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Sample records for chronic exuding venous

  1. Clinical performance of a new silver dressing, Contreet Foam, for chronic exuding venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T; Agerslev, R H; Bendz, S H;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and performance of a new sustained silver-releasing dressing, Contreet Foam (Coloplast A/S), in the treatment of moderately to highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers in which healing is delayed due to the presence of bacteria. METHOD: The...... clinical performance of Contreet Foam was studied for four weeks in 25 patients with moderately to highly exuding delayed-healing venous leg ulcers. Healing was assessed on a weekly basis with reference to the wound-bed tissue composition, degree of odour and pain, dressing performance and the dressing......: Contreet Foam was found to be safe and performed well when used in the treatment of delayed-healing chronic venous leg ulcers, combining effective antibacterial properties with excellent exudate management. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: This study was supported by Coloplast A/S, Humlebaek, Denmark....

  2. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  3. Treatment of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKSAL, Cengiz; Alsalehi, Saleh; Kocamaz, Özgür; Sunar, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), with its high prevalence, high cost of diagnosis and treatment, substantial loss in manpower and negative effects on quality of life, is an important health issue. A comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy and functions of venous system is a must to understand the pathophysiology of CVI. The diagnosis of CVI is made by history, physical examination and noninvasive tests. The traditional surgical strategy for CVI treatment is high ligation of saphenofemoral v...

  4. Treatment of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz Köksal; Saleh Alsalehi; Özgür Kocamaz; Hasan Sunar

    2010-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), with its high prevalence, high cost of diagnosis and treatment, substantial loss in manpower and negative effects on quality of life, is an important health issue. A comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy and functions of venous system is a must to understand the pathophysiology of CVI. The iagnosis of CVI is made by history, physical examination and noninvasive tests. The traditional surgical strategy for CVI treatment is high ligation of saphenofemoral ve...

  5. Treatment of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Köksal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI, with its high prevalence, high cost of diagnosis and treatment, substantial loss in manpower and negative effects on quality of life, is an important health issue. A comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy and functions of venous system is a must to understand the pathophysiology of CVI. The iagnosis of CVI is made by history, physical examination and noninvasive tests. The traditional surgical strategy for CVI treatment is high ligation of saphenofemoral vein and saphenous vein stripping. In recent years, novel minimally invasive techniques such as ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy, endovenous laser and radiofrequency ablation have been more widely applied. Here, we have reviewed the various treatment strategies used in CVI.

  6. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and venous stenoses in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Akeson, P; Sillesen, H;

    2012-01-01

    The traditional view that multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease has recently been challenged by the claim that MS is caused by chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). Although several studies have questioned this vascular theory, the CCSVI controversy is still ongoing. Our...

  7. The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS. We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Studies of prevalence show a big variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients assessed by established ultrasonographic criteria. This could be related to high operator dependency of ultrasound. However, 12 studies, by the means of more objective catheter venography, show a prevalence >90% of CCSVI in MS. Global hypo-hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Postmortem studies and histology corroborate the 2009 International Union of Phlebology (UIP Consensus decision to insert CCSVI among venous malformations. Finally, safety of balloon angioplasty of the extracranial veins was certainly demonstrated, while prospective data on the potential effectiveness of endovascular treatment of CCSVI support to increase the level of evidence by proceeding with a randomized control trial (RCT. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, including studies on catheter venography, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypo-perfusion and cerebro-spinal fluid flow, we conclude that CCSVI can be definitively inserted among the medical entities. Research is still inconclusive in elucidating the CCSVI role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The controversy between the vascular and the

  8. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simka M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marian Simka Department of Nursing, College of Applied Sciences, Ruda Slaska, Poland Abstract: This review summarizes the research to date on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI. CCSVI was initially defined as a clinical syndrome comprising stenoses of the internal jugular and/or azygos veins, characterized by collateral venous outflows and reduced cerebral blood flow, and was found primarily in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, the published evidence on CCSVI is very discordant. Catheter venography studies gave a regular picture, with the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis presenting with demonstrable outflow abnormalities in the veins draining the central nervous system. The prevalence of these lesions was over 50%, and even higher (about 90% when more liberal definition of an abnormality or intravascular sonography was used. Further, the results of magnetic resonance venography studies have been quite consistent, in that stenoses of the internal jugular veins have been found in 25%–70% of patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, Doppler sonography studies have revealed CCSVI in 0% to 100% of patients. The research is currently suggesting that CCSVI is not a single entity, but rather a group of different anatomic and functional venous abnormalities. Regarding venous outflow from the brain, a patient can present either with diminished inflow to the internal jugular veins resulting from decreased cerebral circulation or with externally compressed or hypoplastic internal jugular veins or stenotic jugular valves. Considering these many faces of CCSVI, it becomes more comprehensible as to why the results of the studies, especially those utilizing Doppler sonography, have been so discordant. Not only were investigators using different diagnostic modalities and distinct protocols, but they were not looking for the same pathology. Since these abnormalities were indeed differently prevalent in patients and

  9. Clinical efficacy of dressings for treatment of heavily exuding chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia Wiegand, Jörg Tittelbach, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: The treatment of chronic ulcers is a complex issue and presents an increasing problem for caregivers everywhere. This is especially true in Germany, where more than 4 million chronic wounds are treated each year. Therapeutic decisions must be patient-centered and reflect wound etiology, localization, and healing status. The practice of using the same wound dressing during the entire healing period is no longer reasonable. Instead, multiple types of dressings may be needed for a single wound over its healing trajectory. Selection of the most appropriate dressing should be based on wound phase, depth, signs of infection, and level of exudate. Moisture balance is critical in wound care; dryness will hamper epithelial cell migration while excessive generation of fluid causes maceration at the wound margins. Hence, exudate management is a key issue in chronic wound therapy, particularly given that exudate from chronic wounds has a composition different from that of acute wound fluid. Several studies have shown that exudates from non-healing wounds contain significantly elevated levels of protease activity, increased formation of free radicals, and abundant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, while concentrations of growth factors and protease inhibitors are markedly decreased. Application of dressings that remove and sequester excess amounts of wound fluid may not only help in restoring the correct balance of moisture, but also support the wound healing process by preventing tissue deterioration caused by abundant protease activity. Several types of dressings, such as hydrogels, hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrofibers, foams, and superabsorbent dressings, are reviewed here and evaluated with regard to their efficacy for highly exuding wounds. Keywords: chronic wounds, exuding, dressings, clinical efficacy 

  10. Iliocaval Confluence Stenting for Chronic Venous Obstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Wolf, Mark de, E-mail: markthewolf@gmail.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Laanen, Jorinde van, E-mail: jorinde.van.laanen@mumc.nl; Wittens, Cees, E-mail: c.wittens@me.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Jalaie, Houman, E-mail: hjalaie@ukaachen.de [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Surgery (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeDifferent techniques have been described for stenting of venous obstructions. We report our experience with two different confluence stenting techniques to treat chronic bi-iliocaval obstructions.Materials and MethodsBetween 11/2009 and 08/2014 we treated 40 patients for chronic total bi-iliocaval obstructions. Pre-operative magnetic resonance venography showed bilateral extensive post-thrombotic scarring in common and external iliac veins as well as obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Stenting of the IVC was performed with large self-expandable stents down to the level of the iliocaval confluence. To bridge the confluence, either self-expandable stents were placed inside the IVC stent (24 patients, SECS group) or high radial force balloon-expandable stents were placed at the same level (16 patients, BECS group). In both cases, bilateral iliac extensions were performed using nitinol stents.ResultsRecanalization was achieved for all patients. In 15 (38 %) patients, a hybrid procedure with endophlebectomy and arteriovenous fistula creation needed to be performed because of significant involvement of inflow vessels below the inguinal ligament. Mean follow-up was 443 ± 438 days (range 7–1683 days). For all patients, primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency rate at 36 months were 70, 73, and 78 %, respectively. Twelve-month patency rates in the SECS group were 85, 85, and 95 % for primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency. In the BECS group, primary patency was 100 % during a mean follow-up period of 134 ± 118 (range 29–337) days.ConclusionStenting of chronic bi-iliocaval obstruction shows relatively high patency rates at medium follow-up. Short-term patency seems to favor confluence stenting with balloon-expandable stents.

  11. Improvements of Venous Tone with Pycnogenol in Chronic Venous Insufficiency: An Ex Vivo Study on Venous Segments

    OpenAIRE

    Belcaro, Gianni; Dugall, Mark; Luzzi, Roberta; Hosoi, M.; Corsi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the stretching and dilatation of venous segments ex vivo in subjects with primary varicose veins in comparison with comparable segments from subjects that used the supplement Pycnogenol (150 mg/d) for 3 months before surgery. Subjects with varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency voluntarily used Pycnogenol for a period of at least 3 months. The segments of veins removed with surgery (in 30 subjects that had used Pycnogenol and in 10 comparable control subjects tha...

  12. Case 3: chronic venous leg ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    A non-healing, sloughy venous leg ulcer quickly responded to topical treatment including octenilin Wound Gel and octenilin Wound Irrigation Solution. Full healing occurred within 6 weeks. PMID:26949848

  13. Evaluation of treatment with carboxymethylcellulose on chronic venous ulcers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januário, Virginia; de Ávila, Dione Augusto; Penetra, Maria Alice; Sampaio, Ana Luisa Bittencourt; Noronha Neta, Maria Isabel; Cassia, Flavia de Freire; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the chronic leg ulcers, venous ulcers are the most common and constitute a major burden to public health. Despite all technology available, some patients do not respond to established treatments. In our study, carboxymethylcellulose was tested in the treatment of refractory chronic venous ulcers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of carboxymethylcellulose 20% on the healing of chronic venous ulcers refractory to conventional treatments. METHODS: This is an analytical, pre-experimental study. Thirty patients were included with refractory venous ulcers, and applied dressings with carboxymethylcellulose 20% for 20 weeks. The analysis was based on measurement of the area of ulcers, performed at the first visit and after the end of the treatment. RESULTS: There was a reduction of 3.9 cm2 of lesion area (p=0.0001), corresponding to 38.8% (p=0.0001). There was no interruption of treatment and no increase in lesion area in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Carboxymethylcellulose 20% represents a low cost and effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of refractory chronic venous ulcers. However, controlled studies are necessary to prove its efficacy. PMID:26982773

  14. Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Om P

    2014-03-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products. PMID:23775628

  15. Urinary hemosiderin: role in evaluation of chronic venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Lal Shrestha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI leads to skin changes with dermal hemosiderin deposition. We studied the presence of hemosiderin in the urine to assess if this could be used as a biochemical marker for CVI. Hereby we present a case control study conducted in a tertiary care centre in South India. There were 100 cases with evidence of advanced CVI (the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology classification: C5, C6 confirmed by duplex scanning. Controls were 50 patients with leg ulcers due to other etiologies. All patients were subjected to urinary hemosiderin testing. In all 100 patients with CVI (C5 and C6 disease axial venous reflux was confirmed by duplex ultrasound. Superficial venous reflux was noted in 71% of patients and deep venous reflux in 54.%. Primary venous insufficiency was the etiology in 81% of patients. Only 4/100 patients had detectable amounts of hemosiderin in the urine. Urine hemosiderin testing to determine presence or absence of CVI yielded the following values: positive predictive value-80%; negative predictive value-33%; sensitivity-4% and specificity-98%. The test could not be recommended as a marker of CVI. In Indian patients urinary hemosiderin is not a useful screening test in CVI.

  16. Chronic portomesenteic venous thrombosis complicated by a high flow arteriovenous malformation presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Adam N; Hebroni, Frank; McWilliams, Justin

    2016-02-01

    Portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. The presenting symptoms of chronic portomesenteric venous thrombosis are often non-specific but may present with variceal bleeding. We present the first reported case of chronic portomesenteric venous thrombosis causing a high flow arteriovenous malformation that resulted in extensive gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25871943

  17. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  18. 'Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency' in multiple sclerosis. Is multiple sclerosis a disease of the cerebrospinal venous outflow system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic impaired venous outflow from the central nervous system has recently been claimed to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. This resulted in the term chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in MS. The concept of CCSVI is based on sonography studies showing that impaired venous outflow leading to pathological reflux is almost exclusively present in MS patients but not in healthy controls. Based on these findings, a new pathophysiological concept has been introduced suggesting that chronic venous outflow obstruction and venous reflux in the CNS result in pathological iron depositions leading to inflammation and neurodegeneration. The theory of CCSVI in MS has rapidly generated tremendous interest in the media and among patients and the scientific community. In particular, the potential shift in treatment concepts possibly leading to an interventional treatment approach including balloon angioplasty and venous stent placement is currently being debated. However, results from recent studies involving several imaging modalities have raised substantial concerns regarding the CCSVI concept in MS. In this review article, we explain the concept of CCSVI in MS and discuss this hypothesis in the context of MS pathophysiology and imaging studies which have tried to reproduce or refute this theory. In addition, we draw some major conclusions focusing in particular on the crucial question as to whether interventional treatment options are expedient. In conclusion, the present conclusive data confuting the theory of CCSVI in MS should lead to reluctance with respect to the interventional treatment of possible venous anomalies in MS patients. (orig.)

