.Food-restricted mice increased BMR and the weight of gastrointestinal tracts,but decreased body mass,carcass mass,body fat content compared with controls.After 4 weeks of refeeding,BMR and body mass recovered to the levels of controls,whereas body fat content was significantly higher than control mice.These finding may suggest that the physiological regulations in energy budget and body mass are employed by small mammals to meet the environmental stress caused by different stochastic food restriction.Animals are able to increased fat storage when food is plentiful and then increase the capability to cope with lower food availability.

  3. Patterns of food avoidance in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a case for dietary recommendations? Patrones de evitación alimenticia en el síndrome de fatiga crónica: ¿hay base para dar recomendaciones dietéticas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the dietary habits and food avoidance-behavior in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Methods: Cross-sectional pilot study with 28 patients diagnosed with severe CFS. Eating habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food records. We analyzed variables related to dietary restrictions induced by symptoms or external information. Results: The most prevalent restrictions were for dairy products and gluten-containing grains, with 22 and 15 restricting patients, respectively. Patients reported different digestive symptoms, which did not improve with the use of exclusion diets. Thirteen patients had received information against the intake of certain foods through different sources. Six cases of grains restriction and 11 of dairy were compatible with a counseling-induced pattern of exclusion. Conclusions: There is not a homogeneous pattern of food avoidance. Dietary restrictions should be based on a proven food allergy or intolerance. Dietary counseling should be based on sound nutritional knowledge.Objetivos: Valorar los hábitos dietéticos y la conducta de evitación alimenticia en pacientes con Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica. Métodos: Estudio piloto transversal con 28 pacientes diagnosticados de Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica en grado severo. Los hábitos alimenticios se evaluaron mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo y registros dietéticos de 3 días. Se analizaron variables relacionadas con las restricciones dietéticas inducidas por síntomas o información externa. Resultados: Las restricciones más frecuentes fueron para los productos lácteos y cereales con gluten, con 22 y 15 pacientes que los restringían, respectivamente. Los pacientes informaron de diferentes síntomas digestivos, que no mejoraron con el uso de dietas de exclusión. Trece pacientes habían recibido información contraria al consumo de ciertos alimentos, a través de diferentes fuentes. Seis casos de

  4. Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread utilization by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and “hidden” phosphorus load in modern diets. These ...

  5. Effects of food restriction on energy metabolism in male Eothenomys miletus%食物限制对雄性大绒鼠能量代谢特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盛昌; 朱万龙; 黄春梅; 余婷婷; 高文荣; 王政昆

    2013-01-01

    为探讨横断山区大绒鼠适应食物匮乏的适应对策,将成年雄性大绒鼠随机分为自由取食组和饲喂正常摄食量的80%限食组.测定了自由取食组和限食组雄性大绒鼠的体重、静止代谢率、非颤抖性产热以及体脂含量、血清瘦素含量、肝脏鲜重、褐色脂肪组织重量和消化道形态.结果显示:限食使雄性大绒鼠的体重、体脂含量、静止代谢率、非颤抖性产热、褐色脂肪组织重量和大肠、小肠长度显著降低,使盲肠内容物重量显著增加.血清瘦素含量与体重、体脂含量呈极显著正相关.在限食条件下,大绒鼠主要通过降低体重、基础代谢和产热的能量支出以及动用体内脂肪以应对食物资源短缺的环境条件,瘦素可能参与了能量代谢和体重的适应性调节.%We investigated physiological adaptation under conditions of food restriction in Eothenomys miletus inhabiting the Hengduan Mountain region.Adult male E.miletus were randomly assigned either to a control group (food ad libitum) or a food restriction group (80% of calorie intake relative to control),and body mass,resting metabolic rate (RMR),nonshivering thermogenesis (NST),body fat content,serum leptin levels,liver mass,brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass,and morphological parameters of the digestive tract in male E.miletus were measured.The results showed that body mass,body fat content,RMR,NST,BAT mass,liver mass,large intestine length and small intestine length in the food restriction group were lower than those in the control group.In contrast,caecum content mass in the food restriction group was significantly higher relative to that of the control group.In addition,serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass and body fat content.These results suggest that E.miletus apply physiological adjustments to adapt to reduced food availability by reducing body mass,body fat content and energy metabolism.Serum leptin may

  6. Food restriction and refeeding induces changes in lipid pathways and fat deposition in the adipose and hepatic tissues in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Maria, Adriana Simone Lopes Santa; de Aquino, Antônio Eduardo; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; Rossi, Elizeu Antônio; Garcia de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Cláudia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of successive cycles of a moderately restrictive diet and refeeding with a high-fat diet on the metabolism of the adipose and hepatic tissues of obese rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: a chow diet; a high-fat diet; a moderate caloric restriction; or a moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding. Some animals in each group were given [1-(14)C]triolein intragastrically, while others received an intraperitoneal injection of 3 mCi (3)H(2)O. All animals were killed by decapitation. The retroperitoneal, visceral epididymal and omental white adipose tissues, brown adipose tissue, liver and blood were immediately removed. The lipid uptake from the diet, in vivo rate of lipogenesis, percentage of fat, lipid profile and leptin concentration were analysed. The high-fat diet promoted an increase in fatty liver (P ≤ 0.05), adiposity mass (P ≤ 0.05) and the plasma concentration of leptin (P ≤ 0.05) and a decreased lipid uptake in white adipose tissue depots (P ≤ 0.05) in relation to the chow diet. The moderate caloric restriction did not reverse the changes promoted by the high-fat diet but induced a small decrease in adiposity, which was reversed after refeeding, and the animals maintained a dyslipidaemic profile and high fat deposition in the liver. We can conclude that the high-fat diet and subsequent moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding increased the risks of developing visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which suggests that this type of experimental protocol can be used to study mechanisms related to the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Fasting Leptin Is a Metabolic Determinant of Food Reward in Overweight and Obese Individuals during Chronic Aerobic Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in food reward have been implicated in exercise-induced compensatory eating behaviour. However, the underlying mechanisms of food reward, and the physiological correlates of exercise-induced changes in food reward, are unknown. Methods. Forty-six overweight and obese individuals completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Body composition, food intake, and fasting metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week six, and postintervention. On separate days, the reward value of high-and-low-fat food (explicit liking and implicit wanting was also assessed at baseline, week six, and postintervention. Results. Following the intervention, FM, FFM, and VO2peak improved significantly, while fasting leptin decreased. However, food intake or reward did not change significantly. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that FM (P=0.022 and FFM (P=0.046 were associated with explicit liking for high-fat food, but implicit wanting was associated with FM only (P=0.005. Fasting leptin was associated with liking (P=0.023 and wanting (P=0.021 for high-fat food. Furthermore, a greater exercise-induced decline in fasting leptin was associated with increased liking (P=0.018. Conclusion. These data indicate that food reward has a number of physiological correlates. In particular, fasting leptin appears to play an active role in mediating food reward during exercise-induced weight loss.

  8. Protein-controlled versus restricted protein versus low protein diets in managing patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: a single centre experience in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has been an important part of medical management in patients with chronic kidney disease for more than a century. Since the 1970s, due to technological advances in renal replacement therapy (RRT) such as dialysis and transplantation, the importance of nutrition intervention in non-dialysis stages has diminished. In addition, it appears that there is a lack of high-level evidence to support the use of diet therapy, in particular the use of low protein diets to slow down disease progression. However, nutrition abnormalities are known to emerge well before dialysis is required and are associated with poor outcomes post-commencing dialysis. To improve clinical outcomes it is prudent to incorporate practice research and quality audits into routine care, as part of the continuous clinical practice improvement process. This article summarises the experience of and current practices in a metropolitan tertiary teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. PMID:27624699

  9. [The use of food supplements - beverages and concentrated food products in tablets made from plants in sanatory and health resort rehabilitation of patients with chronic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Zaĭtsev, L M; Diudiakov, A A; Kaptsova, E V; Gruzdeva, A E

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of a recovery complex optimization in conditions of the sanatorium-resort rehabilitation of patients with chronic pathology by provision of the dietotherapy ration balance on nutrients, the use of natural (of the plant raw material cryopowders in the form of teas and tableted forms) and the "Centrum" synthetic vitamin-mineral complexes, probiotics was substantiated and demonstrated. PMID:15154365

  10. Effects of acute and chronic aripiprazole treatment on choice between cocaine self-administration and food under a concurrent schedule of reinforcement in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Woldbye, David;

    2008-01-01

    the hypothesis that aripiprazole, both as acute and as chronic treatment, would preferentially decrease cocaine self-administration while sparing behavior maintained by a natural reinforcer, resulting in a shift in the allocation of behavior from cocaine-taking towards the alternative reinforcer. MATERIALS...... performance in the choice procedure was assessed daily. RESULTS: An intermediate dose of aripiprazole decreased cocaine self-administration and shifted the cocaine choice curve to the right as an acute treatment. However, as a chronic treatment, aripiprazole failed to decrease cocaine self-administration...... or cocaine choice, despite a dose-dependent decrease in overall response rates and food-maintained behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm and extend earlier findings and indicate that acute administration of aripiprazole can decrease cocaine self-administration. However, based on the present data...

  11. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  12. The Presence of HLA-E-Restricted, CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells in the Blood of Lung Transplant Recipients Correlates with Chronic Allograft Rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy C Sullivan

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (CMV immune evasion protein, UL40, shares an identical peptide sequence with that found in the leader sequence of many human leukocyte antigen (HLA-C alleles and when complexed with HLA-E, can modulate NK cell functions via interactions with the CD94-NKG2 receptors. However the UL40-derived sequence can also be immunogenic, eliciting robust CD8+ T cell responses. In the setting of solid organ transplantation these T cells may not only be involved in antiviral immunity but also can potentially contribute to allograft rejection when the UL40 epitope is also present in allograft-encoded HLA. Here we assessed 15 bilateral lung transplant recipients for the presence of HLA-E-restricted UL40 specific T cells by tetramer staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. UL40-specific T cells were observed in 7 patients post-transplant however the magnitude of the response varied significantly between patients. Moreover, unlike healthy CMV seropositive individuals, longitudinal analyses revealed that proportions of such T cells fluctuated markedly. Nine patients experienced low-grade acute cellular rejection, of which 6 also demonstrated UL40-specific T cells. Furthermore, the presence of UL40-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood was significantly associated with allograft dysfunction, which manifested as Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS. Therefore, this study suggests that minor histocompatibility antigens presented by HLA-E can represent an additional risk factor following lung transplantation.

  13. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not aff...

  14. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat.

  15. Chronic fatigue in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome: validation of a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragna Lind,1 Arnold Berstad,2 Jan Hatlebakk,1,3 Jørgen Valeur21Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 2Unger-Vetlesen Institute, Department of Medicine, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS suffer from several health complaints, including fatigue. The aim of the present study was to validate a Norwegian translation of the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS, and to assess the impact of fatigue in patients with self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, as compared with healthy controls.Methods: Thirty-eight patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, who participated in the validation of the FIS completed the following additional questionnaires: the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index for assessment of quality of life, the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory, and questionnaires for diagnosis and severity of IBS. Impact of fatigue was studied in 43 patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity, 70% diagnosed with IBS, and 42 healthy controls.Results: Cronbach's α for the FIS was 0.98, indicating excellent agreement between individual items. Scores on the FIS correlated with scores on the Short Form of Nepean Dyspepsia Index (r = 0.50, P = 0.001, indicating good convergent validity, and were higher in patients (median 85.0, interquartile range 36.8–105.3 than in controls (median 14.0, interquartile range 3.0–29.0, P ≤0.0001.Conclusion: The Norwegian translation of the FIS performed excellently in patients with unexplained self-reported food hypersensitivity and IBS, with patients reporting significantly more impact of chronic fatigue than healthy controls.Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, food hypersensitivity, quality of life

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of lactose digestion, its impact on intolerance and nutritional effects of dairy food restriction in inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Galiatsatos, Polymnia; Xue, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Relationships between inflammatory bowel disease and lactose containing foods remain controversial and poorly defined regarding symptoms, nutritional outcomes, and epidemiologic associations for lactose maldigestion. Methods A literature review was performed using Pub Med, Cochrane library and individual references, to extract data on lactose maldigestion prevalence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A meta-analysis was done using selected articles, to determine odds ratios of maldige...

  17. Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann Elisabeth; Teixeira Santuza MR; Horta Maria F; Mota Rodrigo M; Moreira João; Nicoli Jacques R.; Nunes Álvaro C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS), were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA i...

  18. Central Agonism of GPR120 Acutely Inhibits Food Intake and Food Reward and Chronically Suppresses Anxiety-Like Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Alexandre; Fernandes, Maria F.; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Background: GPR120 (FFAR4) is a G-protein coupled receptor implicated in the development of obesity and the antiinflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Increasing central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been shown to have both anorectic and anxiolytic actions. Despite the strong clinical interest in GPR120, its role in the brain is largely unknown, and thus we sought to determine the impact of central GPR120 pharmacological activation on energy balance, food reward, and anxiety-like behavior. Methods: Male C57Bl/6 mice with intracerebroventricular cannulae received a single injection (0.1 or 1 µM) or continuous 2-week infusion (1 µM/d; mini-pump) of a GPR120 agonist or vehicle. Free-feeding intake, operant lever-pressing for palatable food, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and body weight were measured. GPR120 mRNA expression was measured in pertinent brain areas. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated-plus maze and open field test. Results: GPR120 agonist injections substantially reduced chow intake during 4 hours postinjection, suppressed the rewarding effects of high-fat/-sugar food, and blunted approach-avoidance behavior in the open field. Conversely, prolonged central GPR120 agonist infusions reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze and open field, yet failed to affect free-feeding intake, energy expenditure, and body weight on a high-fat diet. Conclusion: Acute reductions in food intake and food reward suggest that GPR120 could mediate the effects of central ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to inhibit appetite. The anxiolytic effect elicited by GPR120 agonist infusions favors the testing of compounds that can enter the brain to activate GPR120 for the mitigation of anxiety. PMID:26888796

  19. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  20. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  1. Effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight and food intake differ among pre-pubertal, gonadal-intact, and ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excessive body weight gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgen in female appetite and body weight regulation have not been fully studied. In this study, whether the roles of androgen in the regulation of body weight and appetite were different among ages and/or the estrogen milieu in females was evaluated. Body weight gain and food intake were increased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. Testosterone administration also affected the serum leptin level and adipose leptin gene expression levels differently in each experimental condition. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of ERα, which plays pivotal roles in regulation of body weight and metabolism, were decreased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. These results indicate that the effects of testosterone on body weight and appetite differed among ages and/or estrogen milieu in female rats, and that attenuation of estrogens' actions on the hypothalamus might be partly involved in the androgen-induced increases of body weight gain and food intake in females. PMID:27139935

  2. Plasticity of Energy Metabolism and Behavior in Mice under A Random Food Restriction and Recovery%随机限食与重喂食小鼠的能量代谢和行为的可塑性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志军; 王瑞瑞; 曹静

    2009-01-01

    分别测定了随机限食和重喂食驯化的雌性KM小鼠的体重、摄食量、基础代谢率(BMR)、行为活动、身体脂肪和性腺重量.随机限食使摄食量增加、BMR和活动行为降低,生长发育迟缓,但对身体脂肪无显著影响.重喂食后上述指标均恢复到对照组水平,表现出显著的可塑性变化.结果表明,动物通过能量摄入和支出的权衡策略适应难以预测的食物资源变化,能量代谢和活动行为的可塑性调节在能量代谢的权衡策略中发挥重要作用.%Body weight, food intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR), behavior, body fat, and gonad mass were measured in female KM mice that acclimated to a random food restriction (FR) and recovery. Food intake increased significantly, but body weight, gonad mass, BMR and activity decreased in FR mice and there was no group difference in fat mass. That all the parameters above recovered after re-feeding indicated a significant plasticity. The present data suggested that an energy trade-off was employed to meet unpredictable variation of food availability. The plasticity of energy metabolism and behavior played an important role in the trade-off strategy.