  19. Studies on venous chronic obstructions with perfused krypton-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perfusion system is used to study the venous return of the lower limbs through an injection of a superficial vein of the foot. Multiple sequential perfusions are possible because there is no building up of the radioactivity (short-life of the Kr-81m and lung elimination). We are therefore able to study the system under different mechanical conditions (tourniquet at different sites and pressures, hyperaemia). The main veins (from popliteal vein to vena cava) are therefore normally vizualised by a peripheral injection. The region below the knee is difficult to study by venoscintigraphy. The transit times from the foot to the groin, and between regions of interest are also studied. We analyse the results obtained with a consecutive serie of 31 patients suffering from possible chronic venous problems and sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (lasting for 2 weeks to more than 20 years): 58 limbs are actually examined. Most of these limbs are also assessed by non invasive heamodynamic techniques: Doppler ultrasound and calf plethysmography: 35 limbs are normal, 23 show obliterative sequelae of deep vein thrombosis. The venoscintigraphy displays the level and the degree of obstructions and the pattern of collateral pathways with an accuracy comparable to RX-phlebography. We demonstrate that the Doppler is able to recognize most of the residual obstructions. The resistances to venous outflow measured by plethysmography are also generally increased. We are not able to demonstrate systematic and significant variations of the transit times in the different haemodynamic conditions. These parameters do not seem therefore adequate for functional assessment

  20. Chronic venous leg ulcers – role of topical zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher SF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sara F Maher Physical Therapy Program, Department of Healthcare Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Topical zinc has been used in the treatment of wounds for over 3,000 years, and is reported to have antiseptic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound healing properties. Fourteen studies were identified and reviewed, to assess the efficacy of this treatment modality as either a bandage or skin protectant in the treatment of venous ulcers. The authors of three studies reported improved healing time or success rate in wounds treated with zinc-based products. However, the authors of one study attributed the faster healing rate mainly to the extra compression (that improved venous blood return, delivered by the non-elastic paste bandage, and not by the zinc oxide alone. The quality of evidence is fair, as 50% of the studies were conducted prior to 2000 and 50% of the studies utilized fewer than 45 patients randomized to two or more groups. Other treatments have been reported to be more cost-effective than zinc, including hydrocolloids, four-layer compression systems, and CircAid Thera-boots. Finally, zinc was reported to be less comfortable, less easy to use, and caused increased pain, in comparison to other products on the market. This literature review, therefore, demonstrated that current evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of zinc-based products in the treatment of venous wounds. Future research is needed focusing on larger, high-quality trials with an emphasis on quality of life issues and cost-effectiveness of treatment. Keywords: chronic wounds, leg ulcers, venous insufficiency, topical zinc

  1. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe Commentary on the Treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Reekers, J A; Lee, M. J.; Belli, A. M.; Barkhof, F

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a putative new theory that has been suggested by some to have a direct causative relation with the symptomatology associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) [1]. The core foundation of this theory is that there is abnormal venous drainage from the brain due to outflow obstruction in the draining jugular vein and/or azygos veins. This abnormal venous drainage, which is characterised by special ultrasound criteria, called the “venous hemodynami...

  2. Elastic compression treatment of chronic superficial venous insufficiency of the lower limbs based on Doppler venous pressure index measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Corcos; Daniele Pontello; Tommaso Spina

    2015-01-01

    Ineffectiveness or discomfort from graduated elastic compression stockings (GES) in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and/or varicose veins of the lower limbs (VVLL) can depend of inappropriate counter pressure applied. Counter pressure was calculated by Doppler venous pressure index (VPI). The aim of this study was to verify the value VPI in the choice of GES. A total of 1212 LL of 606 patients subjected to VPI measurements VPI correlated with the various sites of reflux (R) a...

  3. Improvements of venous tone with pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency: an ex vivo study on venous segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, Gianni; Dugall, Mark; Luzzi, Roberta; Hosoi, M; Corsi, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the stretching and dilatation of venous segments ex vivo in subjects with primary varicose veins in comparison with comparable segments from subjects that used the supplement Pycnogenol (150 mg/d) for 3 months before surgery. Subjects with varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency voluntarily used Pycnogenol for a period of at least 3 months. The segments of veins removed with surgery (in 30 subjects that had used Pycnogenol and in 10 comparable control subjects that had not used the supplement) were compared with normal, unused vein segments harvested for bypass grafting. The segments were suspended and a weight was attached to the distal part of the veins for 3 minutes and dilated with pressurized water. Digital images were recorded; the veins were measured before and after stretching to evaluate elongation. The manipulation of the vein segment was minimal. Tests were completed within 20 minutes after harvesting the veins. All segments were 4 cm long. The stretching test indicated a significantly higher level of passive elongation in control, varicose segments (2.29; 0.65 mm) in comparison with 1.39; 0.2 mm in vein segments from Pycnogenol-using patients. The dilation test showed an average higher dilation (2.19; 0.3 mm) in control varicose veins in comparison with varicose veins from Pycnogenol-using patients (1.32; 0.7 mm) (p Pycnogenol-using subjects (p Pycnogenol. Varicose segments had a more significant persistent dilatation and elongation in comparison with normal vein segments. Pycnogenol seems to decrease passive dilatation and stretching and gives vein walls a greater tonic recovery and elasticity that allows the vein to recover its original shape after dynamic stresses. PMID:24627617

  4. Effect of beta-aescin extract from Chinese buckeye seed on chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhihong; Su, Ping

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of domestic beta-aescin treating chronic venous insufficiency through observing its actions on the isolated canine saphenous venous tension, venous pressure, venous return and lymphatic return. The isolated canine spiral saphenous venous tension test was performed to detect the activity of the beta-aescin. Furthermore, in the condition of constant canine femoral artery perfusion kept in the extracorporeal circulation, we measured the changes of the canine femoral artery pressure, femoral artery flow and the lymphatic return flow after intravenous injection of the agent. The results showed that when beta-aescin was administrated at the dose between 5.0 x 10(-5)-5.25 x 10(-4) mol/L, it increased obviously the contractile tension of the venous to norepinephrine in a dose-dependent manner. With canine femoral artery perfusion kept constant, beta-aescin, whose doses were 50 mg and 100 mg, reinforced intently the canine femoral venous tension accelerated the rise of the venous pressure. These finding suggested that domestic betabeta-aescin extracted from Chinese Buckeye Seed had an effect on chronic venous insufficiency by strengthening the venous tension, increasing the venous pressure and promoting venous return and lymphatic return. PMID:23875249

  5. CT and MRI of the calf in chronic venous insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-two lower limbs in 29 women and six men with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) of grade II and III were examined by CT and eight of these additionally with MRI. The changes were compared with the findings in 21 patients of similar age, but without veneous abnormalities. The most important findings were subcutaneous fibrosis with or without calcification, nonspecific infiltration of the extra-fascial spaces and degeneration of the Achilles'tendon. The simultaneous occurrence of these changes can be regarded as typical of advanced CVI. CT was somewhat superior to MRI; its use can be justified as part of post-therapeutic follow-up and for special problems. (orig.)

  6. Chronic Stress Facilitates the Development of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure of modern social life intensifies the impact of stress on the development of cardiovascular diseases, which include deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Renal sympathetic denervation has been applied as one of the clinical approaches for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. In addition, the close relationship between oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases has been well documented. The present study is designed to explore the mechanism by which the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress affect the blood coagulation system in the development of DVT. Chronic foot shock model in rats was applied to mimic a state of physiological stress similar to humans. Our results showed that chronic foot shock procedure could promote DVT which may be through the activation of platelets aggregation. The aggravation of DVT and activation of platelets were alleviated by renal sympathetic denervation or antioxidant (Tempol treatment. Concurrently, the denervation treatment could also reduce the levels of circulating oxidation factors in rats. These results demonstrate that both the renal sympathetic nerve system and the oxidative stress contribute to the development of DVT in response to chronic stress, which may provide novel strategy for treatment of clinic DVT patients.

  7. Telemedical Wearable Sensing Platform for Management of Chronic Venous Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruya; Nie, Baoqing; Zhai, Chengwei; Cao, Jennifer; Pan, Jian; Chi, Yung-Wei; Pan, Tingrui

    2016-07-01

    Enabled by emerging wearable sensors, telemedicine can potentially offer personalized medical services to long-term home care or remote clinics in the future, which can be particularly helpful in the management of chronic diseases. The wireless wearable pressure sensing system reported in this article provides an excellent example of such an innovation, whereby periodic or continuous monitoring of interface pressure can be obtained to guide routine compression therapy, the cornerstone of chronic venous disorder management. By applying a novel capacitive, iontronic sensing technology, a flexible, ultrathin, and highly sensitive pressure sensing array is seamlessly incorporated into compression garments for the monitoring of interface pressure. The linear pressure sensing array assesses pressure distribution along the limb in a real-time manner (up to a scanning rate of 5 kHz), and the measurement data can be processed and displayed on a mobile device locally, as well as transmitted through a Bluetooth communication module to a remote clinical service. The proposed interface pressure measuring system provides real-time interface pressure distribution data and can be utilized for both clinical and self-management of compression therapy, where both treatment efficacy and quality assurance can be ascertained. PMID:26530542

  8. Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Sarıca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the mean platelet volume (MPV is a good indicator of platelet activity; it is reported to increase in diseases associated with inflammatory processes and in vascular diseases. This study investigated the importance of mean platelet volume in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI and whether the MPV was likely to be a predictor of the CVI. Methods: 117 patients who were diagnosed as CVI by colored Doppler Ultrasound (CDU method and 49 healthy volunteers (forming the control group were en­rolled to this study, which was planned retrospectively. The patients’ blood count values taken within one month before and after the CDU evaluation were recorded by the hospital information system. The complete blood count, routine biochemical tests and thyroid function tests of the patients diagnosed with CVI were compared to the control group. Results: Significant differences were not detected be­tween the patients and the control group in terms of the levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycer­ides, erythrocyte, sedimentation speed, leukocyte, hae­moglobin and thrombocyte (p>0.05. The thyroid stimulat­ing hormone and the MPV levels were significantly lower in the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: MPV levels as an easy, cheap and practi­cal data extracted from complete blood count, were found higher in patients diagnosed with CVI compared to the control group. This may be originated from endothelium changes as an answer to venous hypertension and dila­tation in CVI. MPV can be used as a follow-up marker in CVI patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 73-77

  9. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe Commentary on the Treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Reekers; M.J. Lee; A.M. Belli; F. Barkhof

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a putative new theory that has been suggested by some to have a direct causative relation with the symptomatology associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) [1]. The core foundation of this theory is that there is abnormal venous drainage from the b

  10. [Phlebography in chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities. Technic and value of different tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, A; Bolot, J E; Michel, C

    1988-01-01

    Remainder of the various phlebographic procedures in chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities: peripheral phlebography, popliteal phlebography, femoral phlebography, varicography. The techniques and the informations they provide are presented for each one of these examinations. PMID:3043478

  11. Red blood cell deformability and aggregation in chronic venous disease patients with varicose veins

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Słoczyńska; Mariusz Kózka; Henryk Marona

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Red blood cells’ (RBC) rheological properties are disturbed in chronic venous disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to compare deformability and aggregation of erythrocytes taken from the varicose vein and the antecubital vein of patients with chronic venous disease.Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from twelve CVD patients presenting clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements (CEAP) stages II and III. Blood was sampled from varicose veins and a...

  12. The place of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) in advanced chronic venous insufficiency treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In spite of medical science development and initiation of new technologies in minimally invasive surgery, treatment of advanced chronic venous insufficiency at the 5th and 6th degree of CEAP classification is still a great clinical challenge. In case of no satisfactory results of non-surgical treatment of recurrent venous ulcers, scientists search for alternative therapeutic methods which could be more effective and lasting. Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) as a method of ...

  13. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch; Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae), standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was document...

  14. Surveillance and medical therapy following endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas L; Harris, Jeremy R; Kribs, Stewart W

    2012-06-01

    The debate regarding the possible link between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis (MS) is continuously becoming more and more contentious due to the current lack of level 1 evidence from randomized trials. Regardless of this continued uncertainty surrounding the safety and efficacy of this therapy, MS patients from Canada, and other jurisdictions, are traveling abroad to receive central venous angioplasty and, unfortunately, some also receive venous stents. They often return home with few instructions regarding follow-up or medical therapy. In response we propose some interim, practical recommendations for post-procedural surveillance and medical therapy, until further information is available. PMID:22577160

  15. Elastic compression treatment of chronic superficial venous insufficiency of the lower limbs based on Doppler venous pressure index measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Corcos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ineffectiveness or discomfort from graduated elastic compression stockings (GES in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI and/or varicose veins of the lower limbs (VVLL can depend of inappropriate counter pressure applied. Counter pressure was calculated by Doppler venous pressure index (VPI. The aim of this study was to verify the value VPI in the choice of GES. A total of 1212 LL of 606 patients subjected to VPI measurements VPI correlated with the various sites of reflux (R and C of Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP classification. The difference between standing VPI the and normal values=counter pressure to be applied by GES. Questionnaire to 96 patients with CVI/VVLL wearing GES. Mean VPI values: greater saphenous (GSV>smaller saphenous; GSV with isolated venous reflux (R at the leg>GSV at the thigh; additional R in perforators increases VPI in all the districts; superficial R increases VPI in PT. Relation between VPI/C of CEAP: P<0.05-0.0001; 81/83/96 (97.5% patients improved; 0 complained. R in GSV at the leg and in perforators increases VPI in deep veins. Few discrepancies VPI/CEAP can be expected. Standing VPI is highly predictive. The best choice of GES can be based on the VPI measurement.

  16. Chronic venous ulceration of leg associated with peripheral arterial disease: an underappreciated entity in developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Falguni; De, Abhishek; Hazra, Avijit; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Surana, Trupti V

    2014-10-01

    Chronic venous ulcer can often be associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which usually remains undiagnosed adding significantly to the morbidity of these patients. The Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) is suggested for PAD evaluation. Many PAD studies were conducted in western countries, but there is a scarcity of data on the prevalence of PAD in clinical venous ulcer patient in developing countries. We conducted a study in a tertiary care hospital of eastern part of India to find out the prevalence of PAD in venous ulcer patients, and also to find the sensitivity of ABPI as a diagnostic tool in these patients. We evaluated clinically diagnosed patients with venous ulcer using ABPI and Colour Doppler study for the presence of PAD. Possible associations such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, hypertension and atherosclerosis were studied. All results were analysed using the software Statistica version 6. PAD was present in 23 (27·71%) patients. Older age, longer duration, smoking, high BMI and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with PAD. A very strong level of agreement was found between venous Doppler and ABPI. Assessment for the presence of PAD is important in all clinically diagnosed venous ulcer patients. ABPI being a simple, non-invasive outpatient department (OPD)-based procedure, can be routinely used in cases of venous ulcer to find out the hidden cases of PAD even in developing countries. PMID:23170845

  17. Status of the valves in the superficial and deep venous system in chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, P S; Bedford, G; Beach, K; Strandness, D E

    1991-06-01

    The relationship between the functional status of the venous valves in the superficial and deep veins and ulceration was evaluated in 42 patients. Twenty-five patients had ulcers, 12 of these patients had a history of previous deep venous thrombosis and 13 of these patients denied such an event. Seventeen patients had normal ankle skin, 10 of these patients had a documented history of deep vein thrombosis and seven of these patients had varicose veins only. An ultrasonic duplex scanner was used to document the presence of reflux in all segments of the superficial and deep system. In the entire group of 25 limbs with ulceration, valvular incompetence was noted in 22 limbs at levels involving segments that communicated with the ulcer-bearing area. Of the 17 limbs with normal ankle skin, in only two instances was a single segment of posterior tibial vein in midcalf found to be incompetent. For those patients with normal ankle skin and a history of varicose veins, the deep veins below the common femoral vein level were always competent. PMID:2042091

  18. Limits and possibilities experienced by nurses in the treatment of women with chronic venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique da Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To understand the experiences and expectations of nurses in the treatment of women with chronic venous ulcers. Method Phenomenological research was based on Alfred Schütz, whose statements were obtained in January, 2012, through semi-structured interviews with seven nurses. Results The nurse reveals the difficulties presented by the woman in performing self-care, the perceived limitations in the treatment anchored in motivation, and the values and beliefs of women. It showed professional frustration because venous leg ulcer recurrence, lack of inputs, interdisciplinary work and training of nursing staff. There was an expected adherence to the treatment of women, and it emphasized the need for ongoing care, supported self-care and standard practices in treatment. Conclusion That treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers constitutes a challenge that requires collective investment, involving women, professionals, managers and health institutions.

  19. Chronic venous leg ulcers: is topical zinc the answer? A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To enhance the learner's competence with knowledge of research data on topical zinc for treatment of chronic leg ulcers. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. OBJECTIVES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to: ABSTRACT: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are chronic leg wounds that can have a debilitating effect on the physical a...

  20. Clinical unity and community empowerment: the use of smartphone technology to empower community management of chronic venous ulcers through the support of a tertiary unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Marie Quinn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic ulcers affect roughly 60,000 Irish people, at a total cost of €600,000,000, or €10,000 per patient annually. By virtue of their chronicity, these ulcers also contribute a significant burden to tertiary outpatient vascular clinics. OBJECTIVE: We propose utilizing mobile phone technology to decentralise care from tertiary centres to the community, improving efficiency and patient satisfaction, while maintaining patient safety. METHODS: Bespoke mobile software was developed for Apples iPhone 4 platform. This allowed for the remote collection of patient images prospectively and their transmission with clinical queries, from the primary healthcare team to the tertiary centre. Training and iPhones were provided to five public health nurses in geographically remote areas of the region. Data were uploaded securely and user end software was developed allowing the review and manipulation of images, along with two way communication between the teams. Establishing reliability, patients were reviewed clinically as well as remotely, and concordance analysed. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussion. RESULTS: From October to December 2011 eight patients (61-83 yrs, mean 75.3 yrs with chronic venous ulceration and their five public health nurses were recruited. Data were transmitted using 3 G, Edge, GPRS and WiFi, at a mean speed of 69.03 kps. Concordance was 100% for wound bed assessment, 80% for skin integrity/colour and 60% for exudate assessment. Focus group analysis explored the concept, practicalities and future applications of the system. CONCLUSIONS: With an evolving national data network, the secure transmission of clinical images is a safe alternative to regular clinic appointments for patients with chronic venous ulceration. With further development, and packaged as a freely downloadable application, this has the potential to support the community care of chronic wounds.

  1. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae, standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency.

  2. Clinical efficacy of dressings for treatment of heavily exuding chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Hipler,Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter; Tittelbach,Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia Wiegand, Jörg Tittelbach, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: The treatment of chronic ulcers is a complex issue and presents an increasing problem for caregivers everywhere. This is especially true in Germany, where more than 4 million chronic wounds are treated each year. Therapeutic decisions must be patient-centered and reflect wound etiology, localization, and healing status. The practice of us...

  3. Clinical efficacy of dressings for treatment of heavily exuding chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wieg; C.; Tittelbach J; Hipler UC; Elsner P

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia Wiegand, Jörg Tittelbach, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: The treatment of chronic ulcers is a complex issue and presents an increasing problem for caregivers everywhere. This is especially true in Germany, where more than 4 million chronic wounds are treated each year. Therapeutic decisions must be patient-centered and reflect wound etiology, localization, and healing status. The practice of using ...

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase activity and glycosaminoglycans in chronic venous disease: the linkage among cell biology, pathology and translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Raffetto, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    Primary chronic venous disease (CVD) is an inflammatory pathology involving an erratic structural remodeling in the venous well leading to vascular incompetence and the development of varicose vein, characterized by altered collagen and elastin content. In the early steps of varicose vein formation is crucial the role of MMP/TIMP balance, implicated in both ECM and vascular degradation during inflammation processes in early and late stages of venous diseases. Although several pharmacological ...

  5. Effect of Multi-layer Compression Bandage Systems on Leg Ulcers Associated with Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kuplay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Venous leg ulcer is a major health problem in terms of high prevalence and high cost for treatment. Multi-layer compression bandage systems for venous leg ulcers are supposed to be the gold standard for the treatment of venous ulcers. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effectiveness of multi-layer compression bandage systems for the treatment of venous leg ulcers.Patients and Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients diagnosed to have leg ulcers were evaluated and four patients were excluded from the study due to the peripheral arterial disease. Fifteen patients, enrolled in the study, were classified according to CEAP classification and belonged to the same class. Betaven® multi-layer compression bandage was applied to patients. Patients were followed-up in terms of wound healing and reduction in wound diameter.Results: Twelve male and three female patients underwent multi-layer bandage system. Mean age of patients was 38.2 ± 4.2 years. Ulcer size was measured planimetrically and baseline ulcer size was 4-10 cm². The location of ulcer was on medial malloelus in seven patients, lateral malleolus in three patients, anterior surface of the leg in four patients and lateral side of the leg in one patient. Patients had chronic venous insuuficiency for a mean of 5.1 ± 2.1 years. CEAP classifications were C6, Ep, As2,3-p18, Pr2,3, 18. Each bandage was changed five days after application along with wound care. Mean duration of treatment was 6 ± 2 weeks. Complete healing of the venous ulcers occurred in all patients except for one. This patient was referred to plastic surgery clinic for reconstruction.Conclusion: Multi-layer compression bandage system is an effective method of treatment for venous leg ulcers associated with chronic venous insufficiency by reducing venous return and increasing intertitial tissue pressure. This effect occurred in the shortrun as well as with a low cost and prevented loss of labor.

  6. Evaluation of quality of life and photoplethysmography in patients with chronic venous insufficiency treated with foam sclerotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Coelho Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy plays a major role in treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, providing clinical and hemodynamic improvement to patients undergoing treatment.OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationships between venous refilling time and impact of venous disease on quality of life and between changes in venous refilling time and improvement of symptoms after ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy for chronic venous insufficiency.METHODS: Thirty-two patients classified as C4, C5 or C6 answered a questionnaire on quality of life and symptoms and their venous filling time was measured using photoplethysmography before and 45 days after treatment of chronic venous insufficiency with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy.RESULTS: Statistically significant improvements were observed in quality of life scores and in venous filling time and in the following symptoms: aching, heavy legs, restless legs, swelling, burning sensations, and throbbing (p<0.0001. A similar improvement was also seen in the work and social domains of quality of life (p<0.0001.CONCLUSIONS: As confirmed by questionnaire scores and venous refilling times, ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy demonstrated efficacy and resulted in high satisfaction levels and low rates of major complications.

  7. Effects of acupuncture for chronic pelvic pain syndrome with intrapelvic venous congestion. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to reveal the usefulness of acupuncture for chronic pelvic pain syndrome with intrapelvic venous congestion as evaluated by symptom scores, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and magnetic resonance (MR) venography. Ten male patients suffering from non-inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome (National Institutes of Health (NIH) category IIIB) with intrapelvic venous congestion were treated using acupuncture. Eight patients had previously received pharmacotherapy, which was unsuccessful. Acupuncture was performed using disposable stainless steel needles, which were inserted into the bilateral BL-33 points and rotated manually for 10 min. The treatment was repeated every week for 5 weeks without other therapeutic maneuvers. Results from TRUS and MR venography, as well as clinical symptoms based on the NIH chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) and the international prostate symptom score (IPSS), were compared before and after the treatment. No side-effects were recognized throughout the treatment period. The average pain and quality of life (QOL) scores of the NIH-CPSI 1 week after the 5th acupuncture treatment decreased significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) compared with the baseline. The maximum width of the sonolucent zone 1 week after the 5th treatment also decreased significantly (P<0.01, compared with the baseline). Intrapelvic venous congestion demonstrated by MR venography was significantly improved in four patients. This study provided novel information concerning the therapeutic effects of acupuncture on non-inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome. (author)

  8. Decreased brain venous vasculature visibility on susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojnacki David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential pathogenesis between the presence and severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its relation to clinical and imaging outcomes in brain parenchyma of multiple sclerosis (MS patients has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between CCSVI, and altered brain parenchyma venous vasculature visibility (VVV on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI in patients with MS and in sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC. Methods 59 MS patients, 41 relapsing-remitting and 18 secondary-progressive, and 33 HC were imaged on a 3T GE scanner using pre- and post-contrast SWI venography. The presence and severity of CCSVI was determined using extra-cranial and trans-cranial Doppler criteria. Apparent total venous volume (ATVV, venous intracranial fraction (VIF and average distance-from-vein (DFV were calculated for various vein mean diameter categories: .9 mm. Results CCSVI criteria were fulfilled in 79.7% of MS patients and 18.2% of HC (p Conclusions MS patients with higher number of venous stenoses, indicative of CCSVI severity, showed significantly decreased venous vasculature in the brain parenchyma. The pathogenesis of these findings has to be further investigated, but they suggest that reduced metabolism and morphological changes of venous vasculature may be taking place in patients with MS.

  9. Construction and validation of a quality of life questionnaire in chronic lower limb venous insufficiency (CIVIQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, R; Reboul-Marty, J; Henry, B

    1996-12-01

    Quality of life may be considerably reduced in patients who are suffering from chronic lower limb venous insufficiency, although existing generic quality of life instruments (NHP, SF-36 or SIP) cannot completely identify their specific complaints. The Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire (CIVIQ) has been developed by iterative process. First, a pilot group of 20 patients was used to identify a number of important features of quality of life affected by venous insufficiency, other than physical symptoms of discomfort. A second study involving 2,001 subjects was used to reduce the number of items. Subjects were asked to score both the severity of their problems and the importance they attributed to each problem on a 5-point Likert scale. The importance items found in patients with venous insufficiency were subjected to factorial analyses (PCA, PAF). The final version is a 20-item self-administered questionnaire which explores four dimensions: psychological, physical and social functioning and pain. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was validated for each dimension (Cronbach's alpha > 0.820 for three out of four factors). Reproducibility was confirmed in a 60 patient test-retest study. Pearson's correlation coefficients for both the four dimension subscales and for the global score at 2-week intervals were greater than 0.940. Finally, the questionnaire was tested in a randomized clinical trial of 934 patients in order to assess responsiveness and the convergent validity of the instrument, together with the patient's own quality of life. This study demonstrated that convergence was valid: Pearson's correlation coefficients between clinical score differences and quality of life score differences were small (from 0.199-0.564) but were statistically different from 0 (p response mean (SRM) and effect size (ES) were calculated to assess sensitivity to change. SRM and ES both demonstrated considerable responsiveness to change (> 0.80). Reliability, face

  10. Protocol for the realization of venous mapping by chronic venous insufficiency in lower limbs under sonographic guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of knowledge is reviewed with respect to the realization of lower limbs venous mapping. Venous mapping is obtained by the use of color and spectral Doppler ultrasound. Doppler ultrasound has provided a precise graphical representation of the superficial and deep venous systems. The performance of the venous mapping is considered essential for the correct handling of venous diseases. The anatomical and pathophysiological basic concepts are defined to realize the sonographic assessment of the veins of the lower limbs. The required technical aspects are revised for the realization of sonographic exploration of the patient with venous insufficiency. Sonographic findings are characterized to support the diagnostic of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. The CEAP (clinical-etiologic-anatomic-pathophysiologic) classification is utilized to differentiate forms and degrees of severity of the disorder, and has allowed an interinstitutional comparison in clinical studies, the evaluation of treatment and monitoring of patients. A proposal is designed to perform reports that have served of guide surgical to vascular surgeons

  11. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Novović Miloš; Topić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG) values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial o...