  3. Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E

    2008-01-01

    Vegetarians form a non-homogenous group consisting of semivegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs and fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and vegans (plant food only). According to pure vegetarian ideologists, people consuming vegetarian diet have better health and live longer than nonvegetarians, because persons consuming milk, dairy products, meat, eggs and fish are at health risk. In fact the most healthy people in Europe are inhabitants of Iceland, Switzerland and Scandinavia, consuming great amounts of food of animal origin. Meta-analysis of several prospective studies showed no significant differences in the mortality caused by colorectal, stomach, lung, prostate or breast cancers and stroke between vegetarians and "health-conscious" nonvegetarians. In vegetarians, a decrease of ischemic heart disease mortality was observed probably due to lower total serum cholesterol levels, lower prevalence of obesity and higher consumption of antioxidants. Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful. Now, the largest cohort study of diet and health on more than half million of persons, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, will bring new data on the relationships between diet, lifestyle and environmental factors and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Vegetarianism is a form of food restriction; and in our overfed society, food restriction is a plus unless it results in a nutritional deficiency (Fig. 1, Tab. 2, Ref. 18). PMID:19166134

  4. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. PMID:27164487

  5. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  6. Therapeutic potential of ghrelin in restricting-type anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Mari; Ohwada, Rina; Akamizu, Takashi; Shibasaki, Tamotsu; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by a decrease in caloric intake and malnutrition. It is associated with a variety of medical morbidities as well as significant mortality. Nutritional support is of paramount importance to prevent impaired quality of life later in life in affected patients. Some patients with restricting-type AN who are fully motivated to gain body weight cannot increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Chronicity of AN prevents participation in social activities and leads to increased medical expenses. Therefore, there is a pressing need for effective appetite-stimulating therapies for patients with AN. Ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone that can be given intravenously. Intravenous infusion of ghrelin is reported to increase food intake and body weight in healthy subjects as well as in patients with poor nutritional status. Here, we introduce the results of a pilot study that investigated the effects of ghrelin on appetite, energy intake, and nutritional parameters in five patients with restricting-type AN, who are fully motivated to gain body weight but could not increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:22975066

  7. Health promotion by dietary restriction--a focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, K M

    2006-01-01

    Food restriction, although long popular among gerontologists, has emerged as a new challenge in public health in postindustrial societies because this is the only intervention that repeatedly and strikingly increases maximum life span. The practice of food restriction is widespread for cosmetic, health, and economic reasons. The beneficial effects and the molecular mechanism of food restriction have been well established. The present review summarizes the rapidly accumulating evidence on the involvement of food restriction in various diseases and focuses on good dietary practices for health promotion in modern life style. PMID:16910315

  8. Effects of an exercise programme for chronically ill and mobility-restricted elderly with structured support by the general practitioner's practice (HOMEfit - study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichs Timo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise programmes can be administered successfully as therapeutic agents to patients with a number of chronic diseases and help to improve physical functioning in older adults. Usually, such programmes target either healthy and mobile community-dwelling seniors or elderly individuals living in nursing institutions or special residences. Chronically ill or mobility-restricted individuals, however, are difficult to reach when they live in their own homes. A pilot study has shown good feasibility of a home-based exercise programme that is delivered to this target group through cooperation between general practitioners and exercise therapists. A logical next step involves evaluation of the effects of the programme. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 210 patients (≥ 70 years in about 15 general practices. The experimental intervention (duration 12 weeks-a multidimensional home-based exercise programme-is delivered to the participant by an exercise therapist in counselling sessions at the general practitioner's practice and on the telephone. It is based on methods and strategies for facilitating behaviour change according to the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA. The control intervention-baseline physical activities-differs from the experimental intervention with regard to content of the counselling sessions as well as to content and frequency of the promoted activities. Primary outcome is functional lower body strength measured by the "chair-rise" test. Secondary outcomes are: physical function (battery of motor tests, physical activity (step count, health-related quality of life (SF-8, fall-related self-efficacy (FES-I, and exercise self-efficacy (SSA-Scale. The hypothesis that there will be differences between the two groups (experimental/control with respect to post-interventional chair-rise time will be tested using an ANCOVA with chair-rise time at baseline

  9. Long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats: radial-arm maze performance and operant food reinforced responding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Risher

    Full Text Available Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats.Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory.These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed after adolescent CIE and provide direction for future

  10. Leptin signaling in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius reduces food seeking and willingness to work for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, Scott E; Alhadeff, Amber L; Fortin, Samantha M; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J

    2014-02-01

    The adipose-derived hormone leptin signals in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) to suppress food intake, in part, by amplifying within-meal gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Here we show that mNTS leptin receptor (LepRb) signaling also reduces appetitive and motivational aspects of feeding, and that these effects can depend on energy status. Using the lowest dose that significantly suppressed 3-h cumulative food intake, unilateral leptin (0.3 μg) administration to the mNTS (3 h before testing) reduced operant lever pressing for sucrose under increasing work demands (progressive ratio reinforcement schedule) regardless of whether animals were energy deplete (food restricted) or replete (ad libitum fed). However, in a separate test of food-motivated responding in which there was no opportunity to consume food (conditioned place preference (CPP) for an environment previously associated with a palatable food reward), mNTS leptin administration suppressed food-seeking behavior only in chronically food-restricted rats. On the other hand, mNTS LepRb signaling did not reduce CPP expression for morphine reinforcement regardless of energy status, suggesting that mNTS leptin signaling differentially influences motivated responding for food vs opioid reward. Overall results show that mNTS LepRb signaling reduces food intake and appetitive food-motivated responding independent of energy status in situations involving orosensory and postingestive contact with food, whereas food-seeking behavior independent of food consumption is only reduced by mNTS LepRb activation in a state of energy deficit. These findings reveal a novel appetitive role for LepRb signaling in the mNTS, a brain region traditionally linked with processing of meal-related GI satiation signals. PMID:24002186

  11. Stimulation of duodenal biopsies and whole blood from dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy and healthy dogs with Toll-like receptor ligands and probiotic Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, S; Henrich, M; Neiger, R; Werling, D; Allenspach, K

    2014-08-01

    The composition of the microbiome plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans and chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. The administration of probiotic micro-organisms is one way of modulating the microbiome, but experiments elucidating mechanisms of action of probiotics in the intestine of healthy and CE dogs are lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and Enterococcus faecium (EF) on ex vivo cultured duodenal samples and whole blood (WB) from dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy (FRE) when compared to healthy dogs. Biopsy stimulation was performed in 17 FRE and 11 healthy dogs; WB stimulation was performed in 16 FRE and 16 healthy dogs. Expression of TLR2, 4, 5 and 9, IL-17A, IL-22, IFNy, TNFα, IL-4, IL-10, TGFβ and PPARy was determined in biopsies by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, production of TNFα, IL-10, IFNy and IL-17A protein in WB and biopsy supernatants was assessed by ELISA. Treatment with individual TLR ligands or EF induced a variety of changes in the expression of different TLRs and cytokines, but not necessarily a consistent change with a single stimulating agent. Even though cytokine protein could not be detected in supernatants from ex vivo stimulated biopsies, we found TNFα protein responses in blood to be opposite of the transcriptional responses seen in the biopsies. Stimulation of canine duodenal biopsies with TLR ligands can potentially induce anti-inflammatory gene expression, especially in healthy tissue, whereas the effects of EF were limited.

  12. Restricting marketing to children: Consensus on policy interventions to address obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Lobstein, Tim; Landon, Jane; Kent, Monique Potvin; Pellerin, Suzie; Caulfield, Timothy; Finegood, Diane; Mongeau, Lyne; Neary, Neil; Spence, John C

    2013-01-01

    Obesity presents major challenges for public health and the evidence is strong. Lessons from tobacco control indicate a need for changing the policy and environments to make healthy choices easier and to create more opportunities for children to achieve healthy weights. In April 2011, the Alberta Policy Coalition for Chronic Disease Prevention convened a consensus conference on environmental determinants of obesity such as marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. We examine the political environment, evidence, issues, and challenges of placing restrictions on marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages within Canada. We recommend a national regulatory system prohibiting commercial marketing of foods and beverages to children and suggest that effective regulations must set minimum standards, monitor compliance, and enact penalties for non-compliance. PMID:23447026

  13. Food selection, growth and physiology in relation to dietary sodium chloride content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under chronic waterborne Cu exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, S; Kamunde, C N; Wood, C M

    2006-05-01

    demonstrate that a NaCl-enriched diet, although consumed in relatively reduced quantities due to the impairment of food selection and appetite, can help to protect freshwater fish against chronic waterborne Cu toxicity. PMID:16434110

  14. Behavioral and Physiological Consequences of Sleep Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Adequate sleep is essential for general healthy functioning. This paper reviews recent research on the effects of chronic sleep restriction on neurobehavioral and physiological functioning and discusses implications for health and lifestyle. Restricting sleep below an individual's optimal time in bed (TIB) can cause a range of neurobehavioral deficits, including lapses of attention, slowed working memory, reduced cognitive throughput, depressed mood, and perseveration of thought. Neurobehavio...

  15. Cost-Utility Analysis of Protein-restricted Diet in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in China%限蛋白饮食治疗慢性肾脏病药物经济学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静静; 杨莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide basis for the selection of protein diet for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods By using Microsoft Excel to imitate the disease process of CKD patients with glomerular filtration rate ≤25ml/min/1.73m2 after taking three kinds of protein diets for the next 5 years, and based on the cost and the quality of life before and after dialysis, the cost-utility was analyzed. Results Very low protein diet combined with Ketosteril treatment, compared with total protein and low protein diet therapy, can save more than 180037.2 yuans and 163517.9 yuans of 5-year accumulative total treatment cost, respectively, and the QALY of CKD patients has been prolonged by 0.349 and 0.293 years, respectively. Conclusion Protein restricted-diet can delay CKD patients developed to the stage of dialysis, reduce their disease burden, and improve their quality of life.%目的:为慢性肾脏病患者的蛋白饮食选择提供依据。方法:使用Microsoft Excel模拟肾小球滤过率≤25ml/min/1.73m2的慢性肾脏病患者在三种蛋白饮食下5年的疾病进程,根据患者透析前后的治疗费用及生活质量,进行成本效用分析。结果:极低蛋白饮食联合开同治疗与全蛋白和低蛋白饮食治疗相比,5年累计治疗费用分别节省180037.2元和163517.9元,QALYs分别延长0.349年和0.293年。结论:限蛋白饮食可以延缓患者进入透析的时间,进而降低患者的疾病负担,改善患者生活质量。

  16. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Huchard, Elise; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important reproductive

  17. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  18. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  19. 长期温和的能量限制改善C57BL/6小鼠高脂喂养后的脂代谢紊乱%Chronic mild energy restriction improves dyslipidemia in C57BL/6 mice fed with western type diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平; 唐蔚青; 李红霞; 满永; 黎健; 陈保生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨温和的能量限制对小鼠脂代谢的影响.方法 给予3周龄C57BL/6小鼠高脂饮食12周后,按随机数字表法分组,对照组不限制饮食,实验组小鼠喂食对照组小鼠摄食量的85%,喂养12周后,收集小鼠血浆并冻存肝脏.抽提肝脏脂质并用酶法检测脂质含量,油红O染色观察肝脏的脂质沉积;用实时定量聚合酶链反应法检测肝脏脂肪代谢相关基因的表达;并测定LDL、TG分泌速率和小鼠原代肝细胞脂肪酸氧化速率.结果 实验组小鼠与对照组小鼠相比,在限食12周后:(1)体质量:(32.8±1.3)g比(38.9±3.5)g(P=0.007);(2)血浆TG水平:(0.26±0.01) mmol/L比(0.41 ±0.02) mmol/L(P =0.02),肝脏内TG含量:(435.7±26.3)μg/mg蛋白质比(812.4±38.2)μg/mg蛋白质(P=0.001);(3)实时定量聚合酶链反应结果显示,肝脏内长链脂肪酸和胆固醇合成相关基因mRNA表达水平无变化,但脂肪酸氧化基因mRNA表达水平显著增加(P=0.03).肝脏原代细胞内脂肪酸的氧化速度增加了53.1%±7.2%(P=0.01),血浆游离脂肪酸水平:(0.41±0.04)mmol/L比(0.62±0.02) mmol/L(P =0.04);(4)肝脏中胆固醇:(85.2±9.8)μg/mg蛋白质比(169.3±13.5) μg/mg蛋白质(P=0.001),但血浆TC水平无显著改变.结论 长期温和的能量限制可以有效缓解高脂饮食引起的小鼠肝脏的脂肪变性,这与肝脏中游离脂肪酸的氧化速度升高及摄取量降低密切相关;同时降低了小鼠血浆TG的水平,但没有改变血浆TC水平.%Objective To determine the effect of chronic mild energy restriction on dyslipidemia induced by western type diet in C57BI/6 mice. Methods Thirty three-week-old C57BI/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups after being fed with western-type diet for 12 weeks. In control group,the mice were still fed with regular food and water. In the other group,mice were fed 15% less food intake for 12 weeks. The mice were anaesthetized during last day. Livers were harvested and

  20. Foods, health claims, and the law: comparisons of the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H L; Prior, T; Frier, H I

    2001-11-01

    Government, academia, and the food industry can play a significant role in the identification of healthy foods and ingredients important for weight management and health. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration developed regulations that define specific food categories for weight management and health. These categories include foods for special dietary uses and medical foods. Medical foods are classified for use in specific disease states and require a physician's recommendation and continuous monitoring. The European regulations specify energy-restricted foods as a subcategory of food for particular nutritional uses, which includes infant formula, medical foods, and foods for sports. European standards for energy-restricted diets have been established, leaving little flexibility for change. Three categories exist (i.e., very-low-calorie diets [450 to 800 kcal], low-calorie diets [800 to 1200 kcal], and meal replacements [200 to 400 kcal]). No claims on anticipated weight loss can be made even where significant clinical research has demonstrated long-term efficacy, thereby preventing informed choice management. Dramatic changes in lifestyle (e.g., disruption of the family unit, altered eating occasions, fast foods, and food grazing) have resulted in an epidemic of obesity and chronic disease. Regulating food selection or dietary patterns to limit the epidemic is not realistic. However, stimulating government health agencies and the food industry to increase public awareness through educational programs and regulating the definition of acceptable methods and products can provide an environment for change. A consensus is needed among academia, government, and industry for appropriate food labeling and claims. These actions are needed to help individuals make healthy food selections and maintain a healthy weight. Public health initiatives should change consumer attitudes with programs that are simple, affordable, effective, and accessible. PMID:11707554

  1. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Marotta; Gulcin Sagdicoglu Celep; Anna Cabeca; Ascanio Polimeni

    2012-01-01

    AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed...

  2. COMPETITIVE FOODS: SOFT DRINKS VS. MILK ; FOOD ASSISTANCE RESEARCH BRIEF

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Ralston, Katherine L.

    2003-01-01

    A USDA Report to Congress found that "competitive foods"-those available in schools in addition to USDA-provided school meals-have lower nutritional quality than school meals. These foods may contribute to overconsumption of food energy, dietary fat, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium, and underconsumption of calcium, fiber, fruits and vegetables, and whole grains. Restricting the availability of less nutritious foods, taxing such foods, and improved marketing of more nutritious food cho...

  3. Correlation between Food Intolerance and Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children%食物不耐受与儿童慢性腹痛的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉华; 项立; 肖智辉; 王慧慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨食物不耐受与儿童慢性腹痛的相关性及不耐受食物忌食或轮替疗法对慢性腹痛患儿的疗效.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)法检测68例以腹痛>3个月为主诉就诊的门诊患儿血清14种食物特异性免疫球蛋白(IgG)水平,同时进行3个月不耐受食物忌食或轮替疗法,观察疗效.结果 慢性腹痛患儿食物不耐受阳性率为98.5%,牛奶、鸡蛋的阳性率最高,其次为鳕鱼、西红柿、大豆、螃蟹等.女性患儿鳕鱼、西红柿不耐受程度高于男性(Z值分别为2.096和2.038,P值分别为0.036和0.042).≤6岁组与>6岁组患儿鸡蛋、西红柿、大豆IgG水平比较差异均有统计学意义(Z值分别为3.326、2.100和2.934,P值分别为0.001、0.036和0.003),年龄越大,鸡蛋、大豆不耐受程度越轻,西红柿不耐受程度越重.不耐受食物忌食或轮替疗法有效率为92.6%.结论 儿童慢性腹痛与食物不耐受关系密切.不耐受食物以牛奶、鸡蛋最多见.不耐受食物忌食或轮替疗法对大多数慢性腹痛患儿有效.%To investigate the correlation between food intolerance and chronic abdominal pain in children and to discuss the efficacy of restraint of intolerant food or alternative therapy on children with chronic abdominal pain. Methods The enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) was used to measure the levels of IgG against 14 common foods in serum of 68 children with chronic abdominal pain more than three months. The efficacy of restraint of intolerant food or alternative therapy was observed after three months. Results Total positive rate of food intolerance in chronic abdominal pain children was 98. 5% , with milk and egg having the highest positive rate, followed by cod, tomato, soybean and crab. The intolerance level of cod and tomato were higher among girls than among boys ( Z = 2. 096, 2. 038, P = 0. 036, 0. 042 ). The IgG level of egg, tomato and soybean showed statistically significant

  4. Application of Choices criteria in Brazil: impact on nutrient intake and adequacy of food products in relation to compounds associated to the risk of non-transmissible chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Mazzini, Eliana Rodrigues; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Godoy, Carolina; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche

    2013-10-01

    One of the aims of this work was to evaluate the impact of introducing products that are in agreement with the Choices criteria in the usual diet of the Brazilian population. However, due to the insufficient information on key compounds related to non-transmissible chronic diseases (NTCD) in the national food composition database, the nutritional information of food labels was collected. A food composition database of industrialized products was created (1720 products) and their data were evaluated according to the Choices criteria. The replacement of typical products by products that are in accordance to the Choices criteria may cause a decrease in the intake of saturated (52%) and trans fatty acids (92%), energy (14%) and sodium (47%), as well as an increase in the intake of DF (87%); improving the diet nutritional profile. This procedure can be used as important part in a strategy for decreasing the risk for NTCD.