  12. Saphenofemoral ligation as a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of isolated saphenofemoral junction ligation for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcer in comparison to traditional stripping procedure. 36 patients (28 men and 8 women) with mean age of 42.3+-8.7, presented with a venous leg ulcer. After taking the full history, they underwent examination for presence of edema, cellulitis or local ulcer infection. The site and size of ulceration were recorded and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) was measured, Venous valvular incompetence was assessed using Valsalva testand calf compression. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I, (n=10) assigned for long saphenous stripping, while group II (n=26) assigned for saphenofemoral ligationan and divided combined with ligation of major tributaries under local infiltration anesthesia. Mean operative time, postoperative complications and hospital stay were recorded. The study was carried out in Benha University Hospital, Egypt and Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Khamis Mushayt, Sadi Arabia between January 2000 and December 2001. The mean operative time and the hospital stay were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in group II compared to group I. The postoperative complications were signficantly (x=7.5, p<0.05) reduced in group II. Ulcer healing started after 3 months in group II and six months in group I, but by 12 month, group II had significant (x=6.7, p<0.05) number of healed ulcers (n=22, 84.6%), compared to group I (n=7, 70%). The isolated ligation of of saphenofemoral junction is a minimally invasive, safe and effective modality for treatment of chronic leg ulcer, and being easily performed under local anesthesia and considerd to be a satisfactory procedure for treatment of leg ulcer in patients who are unfit for general anesthesia. (author)

  13. Evaluation of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) occurrence in a group of 34 MS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Zamboni et al announced research results showing significant alterations in venous outflow from the brain, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), and its possible connections with multiple sclerosis (MS). The findings evoked wide interest all over the world. The scientists found 100% sensitivity and specificity in detection of at least 2 CCSVI parameters in MS-diagnosed patients in contrast to healthy controls and patients with other neurological disorders. Researchers at several centers decided to verify these reports, finding CCSVI incidence in MS patients ranging from 0 % to 90 %. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency according to Zambonis criteria in patients with MS. Material/Methods: The study group included 34 patients with multiple sclerosis diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. All patients underwent ultrasound evaluation for the presence of 5 CCSVI criteria in accordance with the methodology described by Zamboni et al. Results: In the group of 34 MS patients, 9 (26.5 %) were diagnosed with CCSVI (6 of them with RR course, 2 with SP course and 1 with PP course), 23 patients (67.6 %) met 1 of the 5 diagnostic criteria, and 2 patients (5.9 %) did not meet any criterion. Conclusions: Based on the criteria published by Zamboni et al. in the study group of 34 MS patients, CCSVI was diagnosed in 9, which is 26.5 % of the total. Lack of standardized methodology of the examination can cause a large divergence of results obtained in various centers. The hypothesis that CCSVI is a possible cause of MS is worthy of further studies and should not be rejected without evaluation by properly designed clinical trials. (authors)

  14. Magnetic Resonance Venography of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with associated multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with not well understood etiology. Recently, a possible association of MS with compromised venous outflow from the brain and spinal cord has been studied (chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency - CCSVI). Angioplasties of internal jugular veins (IJV) and azygous vein (AV) have given promising results, with improvements in patients clinical status. Material/Methods: 830 patients with clinically defined MS were scanned from the level of sigmoid sinuses to the junction with brachiocephalic veins, as well as at the level of AV. T2-weighted, 2D TOF and FIESTA sequences were used. Results: The examination revealed a slower blood flow in IJVs, in 98% of patients: on the right side - in 6%, on the left side - in 15%, on both sides with right-side predominance - in 22%, on both sides with left-side predominance - in 34%, bilaterally with no side predominance - in 19%. In 2%, there was a slower blood flow in IJVs, vertebral veins and subclavian veins and also in the left brachiocephalic vein. Moreover, in 5% of patients there was a decreased blood flow in the azygous vein. Conclusions: Abnormal flow pattern in IJVs is more common on the left side. Less often it can be found in azygous vein and in brachiocephalic veins. Further research is needed to investigate the significance of CCSVI in MS patients. The protocol we described can be used for most of modern magnetic resonance units. (authors)

  15. The Application of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Venous Leg Ulceration: Authors Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kucharzewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to use negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT in patients with chronic venous leg ulceration. The authors present their experience in treatment of 15 patients whose average ulceration surface area was 62.6 cm2. In 10 patients, the ulcers healed within 6 weeks and in the remaining patients within 20 weeks. Based on the results obtained, the authors imply that NPWT is an effective method in the treatment of chronic venous leg.

  16. Transplantation of autologous keratinocyte suspension in fibrin matrix to chronic venous leg ulcers: improved long-term healing after removal of the fibrin carrier.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; Quist, J.; Hamm, H.; Brocker, E.B.; Friedl, P.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The transplantation of keratinocytes suspended in fibrin carrier represents a candidate regimen for chronic ulcer treatment in an outpatient setting. We evaluated the integration and survival of autologous individualized keratinocytes applied within fibrin matrix onto chronic venous leg

  17. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe commentary on the treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reekers, J A

    2011-02-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a putative new theory that has been suggested by some to have a direct causative relation with the symptomatology associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) [1]. The core foundation of this theory is that there is abnormal venous drainage from the brain due to outflow obstruction in the draining jugular vein and\\/or azygos veins. This abnormal venous drainage, which is characterised by special ultrasound criteria, called the "venous hemodynamic insufficiency severity score" (VHISS), is said to cause intracerebral flow disturbance or outflow problems that lead to periventricular deposits [2]. In the CCSVI theory, these deposits have a great similarity to the iron deposits seen around the veins in the legs in patients with chronic deep vein thrombosis. Zamboni, who first described this new theory, has promoted balloon dilatation to treat the outflow problems, thereby curing CCSVI and by the same token alleviating MS complaints. However, this theory does not fit into the existing bulk of scientific data concerning the pathophysiology of MS. In contrast, there is increasing worldwide acceptance of CCSVI and the associated balloon dilatation treatment, even though there is no supporting scientific evidence. Furthermore, most of the information we have comes from one source only. The treatment is called "liberation treatment," and the results of the treatment can be watched on YouTube. There are well-documented testimonies by MS patients who have gained improvement in their personal quality of life (QOL) after treatment. However, there are no data available from patients who underwent unsuccessful treatments with which to obtain a more balanced view. The current forum for the reporting of success in treating CCSVI and thus MS seems to be the Internet. At the CIRCE office and the MS Centre in Amsterdam, we receive approximately 10 to 20 inquiries a month about this treatment. In addition, many interventional radiologists

  18. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe commentary on the treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekers, J A; Lee, M J; Belli, A M; Barkhof, F

    2011-02-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a putative new theory that has been suggested by some to have a direct causative relation with the symptomatology associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) [1]. The core foundation of this theory is that there is abnormal venous drainage from the brain due to outflow obstruction in the draining jugular vein and/or azygos veins. This abnormal venous drainage, which is characterised by special ultrasound criteria, called the "venous hemodynamic insufficiency severity score" (VHISS), is said to cause intracerebral flow disturbance or outflow problems that lead to periventricular deposits [2]. In the CCSVI theory, these deposits have a great similarity to the iron deposits seen around the veins in the legs in patients with chronic deep vein thrombosis. Zamboni, who first described this new theory, has promoted balloon dilatation to treat the outflow problems, thereby curing CCSVI and by the same token alleviating MS complaints. However, this theory does not fit into the existing bulk of scientific data concerning the pathophysiology of MS. In contrast, there is increasing worldwide acceptance of CCSVI and the associated balloon dilatation treatment, even though there is no supporting scientific evidence. Furthermore, most of the information we have comes from one source only. The treatment is called "liberation treatment," and the results of the treatment can be watched on YouTube. There are well-documented testimonies by MS patients who have gained improvement in their personal quality of life (QOL) after treatment. However, there are no data available from patients who underwent unsuccessful treatments with which to obtain a more balanced view. The current forum for the reporting of success in treating CCSVI and thus MS seems to be the Internet. At the CIRCE office and the MS Centre in Amsterdam, we receive approximately 10 to 20 inquiries a month about this treatment. In addition, many interventional radiologists

  19. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe Commentary on the Treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a putative new theory that has been suggested by some to have a direct causative relation with the symptomatology associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). The core foundation of this theory is that there is abnormal venous drainage from the brain due to outflow obstruction in the draining jugular vein and/or azygos veins. This abnormal venous drainage, which is characterised by special ultrasound criteria, called the “venous hemodynamic insufficiency severity score” (VHISS), is said to cause intracerebral flow disturbance or outflow problems that lead to periventricular deposits. In the CCSVI theory, these deposits have a great similarity to the iron deposits seen around the veins in the legs in patients with chronic deep vein thrombosis. Zamboni, who first described this new theory, has promoted balloon dilatation to treat the outflow problems, thereby curing CCSVI and by the same token alleviating MS complaints. However, this theory does not fit into the existing bulk of scientific data concerning the pathophysiology of MS. In contrast, there is increasing worldwide acceptance of CCSVI and the associated balloon dilatation treatment, even though there is no supporting scientific evidence. Furthermore, most of the information we have comes from one source only. The treatment is called “liberation treatment,” and the results of the treatment can be watched on YouTube. There are well-documented testimonies by MS patients who have gained improvement in their personal quality of life (QOL) after treatment. However, there are no data available from patients who underwent unsuccessful treatments with which to obtain a more balanced view. The current forum for the reporting of success in treating CCSVI and thus MS seems to be the Internet. At the CIRCE office and the MS Centre in Amsterdam, we receive approximately 10 to 20 inquiries a month about this treatment. In addition, many interventional radiologists

  20. The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Gloviczki, Monika L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Meissner, Mark H; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank T; Pappas, Peter J; Passman, Marc A; Raffetto, Joseph D; Vasquez, Michael A; Wakefield, Thomas W

    2011-05-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and the American Venous Forum (AVF) have developed clinical practice guidelines for the care of patients with varicose veins of the lower limbs and pelvis. The document also includes recommendations on the management of superficial and perforating vein incompetence in patients with associated, more advanced chronic venous diseases (CVDs), including edema, skin changes, or venous ulcers. Recommendations of the Venous Guideline Committee are based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system as strong (GRADE 1) if the benefits clearly outweigh the risks, burden, and costs. The suggestions are weak (GRADE 2) if the benefits are closely balanced with risks and burden. The level of available evidence to support the evaluation or treatment can be of high (A), medium (B), or low or very low (C) quality. The key recommendations of these guidelines are: We recommend that in patients with varicose veins or more severe CVD, a complete history and detailed physical examination are complemented by duplex ultrasound scanning of the deep and superficial veins (GRADE 1A). We recommend that the CEAP classification is used for patients with CVD (GRADE 1A) and that the revised Venous Clinical Severity Score is used to assess treatment outcome (GRADE 1B). We suggest compression therapy for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (GRADE 2C) but recommend against compression therapy as the primary treatment if the patient is a candidate for saphenous vein ablation (GRADE 1B). We recommend compression therapy as the primary treatment to aid healing of venous ulceration (GRADE 1B). To decrease the recurrence of venous ulcers, we recommend ablation of the incompetent superficial veins in addition to compression therapy (GRADE 1A). For treatment of the incompetent great saphenous vein (GSV), we recommend endovenous thermal ablation (radiofrequency or laser) rather than high ligation and inversion stripping

  1. A Clinical Comparison of Pycnogenol, Antistax, and Stocking in Chronic Venous Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, Gianni

    2015-12-01

    This 8-week registry study was a comparative evaluation of Pycnogenol (French Maritime Pine Bark extract; Horphag Research, Geneva) and Antistax (grape leaf extract [GLE, Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany]) in controlling symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). "Standard management" for CVI is compression; a group of comparable subjects was monitored to evaluate the effects of stockings. The registry included 183 patients (166 completing). Supplementation with Antistax (two tablets of 360 mg/d) or Pycnogenol (100 mg/d) was used. The groups were comparable for age, symptoms, venous incompetence, and microcirculation (with increased capillary filtration and skin flux) at inclusion. At 8 weeks, the rate of swelling (p Pycnogenol (p Pycnogenol (p Pycnogenol. An analog scale quantified symptoms. At 8 weeks, pain and edema were decreased with Pycnogenol and elastic compression (p Pycnogenol (p Pycnogenol was decreased by 40%. Induration was reduced only in the Pycnogenol group (p Pycnogenol were lower (96; 3.3 Euros) in comparison with the other groups (132;1.4 Euros for GLE and 149; 2.2 Euros for compression). PMID:26648668

  2. Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in Venous Aneurysm following Closure of the Chronic Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Lower Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranat Orrapin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF commonly results from an unrecognized vascular injury. In this report, there were two cases of chronic traumatic AVF of the legs with a long history of stab (case 1 and shotgun wounds (case 2. Both cases presented with varicose veins together with hyperpigmentation around the ankle of the affected leg. Angiograms showed a single large AVF in case 1, whereas, in case 2, there was a single large AVF together with multiple small AVFs. In both cases large venous aneurysm was found next to a large AVF. An open surgical AVF closure for the large AVF was performed in case 1 successfully, but patient developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT in a large venous aneurysm. In the second case, in order to prevent DVT, only closure of the large AVF was performed, which preserved arterial flow into the venous aneurysm. Case 2 did not have acute DVT. This report raised the concern about acute DVTs in venous aneurysms following the closure of chronic traumatic AVF in terms of prevention. Also chronic traumatic AVF is commonly due to misdiagnosis in the initial treatment, so complete and serial physical examinations in penetrating vascular injury patients are of paramount importance.

  3. Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in Venous Aneurysm following Closure of the Chronic Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Lower Extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrapin, Saranat; Arworn, Supapong; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) commonly results from an unrecognized vascular injury. In this report, there were two cases of chronic traumatic AVF of the legs with a long history of stab (case 1) and shotgun wounds (case 2). Both cases presented with varicose veins together with hyperpigmentation around the ankle of the affected leg. Angiograms showed a single large AVF in case 1, whereas, in case 2, there was a single large AVF together with multiple small AVFs. In both cases large venous aneurysm was found next to a large AVF. An open surgical AVF closure for the large AVF was performed in case 1 successfully, but patient developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in a large venous aneurysm. In the second case, in order to prevent DVT, only closure of the large AVF was performed, which preserved arterial flow into the venous aneurysm. Case 2 did not have acute DVT. This report raised the concern about acute DVTs in venous aneurysms following the closure of chronic traumatic AVF in terms of prevention. Also chronic traumatic AVF is commonly due to misdiagnosis in the initial treatment, so complete and serial physical examinations in penetrating vascular injury patients are of paramount importance. PMID:27293948

  4. Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in Venous Aneurysm following Closure of the Chronic Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Lower Extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrapin, Saranat; Arworn, Supapong; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) commonly results from an unrecognized vascular injury. In this report, there were two cases of chronic traumatic AVF of the legs with a long history of stab (case 1) and shotgun wounds (case 2). Both cases presented with varicose veins together with hyperpigmentation around the ankle of the affected leg. Angiograms showed a single large AVF in case 1, whereas, in case 2, there was a single large AVF together with multiple small AVFs. In both cases large venous aneurysm was found next to a large AVF. An open surgical AVF closure for the large AVF was performed in case 1 successfully, but patient developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in a large venous aneurysm. In the second case, in order to prevent DVT, only closure of the large AVF was performed, which preserved arterial flow into the venous aneurysm. Case 2 did not have acute DVT. This report raised the concern about acute DVTs in venous aneurysms following the closure of chronic traumatic AVF in terms of prevention. Also chronic traumatic AVF is commonly due to misdiagnosis in the initial treatment, so complete and serial physical examinations in penetrating vascular injury patients are of paramount importance. PMID:27293948

  5. Relationship Between Pain and CEAP C Categories of Chronic Venous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radak, D J; Tanaskovic, S Z; Vlajinac, H D; Marinkovic, J M; Maksimovic, M Z

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the occurrence and intensity of leg pain are related to C class of the clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological (CEAP) classification for chronic venous disease (CVeD). This cross-sectional study, conducted in Serbia, included 2841 patients: 2027 (71.3%) women and 814 (28.7%) men with CVeD diagnosed by general practitioners. For the first time, the Numeric Rating Scale of 0 to 5 units was used to assess the intensity of pain. For the analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regressions were applied. Pain in the legs was reported by 90.5% of the patients. The occurrence of pain significantly (P family history of CVeD. PMID:26483571

  6. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  7. Estimating the Clinical Outcomes and Cost Differences Between Standard Care With and Without Cadexomer Iodine in the Management of Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers Using a Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nherera, Leo M; Woodmansey, Emma; Trueman, Paul; Gibbons, Garry W

    2016-06-01

    Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs) affect up to 1% of the adult population in the developed world and present a significant financial and resource burden to health care systems. Cadexomer iodine (CI) is an antimicrobial dressing indicated for use in chronic exuding wounds. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost utility of using CI + standard care (SC) - ie, high compression multicomponent bandaging including debridement - compared with SC alone in the management of chronic (>6 months' duration) VLUs from a payer's perspective. A Markov model was constructed to evaluate the cost and clinical benefits (healing and decreased infection rates) of the 2 treatment modalities over a 1-year period using data from 4 randomized, controlled clinical studies (RCTs) included in a recent Cochrane review and cost data from a recently published economic evaluation of VLUs. Costs were calculated using 2014 United States dollars; wound outcomes in- cluded complete healing in 212 patients reported in the Cochrane meta-analysis and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), with utility values obtained from 200 patients with VLUs calculated using standard gamble. Treatment with CI over 1 year was $7,259 compared to $7,901 for SC. This resulted in a cost savings of $643/patient in favor of CI compared with SC. More patients treated with CI (61%) had their wounds healed compared to 54% treated with SC. Furthermore, patients treated with CI+SC experienced 6 additional ulcer-free weeks compared to persons treated with SC alone (ie, 25 ulcer- free weeks compared to 19 ulcer-free weeks, respectively). Overall, CI resulted in 0.03 more QALYs (ie, 0.86 QALYs compared to 0.83 for SC). The use of CI in addition to SC compared to SC alone over 52 weeks resulted in more wounds healed and more QALYs along with a decrease of overall costs The results of this study suggest CI is cost effective com- pared to SC alone in the management of patients with chronic VLUs. Prospective, controlled clinical

  8. Cost-effective use of silver dressings for the treatment of hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, Gregor B E; Kerihuel, Jean Charles; Ousey, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of silver dressings using a health economic model based on time-to-wound-healing in hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs). BACKGROUND: Chronic venous ulceration affects 1-3% of the adult population and typically has a protracted course of healing......, resulting in considerable costs to the healthcare system. The pathogenesis of VLUs includes excessive and prolonged inflammation which is often related to critical colonisation and early infection. The use of silver dressings to control this bioburden and improve wound healing rates remains controversial....... METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment with silver compared with non-silver dressings for four weeks in a primary care setting. The outcomes: 'Healed ulcer', 'Healing ulcer' or 'No improvement' were developed, reflecting the relative reduction in ulcer...

  9. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

  10. Diagnostic concordance of the dilation of the great saphenous vein in patients with chronic venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Lobo Alexander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI is a dysfunction of the venous systemof the inferior limbs, in which it is formed a venovenous short circuit with alteration inthe physiologic flow of the blood.Objective: To estimate the degree of diagnostic concordance between the dilation ofthe great saphenous vein and the presence of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI.Methods: Diagnostic concordance study, where were included all the patients that wentbetween the months of April and May 2011 to the service of radiology of the HospitalUniversitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia to make itself a colour Doppler ultrasoundof inferior limbs because of suspicion of CIV. Data was saved and analyzed by meansof the statistical program EPI-INFO version 3.5.1. Statistical analysis was focused inthe estimation of the kappa concordance index, the diameter of the saphenous with thepresence of CVI. Moreover there were calculated the parameters of diagnostic validitylike sensibility, specificity, predictive values and probability quotient.Results: There were recruited 77 patients, 64 women and 13 men. Of the total ofpatients, 47 had ebb and of them, 41 had dilation of the great saphenous vein, for whatthe dilation of this vein per se has sensibility of 87.2% and specificity of 93,1% for thediagnosis of CVI with positive predictive value (PPV of 95.3% and negative predictivevalue of 81.8%.Conclusion: There is good diagnostic concordance between the dilation of the greatsaphenous vein and the CVI. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:234-241RESUMEN:INTRODUCCIÓN: la Insuficiencia Venosa Crónica (IVC es una disfunción del sistemavenoso de los miembros inferiores, en la que se forma un corto circuito veno-venosocon alteración en el flujo fisiológico de la sangre.OBJETIVO: estimar el grado de concordancia diagnóstica entre la dilatación de la venasafena mayor y la presencia de insuficiencia venosa crónica (IVC.METODOLOGÍA: estudio de concordancia diagnóstica, en el

  11. Predictors of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency procedure use among older people with multiple sclerosis: a national case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ploughman, Michelle; Manning, Olivia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Harris, Chelsea; Hogan, Stephen H; Mayo, Nancy; Fisk, John D; Sadovnick, A. Dessa; O’Connor, Paul; Morrow, Sarah A.; Metz, Luanne M.; Smyth, Penelope; Allderdice, Penelope W; Scott, Susan; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Following the initial reports of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and the purported curative potential of venoplasty, (coined the ‘liberation’ procedure) Canadians living with multiple sclerosis (MS) began to travel abroad to receive the unregulated procedure, often placing them at odds with their health providers. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing older MS patients’ decision to undergo the procedure in order to develop more specif...

  12. Patients' reported quality of life in chronic venous disease in an outpatient service in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunić, Ivana; Medenica, Ljiljana; Bobić, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2009-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) has been reported to substantially affect patients' quality of life (QoL). To evaluate the impact of CVD on patient-reported QoL in a patient series in Serbia, a cross-sectional study of 570 CVD patients, classified according to the CEAP clinical classification into classes (C) 1-6, was performed in a Belgrade outpatient clinic. QoL was assessed by the general short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and additionally by a brief CVD-specific questionnaire. The SF-36 scores for all QoL dimensions showed a progressive reduction from C1 to C6. Class 5 and 6 patients scored the lowest across all dimensions, with significant (p social functioning and emotional role scores across the groups. There were no age or gender differences in any QoL item across the classes. The data presented show that QoL of CVD patients decreases, particularly after the appearance of skin changes, and suggest that even patients in the early stages consider CVD a disease and not merely a cosmetic problem. PMID:19737727

  13. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a highly prevalent age-dependent phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzillo Roberta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy controls using extra- and intracranial colour Doppler sonography. Methods We examined 146 MS patients, presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, or primary progressive MS, and 38 healthy controls. Sonographic examination was performed according to Zamboni’s protocol and was performed by three independent sonographers. The results of sonographic examination were compared with clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results CCSVI, defined as the presence of at least two positive Zamboni’s criteria, was found in 76% of MS patients and 16% of control subjects. B-mode anomalies of internal jugular veins, such as stenosis, malformed valves, annuli, and septa were the most common lesions detected in MS patients (80.8% and controls (47.4%. We observed a positive correlation between sonographic diagnosis of CCSVI and the patients’ age (p = 0.003. However, such a correlation was not found in controls (p = 0.635. Notably, no significant correlations were found between sonographic signs of CCSVI and clinical characteristics of MS, except for absent flow in the jugular veins, which was found more often in primary (p Conclusions Sonographically defined CCSVI is common in MS patients. However, CCSVI appears to be primarily associated with the patient’s age, and poorly correlated with the clinical course of the disease.

  14. Nutritional profile of older adults with chronic venous leg ulcers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jodi C; Kemmner, Kaitlyn G; Rusnak, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was to describe daily intake of select nutrients important for efficient wound healing and general health in a sample of older adults (64.25 ± 9.49 years of age) with chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs; N = 12), compared to recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Anthropometric data were also collected. Compared to RDA, participants on average consumed lower vitamin C (60.03 ± 49.73 mg/d) and higher sodium (3197.07 ± 1455.04 mg/d), sugar (181.21 ± 115.45 g/d), and saturated fat (33.75 ± 1.06 g/d). They also demonstrated a relatively high plasma n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, a biomarker of inflammation (11.25 ± 1.99). The mean body mass index indicated extreme obesity (41.48 ± 11.47). A multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes routine dietary assessments followed by tailored dietary interventions may improve wound healing and long-term health outcomes in this population. PMID:26141998

  15. Effectively managing wound exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanga, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The management of wound exudate remains a clinical challenge despite technological advances in products with better exudate-handling capacities. This clinical challenge is occasionally encountered when thick exudate (viscous exudate) is present, and when most modern dressings do not possess the capabilities to manage the viscosity while enabling exudate absorption. Maceration to the peri-wound area poses another challenge, irrespective of the number of topical barrier application products on the market and the innovation of dressing products that lock exudate away or those that encourage vertical wicking. In addition to all the above, in clinical practice, the assessment and documentation of wound exudate remains sporadic, leading to the challenges of effective wound exudate dressing selection and cost-effective dressings. PMID:26322408

  16. Microbubble mediated thrombus dissolution with diagnostic ultrasound for the treatment of chronic venous thrombi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelby Kutty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central venous catheter (CVC thrombi result in significant morbidity in children, and currently available treatments are associated with significant risk. We sought to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of microbubble (MB enhanced sonothrombolysis for aged CVC associated thrombi in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: A model of chronic indwelling CVC in the low superior vena cava with thrombus in situ was established after feasibility and safety testing in 7 pigs; and subsequently applied for repeated, sonothrombolytic treatments in 9 pigs (total 24 treatments. Baseline intracardiac echocardiography (ICE, 10.5F, Siemens, fluoroscopy and saline flushing confirmed the absence of any pre-existing CVC thrombus. A thrombus was then allowed to form and age over 24 hours. The created thrombus was localized and measured by ICE, and transthoracic image guided high mechanical index (MI two-dimensional US treatments (1.1-1.7 MI; iE33, Philips applied intermittently whenever intravenously infused MBs (3% MRX-801; NuVox were visualized near the thrombus (n = 10; Group A. Control pigs (n = 10; Group B received US without MB. All treatments were randomized. Post-treatment thrombus area by ICE planimetry was compared with pre-treatment measurements. Thrombus area measurements before and after treatment were 0.22 and 0.10 cm(2 respectively in Group A; compared to 0.24 and 0.21 cm(2 in Group B (p  = 0.0003. Effectiveness of longer duration US and MB thrombolytic treatments were studied (n = 4, which suggested that near complete thrombus dissolution is possible. No pulmonary emboli, alterations in oxygen saturation, or hemodynamics occurred with either treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Guided high MI diagnostic US+systemic MB facilitates reduction of aged CVC associated thrombi in vivo. MB enhanced sonothrombolytic therapy may be a non-invasive safe alternative to thrombolytic agents in treating thrombotic CVC occlusions.

  17. Microcirculation of chronic venous disease: Role of leucocyte-endothelial activation and effects of pharmacological intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Howlader, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Many theories have been advanced to explain the development of venous ulceration in the lower limb. In recent years, the hypothesis of inappropriate leucocyte activation with the release of free radicals causing damage to the microcirculation in patients with CVD has gained popularity. No drug has so far been found to ameliorate these effects. In this thesis I have investigated a series of inflammatory markers in patients with various CEAP stages of venous disease. The aim was to asses which,...

  18. Idiopathic venous thromboembolism and thrombophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinescu, C; Hostiuc, M; Bartos, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade idiopathic venous thromboembolism has become a separate entity, a chronic illness which has required prolonged anticoagulation and other prevention strategies to avoid recurrences. This article reviews recent developments regarding unprovoked venous thromboembolism and its relation with thrombophilia. In the beginning, the latest definition of idiopathic venous thromboembolism is presented. The article continues with statistics about thrombophilia, related venous thromb...