  5. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  6. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility. PMID:25451101

  7. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility.

  8. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation.

  9. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Bügel; Angelika Ploeger; Aneta Załęcka; Johannes Kahl; Machteld Huber

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may caus...

  10. 饮食蛋白的限制对高龄患者营养状况和慢性肾脏病进展的影响%Effects of dietary protein restriction on the nutritional status and renal function in the very elderly with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭利; 程庆砾; 刘胜; 王小丹; 赵佳慧; 李青霖; 张晓英

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察饮食蛋白的限制对老年慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者营养状况及肾功能进展的影响.方法 对168例高龄(75 ~94岁)男性CKD 3期患者的低蛋白饮食(LPD)治疗情况进行回顾性分析.采用Maroni公式估算患者平均每日蛋白质入量(eDPI)以评估患者对LPD的依从性,并依据eDPI水平及是否服用复方α-酮酸制剂(KA)治疗将患者分为单纯限制蛋白组、限制蛋白+KA组、未限制蛋白组及未限制蛋白+KA组,比较分析18个月病程中四组患者的营养状况和肾功能的进展.结果 单纯限制蛋白组患者的血清白蛋白水平和前白蛋白水平降低(P<0.05);未限制蛋白组患者的血磷水平明显升高(P<0.05),服用KA制剂两组患者的血钙水平明显升高(P<0.05);较未限制蛋白组及单纯限制蛋白组,限制蛋白+KA组患者的eGFR下降幅度最小(P<0.05).结论 高龄CKD患者单纯给予限制蛋白治疗,可能会导致营养不良;KA可以改善CKD患者的营养状况和血钙水平;限制蛋白并辅以KA治疗可以有效延缓老年CKD进展.%Objective To investigate the effects of dietary protein restriction supplemented with or without α-ketoacids(KA) on nutritional status and renal function in the very elderly with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods The clinical data of 168 elderly patients with CKD stage 3 were analyzed in this retrospective cohort study.The compliance to LPD was evaluated using estimated daily protein intake (eDPI).According to the level of eDPI and supplementation with or without KA,the patients were divided into four groups including protein-restriction alone,protein-restriction + KA,non protein-restriction and non protein-restriction + KA.The nutritional status and the changes of eGFR were recorded and followed up for 18 months.Results The levels of serum albumin,serum prealbumin and serum calcium in protein-restriction + KA group and non protein-restriction + KA group were higher than that in

  11. Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the impact of trade restrictiveness on growth, poverty, or unemployment are frequent in the academic literature. Few authors, however, provide a precise definition of what they mean by trade restrictiveness. When they do, the definition is unlikely to have tight links with trade theory. The objective of this article is to fill this gap by providing for 78 developing and developed countries clearly defined indicators of trade restrictiveness that are well grounded in trade theory. R...

  12. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  13. Food insecurity: limitations of emergency food resources for our patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Crist, Michael; Moran, Alyssa; Rastogi, Natasha; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of food provided and the number of nutritious, palatable options. Additional emergency food resources and long-term approaches that provide ongoing food support to patients throughout their treatment period are needed.

  14. Food Insecurity: Limitations of Emergency Food Resources for Our Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Crist, Michael; Moran, Alyssa; Rastogi, Natasha; Leng, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of ...

  15. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  16. 禁食轮替疗法治疗食物不耐受的慢性荨麻疹临床研究%Study on the Mechanism of Chronic Urticaria Intolerance of Food Treatment by Fasting and Spell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨啸宇; 黎昌强; 邱雄; 金泽龙; 汪平; 牟双梦; 杨闯; 陆小琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the possible mechanism of fasting and spell combined with antihistamines therapy on the Chronic Urticaria with Food Specific IgG Positive patients, then provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment. Methods 90 patients with Chronic Urticaria were divided into three groups, Group A was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG negative which were treated by mizolastine and ketotifen, Group B was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive which were treated the same treatment as A group, Group C was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive which were treated by mizolastine and ketotifen, simultaneously fasting and spell. Detecting the levels of food specific IgG, histamine and LTB-4 of the 3 groups before and after the treatment. Results After 6 months treatment, the histamine level of Group A and C decreased significantly compare with before treatment, while Group B was not;the LTB-4 level of Group A decreased significantly, while Group B and C did nots the levels of food specific IgG of group B had no significant changes, while group C significantly changed. Conclusion The intake of sensibiligen is decreased by fasting and spell treatment, thereby reduce the stimulation on mast cell and basophil for the Chronic Urticaria patients , and the release of the histamine.%目的 探索禁食、轮替疗法联合药物治疗食物特异性IgG阳性的慢性荨麻疹的可能机制,为临床治疗提供依据.方法 将慢性荨麻疹患者90例分为食物耐受组(A组)30例,采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗;食物不耐受Ⅰ组(B组)30例,同样采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗;食物不耐受Ⅱ组(C组)30例,采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗同时,配合禁食轮替疗法进行治疗;检测3组患者治疗前后食物特异性IgG、组胺及LTB4的水平.结果 治疗6个月后,A组和C组组胺水平比治疗前明显降低,B组无明显降低;A组LTB4的水平比治疗前

  17. ARRRG/FOOD, Doses from Radioactive Release to Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: ARRRG calculates radiation doses to humans for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim, or boat. FOOD calculates radiation doses to humans from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. With both programs, doses may be calculated for either a maximum- exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute, one-time, exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an 'infinite' flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness, and a modifying factor is used to compensate for finite extent in the shoreline calculations. The radionuclide concentrations in aquatic and irrigated food products are based on the radionuclide concentration in the contaminated water, which is based on the release rate of radioactive contamination and the characteristics of the receiving water body. Concentration of radionuclides in plants depends on the concentrations in the soil, air, and water. Concentration of radionuclides in farm animal products, such as milk, meat, or eggs, depends on the animal's consumption of feed, forage, and water containing radionuclides. For persons swimming in contaminated water, the dose is calculated assuming that the body of water is an infinite medium relative to the range of emitted radiations. Persons boating on the water are assumed to be exposed to a dose rate half that of swimmers. Internal doses are calculated as a function of

  18. Improving the food environment in UK schools: policy opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anu; Surender, Rebecca; Rayner, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Childhood obesity and nutrition are high on the UK policy agenda because of their association with chronic illnesses and related costs. In 2007, to improve children's nutrition, the Government introduced new standards for all school food sources, including products sold from vending machines. Our research explores the factors influencing schools' decisions and children's food choices in relation to vending machines. We conducted in-depth interviews with staff and pupils in one English Local Education Authority. We found that pupils made food decisions based on cost considerations, and convenience, and they strongly valued individual choice. Schools' decisions to provide vending were influenced predominantly by fiscal and structural constraints. Although unhappy with the current quality of school food, staff and pupils criticised initiatives to restrict unhealthy foods. It appears that achieving a healthier school environment is a long-term project involving multiple strategies of education and incentives, as well as regulation. These must involve parents as well as pupils and schools. PMID:20535103

  19. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  20. Benefits of short-term dietary restriction in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Lauren T.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary or calorie restriction (DR, CR), defined as reduced food intake without malnutrition, imparts many benefits in model organisms. Extended longevity is the most popularized benefit but the least clinically relevant due to the requirement for long-term food restriction. DR also promotes stress resistance and metabolic fitness. Emerging data in experimental models and in humans indicate that these benefits occur rapidly upon initiation of DR, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Here ...

  1. Cornering the market: restriction of retail supermarket locations

    OpenAIRE

    Nairne Cameron; Carl G Amrhein; Karen E Smoyer-Tomic; Raine, Kim D; Lee Yen Chong

    2010-01-01

    A major source of healthy foods, North American supermarkets have become larger in recent years, with new stores opening and older stores closing. Upon closure, there is evidence of some supermarket sites being placed under restrictive covenants, a practice that restricts future use of the site. The purpose is usually to limit food sales at the location, thus minimizing competition for a chain’s nearby stores. In Edmonton, Alberta eighteen covenants have been documented on former supermarket ...

  2. A Consistent Food Demand Framework for International Food Security Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Beghin, John C.; Meade, Birgit; Rosen, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We present a parsimonious demand modeling approach developed for the annual USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment. The assessment focuses on chronic food insecurity. The approach incorporates price effects, food quality variation across income deciles, and consistent aggregation over income deciles and food qualities. The approach is based on a simple demand approach for four food categories. It relies on the existing sparse data available for the Assessment, complemented ...

  3. Blood flow-restricted exercise in space

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, Kyle J; Everett, Meghan; Scott, Jessica M; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequences of weightlessness during spaceflight missions, crewmembers perform moderate- to high-load resistance exercise in conjunction with aerobic (cycle and treadmill) exercise. Recent evidence from ground-based studies suggests that low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise tr...

  4. Exploring the food chain. Food production and food processing in Western Europe, 1850-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.; Segers, Y.; Buyst, E.

    2009-01-01

    Until the late 19th century the food industry was restricted to a few activities, usually based on small scale industries. The links between agriculture and food processing were very tight. Due to increased purchasing power, population growth and urbanisation, the demand for food grew substantially.

  5. Restrictions of stable bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2011-01-01

    The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.

  6. Analysis of Food Specific IgE,IgG in Patients with Chronic Urticaria%慢性荨麻疹患者血清特异性IgE、IgG检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志萍; 王蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relationship of food al ergens specific IgE and IgG with chronic urticaria,and to provide evidence for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of food al ergy. Methods 7 kinds of specific IgE and 14 kinds of specific IgG were detected in serum of 146 cases with chronic urticaria and 30 cases of healthy controls test by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. Results The overal positive rate of specific IgE was 40.4%and the overal positive rates of specific IgG was 82.2% with chronic urticaria. The mainly al ergen in serum with chronic urticaria were egg,milk and shrimp,crab. Conclusion Combined detection of specific IgE and specific IgG could be an important means for the prevention and treatment with chronic urticaria.%目的探讨血清食物特异性IgE、IgG抗体与慢性荨麻疹的关系,为食物过敏的诊断和治疗提供依据。方法采用酶联免疫法检测146例慢性荨麻疹患者7种食物特异性IgE和14种食物特异性IgG,同时设立健康对照组。结果慢性荨麻疹患者血清食物特异性IgE的总阳性率为40.4%,血清食物特异性 IgG的总阳性率为82.2%,主要食物过敏原都是鸡蛋、牛奶和虾蟹。结论联合测定血清中食物特异性IgE和特异性IgG抗体是防治慢性荨麻疹的有效方法。

  7. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  8. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  9. Chronic local inflammation in mice results in decreased TRH and type 3 deiodinase mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus independently of diminished food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boelen; J. Kwakkel; W.M. Wiersinga; E. Fliers

    2006-01-01

    During illness, changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, known as nonthyroidal illness and characterised by decreased serum triiodothyronine (T-3) and thyroxine (T-4) without an increase in TSH. A mouse model of chronic illness is local inflammation, induced by a turpentine injection in each hin

  10. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Pilorz, Violetta; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice

  11. Healthy dining: Subtle diet reminders at the point of purchase increase low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, E.K.; Veling, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that our food-rich living environment contributes to rising numbers of people with overweight and obesity. Low-cost, effective intervention tools are needed to facilitate healthy eating behavior, especially when eating away from home. Therefore, we present a field experi

  12. CHRONIC PROBLEM FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, EDWARD

    THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…

  13. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  14. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  15. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  16. Bilinear Fourier restriction theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Demeter, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general scheme for proving $L^p$ estimates for certain bilinear Fourier restrictions outside the locally $L^2$ setting. As an application, we show how such estimates follow for the lacunary polygon. In contrast with prior approaches, our argument avoids any use of the Rubio de Francia Littlewood--Paley inequality.

  17. Imagining Jesus, with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Desjardins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article applies modern, cross-cultural, anthropologically-grounded food data to the historical Jesus. It explores five themes that have emerged from my research on the intersection of spirituality and food in contemporary life, across religions: food offerings, dietary restrictions, fasting, food prepared for special religious occasions, and charity. The analysis brings together previous historical-critical research on Christian origins and current research on food in order to shed new light on the role of food in a first century Jewish person’s life. The result is a more human, possibly more historically-realistic, portrait of Jesus in keeping with broad sectors of religious life across traditions.

  18. Nutrition in Chronic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Silva; Sara Gomes; Armando Peixoto; Paulo Torres-Ramalho; Hélder Cardoso; Rosa Azevedo; Carla Cunha; Guilherme Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition is a transversal condition to all stages of chronic liver disease. Early recognition of micro or macronutrient deficiencies is essential, because the use of nutritional supplements reduces the risk of complications. The diet of patients with chronic liver disease is based on a standard diet with supplements addition as necessary. Restrictions may be harmful and should be individualized. Treatment management should aim to maintain an adequate protein and caloric...

  19. Restriction of Helmholtz Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Polunin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental studies of physical mechanisms of energy dissipation in the oscillating system in which air cavity held by the forces of magnetic levitation is used as the elastic element, and magnetic fluid prepared on the basis of dispersing media with different viscosity level is used as the inertial element are considered in the article. Based on the obtained results the conclusion on the restriction of the applicability of Helmholtz equation, caused by boundary effects is made.

  20. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... changes in feed intake and energy balance. It is concluded that severely reduced nutrient availability in late gestation affects fetal growth in utero and has a prolonged negative effect on lactation performance....

  1. License restrictions at Barnwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autry, V.R. [S.C. Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States). Bureau of Radiological Health

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  2. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    OpenAIRE

    Hut, Roelof A.; Violetta Pilorz; Ate S Boerema; Arjen M Strijkstra; Serge Daan

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice that work for food we show that reduced food intake alone shifts the activity phase from the night into the day and eventually causes nocturnal torpor (natural hypothermia). Release into continuous...

  3. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  4. Secreción pulsátil diurna y nocturna de hormona del crecimiento en ovejas prepúberes con y sin restricción alimentaria Diurnal and nocturnal pulsatile growth hormone secretion in ewe lambs with and without food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. RECABARREN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios sobre las características de la secreción pulsátil ultradiana de GH en la borrega en crecimiento son escasos, y en particular, respecto de posibles diferencias entre la secreción diurna y nocturna, y si la restricción alimentaria es capaz de modificar los patrones de secreción pulsátil. En el presente estudio se comparó la frecuencia y la amplitud de pulsos de hormona del crecimiento (GH diurnos y nocturnos durante el desarrollo prepuberal de borregas Suffolk con y sin restricción alimentaria Para ello, se realizaron estudios de pulsatilidad de GH a las 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad, en borregas sometidas a restricción alimentaria (GR por 5, 11 y 15 semanas. Borregas de la misma edad sirvieron de control (GC. El estudio de pulsatilidad de GH se repitió en las borregas GR luego de 2 semanas de realimentación. El estudio de pulsatilidad de GH consistió en la colección de muestras de sangre desde la vena yugular cada 10 min por seis horas desde las 08:00 h para la determinación de la pulsatilidad diurna y desde las 20:00 h para la pulsatilidad nocturna. La definición de las características de la secreción pulsátil de GH se obtuvo con el programa CLUSTER. La concentración promedio (ng/ml, la amplitud de pulsos (ng/ml y la frecuencia de pulsos (nº de pulsos/6h diurna fue similar a la nocturna tanto en las borregas GC como en las borregas GR, en las 3 edades estudiadas. Aunque los parámetros de secreción diurnos y nocturnos fueron iguales entre sí en cada grupo, la concentración promedio diurna y nocturna del grupo GR fue siempre mayor (p The aim of the study was to characterise and to compare diurnal (D and nocturnal (N GH secretion in normal growing and in food-restricted Suffolk ewe lambs. Pulsatile GH secretion was studied in 6, 20, 26 and 30 week-old lambs (group GC and in six other lambs of the same age, after 5, 11 and 15 weeks of food restriction (group GR. At the end of the food restriction period, GR lambs

  5. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2015-10-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  6. Autoimmunity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischner, M; Prokocimer, M; Zolberg, A; Shaklai, M

    1988-08-01

    Seventy-nine patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were evaluated for the presence of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies. One patient has polymyositis and two additional patients presented with features suggestive of pernicious anaemia and chronic active hepatitis. The Coombs' direct test was positive in 7% and immune thrombocytopenia was present in 8.1% of patients. Five (7%) patients had M-protein in the serum. No increased frequency of other autoantibodies was noted in our study group. We conclude that the propensity to develop antibodies is restricted only to the haematopoietic system and that there is no increased frequency of non-haematological autoimmune diseases in chronic lymphatic leukaemia. PMID:3249703

  7. Sleep Restriction Worsens Mood and Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally induced chronic sleep restriction on…

  8. 21 CFR 70.5 - General restrictions on use of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General restrictions on use of color additives. 70.5 Section 70.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES General Provisions § 70.5 General restrictions on use of color additives. (a) Color additives for use in the area of the...

  9. Clinical characteristics of 53 chronic diarrhea in children associate with food allergy%儿童食物过敏相关性迁延性、慢性腹泻53例的临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 孙梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the cause , clinical characteristics and treatment effect of children with chronic diarrhea associate with food allergy . Methods The related clinical informations of children with chronic diarrhea who were treated in department of pediatrics of shengjing hospital from September 2006 to March 2010 were recorded and analysed in detail. To analyze the distribution of allergen , the variation of related clinical informations. Results 88. 33% chronic diarrhea children had food allergy especially for 1 to 10 foods. The positive rate of IgG test : milk > egg > tomato > cod = soy > crab = rice > beef = shrimp = wheat > chicken = maize > mushroom = pork. IgM of allergy group was higher than non -allergy group (P = 0.01 ). There were no significant differences between the two groups in neutrophils , acidophilus , stool, intestinal bacteria, total protein, albumin and immunoglobulin (P > 0. 05 ) . Curative efficacy of avoid allergen, mucosa protector, micro ecological bacteria of allergy group was favorable and different from non -allergy group (P = 0. 01 ). Conclusions Most of chronic diarrhea in children whose pathogenesis is still unknown exist food allergy. The patients' clinical character and normal laboratory tests are similar . Diarrhea are relieved after diagnostic treatment of avoid allergic food . The test of allergen is meaningful for chronic diarrhea in children whose pathogenesis is still unknown .%目的 分析食物过敏相关性儿童迁延性、慢性腹泻病的病因、临床特点、治疗以及疗效.方法 对2006年9月至2010年3月在中国医科大学附属盛京医院小儿消化内科病房住院,病因未明的诊断为迁延性、慢性腹泻病60例患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析,其中过敏组53例,非过敏组7例.分析过敏原的分布、相关化验结果的变化情况以及食物过敏相关性迁延性、慢性腹泻的临床特点.结果 88.33%的患儿存在1~10种不等的食物

  10. Oriental Medical Treatment of chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hae-Yeon Lee; Jung-Han Park; Hyun-Seok Cho; Jung-Chul Kim; Tae-Hyun Baik; Jong-Seong Wi

    2004-01-01

    Chronic acalculous cholecystitis gets possession of about 12 to 13 percent of patients with chronic cholecystitis. Pathologically it is characterised by chronic inflammation and thickening of the gallbladder wall but doesn't come across stones. Clinical symptoms are vague and include abdominal discomfort and distension, nausea, flatulence and intolerance of fatty foods. A patient on chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed from his clinical symtoms and abdominal ultrasonogram was treated by...

  11. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  12. Efecto de melatonina sobre la secreción pulsátil de hormona luteinizante y de hormona del crecimiento en borregas con restricción alimenticia Effect of melatonin on the pulsatile luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion in ewe lambs under food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. RECABARREN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar la secreción pulsátil de LH y GH en borregas sometidas a restricción alimenticia (n=5, grupo R-MEL, a las 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad, tratadas diariamente con melatonina (3 mg/día, a las 16:00 h, desde las 10 semanas de edad. La restricción alimenticia se inició a las 16 semanas de edad. Borregas de la misma edad con restricción alimenticia sin administración de melatonina actuaron como grupo comparativo (n=6, R-SOL. El promedio transversal de LH tendió a aumentar desde 0,35± 0,04 a las 20 sem. hasta 0,61±0,15 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem en las borregas del grupo R-MEL, mientras que en las borregas del grupo R-SOL el promedio no cambió entre ambas edades: 0,34± 0,03 a las 20 sem y 0,25±0,05 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem. La frecuencia de pulsos de LH no cambió y no fue diferente entre los 2 grupos. La amplitud de pulsos de LH tendió a ser mayor en las borregas R-MEL a las 30 sem: 0,76± 0,28 y 0,38± 0,09 ng/ml respectivamente (PThe aim of the present work was to characterize the pulsatile LH and GH secretion in food restricted Suffolk ewe lambs (n=5, R-MEL group receiving daily oral administration of melatonin (3mg/20 mL, at 16:00 h, at 20-26- and 30 weeks of age, after 4,10 and 14 weeks of food restriction. Melatonin treatment was initiated at 10 weeks of age. Food restricted lambs of the same age, without melatonin treatment acted as comparative group (n=6, R-SOL. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein by means of an indwelling catheter at 10 min-intervals for 6 hours, from 09:00 h. LH and GH were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations of both hormones were analyzed by the Cluster program to define pulse frequency (n° pulses/6h, and pulse amplitude (ng/mL. The transversal mean of LH and GH was also calculated (ng/mL/6h. In the R-MEL group, the transversal mean of LH tended to increase from 0.35± 0.04 in 20 weeks old lambs to 0.61± 0.15 ng/mL/6h in 30 weeks old

  13. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  14. Very strict selectional restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Eric; Dias, Maria Carmelita P

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the characteristics and behaviour of two parallel classes of verbs in two Romance languages, French and Portuguese. Examples of these verbs are Port. abater [gado] and Fr. abattre [b\\'etail], both meaning "slaughter [cattle]". In both languages, the definition of the class of verbs includes several features: - They have only one essential complement, which is a direct object. - The nominal distribution of the complement is very limited, i.e., few nouns can be selected as head nouns of the complement. However, this selection is not restricted to a single noun, as would be the case for verbal idioms such as Fr. monter la garde "mount guard". - We excluded from the class constructions which are reductions of more complex constructions, e.g. Port. afinar [instrumento] com "tune [instrument] with".

  15. Transboundary Trade in Genetically Modified Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bracht

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the regulatory approach to GM foods at three levels: Codex Alimentarius, the WTO and the EU. The key issue is the latitude of the EU to have regional food safety measures that impose import restrictions on GM foods from third countries. This latitude is limited by the EU...

  16. Diagnosing food allergy in children, peanuts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, F.C. van

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Although food allergic patients usually do not experience daily symptoms, they are faced with dietary restrictions and the risk for a severe reaction every day. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is important to presc

  17. 21 CFR 610.42 - Restrictions on use for further manufacture of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on use for further manufacture of medical devices. 610.42 Section 610.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents §...

  18. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  19. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  20. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  1. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  2. Exercício e restrição alimentar aumentam o RNAm de proteínas do trânsito de Ca2+ miocárdico em ratos Ejercicio y restricción alimenticia aumentan el rnam de proteínas del tránsito de Ca2+ miocárdico en ratones Upregulation of mRNA myocardium calcium handling in rats submitted to exercise and food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Mateus Sugizaki

    2011-07-01

    plasmáticos de los HT y la producción de ARNm de los receptores HT y estructuras moleculares del movimiento de calcio del miocardio de ratones. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron ratones Wistar Kyoto divididos en: control (C, n = 7, RA (R50, n = 7, ejercicio físico (EX, n = 7 y ejercicio físico + RA (EX50, n = 7. La RA fue de 50% y el EF fue natación (1 hora/día, cinco sesiones/semana, 12 semanas consecutivas. Se evaluaron las concentraciones séricas de triyodotironina (T3, tiroxina (T4 y hormona tireotrófico (TSH. El ARNm de la bomba de calcio del retículo sarcoplasmático (SERCA2a, fosfolamban (PLB, intercambiador Na+/Ca+2 (NCX, canal lento de calcio (canal-L, rianodina (RYR, calsequestrina (CQS y receptor de HT (TRα1 y TRβ1 del miocardio fueron evaluados por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR en tiempo real. RESULTADOS: RA redujo el T4, TSH y ARNm del TRα1 y aumentó la expresión de la PLB, NCX y canal-L. EF aumentó la expresión del TRβ1, canal-L y NCX. La asociación EF y RA redujo T4 y TSH y aumentó el ARNm del TRβ1, SERCA2a, NCX, PLB y correlación del TRβ1 con la CQS y NCX. CONCLUSIÓN: Asociación EF y RA aumentó el ARNm de las estructuras moleculares calcio transiente, sin embargo el eje HT-receptor no parece participar de la transcripción génica de esas estructuras.BACKGROUND: Chronic exercise and food restriction (FR have directionally opposite changes in transcription of molecular structures of calcium handling and thyroid hormone (TH status. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association of chronic exercise and FR on serum thyroid hormones and gene transcription of molecular structures of intracellular calcium transients and thyroid receptors in myocardium of rats. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto rats, divided into two groups: control (C, n = 7, FR (R50, n = 7, chronic exercise (EX, n = 7 and chronic exercise + FR (EX50, n = 7. FR was of 50% and exercise was swimming (1 hour/day, 5 days/week, during 12 weeks. Serum concentrations of T3, T4 and TSH were

  3. Vegetarianism: advantages and drawbacks in patients with chronic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Combe, Christian; Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Vegetarian diet is a very old practice that is liable to confer some health benefits. Recent studies have demonstrated that modification of the dietary pattern with a reduction of animal protein intake and increased consumption of plant-based foods could influence cardiovascular risk profile and mortality rate. Moreover, phosphate bioavailability from plant proteins is reduced. These statements could lead to some benefits for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This review summarizes the characteristics and benefits of vegetarian diets in the general population and the potential beneficial effects of such a diet on phosphate balance, insulin sensitivity, and the control of metabolic acidosis in CKD patients. Potential drawbacks exist when a vegetarian diet is associated with protein intake that is too restrictive and/or insufficient energy intake, justifying an early and regular nutritional follow-up jointly assumed by a nephrologist and a renal dietitian. PMID:24070587

  4. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author)

  5. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...... more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally...

  6. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  7. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-09-17

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  8. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Azulay, J-P; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2010-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a demyelinating chronic neuropathy of immune origin whose diagnosis is based upon clinical, biological and electrophysiological data; previously critical to the diagnosis the nerve biopsy is now restricted to the rare situations where accurate diagnosis cannot be reached using these data alone. CIDP are mainly idiopathic, but a few associated diseases must be sought for as they require specific attention. Such associated diseases must particularly be discussed when the manifestations are severe or resistant to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive agents. Indeed, idiopathic CIDP are usually responsive to these treatments. The effectiveness of these treatments is limited by the importance of the secondary axonal loss. The dependence or the resistance may sometimes justify the association of several immunomodulating treatments. A single randomized controlled trial support the use of cytotoxic drugs and none with rituximab.

  9. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantar-Zadeh K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Kalantar-ZadehHarold Simmons Center for Kidney Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine’s School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USAObjectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia.Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed.Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels.Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, renal diet, phosphorus binders, educational programs, food fatigue, concordance

  10. Sustainable Development of Food Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabech, B.; Georgsson, F.; Gry, Jørn;

    to food safety - Strengthen efforts against zoonoses and pathogenic microorganisms - Strengthen safe food handling and food production in industry and with consumers - Restrict the occurrence of chemical contaminants and ensure that only well-examined production aids, food additives and flavours are used...... - Strengthen scientific knowledge of food safety - Strengthen consumer knowledge The goals for sustainable development of food safety are listed from farm to fork". All of the steps and areas are important for food safety and consumer protection. Initiatives are needed in all areas. Many of the goals...... are linked and initiatives in one area may then have an effect on risks in other areas. The indicators selected are chosen to measure the effect of initiatives towards an agreed goal or sub-goal in the strategy. Indicators should be discussed and new indicators should be chosen when resources are needed...

  11. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of...

  12. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  13. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  14. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bügel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may cause problems in changing the food based on single constituents or attributes when applying the concept of functional food to organic food production. Claims of the influence of the food positively on health can only be accepted as true when the claims have been tested and then validated by the EU-Commission. Whereas functional food focuses on product comparison based on specific constituents or attributes, organic food as a whole has no placebo for comparison and effects on environment and society are not part of the health claim regulation. Therefore it seems rather difficult to establish the health claims of organic foods. Consumers buy organic food out of an emotional attitude and associate the food with naturalness. In contrast, the decision for buying functional food is related to rationality and consumers associate functional food with a more technological approach. For this reason, the authors conclude that the concept of functional food seems not to support organic food production in Europe.

  15. Constrictive Pericarditis Versus Restrictive Cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mario J

    2016-05-01

    About one-half of the patients with congestive heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although the etiology of HFpEF is most commonly related to long-standing hypertension and atherosclerosis, a significant number of suspected HFpEF patients have a restrictive cardiomyopathy or chronic pericardial disease. Recognizing these syndromes is important because early diagnosis may lead to instituting specific therapy that may prolong survival, improve quality of life, and/or recognize and treat an underlying systemic disorder. Advances in diagnostic imaging, biomarkers, and genetic testing today allow identification of the specific etiology in most cases. Novel pharmacological, immunologic, and surgical therapies are leading to improved quality of life and survival.

  16. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  17. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ways. Some food products may already contain bacteria or parasites. These germs can be spread during ... your hands have any cuts or sores, wear gloves suitable for handling food or avoid preparing food. ...

  18. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  19. Respiratory Conditions Update: Restrictive Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H Coleman

    2016-09-01

    Restrictive lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by a restrictive pattern on spirometry and confirmed by a reduction in total lung volume. Patients with more severe symptoms may have a reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Etiologies can be intrinsic with lung parenchymal involvement, as in interstitial lung diseases, or extrinsic to the lung, as in obesity and neuromuscular disorders. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis for which treatment is primarily supportive with oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and management of comorbid conditions. Newer drugs for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, such as pirfenidone and nintedanib, can slow disease progression. Referral for evaluation for lung transplantation is recommended for appropriate patients. Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome increasingly are common health issues, with symptoms that can include snoring, daytime somnolence, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, witnessed apneas, and morning headaches. Serum bicarbonate may serve as a biomarker in screening for subclinical obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Preoperative evaluations should assess pulmonary risk in addition to cardiac risk with a thorough history, laboratory tests, and functional capacity assessments. Optimization of management may include weight loss, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and respiratory support. PMID:27576233

  20. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem

    OpenAIRE

    DE O'Donnell; Gebke KB

    2014-01-01

    Denis E O'Donnell,1 Kevin B Gebke2 1Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, patients may not seek medical help unt...

  1. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran;

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids...

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  3. How harmful are adaptation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, B.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  4. Remarks on restricted Nevanlinna transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Jankowski, Lech

    2010-01-01

    The Nevanlinna transform K(z), of a measure and a real constant, plays an important role in the complex analysis and more recently in the free probability theory (boolean convolution). It is shown that its restriction k(it) (the restricted Nevanlinna transform) to the imaginary axis can be expressed as the Laplace transform of the Fourier transform (characteristic function) of the corresponding measure. Finally, a relation between the Voiculescu and the boolean convolution is indicated.

  5. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  6. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  7. First-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of imatinib just over a decade ago, there has been a dramatic change in the treatment and prognosis of early chronic phase chronic myeloid Leukaemia (CML). This review article focuses on recent advances, culminating in the approval of nilotinib by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed CML in the chronic phase.