  19. A prospective, descriptive study of hour-to-hour and day-to-day temperature variability of skin affected by chronic venous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelechi, Teresa J; McNeil, Rebecca B

    2008-04-01

    Evidence suggests that skin temperature is elevated in the lower legs of individuals with the most severe stages of chronic venous disorder-related skin inflammation. Fifteen (15) patients (average age 67.7 years) with several chronic health conditions, chronic venous disorders, and a history of leg ulcers volunteered to participate in a prospective, descriptive, two-part (hourly and daily) study to test two hypotheses: 1) that skin temperature variations of chronically inflamed skin of lower legs affected by chronic venous disorders exhibit no differences in hour-to-hour and day-to-day rhythmic patterns associated with sleep and activities such as walking, exercise, or compression stocking use among four selected skin sites (two per leg) or between the legs of individuals with chronic venous disorders; and 2) that the difference in temperature between sites is unequal between legs. All study participants were at high risk for developing venous ulcers (CEAP stage 4 and 5). Skin temperature was obtained at sites with highest temperatures and/or areas of healed ulcers and mapped hourly over a 2-day period with a data logger and daily for 30 days with an infrared thermometer. No consistent, visually detectable effects due to caffeine use, eating, activity, or other variables assessed were found; only sleeping resulted in a consistent increase in skin temperature. Difference in skin temperature between measurement sites was found to be dependent on the leg on which the sites were located (P=0.1127). Because skin temperature variability could not be explained by the variables assessed, a temperature change could suggest the presence of a pathological process such as an infection or increased inflammation. Future studies to determine whether variability of skin temperature over sites affected by chronic venous disorders heralds further skin impairment are warranted. PMID:18480503

  20. Comparison of the Complications of Central Vein Catheters and Arterio-Venous Fistulae in Children on Chronic Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghane Sherbaf

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complications related to vascular access are among the most important causes of morbidity in children chronically on hemodialysis. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of the central vein catheters (CVC and arterio-venous fistulae (AVF in children on chronic hemodialysis. Methods: This study includes 68 children who have been treated with hemodialysis in Dr. Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, during 2000-2005. Physical examination, clinical and paraclinical findings were recorded in special charts. Findings: Out of 68 patients treated with hemodialysis 29 (42.6% were female and 39 (57.3% male. The average duration time of hemodialysis was 15.8 months. Before performing AVF, the central venous catheters were placed in subclavian vein in 28 patients (41.1% and internal jugular vein in 26 patients (38.2%. The fistula placed was radio-cephalic in 29 (42.6% and brachio-basilic in 33 children (48.5%. 48 patients (77.4% underwent only one surgery for AVF. The most frequent complications of central venous catheters were: catheter infection (48.1%, inadvertent extraction of the catheters (7.4%, cardiac arrhythmia (1.8% and hemothorax (1.8%. The most common complications of AVF in decreasing order of frequency were: non-functional fistula due to thrombosis or hematoma (20.9%, infection (12.9%, aneurysms (11.2% and ischemia of the hand presenting as paresthesia, dysesthesia and pain (11.2%. Overall, 10 (18.5% patients were hospitalized due to the complications of CVC and 20 (29.4% for the complications of AVF. Conclusion: The most frequently observed complications of CVC and AVF were catheter infection and non-functional fistula. The risk factors for AVF dysfunction were young age, hypotension and hemodialysis without administration of heparin.

  1. Elimination of axial venous reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Oinonen, Annamari

    2009-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD), including uncomplicated varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency, is one of the most common medical conditions in the Western world. The central feature of CVD is venous reflux, which may be primary, congenital, or result from an antecedent event, usually an acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). When the history of DVT is clear, the clinical manifestations of secondary CVD are commonly referred to as the post-thrombotic syndrome. Regardless of the underlying...

  2. Progressive or degressive compression pressure profile in patients with chronic venous disorders of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mosti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Graduated compression devices are considered the standard care for management of venous and lymphatic disorders. Recently compression devices exerting a pressure over the calf higher than over the ankle have been proved to be more effective than traditional graduated devices in increasing the impaired ejection fraction (EF from the lower leg in patients with venous disease. Aim of this work is presenting an overview of the new concept on progressive compression, its potential benefits and limits. In different series of tests, the EF from the lower leg was assessed in 70 patients with severe reflux in the great saphenous vein (GSV. EF was measured by strain gauge plethysmography, in baseline conditions and after applying graduated compression devices or the new inversely graduated or progressive compression (PC devices. The interface pressure was recorded, simultaneously with the EF, both in the gaiter area (B1 point and at the calf (C point in order to assess the compression pressure profile. EF, severely impaired in patients with GSV reflux, was increased by compression. So called PC devices (both PC elastic stocking and PC inelastic bandages were significantly more effective than graduated compression in increasing the ejection fraction. The higher the pressure on the calf the higher the EF improvement. Maintaining the same strong pressure over the calf by means of two progressive stockings and increasing the pressure only over the calf to restore a graduated compression didn’t improve the EF. To improve venous pumping function in the ambulant patient stronger compression of the calf is more effective than graduated compression. This can be explained by the higher amount of blood volume pooled in the calf veins.

  3. Low level laser therapy (GaAlInP 660 nm) in healing of a chronic venous ulcer: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botaro, C. A.; Faria, L. A.; Oliveira, R. G.; Bruno, R. X.; Rocha, C. A. Q. C.; Paiva-Oliveira, E. L.

    2015-07-01

    The venous ulcer represents approximately 70% to 90% of inferior member ulcers, and the most common etiological factor is venous insufficiency, triggered by venous hypertension. Currently in Brazil there are several types of lasers used in physiotherapy, which benefit biological potential, emitting low power radiation, with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, healing and circulatory effects. This study aimed at the analysis of low level laser therapy effects (LLLT) on the process of tissue repair in chronic venous ulcers. We conducted a case study of a patient with a venous ulcer in the lateral region of the right inferior member. The patient underwent LLLT, which used a GaAlInP diode laser, with a wavelength of 660 nm and energy density of 4 J cm-2 applied punctually at the edges of the wound, with an average distance of 1 cm between the points with a pen-laser perpendicular wrapped in paper and a plastic wrap, keeping contact with the tissue. After four months of therapy and a total of 21 sessions, an improvement was noticeable in the gross appearance of the wound, but after a month and a half without therapy, the dimensions of the wound increased in length and width. Analyzing the results of this case study allows us to conclude that the LLLT GaAlInP (660 nm) with an energy density of 4 J cm-2, was not successful in the healing of venous ulcers.

  4. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeske Karin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa, compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy.

  5. Predicted burden of venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun Huw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins, to active venous ulceration. Both superficial and deep venous dysfunction may be implicated in the development of this disease. Socio-economic factors are shaping our population, with increasing age and body mass index resulting in significant pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. These risk factors also lead to an increased risk of developing superficial and/or deep venous insufficiency, increasing disease prevalence and morbidity. In this chapter, the authors review the current and future burden of chronic venous disease from an epidemiological, quality of life and economic perspective. PMID:26916773

  6. Diagnosis of venous disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited accuracy in the clinic diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (VT) makes such diagnostic tests such as duplex sonography or venography necessary. Exact information on the age and extent of the thrombus are necessary for the clinician to optimize the therapeutric management. The correct diagnosis of calf vein thrombosis and of recurrent VT in patients with postphlebitis changes also has implications for treatment. After exclusion of thrombosis, the radiologist should evaluate the leg for other possible causes of symptoms besides VT. Investigation of the venous sytem also has a role in the diagnosis in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. In patients with chronic venous insuffficiency the deep venous system should assessed for patency and venous valve function. The superficial veins should be differentiated in segments with sufficient or insufficient venous valves, and it is also necessary to look for insufficiency of the perforrating veins. In patients with superficial phlebitis there is risk of propagation into the deep venous system. (orig.)

  7. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuo,Toshihiko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

  8. Endovascular Thrombolysis Using Monteplase for Non-chronic Deep Venous Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of endovascular thrombolysis using monteplase for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Between December 2005 and October 2009, at our institution nine endovascular thrombolysis treatments with monteplase were performed for symptomatic DVT in eight patients (6 women, 2 men; mean age, 56 (range, 15-80) years). In all, systemic anticoagulation administered by the peripheral intravenous route with heparin and/or thrombolysis with urokinase followed by anticoagulation with orally administered warfarin had been performed, and subsequently six endovascular treatments without monteplase were administered. However, DVT persisted, and endovascular treatments with monteplase were tried. In six (67%) of the nine procedures, DVT completely or almost completely disappeared after endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase. Mean dose of monteplase used was 2,170,000 IU. There was only one procedure-related complication. In one patient, just after thrombolysis with monteplase, bleeding at the puncture site and gingival bleeding occurred. Bleeding was stopped by manual astriction only. Endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase may be an effective treatment for DVT, even in cases resistant to traditional systemic anticoagulation and thrombolysis and endovascular procedures without monteplase.

  9. Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Chronic Central Venous Catheter Patency in Mice Using Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Giovanna; Fiebig, Teresa; Kirschner, Stefanie; Nikoubashman, Omid; Kabelitz, Lisa; Othman, Ahmed; Nonn, Andrea; Kramer, Martin; Brockmann, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Repetitive administration of medication or contrast agents is frequently performed in mice. The introduction of vascular access mini-ports (VAMP) for mice allows long-term vascular catheterization, hereby eliminating the need for repeated vessel puncture. With catheter occlusion being the most commonly reported complication of chronic jugular vein catheterization, we tested whether digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be utilized to evaluate VAMP patency in mice. Methods Twent...

  10. A new cyclodextrin-grafted viscose loaded with aescin formulations for a cosmeto-textile approach to chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, G; Beltramo, L; Sapino, S; Binello, A; Carlotti, M E

    2011-10-01

    Cosmeto-textile applications can be used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency in legs by means of elastic bandages loaded with natural products which possess flebotonic properties. We have developed an efficient synthetic procedure for the preparation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-grafted viscose by means of a 2-step ultrasound-assisted reaction. The highly grafted fabric bearing bis-urethane bridged β-CD has been characterized by ATR-FTIR and CP-MAS spectra and by an empiric colorimetric method which used phenolphthalein as the CD guest. We have also developed a suitable cosmetic preparation containing natural substances and extracts (aescin, menthol, Centella asiatica and Ginkgo biloba) to recharge the CD-grafted textile. The efficacy of the new cosmeto-textile has been corroborated by in vitro studies of diffusion through membranes, cutaneous permeation and accumulation in porcine skin. Aescin was taken as a reference compound and its concentration in the different compartments was monitored by HPLC analysis. This cost effective cosmeto-textile shows excellent application compliance and is easily recharged and so has the strong base characteristics needed for possible industrial production. PMID:21805331

  11. Non-invasive evaluation of the coronary venous system in patients with chronic systolic heart failure by 64-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Imaging coronary venous systems to guide transcatheter cardiac interventions are becoming increasingly important, particularly in heart failure patients who are selected for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Failure of left ventricular (LV) lead placement during the procedure has been attributed to the inability to insert catheters into the coronary sinus and the lack of suitable side branches. Purpose To comparatively assess the value of a 64-detector MDCT examination in visualizing the cardiac veins and evaluating the morphological characteristics of the coronary venous system in patients with and without chronic systolic heart failure (SHF). Material and Methods A 64-detector MDCT examination of the heart was performed in 26 consecutive patients (five women, 21 men; mean age 57.80 ± 12.05 years; range 27-81 years) with chronic SHF. The morphological characteristics of the coronary venous system, such as the diameter, the distances between the venous tributaries, the angle and the tortuosity, were evaluated. The group was compared with a subgroup of 52 subjects without SHF (LV ejection fraction >40%) matched for age, sex, and the risk factors for coronary artery disease. Results: The coronary sinus (CS), great cardiac vein (GCV), anterior interventricular vein (AIV), and posterior interventricular vein (PIV) were visualized in all 78 individuals. The posterior vein of the left ventricle (PVLV) (63/78), left marginal vein (LMV) (72/78), and the small cardiac vein (SCV) (50/78) were visualized in SHF and control patients (p = NS). The lengths between venous tributaries were higher (p > 0.05) and more dilated (P < 0.001 for CS, GCV, AIV, PVLV, LMV; p = 0.001 for PIV) in the cases with SHF compared with the control population. The angle between the CS-GCV axis and the venous branches was wider (p = 0.02 for LMV and PIV, p = 0.001 for PVLV) and did not have any correlation with the LV diameter in cases with SHF. There was no difference between the

  12. Proliferation and mitogenic response to PDGF-BB of fibroblasts isolated from chronic venous leg ulcers is ulcer-age dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agren, M S; Steenfos, H H; Dabelsteen, S;

    1999-01-01

    pronounced than would have been expected based on studies on acute wounds. The objective of this study was to compare fibroblasts in culture obtained from chronic wounds (non-healing chronic venous leg ulcers), acute wounds and normal dermis regarding growth, mitogenic response to platelet-derived growth...... fibroblasts (n = 8) was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared with those from acute wounds (n = 10) and normal dermis (n = 5). Fibroblasts from ulcers older than 3 y grew significantly (p < 0.01) slower than those from ulcers that had been present for less than 3 y. Morphology and size of fibroblasts...... from the oldest chronic wounds deviated substantially from those of acute wounds and normal dermis, and resembled in vitro aged or senescent fibroblasts. Mitogenic response of chronic wound fibroblasts to human recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB was also reduced with ulcer age. No...

  13. 'Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency' in multiple sclerosis. Is multiple sclerosis a disease of the cerebrospinal venous outflow system?; 'Chronische zerebrospinale venoese Insuffizienz' bei Multipler Sklerose. Ist die Multiple Sklerose eine Erkrankung des zerebrospinalen venoesen Abflusssystems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattjes, M.P. [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Doepp, F. [Universitaetsklinik Charite, Berlin (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Bendszus, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Fiehler, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Klinik fuer Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention

    2011-06-15

    Chronic impaired venous outflow from the central nervous system has recently been claimed to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. This resulted in the term chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in MS. The concept of CCSVI is based on sonography studies showing that impaired venous outflow leading to pathological reflux is almost exclusively present in MS patients but not in healthy controls. Based on these findings, a new pathophysiological concept has been introduced suggesting that chronic venous outflow obstruction and venous reflux in the CNS result in pathological iron depositions leading to inflammation and neurodegeneration. The theory of CCSVI in MS has rapidly generated tremendous interest in the media and among patients and the scientific community. In particular, the potential shift in treatment concepts possibly leading to an interventional treatment approach including balloon angioplasty and venous stent placement is currently being debated. However, results from recent studies involving several imaging modalities have raised substantial concerns regarding the CCSVI concept in MS. In this review article, we explain the concept of CCSVI in MS and discuss this hypothesis in the context of MS pathophysiology and imaging studies which have tried to reproduce or refute this theory. In addition, we draw some major conclusions focusing in particular on the crucial question as to whether interventional treatment options are expedient. In conclusion, the present conclusive data confuting the theory of CCSVI in MS should lead to reluctance with respect to the interventional treatment of possible venous anomalies in MS patients. (orig.)