  8. A alimentação e a dieta alimentar no gerenciamento da condição crônica do diabetes Food and diet in the diabetes chronic condition management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Aparecida Barsaglini

    2010-12-01

    services. METHODOLOGY: this qualitative study was based on social representations and experience in the management of the disease. It involved the handling of food and diet among men and women diagnosed with type II diabetes and their families, living in a city in the state of São Paulo-Brazil, users of the primary care services. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and the thematic analysis identified structures of relevance, reference values and ways of action both reported and underlying the reports, which were analyzed in light of the purposes of the study and compared to the specialized literature. RESULTS: in the management of diabetes, the handling of food and diet by the ill people is not separate from the disease representations and experience, which are oriented by ideas, beliefs and by a set of daily adjustments and micro-decisions in order to control the adverse effects of the disease so that it is possible to live with and despite this condition. The ways of managing the food and diet are important components of diabetes control, extracted from the exclusive power of knowledge and medical and nutritional practices. CONCLUSION: the handling of food and diet in the chronic condition management is complex, involving issues related to the objective life conditions, socio-cultural dimensions, values and ideations, which permeate the ill people's representations and experience, being inserted in their life, social relations and in the characteristics of their social group.

  9. Special Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

  10. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN CHILDREN CHRONIC DIGESTIVE DISEASE AND THE FOOD INTOLERANCE AND CURATIVE EFFECT ANALYSIS OF ANTISECOSIS%儿童慢性消化系统疾病与食物不耐受的相关性研究及饮食调节后的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 吴永利; 郗瑞倩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between children chronic digestive disease and the food intolerance, and evaluate the curative effect of antisecosis. Methods A total of 114 children with chronic digestive disease ( including chronic diarrhea, anorexia, abdominal pain, constipation, nausea vomiting, abdominal distension, and organic diseases were excluded ) were enrolled into the study, who were measured serum food - specific IgG antibodies by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ). The positive cases were divided randomly into experimental group and the control group. Both were treated by oral therapy, and medication was discontinued after disease control. Meanwhile experimental group was given food adjustment according to the intolerant food, and control group kept a normal diet. The improvement of clinical symptoms in children of two groups were observed carefully. Results There were 104 cases of positive food - specific serum IgG in the 119 cases of chronic digestive diseases ,the total positive rate was 91. 2% . The positive rates of egg white/egg yolk and milk, which were higher than any other of the detection of 14 food items, were 84. 6% and 59. 6% respectively. The effective rate of treatment in the experimental group was 96. 2% , and the control group was 38. 5%. Conclusion The results showed that there was a correlation between children chronic digestive diseases and the food intolerance. Therefore, the detection of food - specific IgG antibodies had important directive significance for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases.%目的 探讨儿童慢性消化系统疾病与食物不耐受的相关性,并在饮食调节后进行疗效分析.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附测定(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)法,检测114例消化系统疾病(包括慢性腹泻、厌食、腹痛、便秘、恶心呕吐、腹胀,并除外器质性疾病)患儿血清中食物特异性IgG抗体的浓度.将结果阳性的患儿随

  12. Genetics Home Reference: familial restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions familial restrictive cardiomyopathy familial restrictive cardiomyopathy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Familial restrictive cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. For ...

  13. Alternatives to restrictive feeding practices to promote self-regulation in childhood: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, B Y; Savage, J S; Fisher, J O; Birch, L L

    2016-10-01

    Intake of energy-dense snack foods is high among US children. Although the use of restrictive feeding practices has been shown to be counterproductive, there is very limited evidence for effective alternatives to restriction that help children moderate their intake of these foods and that facilitate the development of self-regulation in childhood. The developmental literature on parenting and child outcomes may provide insights into alternatives to restrictive feeding practices. This review paper uses a model of parental control from the child development and parenting literatures to (i) operationally define restrictive feeding practices; (ii) summarize current evidence for antecedents and effects of parental restriction use on children's eating behaviours and weight status, and (iii) highlight alternative feeding practices that may facilitate the development of children's self-regulation and moderate children's intake of palatable snack foods. We also discuss recent empirical evidence highlighting the role of child temperament and food motivation related behaviours as factors that prompt parents to use restrictive feeding practices and, yet, may increase children's dysregulated intake of forbidden foods.

  14. Oriental Medical Treatment of chronic Acalculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic acalculous cholecystitis gets possession of about 12 to 13 percent of patients with chronic cholecystitis. Pathologically it is characterised by chronic inflammation and thickening of the gallbladder wall but doesn't come across stones. Clinical symptoms are vague and include abdominal discomfort and distension, nausea, flatulence and intolerance of fatty foods. A patient on chronic acalculous cholecystitis diagnosed from his clinical symtoms and abdominal ultrasonogram was treated by Geonbihwan, acupuncture and herbal acupuncture. Satisfactory symptomatic improvement was achieved and findings of abdominal ultrasonogram came also normal.

  15. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  16. Effect of Feed Restriction during Pregnancy on Performance and Productivity of New Zealand White Rabbit Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Nafeaa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate effect of stage of feed restriction on performance and productivity of pregnant does. New Zealand white female rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Control group was provided daily with 185 g of food increased to 200 g from the 15th day of gestation. 1 was offered daily a restricted amount of food (60% restriction, 111 g for the first half of pregnancy and then offered 200 g of food daily till parturition. 2 was provided with 185 g of food daily through the first half of pregnancy and then offered daily a restricted amount of food (60% restriction, 120 g for the second half. After parturition, food was provided adlibitum. Maternal body weights, litter size, litter weight, and average body weight of kits at kindling of 1 showed no change, whereas 2 showed significant reduction in the weights of does at the 4th week of pregnancy and at kindling. The birth weight and weaning weight of 2 were significantly reduced. The highest mortality was recorded in kits of 2. No significant differences in blood parameters or serum prolactin were observed. The serum protein was significantly reduced 2.

  17. Application evaluation of the levels of serum total IgE and food allergen-specific IgG antibody in patients with chronic urticaria and eczema%血清总IgE与食物特异性IgG检测在慢性荨麻疹和慢性湿疹中的应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳情

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性荨麻疹和慢性湿疹患者食物特异性IgG变应原和血清总IgE的水平,为临床诊治提供参考。方法:应用ELISA法,检测153例慢性荨麻疹患者与135例慢性湿疹患者血清总IgE与14种食物特异性IgG,并与48名健康体检者对照。结果:慢性荨麻疹食物特异性IgG阳性率94.1%,慢性湿疹阳性率95.6%,而健康体检人群阳性率54.2%。以鸡蛋(蛋白/蛋黄)、牛奶、鳕鱼、螃蟹、大豆阳性率最高,鸡肉、玉米、大米、虾、西红柿、小麦次之,猪肉、牛肉、蘑菇较低。慢性荨麻疹和慢性湿疹患者血清总IgE均为100.0%阳性,而健康体检人群仅有29.8%。结论:慢性荨麻疹、慢性湿疹不仅与IgE介导的Ⅰ型变态反应有关,还与食物特异性IgG引起的不耐受有一定相关性;其检测可及时调整患者食谱,缓解临床症状,为患者诊治提供有益帮助。%Objective:To explore the levels of serum total IgE and food allergen-specific IgG antibody in patients with chronic urticaria and eczema,and provide the reference for their clinical diagnosis and therapy. Methods:The levels of the serum total IgE in 153 patients with chronic urticaria and 135 patients with chronic eczema, and allergen-specific IgG antibodies in 14 kinds of food were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA) . Forty-eight healthy people were set as the control. Results:The total positive rates of specific IgG antibodies in chronic urticaria,chronic eczema and healthy people were 94. 1%,95. 6% and 54. 2%,respectively. The most common food allergen were egg,milk,cod,crab and bean,followed by chicken,maize,rice,shrimp,tomato and wheat,and then pork,beef and mushrooms. The total positive rates of total serum IgE in chronic urticaria and eczema patients were 100. 0%,but it was 29. 8% in healthy people. Conclusions:The chronic urticaria and eczema are not only associated with typeⅠallergy,but also with food intolerance induced by the

  18. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  19. The precipitation of symptoms by common foods in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, H A; Potter, P C

    1994-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and disabling condition that has a major impact on financial and social resources of the individual and the community. Its incidence is increasing dramatically, and no cure is available. Pharmacological treatment is only partially effective. The evidence that diet plays a role in children with atopic dermatitis is now irrefutable. Prophylactic measures can prevent or limit the development of AD, and partially restricted diets can modify the disease's course or severity. This study reports the reactions to various foods as perceived by parents of 112 children affected by AD. It demonstrates that many foods exacerbate AD and that reactions are caused by two distinct groups of food. The commonest triggers of cutaneous symptoms are tomatoes, oranges, sweets, pineapple, chocolate, and softdrinks preserved with sulfur dioxide. These foods result in symptoms in 30% to 49% of the children. The traditional IgE reaction type foods, namely egg, fish, milk, and peanut, resulted in reactions in 14% to 25% of the children, and with many non-cutaneous symptoms. The study further shows that allergen avoidance measures are not practiced in our community, and that sound advice is not often proffered. Practical advice on prophylactic dietary preventative measures and dietary management of children with atopic dermatitis is presented. PMID:7806078

  20. Effect of chronic undernutrition on body mass and mechanical bone quality under normoxic and altitude hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezon, Christian; Bozzini, Clarisa; Agûero Romero, Alan; Pinto, Patricia; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2016-05-01

    Both undernutrition and hypoxia exert a negative influence on both growth pattern and bone mechanical properties in developing rats. The present study explored the effects of chronic food restriction on both variables in growing rats exposed to simulated high-altitude hypoxia. Male rats (n 80) aged 28 d were divided into normoxic (Nx) and hypoxic (Hx) groups. Hx rats were exposed to hypobaric air (380 mmHg) in decompression chambers. At T0, Nx and Hx rats were subdivided into four equal subgroups: normoxic control and hypoxic controls, and normoxic growth-restricted and hypoxic growth-restricted received 80 % of the amount of food consumed freely by their respective controls for a 4-week period. Half of these animals were studied at the end of this period (T4). The remaining rats in each group continued under the same environmental conditions, but food was offered ad libitum to explore the type of catch-up growth during 8 weeks. Structural bone properties (strength and stiffness) were evaluated in the right femur midshaft by the mechanical three-point bending test; geometric properties (length, cross-sectional area, cortical mass, bending cross-sectional moment of inertia) and intrinsic properties of the bone tissue (elastic modulus) were measured or derived from appropriate equations. Bone mineralisation was assessed by ash measurement of the left femur. These data indicate that the growth-retarded effects of diminished food intake, induced either by food restriction or hypoxia-related inhibition of appetite, generated the formation of corresponding smaller bones in which subnormal structural and geometric properties were observed. However, they seemed to be appropriate to the body mass of the animals and suggest, therefore, that the bones were not osteopenic. When food restriction was imposed in Hx rats, the combined effects of both variables were additive, inducing a further reduction of bone mass and bone load-carrying capacity. In all cases, the mechanical

  1. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  2. Regional food culture and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on

  3. CDRL - company dose restriction level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of year's close constraints and controls have been used as effective measures in aiding restricting exposure to ionising radiation. Predecessor companies to British Energy Generation (BEG) originally established the Company Dose Restriction Level (CDRL) as a consequence of the revision of risk estimates, then with the revised Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) the CDRL for BEG was also revised. The background, influences and consequences of CDRL appliance in a commercial organisation in calendar year 2000/1 are presented below. (author)

  4. HFB in a restricted space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A restricted Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method is developed with a restriction on the angular momenta of the Cooper pairs that conform the vacuum (SD or SDG). The method is applied to 176Yb. The quadrupole moment in the SD subspace is found to be 80% for neutrons and 91% for protons of its value in the full space. The inclusion of the G part of the Cooper pairs improves that agreement. The descriptions in terms of boson condensate and coherent states are discussed. (author)

  5. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.

  6. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie Heilman Bell; Marja Verhoef; Stacey Page; Cynthia Mannion

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., ...

  7. Food labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per serving to the right of the nutrient. Vitamins and minerals: Only two vitamins (A and C) and two ... are required on the food label. But, when vitamins or minerals are added to the food, or when a ...

  8. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & ...

  9. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

  10. Interactive Effects of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus and Time-Restricted Feeding on Fractal Motor Activity Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wei-Yin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M; Hu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    One evolutionary adaptation in motor activity control of animals is the anticipation of food that drives foraging under natural conditions and is mimicked in laboratory with daily scheduled food availability. Food anticipation is characterized by increased activity a few hours before the feeding period. Here we report that 2-h food availability during the normal inactive phase of rats not only increases activity levels before the feeding period but also alters the temporal organization of motor activity fluctuations over a wide range of time scales from minutes up to 24 h. We demonstrate this multiscale alteration by assessing fractal patterns in motor activity fluctuations-similar fluctuation structure at different time scales-that are robust in intact animals with ad libitum food access but are disrupted under food restriction. In addition, we show that fractal activity patterns in rats with ad libitum food access are also perturbed by lesion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH)-a neural node that is involved in food anticipatory behavior. Instead of further disrupting fractal regulation, food restriction restores the disrupted fractal patterns in these animals after the DMH lesion despite the persistence of the 24-h rhythms. This compensatory effect of food restriction is more clearly pronounced in the same animals after the additional lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-the central master clock in the circadian system that generates and orchestrates circadian rhythms in behavior and physiological functions in synchrony with day-night cycles. Moreover, all observed influences of food restriction persist even when data during the food anticipatory and feeding period are excluded. These results indicate that food restriction impacts dynamics of motor activity at different time scales across the entire circadian/daily cycle, which is likely caused by the competition between the food-induced time cue and the light-entrained circadian rhythm of the SCN. The

  11. Interactive Effects of Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus and Time-Restricted Feeding on Fractal Motor Activity Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Men-Tzung; Chiang, Wei-Yin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    One evolutionary adaptation in motor activity control of animals is the anticipation of food that drives foraging under natural conditions and is mimicked in laboratory with daily scheduled food availability. Food anticipation is characterized by increased activity a few hours before the feeding period. Here we report that 2-h food availability during the normal inactive phase of rats not only increases activity levels before the feeding period but also alters the temporal organization of motor activity fluctuations over a wide range of time scales from minutes up to 24 h. We demonstrate this multiscale alteration by assessing fractal patterns in motor activity fluctuations—similar fluctuation structure at different time scales—that are robust in intact animals with ad libitum food access but are disrupted under food restriction. In addition, we show that fractal activity patterns in rats with ad libitum food access are also perturbed by lesion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH)—a neural node that is involved in food anticipatory behavior. Instead of further disrupting fractal regulation, food restriction restores the disrupted fractal patterns in these animals after the DMH lesion despite the persistence of the 24-h rhythms. This compensatory effect of food restriction is more clearly pronounced in the same animals after the additional lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)—the central master clock in the circadian system that generates and orchestrates circadian rhythms in behavior and physiological functions in synchrony with day-night cycles. Moreover, all observed influences of food restriction persist even when data during the food anticipatory and feeding period are excluded. These results indicate that food restriction impacts dynamics of motor activity at different time scales across the entire circadian/daily cycle, which is likely caused by the competition between the food-induced time cue and the light-entrained circadian rhythm of the

  12. Interactive effects of dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and time-restricted feeding on fractal motor activity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men-Tzung eLo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One evolutionary adaptation in motor activity control of animals is the anticipation of food that drives foraging under natural conditions and is mimicked in laboratory with daily scheduled food availability. Food anticipation is characterized by increased activity a few hours before the feeding period. Here we report that 2-hour food availability during the normal inactive phase of rats not only increases activity levels before the feeding period but also alters the temporal organization of motor activity fluctuations over a wide range of time scales from minutes up to 24 hours. We demonstrate this multiscale alteration by assessing fractal patterns in motor activity fluctuations – similar fluctuation structure at different time scales — that are robust in intact animals with ad libitum food access but are disrupted under food restriction. In addition, we show that fractal activity patterns in rats with ad libitum food access are also perturbed by lesion of the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH — a neural node that is involved in food anticipatory behavior. Instead of further disrupting fractal regulation, food restriction restores the disrupted fractal patterns in these animals after the DMH lesion despite the persistence of the 24-h rhythms. This compensatory effect of food restriction is more clearly pronounced in the same animals after the additional lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN — the central master clock in the circadian system that generates and orchestrates circadian rhythms in behavior and physiological functions in synchrony with day-night cycles. Moreover, all observed influences of food restriction persist even when data during the food anticipatory and feeding period are excluded. These results indicate that food restriction impacts dynamics of motor activity at different time scales across the entire circadian/daily cycle, which is likely caused by the competition between the food-induced time cue and the light

  13. Role of food-type in yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement of food-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, S. G.; Gray, S.M.; Ghitza, U.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have recently adapted a reinstatement model, commonly used to study relapse to drugs of abuse, to study the role of stress and anxiety in relapse to palatable food seeking [20]. We found that the anxiogenic drug yohimbine, as well as pellet-priming, reinstate food seeking in food restricted rats previously trained to lever press for palatable food pellets (25% fat, 48% carbohydrate). Here, we studied the generality of the effect of yohimbine and pellet-priming on reinstatement of food seek...