  14. Itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms in mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with an impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Maria I; Yosipovitch, Gil; Chan, Yiong Huak; Smith, Ronald; Levy, Pavel

    2005-09-01

    To our knowledge there are no studies evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of itch, pain, and burning sensation among patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency or assessing the impact of these symptoms on quality of life. In this report 100 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients who suffered from itch were also assessed with the use of a validated questionnaire and a modified Skindex-16 questionnaire. We found that the prevalence of itch was 66%. Concomitant itch and burning sensation as well as itch and pain were noted in 47% and 44% of the patients, respectively. No correlation was noted between the severity of these symptoms and the degree of venous insufficiency. Itch had a negative impact on quality of life. A limitation of this study is that the participants, who were primarily hospital employees, are more likely to develop these symptoms. Therefore this study does not reflect the true prevalence of these symptoms in the general population. This study found that itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms of mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with a significant impact on quality of life. PMID:16112363

  15. Venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolberg, Alisa S; Rosendaal, Frits R; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Jaffer, Iqbal H; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Baglin, Trevor; Mackman, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) encompasses deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. VTE is the leading cause of lost disability-adjusted life years and the third leading cause of cardiovascular death in the world. DVT leads to post-thrombotic syndrome, whereas pulmonary embolism can cause chronic pulmonary hypertension, both of which reduce quality of life. Genetic and acquired risk factors for thrombosis include non-O blood groups, factor V Leiden mutation, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, advanced age, surgery, hospitalization and long-haul travel. A combination of blood stasis, plasma hypercoagulability and endothelial dysfunction is thought to trigger thrombosis, which starts most often in the valve pockets of large veins. Animal studies have revealed pathogenic roles for leukocytes, platelets, tissue factor-positive microvesicles, neutrophil extracellular traps and factors XI and XII. Diagnosis of VTE requires testing and exclusion of other pathologies, and typically involves laboratory measures (such as D-dimer) and diagnostic imaging. VTE is treated with anticoagulants and occasionally with thrombolytics to prevent thrombus extension and to reduce thrombus size. Anticoagulants are also used to reduce recurrence. New therapies with improved safety profiles are needed to prevent and treat venous thrombosis. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/8ZyCuY. PMID:27189130

  16. Incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism and of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients after a first episode of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Daniela; Grifoni, Elisa; Antonucci, Emilia; Arcangeli, Chiara; Prisco, Domenico; Abbate, Rosanna; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-10-01

    After a first episode of pulmonary embolism (PE), two major problems need to be considered: risk of recurrence when anticoagulation is stopped, and risk of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). We followed prospectively consecutive patients who survived a first episode of PE, with or without deep vein thrombosis, to assess the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrences and of symptomatic and asymptomatic CTPH. After 3-6 months of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography for measuring transtricuspid (rV-rA) gradient. When rV-rA gradient was >35 mmHg further evaluations were performed to rule in or out CTPH. During follow-up patients who developed persistent dyspnea were re-evaluated. In patients who underwent OAT withdrawal D-dimer (DD), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and thrombophilia were evaluated one month after warfarin discontinuation. Overall, 239 patients, 118 males, median age 59(16-89) years, were followed up for a median time of 36(9-192) months. Nine patients had rV-rA gradient >30 mmHg and ≤35 mmHg, and one of 37 mmHg. Among patients with normal rV-rA gradient, one developed persistent dyspnea 55 months after the first event and CPTH was confirmed. Among 206 patients who stopped OAT, 23(11.2%) had VTE recurrence, 11 PE(48%). Elevated DD and F1 + 2 levels after stopping OAT were significantly associated with recurrence. None of patients with recurrent VTE had elevated rV-rA gradient. In our series the incidence of CTPH after a first episode of PE was 0.4%. VTE recurrence and elevated DD and F1 + 2 levels seemed not to be related to the development of CTPH. PMID:20157841

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Anti-Inflammatory Compounds on Cytokines Released by Chronic Venous Disease Patient-Derived Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tisato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vein endothelium plays important roles in clinical diseases such as chronic venous disease (CVD and thrombosis; thus to characterize CVD vein endothelial cells (VEC has a strategic role in identifying specific therapeutic targets. On these bases we evaluated the effect of the natural anti-inflammatory compounds α-Lipoic acid and Ginkgoselect phytosome on cytokines/chemokines released by CVD patient-derived VEC. For this purpose, we characterized the levels of a panel of cytokines/chemokines (n=31 in CVD patients’ plasma compared to healthy controls and their release by VEC purified from the same patients, in unstimulated and TNF-α stimulated conditions. Among the cytokines/chemokines released by VEC, which recapitulated the systemic profile (IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF, INF-α2, G-CSF, MIP-1β, VEGF, EGF, Eotaxin, MCP-1, CXCL10, PDGF, and RANTES, we identified those targeted by ex vivo treatment with α-Lipoic acid and/or Ginkgoselect phytosome (GM-CSF, G-CSF, CXCL10, PDGF, and RANTES. Finally, by investigating the intracellular pathways involved in promoting the VEC release of cytokines/chemokines, which are targeted by natural anti-inflammatory compounds, we documented that α-Lipoic acid significantly counteracted TNF-α-induced NF-κB and p38/MAPK activation while the effects of Ginkgo biloba appeared to be predominantly mediated by Akt. Our data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of CVD pathogenesis, highlighting new potential therapeutic targets.

  18. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. PMID:26358306

  19. Influence of antioxidant complex on the adhesion of leukocytes in chronic venous insufficiency of lower limbs in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Plotnikov

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Model of CVI of lower limb is accompanied by increased venous pressure and raised adhesion activity of leukocytes. Administration of AOC for 14 days reduces the adhesive activity of leukocytes.

  20. Duration of wound fluid secretion from chronic venous leg ulcers is critical for interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 levels and fibroblast activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zillmer, Rikke; Trøstrup, Hannah; Karlsmark, Tonny; Ifversen, Peter; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus

    2011-01-01

    retentive hydrophobic foam on the levels of prototypic cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1ß], a chemokine (IL-8) and proteinases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9] in 23 chronic venous leg ulcer patients. Bioactivity of 1 and 24 h wound fluids, and serum was also compared. There were no significant...... temporal changes in the levels of the above-mentioned four proteins, when comparing three consecutive 8-h intervals starting from 0800 that in turn did not differ significantly with the 24-h collection levels. IL-1a, IL-1ß and IL-8 levels were higher (p ...

  1. Improvement of wound healing by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA in patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs including evaluation using infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2008-10-01

    patients, a clear reduction of pain and pain medication consumption (e.g. from 15 to 0 pain tablets per day, and a normalization of the thermographic image (before the beginning of the therapy typically hyperthermic rim of the ulcer with relative hypothermic ulcer base, up to 4.5°C temperature difference. In one patient the therapy of an ulcer of one leg was performed with the fully active radiator (wIRA(+VIS, while the therapy of an ulcer of the other leg was made with a control group radiator (only VIS without wIRA, showing a clear difference in favour of the wIRA treatment. All mentioned VAS ratings improved remarkably during the period of irradiation treatment, representing an increased quality of life. Failures of complete or nearly complete wound healing were seen only in patients with arterial insufficiency, in smokers or in patients who did not have venous compression garment therapy. Discussion and conclusions: wIRA can alleviate pain considerably (with an impressive decrease of the consumption of analgesics and accelerate wound healing or improve a stagnating wound healing process and diminish an elevated wound exudation and inflammation both in acute and in chronic wounds (in this study shown in chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs and in problem wounds including infected wounds. In chronic recalcitrant wounds complete healing is achieved, which was not reached before. Other studies have shown that even without a disturbance of wound healing an acute wound healing process can be improved (e.g. reduced pain by wIRA. wIRA is a contact-free, easily used and pleasantly felt procedure without consumption of material with a good penetration effect, which is similar to solar heat radiation on the surface of the earth in moderate climatic zones. Wound healing and infection defence (e.g. granulocyte function including antibacterial oxygen radical formation of the granulocytes are critically dependent on a sufficient energy supply (and on sufficient oxygen. The

  2. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of octenidine wound gel in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers in comparison to modern wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, Gilbert; Strohal, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of an octenidine-based wound gel in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers. For this purpose, 49 wounds were treated with either modern wound-phase-adapted dressings alone (treatment arm 1; n = 17), octenidine wound gel plus modern wound-phase-adapted dressings (treatment arm 2; n = 17) or octenidine wound gel alone (treatment arm 3; n = 15). During the study period of 42 days with dressing changes every 3-5 days, wound healing characteristics and treatment costs of different dressings were analysed. Wound size reduction was significantly better (P = 0·028) in both octenidine wound gel treatment arms compared to modern dressings alone with total reductions of 14·6%, 64·1% and 96·2% in treatment arms 1-3. Early wound healing was merely observed under octenidine wound gel treatment (n = 9), whereby lowest treatment costs were generated by octenidine wound gel alone (€20·34/dressing change). As a result, the octenidine wound gel is cost-effective and well suitable for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers, considering both safety and promotion of wound healing. PMID:24589044

  3. Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a \\'mixed\\' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. OBJECTIVES: We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. METHODS: Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. RESULTS: Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p < 0.0001). There was a correlation between venous and arterial pH (r = 0.5347, p < 0.0001). The regression equation to predict arterial pH was: arterial pH = 4.2289 + 0.43113 . venous pH. There were no clinically significant differences in arterial PO associated with analysis delay. A statistically significant decline in pH was detected at 30 min in patients with COPD exacerbation (p = 0.0042) and 90 min in controls (p < 0.0001). A clinically significant decline in pH emerged at 73 min in patients with COPD exacerbation and 87 min in controls. Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded.

  4. Sequelae of Untreated Venous Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    Untreated venous insufficiency results not only in a gradual loss of cosmesis but also in variety of complications including persistent pain and discomfort, hemorrhage, superficial thrombophlebitis, and progressive skin changes that may ultimately lead to ulceration. In rare instances, chronic soft tissue changes may lead to stiffness of the ankle joint, fixed plantar flexion, and periostitis. This article reviews the variety of complications caused by venous insufficiency.

  5. Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in Venous Aneurysm following Closure of the Chronic Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Lower Extremities

    OpenAIRE

    Saranat Orrapin; Supapong Arworn; Kittipan Rerkasem

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) commonly results from an unrecognized vascular injury. In this report, there were two cases of chronic traumatic AVF of the legs with a long history of stab (case 1) and shotgun wounds (case 2). Both cases presented with varicose veins together with hyperpigmentation around the ankle of the affected leg. Angiograms showed a single large AVF in case 1, whereas, in case 2, there was a single large AVF together with multiple small AVFs. In both cases...

  6. Associations of anterior accessory or thigh posterior tributary and great saphenous reflux patterns in early stages of chronic venous valvular insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins are a common disorder. Extensive ultrasound (US mapping of lower extremity chronic venous valvular insufficiency includes the great saphenous vein (GSV, anterior accessory saphenous vein (AASV and thigh posterior tributary to GSV such as the posterior accessory saphenous vein (PTSV, PASV. The aim of this study was to determine associations between GSV-AASV-PTSV (including PASV reflux in a specific sample population of Southern Brazilian women, mostly euro descendents, with telangiectasias, reticular veins, varices and/or intermittent edema. US performed in 1016 extremities of 513 women, 43±18 (18-81 years old were included. Women with previous venous thrombosis, surgery, suspicion of pelvic congestion syndrome, and men were excluded. Small saphenous vein and related thigh veins were excluded from analysis. GSV-AASV-PTSV reflux patterns were analyzed; prevalence was compared using χ2 statistics. Reflux prevalence in AASV and/or thigh PTSV was 5.8% (59/1016: 1.3% at PTSV (n=13 and 4.5% at AASV (n=46, significantly lower than GSV reflux: 72% (n=727 (P<0.001. AASV and/or PTSV reflux was associated with GSV reflux (81%, n=48/59; common pattern was diffuse reflux, starting at AASV/PTSV saphenous junctions (56%, n=33/59; otherwise, short, non-diffuse reflux was noted in part of the AASV/PTSV evaluated. Isolated AASV or PTSV reflux was rare (1%, n=11/1016: 9 at the AASV, and 2 at the PTSV. US mapping of AASV/PTSV in early stages of disease, in women without pelvic congestion syndrome, increased reflux detection by 1%, and improved definition of reflux patterns in about 6% of the extremities.

  7. 腓肠肌泵与下肢慢性静脉功能不全%Calf Muscle Pump and Chronic Venous Insufficiency in Lower Extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昆; 乔正荣; 时德

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨腓肠肌泵功能与下肢慢性静脉功能不全(chronic venous insufficiency,CVI)的关系. 方法复习相关文献,并作综述性报道.结果腓肠肌泵功能的研究方法有空气体积描记法、应变容积描记法、肌肉内压力测定、腓肠肌泵功率测定、足水银应变容积描记法、同位素体积描记法及数字光电容积描记法,测得CVI患者的腓肠肌泵功能明显下降,通过治疗后,腓肠肌泵功能明显改善. 结论腓肠肌泵功能与CVI有密切关系.