  14. Roentgenofunctional diagnosis of chronic enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonovich, V.B.; Khashem, U.Kh. (Tsentral' nyj Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej, Moscow (USSR))

    The paper is concerned with the findings of multimodality roentgenofunctional diagnosis of chronic enterocolitis in 100 patients. A radiofunctional study was performed under the conditions of X-ray TV and videomagnetic recording of the stomach, duodenum and small intestine using barium swallow. Simultaneously the gall bladder and bile ducts condition was studied. All the patients underwent colon examination with the help of a contrast enema (primary double contrast examination) and 24 h after taking barium swallow and food. The study showed that changes in the small intestine in chronic enterocolitis were combined with a certain regularity of those in the stomach, duodenum, colon and gall bladder.

  15. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  16. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  18. Importance of Weight Loss and Sodium Restriction in the Treatment of Mild and Moderate Essential Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Janssens, Marion; Vanderspeeten, Francine; Rorive, Georges

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of non pharmacological treatment of chronic arterial hypertension has been evaluated in 116 treated or not primary hypertensive out-patients. Those receiving diuretics were however excluded. This population was requested to follow for 3 months a modification of their usual diet characterized by salt restriction combined with energy intake restriction when the patients were above their ideal body weight. Only 62 patients (53%) completed the study. However, this approach was e...

  19. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1980-01-01

    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  20. Alphavirus Restriction by IFITM Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Stuart; Czieso, Stephanie; White, Ian J; Smith, Sarah E; Wash, Rachael S; Diaz-Soria, Carmen; Kellam, Paul; Marsh, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are broad-spectrum antiviral factors. In cell culture the entry of many enveloped viruses, including orthomyxo-, flavi-, and filoviruses, is inhibited by IFITMs, though the mechanism(s) involved remain unclear and may vary between viruses. We demonstrate that Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which both use endocytosis and acid-induced membrane fusion in early endosomes to infect cells, are restricted by the early endosomal IFITM3. The late endosomal IFITM2 is less restrictive and the plasma membrane IFITM1 does not inhibit normal infection by either virus. IFITM3 inhibits release of the SFV capsid into the cytosol, without inhibiting binding, internalization, trafficking to endosomes or low pH-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein. Infection by SFV fusion at the cell surface was inhibited by IFITM1, but was equally inhibited by IFITM3. Furthermore, an IFITM3 mutant (Y20A) that is localized to the plasma membrane inhibited infection by cell surface fusion more potently than IFITM1. Together, these results indicate that IFITMs, in particular IFITM3, can restrict alphavirus infection by inhibiting viral fusion with cellular membranes. That IFITM3 can restrict SFV infection by fusion at the cell surface equivalently to IFITM1 suggests that IFITM3 has greater antiviral potency against SFV. PMID:27219333

  1. Restricted Morgan’s problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树中; 曹立

    1996-01-01

    A new list of regular feedback invariant integers called right independent orders is introduced.That the restricted Morgan’s problem is equivalent to a kind of nonlinear algebraic equations is proved and the condition that the nonlinear algebraic equations degenerate into linear algebraic equations is given.

  2. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  3. The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul Craig

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated. PMID:24455429

  4. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  5. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  7. Proceedings of a seminar on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International interest in the industrial use of ionizing radiation as a means of food preservation has increased rapidly following the favourable outcome of many years of intensive research on the health implications of food irradiation. The introduction in the U.S. and elsewhere of legislation restricting the use of chemical additives to foods for both human and animal consumption has contributed to this development. A high priority must be given to coordinating legislation on food irradiation within the European Community if international trade in irradiated foods is to make progress and food losses by spoilage and by insect infestation are to be minimised. Speakers from the United Kigdom, France and Germany describe the legislative and developmental situation in their respective countries. The implication for the Irish food industry is presented by scientists working on food research and development and regulatory aspects in Ireland are also discussed

  8. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2011-01-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted...

  9. The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lisa C.; Obeid, Amani E. El; Jensen, Helen H.

    2000-01-01

    At the 1996 World Food Summit, 186 countries made a commitment to reduce the number of chronically undernourished people by half by 2015. In order to formulate effective policies for reaching this goal, a thorough understanding of the location and causes of food insecurity is needed. This paper provides a broad overview of the current character of food insecurity in developing countries, focusing on two questions: (1) Why are they food insecure? and (2) Why are the food insecure? To answer th...

  10. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments...... on the lack of correspondence between the new regulation and the marketing experiences and research as regard consumer reactions to health claims.......The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...

  11. Chronic pain - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  12. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  13. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  14. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  15. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  16. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  17. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  18. Preliminary fMRI findings in experimentally sleep-restricted adolescents engaged in a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tlustos Sarah J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we report preliminary findings from a small-sample functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of healthy adolescents who completed a working memory task in the context of a chronic sleep restriction experiment. Findings were consistent with those previously obtained on acutely sleep-deprived adults. Our data suggest that, when asked to maintain attention and burdened by chronic sleep restriction, the adolescent brain responds via compensatory mechanisms that accentuate the typical activation patterns of attention-relevant brain regions. Specifically, it appeared that regions that are normally active during an attention-demanding working memory task in the well-rested brain became even more active to maintain performance after chronic sleep restriction. In contrast, regions in which activity is normally suppressed during such a task in the well-rested brain showed even greater suppression to maintain performance after chronic sleep restriction. Although limited by the small sample, study results provide important evidence of feasibility, as well as guidance for future research into the functional neurological effects of chronic sleep restriction in general, the effects of sleep restriction in children and adolescents, and the neuroscience of attention and its disorders in children.

  19. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  20. Management of fetal growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Alberry, M; Soothill, P

    2007-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is challenging because of the difficulties in reaching a definitive diagnosis of the cause and planning management. FGR is associated not only with a marked increased risk in perinatal mortality and morbidity but also with long‐term outcome risks. Combinations of fetal biometry, amniotic fluid volume, heart rate patterns, arterial and venous Doppler, and biophysical variables allow a comprehensive fetal evaluation of FGR. However, no evidence supports that the u...

  1. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  3. Hepatic autophagy contributes to the metabolic response to dietary protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henagan, Tara M; Laeger, Thomas; Navard, Alexandra M; Albarado, Diana; Noland, Robert C; Stadler, Krisztian; Elks, Carrie M; Burk, David; Morrison, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular response which acts to release stored cellular substrates during nutrient restriction, and particularly plays a key role in the cellular response to amino acid restriction. However, there has been limited work testing whether the induction of autophagy is required for adaptive metabolic responses to dietary protein restriction in the whole animal. Here, we found that moderate dietary protein restriction led to a series of metabolic changes in rats, including increases in food intake and energy expenditure, the downregulation of hepatic fatty acid synthesis gene expression and reduced markers of hepatic mitochondrial number. Importantly, these effects were also associated with an induction of hepatic autophagy. To determine if the induction of autophagy contributes to these metabolic effects, we tested the metabolic response to dietary protein restriction in BCL2-AAA mice, which bear a genetic mutation that impairs autophagy induction. Interestingly, BCL2-AAA mice exhibit exaggerated responses in terms of both food intake and energy expenditure, whereas the effects of protein restriction on hepatic metabolism were significantly blunted. These data demonstrate that restriction of dietary protein is sufficient to trigger hepatic autophagy, and that disruption of autophagy significantly alters both hepatic and whole animal metabolic response to dietary protein restriction. PMID:27173459

  4. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  5. Global food security

    OpenAIRE

    Teichmann, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    According to the current report on the Millennium Development Goals (UN 2015), the share of undernourished people living in the developing world has fallen from 23.3% in 1990-1992 to 12.9% in 2014-2016 (projection). Despite this progress towards global food security, about 795 million people worldwide (or 780 million people in developing regions) will remain undernourished in 2014-2016 (UN 2015). Put differently, more than 10% of the world population still suffers from chronic hunger (FAO et ...

  6. 禁食、轮替疗法配合药物治疗食物不耐受的慢性荨麻疹的疗效观察%ClinicaI observations on the chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive treatment by fasting and spell.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨啸宇; 邱雄; 金泽龙; 汪平; 牟双梦; 杨闯; 陆小琴; 陈德宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of fasting and spell combined with antihistamines therapy on the chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive. Methods The cases were divided into three groups, group A was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG negative which were treated by mizolastine and ketotifen, group B was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive which were treated the same treatment as group A, group C was 30 cases of chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive which were treated by mizolastine and ketotifen, simultaneously fasting and spell. The effects of three groups should be observed after 2 and 6 months treatment. The data analyzed by SPSS 17. 0 software. Results After two months treatment, the effective rate of the group A and C were no significant difference, but two of them were significant different from group B. After 6 months treatment, the effective rates of group A and C were no significant difference. , while the effective rates and the cure rates of group A and C were higher than group B. Conclusion The result show that the fasting and spell combined with antihistamines therapy was better for the chronic urticaria with food specific IgG positive. This treatment was worth popularizing.%目的 旨在采用禁食、轮替疗法联合药物对食物特异性IgG阳性的慢性荨麻疹患者进行治疗,观察其疗效.方法 慢性荨麻疹患者分为A、B、C 3组,A组为食物耐受组30例,采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗;B组为食物不耐受组30例,同样采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗;C组也为食物不耐受组30例,采用咪唑斯叮、酮替芬治疗同时,配合禁食轮替疗法.治疗2、6个月后观察其疗效,结果应用SPSS17.0统计软件包作统计学分析.结果 治疗2个月后A组与C组的有效率相差不大,差异无统计学意义,不过均优于B组;治疗6个月后,A组与C组的有效率差异无统计学意义,但均优于B组.痊愈

  7. Importancia de los problemas reumáticos en la población de Cataluña: prevalencia y repercusión en la salud percibida, restricción de actividades y utilización de recursos sanitarios Importance of chronic musculoskeletal problems in the population of Catalonia (Spain: prevalence and effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Pueyo

    2012-02-01

    population of Catalonia (Spain and their effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Methods: A population-based survey of 15,926 adults was performed. Multistage stratified sampling was performed. The variables gathered were sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported chronic health problems, self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Musculoskeletal problems were grouped into four categories: osteoarthritis-arthritis or rheumatism (OA, chronic dorsal or lumbar pain (LBP, chronic cervical pain (UBP, and osteoporosis. Results: Chronic health problems were reported by 77.4% of the adult population. The most frequent health problem was LBP, followed by UBP and OA. After adjustment by age was performed, female sex increased the risk of reporting OA, LBP, UBP and osteoporosis (OR=2.6, 1.5, 2.3, and 5.3, respectively. The prevalence increased with greater age and with lower socioeconomic status. After adjustment was performed by age, sex, social class and obesity, self-perceived health was worse in people with these problems (42.7% vs 11%. The four categories were the main causes of activity restriction in the last year (OR 2.70 and the last 15 days (OR=2.32 and were associated with a higher use of health services. Conclusiones: Los problemas reumáticos son los principales problemas de salud crónicos declarados por la población adulta. La prevalencia es mayor es las mujeres, aumenta con la edad y en las clases desfavorecidas. Hay una asociación significativa entre declarar problemas musculoesqueléticos y salud autopercibida mala o regular, y mayor restricción de actividades y uso de servicios sanitarios.

  8. Optimal conditions for three brood chronic toxicity test method using a freshwater macroinvertebrate Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-06-01

    Freshwater cladocera such as Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia have been used extensively for freshwater toxicity test worldwide. However, these species may not be indigenous in certain geographical regions, which restrict the utility of these organisms as test species. In the present study, we investigated optimal culture and test conditions for an indigenous freshwater macroinvertebrate of Korea, Moina macrocopa. The culture conditions that were evaluated included water temperature (20°C and 25°C), rearing media (moderately hard water or MHW, with or without selenium supplementation, or Elendt M4), and food density (2.5 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(7) cells/mL of Selenastrum capricornutum), and their effects on the life history characteristics of M. macrocopa were determined. Population growth rate of M. macrocopa was maximized at 25°C with 5 × 10(7) cells/mL of algal food density in MHW. A series of chronic three brood reference toxicant tests were conducted under the ideal culture conditions that were identified here, and the results of the tests indicated reliable reproducibility of the test protocol. Optimal culture and test conditions that were identified for M. macrocopa in the present study are suggested for evaluation of chronic toxicity of chemicals and industrial or municipal discharge. PMID:21769559

  9. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  10. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  11. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media.

  12. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of

  13. Feeding Health: Thoughts on Healthy Food for a Healthy Planet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-19

    In this podcast, Food Rules author Michael Pollan discusses American food culture and gives his thoughts on how food can impact human and environmental health.  Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability.   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  14. Neural and hormonal control of food hoarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartness, Timothy J; Keen-Rhinehart, E; Dailey, M J; Teubner, B J

    2011-09-01

    Many animals hoard food, including humans, but despite its pervasiveness, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying this appetitive behavior. We summarize studies of food hoarding in humans and rodents with an emphasis on mechanistic laboratory studies of species where this behavior importantly impacts their energy balance (hamsters), but include laboratory rat studies although their wild counterparts do not hoard food. The photoperiod and cold can affect food hoarding, but food availability is the most significant environmental factor affecting food hoarding. Food-deprived/restricted hamsters and humans exhibit large increases in food hoarding compared with their fed counterparts, both doing so without overeating. Some of the peripheral and central peptides involved in food intake also affect food hoarding, although many have not been tested. Ad libitum-fed hamsters given systemic injections of ghrelin, the peripheral orexigenic hormone that increases with fasting, mimics food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding. Neuropeptide Y or agouti-related protein, brain peptides stimulated by ghrelin, given centrally to ad libitum-fed hamsters, duplicates the early and prolonged postfood deprivation increases in food hoarding, whereas central melanocortin receptor agonism tends to inhibit food deprivation and ghrelin stimulation of hoarding. Central or peripheral leptin injection or peripheral cholecystokinin-33, known satiety peptides, inhibit food hoarding. Food hoarding markedly increases with pregnancy and lactation. Because fasted and/or obese humans hoard more food in general, and more high-density/high-fat foods specifically, than nonfasted and/or nonobese humans, understanding the mechanisms underlying food hoarding could provide another target for behavioral/pharmacological approaches to curb obesity.

  15. Challenges of linking chronic dehydration and fluid consumption to health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the effects of chronic mild dehydration and fluid consumption on specific health outcomes including obesity. The electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant literature published from the time of their inception to 2011, with results restricted to studies performed on human subjects and reports in the English language. Key words included the following: dehydration, hypohydration, water intake, fluid intake, disease, and the names of specific disease states. Strength of evidence categories were described for 1) medical conditions associated with chronic dehydration or low daily water intake, and 2) randomized-controlled trials regarding the effects of increased water consumption on caloric intake, weight gain, and satiety. This process determined that urolithiasis is the only disorder that has been consistently associated (i.e., 11 of 13 publications) with chronic low daily water intake. Regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes, evidence suggests that increased water intake may reduce caloric intake for some individuals. Recommendations for future investigations include measuring total fluid intake (water + beverages + water in solid food), conducting randomized-controlled experiments, identifying novel hydration biomarkers, and delineating hydration categories.

  16. Shelf-Life Prediction of Chilled Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg

    All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion, others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes safety in its definition of shelf life: "The period of time under defined conditions of storage, after manufacture or packing, for which a food product will remain safe and be fit for use" ( http://www.ifst.org ). This definition does not describe what makes a food product "safe" or "fit" for use, but one can say all factors which restrict the shelf life of a food product either affect safety or quality or both.

  17. Regulação da expressão gênica das UCP2 e UCP3 pela restrição energética,jejum e exercício físico UCP2 and UCP3 genic expression: regulation by food restriction, fasting and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Polessi Boschini

    2005-12-01

    activity increases UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA but it is now being questioned if this is due to changes in lipid metabolism or energy metabolism. During food restriction and fasting, there is a decrease in the amount of body adipose tissue and increase in the plasmatic free fatty acid concentration, with up-regulation of the UCP2 and UCP3 in the muscle, and an increase in lipid oxidation. The increase in free fatty acids represents an important intracellular indication of the induction of the UCP expression in the muscle, which can be connected to its use as fuel until there is an increased demand by the organism to dissipate energy. However the discussion continues about whether the UCP2 and UCP3 in the skeletal muscle function to mediate thermogenesis or in the regulation of lipid oxidation.

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  19. Food Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.

  20. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. Food preferences change with time, so a child may ... Allowing your child to be in control of food intake may seem hard at first. However, it will help promote healthy eating habits for a lifetime.

  1. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat Fruits Food Gallery Vegetables All About the Vegetable Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans ... Updated: Jun 16, 2015 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker ...

  2. Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient rest...

  3. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  4. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  5. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  6. Electromagnetic Fields Restrictions and Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Katsenelenbaum, Boris Z

    2003-01-01

    The fields scattered by metallic bodies or radiated by some types of antennas are created by the surfaces currents and therefore they are subject to some restrictions. The book is the first one where the properties of these fields are investigated in details. The properties have the important significance for the antenna synthesis, body shape reconstruction and other diffraction problems. The material of the book lies in the meetingpoint of the antenna theory, highfrequency electrodynamics and inverse scattering problems. The author is an internationally renowned investigator in the field of e

  7. Developmental trajectories in food allergy: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, A

    2009-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the relationships between perceptions, emotions, behaviors and health has changed the way health and disease are portrayed and researched. A chronic condition may affect and\\/or interact with already existing normative demands and changes in socialization. Although the prevalence of food allergy and anaphylaxis have been reportedly increasing, the emotional and social impact of growing up with food allergy has received little emphasis. In this paper, we present current findings on the biopsychosocial impact of food allergy on children in order to gain insight into the food allergy experience, from the perspective of the child, teen, and parent living with food allergy, with particular attention to developmental aspects. Due to the scarcity of publications on the psychosocial dimensions of food allergy, we also draw on selected literature on children\\'s and parent\\'s experience of, and coping with chronic disease that may inform research into food allergy. To this end, we review some general developmental mechanisms that may underpin and explain normative age-graded shifts in patterns of coping across childhood and adolescence. We also highlight gaps in the literature and assess implications of current research in food allergy and other chronic diseases for intervention and prevention of negative short and long term outcomes.

  8. Food Prices and the Multiplier Effect of Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Giordani; Nadia Rocha; Michele Ruta

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between trade policy and food prices. We show that, when individuals are loss averse, governments may use trade policy to shield the domestic economy from large food price shocks. This creates a complementarity between the price of food in international markets and trade policy. Specifically, unilateral actions give rise to a "multiplier effect": when a shock drives up the price of food, exporters respond by imposing restrictions while importers wind down p...

  9. THE ROLE OF LABELLING IN CONSUMERS’ FUNCTIONAL FOOD CHOICES

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Ning Ning (Helen); Hobbs, Jill E.

    2010-01-01

    Given the credence nature of functional food attributes labelling plays a key role in allowing consumers to make informed choices about foods with enhanced health attributes. The degree to which a particular jurisdiction permits health claims for food products and the type of allowable health claim influence the information set available to consumers. In Canada the regulatory environment governing health claims for functional food products is somewhat more restrictive than in other jurisdicti...

  10. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing post harvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage loss of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygenic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region. (author)

  11. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing postharvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage losses of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygienic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region

  12. Bronchial Responsiveness in Patients with Restrictive Spirometry

    OpenAIRE

    Keddissi, Jean I.; Elya, Marwan K.; Farooq, Saif U.; Youness, Houssein A.; Kellie R. Jones; Ahmed Awab; Kinasewitz, Gary T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Improvement in PFT after bronchodilators is characteristic of obstructive airway diseases such as COPD. However, improvement in patients with restrictive pattern is occasionally seen. We aim to determine the clinical significance of a bronchodilator responsive restrictive defect. Methods. Patients with restrictive spirometry and a bronchodilator study were identified at the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma City VAMC between September 2003 and December 2009. Restriction was defi...

  13. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (2): common food allergen sources in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Ralf S.; Olivry, Thierry; Prélaud, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background To diagnose cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats, dietary restriction-provocation trials are performed. Knowing the most common offending food allergens for these species would help determining the order of food challenges to optimize the time to diagnosis. Results The search for, and review and analysis of the best evidence available as of January 16, 2015 suggests that the most likely food allergens contributing to canine CAFRs are beef, dairy products, chick...

  14. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted experiments. 73.13 Section 73.13 Public... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.13 Restricted experiments. (a) An individual or entity may not conduct a restricted experiment with a HHS select agent or toxin unless approved by and conducted in accordance...

  15. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bin Abdullah*, Mehboob.M.Kalburgi, Sahana Shetty and Satyasrinivas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a 28 years old male presenting with heart failure. A thorough clinical evaluation directed us towards restrictive heart disease. Doppler echocardiographic study was used as a main modality of diagnosis and cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis of idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy. We express the contribution of clinical findings and appropriate diagnostic measures in approaching a case of Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM.

  16. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession restrictions. 648.204 Section... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued a valid limited... with no possession restriction from any of the herring management areas defined in §...

  17. Analysis on the Characteristics of Food Allergy and Short-term Prognosis in Children with Chronic Persistent Diarrhea%慢性迁延性腹泻儿童食物过敏的特征及近期预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳文献; 游洁玉; 唐硕; 刘莉; 段伯平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性迁延性腹泻儿童食物过敏的特征及近期预后.方法 采用ELISA法,检测患儿血清中14种食物过敏原特异性IgG抗体浓度及血清总IgE水平,根据IgG浓度结果采取"安全进食"、"轮替"进食和"忌食"等不同的健康饮食指导,观察患儿症状改善及食物耐受的情况.3~6个月后复测食物过敏原特异性IgG抗体浓度.结果 112例慢性迁延性腹泻患儿中,有99例有1~12种不等的食物过敏原特异性IgG升高,阳性率88.4%,而对照组阳性率仅为26.7%(χ2=48.58,P<0 001);腹泻组中对牛奶、蛋清/黄敏感性最高,分别为75.8%和59.6%.腹泻组与正常儿童的血清总IgE水平差异无统计学意义(t=1.359,P>0.10).53.3%病人经过健康饮食指导治疗2周内症状明显缓解,总有效率为80.8%.19.2%的病人症状在3个月后无改善.食物过敏患儿1年、2年和3年后的耐受率分别为46.5%、78.9%和92.0%.结论 慢性迁延性腹泻儿童食物过敏常见,并以多种食物过敏为主,主要为 IgG介导的迟发型变态反应起主要作用.慢性迁延性腹泻患儿的大部分致敏食物可较短时间内获得耐受.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of food allergy and short - term prognosis in children with chronic persistent diarrhea Methods Serum levels of specific IgG antibody to 14 kinds of food and total serum IgE levels were detected using ELISA. The patients received a diet treatment based on the different results of food specific IgG antibody detection. Improvement of symptoms and food tolerance situation were observed. Food allergen specific IgG antibody levels after 3 months to 12 months were retested. Results Of the 112 patients with chronic persistent diarrhea, 99 (88.4% ) had increased specifiC IgG levela for 1 to 12 kinds of 14 food compared to 8 ( 26. 7% ) of the cantrols (X2 = 48. 58 ,P < 0. 001 ) . The majority of patients showed increased specific IgG levels for milk ( 75. 8% ) and egg (59. 6

  18. Rebel Food

    OpenAIRE

    Agerholm, Caroline Groes; Liljendahl, Pernille; Andersen, Nikita Hoffmann; Minch Heyman, Marie Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the street food brand Rebel Food and an installation we as a group made, that was showcased the market on Den Røde Plads on Nørrebro in Copenhagen from May 5th to May 7th 2016. The installation was a photo booth that allowed Rebel Food’s visitors to interact with the installation and each other. Our hopes was that the guests would use the photo booth to take photos and later on upload these on their social media in order to brand the company Rebel Food. 4 The p...

  19. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  20. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... 2012_CKD_GL.pdf . McCullough PA. Interface between renal disease ... patients with kidney failure. N Engl J Med . 2010;362(14):1312- ...

  1. Thrombocytopenia in Preterm Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda,Miwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sick preterm infants often have thrombocytopenia at birth, and this is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, or birth weights less than the 10th percentile. The pathogenesis of the thrombocytopenia and its importance in IUGR are still unclear. We studied the characteristics of preterm IUGR infants with thrombocytopenia. Twenty-seven singleton Japanese preterm IUGR infants were born between January 2002 and June 2007 at Okayama University Hospital. Infants with malformation, chromosomal abnormalities, alloimmune thrombocytopenia, sepsis, and maternal aspirin ingestion were excluded. The infants were divided into group A (n=8, which had thrombocytopenia within 72h after birth, and group B (n=19, which did not. There were significant differences in birth weight, head circumference, umbilical artery (UA-pulsatility index (PI, middle cerebral artery-PI, UA-pH, UA-pO2, and UA-pCO2. The infants in group A were smaller, had abnormal blood flow patterns, and were hypoxic at birth. We speculate that the infants with thrombocytopenia were more severely growth-restricted by chronic hypoxia. Thrombocytopenia is an important parameter for chronic hypoxia in the uterine.

  2. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  3. Development of data base on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author)

  4. Development of data base on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Izumi, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author).

  5. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and drinks are fortified and enriched to provide vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Examples of commonly fortified foods ... margarine, and milk. This helps make up for vitamins or minerals that may be low or lacking in a ...

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  7. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  8. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  9. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  10. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Srivatsan; M V N Murthy; R K Bhaduri

    2006-03-01

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured partitions $p_{k}^{s} (n)$, which is the number of partitions of an integer into the summand of th powers of integers such that each power of a given integer may occur utmost times. While the method is not rigorous, it reproduces the well-known asymptotic results for = 1 apart from yielding more general results for arbitrary values of .

  11. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  12. Asymptotics for restricted integer compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Malandro, Martin E

    2011-01-01

    We study the compositions of an integer n where the part sizes of the compositions are restricted to lie in a finite set. We obtain asymptotic formulas for the number of such compositions, the total and average number of parts among all such compositions, and the total and average number of times a particular part size appears among all such compositions. Several of our asymptotics have the additional property that their absolute errors---not just their percentage errors---go to 0 as n goes to infinity. Along the way we also obtain recurrences and generating functions for calculating several of these quantities. Our asymptotic formulas come from the meromorphic analysis of our generating functions. Our results also apply to questions about certain kinds of tilings and rhythm patterns.

  13. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  14. Towards more ecoefficient food production: MFA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Risku-Norja, H.; Mäenpää, I.; Koikkalainen, K.; Rikkonen, P.; Vanhala, P.

    2004-01-01

    The key for the sustainable development is dematerialisation and ecoefficiency. Applied to agriculture ecoefficiency means production of nutritionally better food by using less inputs and by reducing the environmental burden. In restricting the material throughput it is essential to identify the most voluminous material flows and to direct the measures to them. Improving ecoefficiency of the food production requires that the benefits and the inputs are quantified in an unambigu...

  15. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  16. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  17. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  18. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  19. Dealing with food budget constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    How does an economic crisis influence food related practices? This study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed in Danish households as a consequence of experienced restraints on food budgets. The study applied a mixed method design. The qualitative data source...... consisted of interviews with 30 individuals from Danish households with different socio-economic characteristics, who experienced food budget constraint. The quantitative data consists of a survey among 1650 members of a household consumer panel. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms...... of application of various types of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, first seemed to appear when food budget...

  20. Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-25

    In this audio podcast, listen to Michigan State University authors Lorraine J. Weatherspoon, PhD, RD, and Elizabeth Taylor Quilliam, PhD, talk about the impact food advertising may have on children’s eating behaviors.  Created: 9/25/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/25/2013.

  1. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  2. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  3. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter;

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy.......Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  4. Profiling Consumer Trend-setters in the Canadian Healthy-foods Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gale E. West; Larue, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The agri-food industry faces new challenges as consumer demand for new, healthier foods increases. Media headlines frequently mention health benefits from certain foods and food components, and consumers are more health conscious because they are aging. They realize their food choices can reduce their risk of developing chronic illnesses such as cancer and heart disease. The competitive advantages for firms who are the first to bring their food innovations to market will depend in part on the...

  5. Challenges for Food Security in Eritrea -- A Descriptive and Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rena, Ravinder

    2004-01-01

    Food security is about ensuring that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to the basic food they need. In a number of African countries chronic malnutrition and transitory food insecurity are pervasive. Like most African countries, Eritrea is also a victim of the problem of food insecurity. Based on this historical and recurrent food insecurity in Eritrea, an attempt is made in this paper to assess the possible causes of food insecurity in the country. Furthermore, ...

  6. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  7. Effects of chronic forced circadian desynchronization on body weight and metabolism in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Leandro P; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Chiesa, Juan J; Golombek, Diego A

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic functions are synchronized by the circadian clock setting daily patterns of food intake, nutrient delivery, and behavioral activity. Here, we study the impact of chronic jet-lag (CJL) on metabolism, and test manipulations aimed to overcome potential alterations. We recorded weight gain in C57Bl/6 mice under chronic 6 h advances or delays of the light-dark cycle every 2 days (ChrA and ChrD, respectively). We have previously reported ChrA, but not ChrD, to induce forced desynchronization of locomotor activity rhythms in mice (Casiraghi et al. 2012). Body weight was rapidly increased under ChrA, with animals tripling the mean weight gain observed in controls by day 10, and doubling it by day 30 (6% vs. 2%, and 15% vs. 7%, respectively). Significant increases in retroperitoneal and epidydimal adipose tissue masses (172% and 61%, respectively), adipocytes size (28%), and circulating triglycerides (39%) were also detected. Daily patterns of food and water intake were abolished under ChrA In contrast, ChrD had no effect on body weight. Wheel-running, housing of animals in groups, and restriction of food availability to hours of darkness prevented abnormal increase in body weight under ChrA Our findings suggest that the observed alterations under ChrA may arise either from a direct effect of circadian disruption on metabolism, from desynchronization between feeding and metabolic rhythms, or both. Direction of shifts, timing of feeding episodes, and other reinforcing signals deeply affect the outcome of metabolic function under CJL Such features should be taken into account in further studies of shift working schedules in humans. PMID:27125665

  8. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns. PMID:26652250

  9. Antioxidants in foods: state of the science important to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Kong, Ah-Ng; Hintze, Korry J; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Ji, Li Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-07-13

    Antioxidant foods and ingredients are an important component of the food industry. In the past, antioxidants were used primarily to control oxidation and retard spoilage, but today many are used because of putative health benefits. However, the traditional message that oxidative stress, which involves the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is the basis for chronic diseases and aging is being reexamined. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS exert essential metabolic functions and that removal of too many ROS can upset cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic disease. It is imperative that the food industry be aware of progress in this field to present the science relative to foods in a forthright and clear manner. This may mean reexamining the health implications of adding large amounts of antioxidants to foods.

  10. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  13. Ghrelin in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai W. Cheung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD often exhibit symptoms of anorexia and cachexia, which are associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Chronic inflammation may be an important mechanism for the development of anorexia, cachexia, renal osteodystrophy, and increased cardiovascular risk in CKD. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone. The biological effects of ghrelin are mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR. The salutary effects of ghrelin on food intake and meal appreciation suggest that ghrelin could be an effective treatment for anorexic CKD patients. In addition to its appetite-stimulating effects, ghrelin has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The known metabolic effects of ghrelin and the potential implications in CKD will be discussed in this review. The strength, shortcomings, and unanswered questions related to ghrelin treatment in CKD will be addressed.

  14. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  15. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  16. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... addition of this black box warning to product labeling, advertising, and marketing materials, the Agency... Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The...

  17. Communicating eating-related rules : Suggestions are more effective than restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F. Marijn; de Vet, Emely; de Wit, John B F; Renner, Britta; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. 'you should not eat unhealthy food'). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the curr

  18. [Behavioral treatment for chronic insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiko; Yamagami, Toshiko

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention for chronic insomnia has been proven by several meta-analytic reviews, an NIH report, an American Academy of Sleep Medicine review, and numerous clinical trials. Behavior therapy for chronic insomnia consists of relaxation, stimulus control, sleep restriction, cognitive restructuring and sleep hygiene education, which has produced reliable and durable changes in total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number and duration of awakening. These studies also showed that the post-treatment effect of behavior therapy is equal to that of hypnotic therapy, and that these effects were maintained for 6 months on follow-up assessment. Elderly insomniac patients would gain considerable benefit from behavioral treatments because there are no adverse physical effects as there are from pharmacological therapy. The authors present the basic theory, techniques of behavior therapy for insomnia, and the results of two important key meta-analytic reviews. Any behavioral approach such as convenient education, self-care enhancement by bibliotherapy, and individual face-to-face counseling, seem to be fruitful not only for American but also Japanese insomnia patients. Nonetheless, there are no currently actual intervention studies using behavior therapy in Japan. We have discussed the methodology of intervention study and published a behavioral self-help manual for people with sleep problems. Development of a behavioral approach to chronic insomnia seemed to be very beneficial and a useful contribution to mental health services. PMID:12373807

  19. Measuring Regulatory Restrictions in Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hollweg, Claire; Marn-Heong WONG

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the extent of restrictions on trade in logistics services in the ASEAN+6 economies by constructing a logistics regulatory restrictiveness index for each economy that quantifies the extent of government regulations faced by logistics service providers. This is the first study of its kind to construct a regulatory index of the entire logistics sector, which includes the main modes of international transport and customs restrictions. The indices show that large differences ex...

  20. Massively parallel characterization of restriction endonucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Kamps-Hughes, Nick; Quimby, Aine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Johnson, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases are highly specific in recognizing the particular DNA sequence they act on. However, their activity is affected by sequence context, enzyme concentration and buffer composition. Changes in these factors may lead to either ineffective cleavage at the cognate restriction site or relaxed specificity allowing cleavage of degenerate ‘star’ sites. Additionally, uncharacterized restriction endonucleases and engineered variants present novel activities. Traditionally, restri...

  1. Difference between functional residual capacity and elastic equilibrium volume in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, M. J.; Madgwick, R. G.; Lane, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was performed to determine the elastic equilibrium volume (Vr) of the respiratory system in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Voluntary relaxed expiration from total lung capacity (TLC) was studied in three groups of subjects: seven patients with severe chronic airways obstruction (COPD), 10 normal subjects, and 15 subjects with restrictive disease. RESULTS: In the normal subjects and the patients with restrictive disease voluntary relaxe...

  2. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Jensen, Rigmor H; Antal, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even...

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in outline the present status of industrial gamma irradiation plants for food and medical sterilization and in particular lists commercial irradiation plants currently operating in the U.K., considering briefly plant design, efficiency, costs and dose control. (UK)

  4. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  5. Scary food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mykletun, Reidar Johan

    2009-01-01

    This article portrays the changing status and use of a traditional Norwegian meal, Smalahove, in designing tourist experiences. Against all odds, this peculiar relic of Nordic gastronomy (salted, smoked and cooked sheep's head) has become a part of the destination brand of Voss, a small West Norw...... destinations and regional food products....

  6. Food Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst; Matzen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The project investigates the learning outcome and the identity work going on at the course in a setting that provides opportunities to develop new activities, products and knowledge within the food and health industry. The study is based on qualitative interviews with five participants from...

  7. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  8. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  9. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  10. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  11. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Chengyan [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Departments of Applied Economics and Horticultural Science, Bachman Endowed Chair in Horticultural Marketing (United States); Zhao, Shuoli [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Department of Applied Economics (United States); Cummings, Christopher [Nanyang Technological University, Division of Communication Research, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore); Kuzma, Jennifer, E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, Genetic Engineering & Society Center (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer’s WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk–benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about “modifying life” with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products.

  12. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer’s WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk–benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about “modifying life” with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products

  13. Interaction of Metabolic Stress with Chronic Mild Stress in Altering Brain Cytokines and Sucrose Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Luke T.; Camp, Robert M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Johnson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism’s risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight two bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on day 5 and 10, then food and water de...

  14. 40 CFR 1033.740 - Credit restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions. Use of emission credits generated under this part 1033 or 40 CFR part 92 is restricted depending on the standards against which they were generated. (a) Credits from 40 CFR part 92. NOX and PM credits generated under 40 CFR part 92 may be used under this part in the same manner as NOX and...

  15. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gregory A. K.; Kiers, E. Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  16. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted commodities. 402.2... SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.2 Restricted commodities. The...

  17. 50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession restrictions. 648.25 Section 648.25 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic...

  18. 50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession restrictions. 648.105 Section... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Possession restrictions. (a) Unless otherwise specified pursuant to... for a summer flounder moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit. The owner, operator,...

  19. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession restrictions. 648.164 Section... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.164 Possession restrictions. (a) No person shall possess more than 15... is not issued a bluefish commercial permit are subject to this possession limit. The owner,...

  20. Functional foods for weight management: Dietary Fiber – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Boaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIt has been estimated that more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide [1], rendering obesity a global epidemic [2]. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers [3]. Thus, obesity is clearly a medical issue, its costs impacting heavily on health care systems in both developed and developing nations [4]. The combined impact of transmissible and chronic disease in the third world is particularly devastating to the very health care systems with fewest resources [5].Because obesity has been identified as a major health issue, treating obesity is an important goal. However, weight loss management has proven notoriously difficult. It is well documented that reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure may reduce body weight in the short term, but obesity relapse is the long term is anticipated [6]. In a study of overweight or obese US adults who weighed ≥ 10% less than their maximum body weight the year prior to the survey (n=1310, 33.5% regained > 5% during that year [7].Despite its somewhat unimpressive success rate, "lifestyle" weight management remains the first line intervention for obesity treatment [8]. Lifestyle weight management can be defined as interventions based on energy restriction (weight loss diet; increased energy output (exercise; and/or behavioral change (cognitive or behavior therapy. Functional foods have been explored as a tool for enhancing lifestyle weight management.Functional foods evaluated for their efficacy as obesity interventions can be divided into two broad categories: 1 foods which suppress appetite and increase satiety; and 2 foods which enhance thermogenesis. The present review will focus on those foods thought to act by increasing satiety and suppressing appetite.Key words: Obesity, weight loss, systematic review, dietary fiber

  1. Nutritional behavior and attitudes in food allergic children and their mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Polloni, Laura; Toniolo, Alice; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Baldi, Ileana; Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Background Avoidance of food allergens requires adapting dietetic habits, changing nutritional approach. A restriction of food choice can result in a monotonous diet and impact social life. This study investigated the impact of food allergy on nutritional behavior and attitudes of patients and their families. Methods A survey involving mothers of food allergic children aged 0–16 years was carried out. We primarily studied the variables related to the child (age, gender, clinical history, food...

  2. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  3. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  4. Aflatoxins in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Pietri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The aflatoxin group is comprised of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. In addition, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a hydroxylated metabolite of AFB1, is excreted in the milk of dairy cows consuming an AFB1-contaminated ration. AFB1 has shown extreme acute and chronic toxicity and carcinogenic activity in animals; the acute toxicity of AFM1 is nearly equal to that of AFB1, but its potential carcinogenic hazard is about one order of magnitude less than that of AFB1. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified AFB1 as a human carcinogen (group 1 and AFM1 as a possible carcinogen (group 2A. Recently, the possibility of a synergistic carcinogenic interaction between HBV chronic infection and dietary exposure to AFB1 arose from the observation of their co-existence in countries with high incidences of HCC and was confirmed by further experimental and epidemiological studies. However, the carcinogenic potency of AFB1 is considered much lower in populations where chronic hepatitis infections are rare. For the first time in 2003, significant problems arose in Italy, due to the aflatoxin contamination of maize. The summer was extremely hot and dry and A. flavus is very competitive under these conditions as the plants are stressed. Maize grain is normally utilized in the food supply for dairy cows and as such led to the severe and widespread contamination of milk with AFM1. In the following years (2004-2006, different climatic conditions as well as better compliance with guidelines by farmers, led to a dramatic reduction of the problem.

  5. Food Web Assembly Rules for Generalized Lotka-Volterra Equations.

    OpenAIRE

    Haerter, Jan O.; Namiko Mitarai; Kim Sneppen

    2016-01-01

    In food webs, many interacting species coexist despite the restrictions imposed by the competitive exclusion principle and apparent competition. For the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, sustainable coexistence necessitates nonzero determinant of the interaction matrix. Here we show that this requirement is equivalent to demanding that each species be part of a non-overlapping pairing, which substantially constrains the food web structure. We demonstrate that a stable food web can always ...

  6. Smoking restrictions in private workplaces in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y H; Voo, Y O; Yong, L S

    1994-06-01

    This survey aims to determine the number and profile of private workplaces in Singapore which have a smoking restriction policy. The response rate was 43%. Of the companies which responded, 59% had some form of smoking restriction. Private companies are more likely to have a smoking restriction policy: (a) where smoking poses inherent fire risks, such as those dealing with inflammable chemicals or gases; (b) where smoking poses inherent detrimental effects to the quality of the products, such as those dealing with precision electronic microcomponents, where a smoke-free and dust-free environment is essential; (c) are larger companies; and (d) have strong management support in initiating and enforcing smoking restriction. Future programmes should give more emphasis to the service industries such as construction, insurance, banking and finance, and smaller companies (with fewer than 100 employees). They should involve the management who play an important role in implementing smoking restriction at their workplace. PMID:7997897

  7. Quest to identify geochemical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in an endemic region of Sri Lanka-a multimedia laboratory analysis of biological, food, and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Keith E; Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Smith, Kristin; Munoz, Breda; Waduge, Vajira A; Periris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Harrington, James M; Womack, Donna S; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors. The objective of this limited geochemical laboratory analysis was to determine the concentration of a suite of heavy metals and trace element nutrients in biological samples (human whole blood and hair) and environmental samples (drinking water, rice, soil, and freshwater fish) collected from two towns within the endemic NCP region in 2012 and 2013. This broad panel, metallomics/mineralomics approach was used to shed light on potential geochemical risk factors associated with CKDu. Based on prior literature documentation of potential nephrotoxins that may play a role in the genesis and progression of CKDu, heavy metals and fluoride were selected for analysis. The geochemical concentrations in biological and environmental media areas were quantified. Basic statistical measurements were subsequently used to compare media against applicable benchmark values, such as US soil screening levels. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were detected at concentrations exceeding US reference values in many of the biological samples, suggesting that study participants are subjected to chronic, low-level exposure to these elements. Within the limited number of environmental media samples, arsenic was determined to exceed initial risk screening and background concentration values in soil, while data collected from drinking water samples reflected the unique hydrogeochemistry of the region, including the prevalence of hard or very hard water, and

  8. Quest to identify geochemical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in an endemic region of Sri Lanka-a multimedia laboratory analysis of biological, food, and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Keith E; Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Smith, Kristin; Munoz, Breda; Waduge, Vajira A; Periris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Harrington, James M; Womack, Donna S; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors. The objective of this limited geochemical laboratory analysis was to determine the concentration of a suite of heavy metals and trace element nutrients in biological samples (human whole blood and hair) and environmental samples (drinking water, rice, soil, and freshwater fish) collected from two towns within the endemic NCP region in 2012 and 2013. This broad panel, metallomics/mineralomics approach was used to shed light on potential geochemical risk factors associated with CKDu. Based on prior literature documentation of potential nephrotoxins that may play a role in the genesis and progression of CKDu, heavy metals and fluoride were selected for analysis. The geochemical concentrations in biological and environmental media areas were quantified. Basic statistical measurements were subsequently used to compare media against applicable benchmark values, such as US soil screening levels. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were detected at concentrations exceeding US reference values in many of the biological samples, suggesting that study participants are subjected to chronic, low-level exposure to these elements. Within the limited number of environmental media samples, arsenic was determined to exceed initial risk screening and background concentration values in soil, while data collected from drinking water samples reflected the unique hydrogeochemistry of the region, including the prevalence of hard or very hard water, and

  9. Near BPS skyrmions and restricted harmonic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by a class of near BPS Skyrme models introduced by Adam, Sánchez-Guillén and Wereszczyński, the following variant of the harmonic map problem is introduced: a map φ :(M, g) →(N, h) between Riemannian manifolds is restricted harmonic if it locally extremizes E2 on its SDiff(M) orbit, where SDiff(M) denotes the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of (M, g), and E2 denotes the Dirichlet energy. It is conjectured that near BPS skyrmions tend to restricted harmonic maps in the BPS limit. It is shown that φ is restricted harmonic if and only if φ∗ h has exact divergence, and a linear stability theory of restricted harmonic maps is developed, from which it follows that all weakly conformal maps are stable restricted harmonic. Examples of restricted harmonic maps in every degree class R3 → SU(2) and R2 →S2 are constructed. It is shown that the axially symmetric BPS skyrmions on which all previous analytic studies of near BPS Skyrme models have been based, are not restricted harmonic, casting doubt on the phenomenological predictions of such studies. The problem of minimizing E2 for φ :Rk → N over all linear volume preserving diffeomorphisms is solved explicitly, and a deformed axially symmetric family of Skyrme fields constructed which are candidates for approximate near BPS skyrmions at low baryon number. The notion of restricted harmonicity is generalized to restricted F-criticality where F is any functional on maps (M, g) →(N, h) which is, in a precise sense, geometrically natural. The case where F is a linear combination of E2 and E4, the usual Skyrme term, is studied in detail, and it is shown that inverse stereographic projection R3 →S3 ≡ SU(2) is stable restricted F-critical for every such F.

  10. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  11. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  12. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  13. Direct Marketing Local Foods: Food Safety Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kynda R.

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the food safety issues relevant to direct marketers of fresh and processed foods, as well as suggestions for establishing food safety controls and increasing consumer confidence in local products.

  14. Ovarian and hormonal responses to a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing treatment in dietary-restricted goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomomi; Fujiwara, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Seungjoon; Kamomae, Hideo; Kaneda, Yoshihiro

    2004-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on ovarian, endocrine (ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse) and metabolic (glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)) profiles in goats treated with a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR-G) device. Cycling goats were offered either a maintenance or a restricted (30% of requirement; n =4 per treatment) level of feeding. The dietary restriction was started on the day following ovulation. At 30-32 days after the start of food restriction, the goats received a prostaglandin F(2alpha) (2mg of dinoprost) injection followed by 10 days of CIDR-G treatment. Ovarian ultrasonographic images were monitored daily throughout the experiment and blood samples were collected daily just before the morning feeding for analysis of endocrine and metabolic profiles. Frequent blood samples (1 ml) were also collected at 10 min intervals for 8 h from -8 h to CIDR-G removal, and from 32 to 40 h after CIDR-G removal for analysis of LH pulses. Body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the food-restricted animals. Oestrous behaviour and ovulation followed by a rise of plasma progesterone concentration were observed after the CIDR-G removal in all control animals but not in any of the food-restricted animals within 12 days after CIDR-G removal. The LH pulse frequency from 32 to 40 h after the CIDR-G removal was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the food-restricted animals than in control animals (1.5 +/- 0.6 versus 3.8 +/- 0.5 pulses for 8 h). There was no significant difference in the glucose concentration in weekly plasma samples between control and food-restricted animals. Insulin concentrations from 2 weeks after the start of feed restriction were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in restricted animals than in control animals. The NEFA concentration in restricted animals was significantly (P < 0.05) increased after the start of feed restriction, and

  15. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...

  16. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Transportation Staff

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of bus drivers and transportation staff in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  17. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Mental Health Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  18. Managing Food Allergies at School: Teachers and Paraeducators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of teachers and paraeducators in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  19. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nutrition Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the role of school nutrition professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/13/2015.

  20. Medication Treatment Efficacy and Chronic Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Glenn T; Padilla, Mariela; Dionne, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain in the orofacial region has always been a vexing problem for dentists to diagnose and treat effectively. For trigeminal neuropathic pain, there are 3 medications (gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) to use plus topical anesthetics that have therapeutic efficacy. For chronic daily headaches (often migraine in origin), 3 prophylactic medications have reasonable therapeutic efficacy (β-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and antiepileptic drugs). The 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for fibromyalgia (pregabalin, duloxetine, and milnacipran) are not robust, with poor efficacy. For osteroarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have therapeutic efficacy and when gastritis contraindicates them, corticosteriod injections are helpful. PMID:27475515