  8. 下肢慢性静脉功能不全动脉铸型的三维重建及意义%Three-dimensional reconstruction and significance of arterial cast on chronic venous insufficiency of low extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海龙; 符伟平; 黄绍贤; 龚达聪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨下肢慢性静脉功能不全动脉铸型的三维重建及意义。方法采用改良环氧树脂混合液-氧化铅填充剂对1例左侧下肢截肢残体慢性静脉功能不全( CVI)标本进行灌注并铸型,并在铸型基础上行64层螺旋CT薄层扫描,以容积再现法( VR)和最大密度投影法( MIP)重建三维数字化模型。结果血管铸型和CT三维重建的左侧下肢截肢残体CVI动脉模型均清晰地显示下肢动脉的分布及走行、内侧踝关节溃疡灶内踝网血供情况及局部区域性小动脉(微动脉)栓塞情况。结论下肢CVI动脉模型可为CVI确切病因和完善病理机制提供形态学基础,对临床诊断和治疗具有一定指导意义。%Objective To evaluate the three-dimensional reconstruction and significance of arterial cast on chronic venous insufficiency of low extremity. Methods A set of specimen on chronic venous insufficiency of left lower extremity amputation residues was infused with epoxy resin-lead oxide through the femoral artery,and then casted. The CT data of the cast specimen was used to reconstruct 3D modal of ar-tery on chronic venous insufficiency of left lower extremity,using the volume rendering(VR) and maximum intensity projection(MIP). Re-sults The cast specimen and 3D reconstruction of chronic venous insufficiency of left lower extremity amputation residues could clearly dis-play distribution and run of lower extremity arteries,blood supply of lesion and local region embolism of small artery ( arteriole) . Conclusion The 3D modal of artery on chronic venous insufficiency of left lower extremity should provide morphological basis of exact etiology and perfect pathogenesis,also has a certain guiding significance of clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Success rate of split-thickness skin grafting of chronic venous leg ulcers depends on the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing;

    2011-01-01

    The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that...... leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1(st) of March 2005 until the 31(st) of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment...... and complicating factors on the clinical outcome of each patient. The results were evaluated using a Student T-test for continuous parameters, chi-square test for categorical parameters and a logistic regression analysis to predict healing after 12 weeks. The analysis revealed that only 33,3% of...

  10. Venous Aneurysm Complicating Dialytic Arteriovenous Fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun K.Nambiar; Anand, K. T.; Jayakrishnan, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    A case of venous aneurysm complicating arteriovenous fistula created for chronic haemodialysis is presented. The patient underwent successful ligation and excision of the fistula and creation of a fistula on the opposite limb.

  11. Venous Ulcers: New Options in Treatment: Minimally Invasive Vein Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Poblete, Honesto; Elias, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Venous disease has a spectrum of presentations. The most advanced state of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) managed by wound care specialists being ulceration of the lower extremity. The goal of all treatments for advanced venous disease is to decrease ambulatory venous hypertension. Treatment can be divided into exogenous and endogenous methods. Exogenous methods include those applied externally such as compression, elevation, debridement and wound dressings. Endogenous methods treat the u...

  12. Probabilidade de refluxo nas veias safenas de mulheres com diferentes graus de insuficiência venosa crônica Reflux probability in saphenous veins of women with different degrees of chronic venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cassou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A presença de refluxo nas junções safeno-femoral e safeno-poplítea é um dado importante para programação da cirurgia de varizes. Estudos mostraram que, na maioria dos pacientes com insuficiência venosa crônica, as junções estão competentes, e o refluxo está presente ao longo do trajeto das veias safenas. OBJETIVOS: Identificar probabilidade de diferentes padrões de refluxo nas veias safenas de mulheres com vários graus de insuficiência venosa crônica e avaliar se o comprometimento das junções das safenas está associado com gravidade da insuficiência venosa. MÉTODOS: Um total de 1.184 membros inferiores de 672 mulheres foram estudados pela ultra-sonografia vascular com Doppler colorido e avaliados pela classificação clínica, etiológica, anatômica e patológica (CEAP. As extremidades foram agrupadas de acordo com a gravidade da insuficiência venosa em graus leve (CEAP C1-C2, moderado (CEAP C3 e grave (CEAP C4-C6. Para avaliar a classificação clínica CEAP na predição do padrão de refluxo, utilizou-se o Teorema de Bayers. Para avaliar associação entre classificação clínica CEAP e padrões de refluxo com ou sem comprometimento das junções das safenas, utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado (p BACKGROUND: Presence of reflux in saphenofemoral and saphenopopliteal junctions represents important data for indication of varicose vein surgery. Studies demonstrated that in most patients with chronic venous insufficiency junctions are competent and reflux is present in segments in the course of saphenous veins. OBJECTIVES: To identify the probability of different reflux patterns in the saphenous veins of women with various degrees of chronic venous insufficiency and to evaluate whether junction impairment is associated with severity of venous insufficiency. METHODS: A total of 1,184 lower limbs of 672 women were evaluated by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography and classified according to clinical, etiologic

  13. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  14. [Current treatment of venous thrombembolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Ionuţ

    2013-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, considered to be different manifestations of the same disease - venous thromboembolism, have few differences regarding the anticoagulant treatment. However, there are some issues which will be discussed. The therapy objectives in patients with venous thromboembolism include: prevention of death by pulmonary embolism, relieving symptoms in the affected leg, preventing morbidity and prevention of recurrent thromboembolism or postthrombotic syndrome, or minimize symptoms of post-thrombotic syndrome. For most patients, treatment goals are achieved using appropriate anticoagulant therapy, reducing the risk of recurrence in the first three months after diagnosis from over 25% to under 4%. Using of compression socks, providing a gradient of 30-40 mmHg at the ankle for 2 years after the diagnosis, reduce the risk of postthrombotic syndrome. Thrombolysis, applied either systemic or directly by catheter, is indicated in selected cases to prevent onset of postthrombotic syndrome or remove quickly the symptoms due to high venous obstruction. Thrombolytic therapy should be continued with anticoagulant therapy to prevent recurrence of venous thromboembolism. The use of an inferior vena cava filter is indicated for prevention of death by pulmonary embolism in patients who have contraindications to anticoagulant therapy, or anticoagulant treatment that was properly administered remains inefficient. Surgical treatment is recommended in case of chronic pulmonary hypertension, due to thromboembolic disease. PMID:23781572

  15. A diferença na qualidade de vida de pacientes com doença venosa crônica leve e grave Differences in the quality of life of patients with mild and severe chronic venous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Fagner Farias Novais dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A doença venosa crônica atinge os indivíduos em sua fase mais produtiva da vida, acarretando dor, perda de mobilidade e afastamento de atividades, podendo interferir diretamente na qualidade de vida. Seus sintomas clínicos decorrem de um estado de hipertensão venosa, causada por refluxo e/ou obstrução venosa. OBJETIVO: Determinar a diferença na qualidade de vida de pacientes com doença venosa crônica leve e grave. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal analítico comparativo na unidade de saúde durante 8 meses. A amostra foi calculada em 88 pacientes e dividida em dois grupos: Grupo A (CEAP clínico 1, 2 e 3 e Grupo B (CEAP clínico 4, 5 e 6. Foi usado o questionário genérico Medical Outcomes Study - 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. A análise estatística para verificar se havia diferença foi através do teste t de Student, com intervalo de confiança de 95% e p BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disease afflicts individuals in their most productive years, resulting in pain and loss of mobility and independence in performing routine daily activities, which may directly interfere with the patient's quality of life. Clinical symptoms result from venous hypertension caused by reflux and/or venous blockage. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in the quality of life of patients with mild and severe chronic venous disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in a health care facility during an 8-month period. The sample was composed of 88 patients divided into two groups: group A (clinical CEAP class 1, 2 and 3 and group B (clinical CEAP class 4, 5 and 6. The Medical Outcomes Study - 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaire was used. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Student t test, with a 95% confidence interval and a level of significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: We analyzed 88 subjects, 47 in group A and 41 in group B. Of the total, 87.5% (77 were women and 34% (30 were

  16. Venous Thromboembolic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jaff, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    Physicians understand the importance of prompt diagnosis and therapy of venous thromboembolism. This is a common and potentially deadly disease. Many patients may have no symptoms of this disorder, yet face a significant risk of serious complications if undiagnosed and untreated. Venous duplex ultrasonography has become the diagnostic test of choice for deep venous thrombosis. Quantitative d-dimer levels may be very helpful in establishing the diagnosis of venous thrombosis. Helical (spiral) ...

  17. Phloem exudation studies in selected woody trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, L.R.

    1980-10-01

    Chelating agents, particularly EDTA, were tested for their effectiveness in enhancing the exudation of phloem sugars from selected woody tree species. Of the species selected, Fraxinus uhdei (Evergreen Ash) proved most useful for exudation studies. Experiments using /sup 14/C labelled, excised leaflets of F. uhdei demonstrated that exudation was enhanced approximately 9-fold by a 2.0 mM EDTA treatment. An analysis of labelled products in the treatment solution showed that over 90% of label appeared in oligosaccharides and sucrose. These findings suggested that the sugars released into EDTA treatment solutions were principally derived from phloem sieve elements. Electron microscope studies of the fine structure of sieve plate pores after treatment with EDTA or H/sub 2/O showed substantially less callose appearing in sieve plates of leaflets treated with EDTA. It was proposed that EDTA enhances exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that EDTA was effective in promoting exudation from whole plant specimens of F. uhdei as well as from excised leaflets. (MHR)

  18. Potential role of metalloproteinase inhibitors from radiation‑sterilized amnion dressings in the healing of venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Bikowska, Barbara; Niderla-Bielińska, Justyna; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Kamiński, Artur; Skopiński, Piotr; Grzela, Tomasz

    2012-10-01

    Chronic wounds are a significant socio-economic problem, thus, the improvement of the effectiveness of their treatment is an important objective for public health strategies. The predominant stage of the chronic wound is the inflammatory reaction which is associated with the damage of tissues, possibly due to the excessive secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Several reports have suggested that amnion dressing inhibits tissue destruction and accelerates wound healing. Our recent study revealed that sterilized amnion stimulates keratinocyte proliferation in vitro, while the present study focused on the clinical application of radiation-sterilized amnion in chronic venous leg ulcers and aimed to explain the possible mechanism of its in vivo action. The study involved 25 individuals suffering from venous leg ulceration with a surface area of 10-100 cm2 and a healing rate below 10% per week, as verified during a 2-week screening period. The effectiveness of the amnion dressing was estimated following 4 weeks of treatment. The wound assessment, based on a modified Bates-Jensen Questionnaire, revealed a good and satisfactory response to the treatment in 23 of the 25 patients. The measurement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in wound exudates revealed a decrease in activity in response to amnion application. This effect resulted from the presence of the potent MMP inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in the amnion dressings, as shown by real-time fluorescence zymography and protein microarrays. Thus, unlike modern synthetic dressing materials, radiation-sterilized amnion dressings may have a multidirectional beneficial effect on chronic wounds. PMID:22798012

  19. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal...

  20. Clinical unity and community empowerment: the use of smartphone technology to empower community management of chronic venous ulcers through the support of a tertiary unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel Marie

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ulcers affect roughly 60,000 Irish people, at a total cost of €600,000,000, or €10,000 per patient annually. By virtue of their chronicity, these ulcers also contribute a significant burden to tertiary outpatient vascular clinics.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2):104-12. Citation on PubMed Robitaille J, MacDonald ML, Kaykas A, Sheldahl LC, Zeisler J, Dubé ... Shukla D, Singh J, Sudheer G, Soman M, John RK, Ramasamy K, Perumalsamy N. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy ( ...

  2. Venous ulcers of the lower limb: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sasanka S

    2012-05-01

    Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein. PMID:23162226

  3. Venous ulcers of the lower limb: Where do we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S Sasanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous ulcers are the most common ulcers of the lower limb. It has a high morbidity and results in economic strain both at a personal and at a state level. Chronic venous hypertension either due to primary or secondary venous disease with perforator paucity, destruction or incompetence resulting in reflux is the underlying pathology, but inflammatory reactions mediated through leucocytes, platelet adhesion, formation of pericapillary fibrin cuff, growth factors and macromolecules trapped in tissue result in tissue hypoxia, cell death and ulceration. Duplex scan with colour flow is the most useful investigation for venous disease supplying information about patency, reflux, effects of proximal and distal compression, Valsalva maneuver and effects of muscle contraction. Most venous disease can be managed conservatively by leg elevation and compression bandaging. Drugs of proven benefit in venous disease are pentoxifylline and aspirin, but they work best in conjunction with compression therapy. Once ulceration is chronic or the patient does not respond to or cannot maintain conservative regime, surgical intervention treating the underlying venous hypertension and cover for the ulcer is necessary. The different modalities like sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping of superficial varicose veins, endoscopic subfascial perforator ligation, endovenous laser or radiofrequency ablation have similar long-term results, although short-term recovery is best with radiofrequency and foam sclerotherapy. For deep venous reflux, surgical modalities include repair of incompetent venous valves or transplant or transposition of a competent vein segment with normal valves to replace a post-thrombotic destroyed portion of the deep vein.

  4. Artificial Root Exudate System (ARES): a field approach to simulate tree root exudation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sangil, Luis; Estradera-Gumbau, Eduard; George, Charles; Sayer, Emma

    2016-04-01

    The exudation of labile solutes by fine roots represents an important strategy for plants to promote soil nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Compounds exuded by roots (mainly sugars, carboxylic and amino acids) provide energy to soil microbes, thus priming the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the consequent release of inorganic nutrients into the rhizosphere. Studies in several forest ecosystems suggest that tree root exudates represent 1 to 10% of the total photoassimilated C, with exudation rates increasing markedly under elevated CO2 scenarios. Despite their importance in ecosystem functioning, we know little about how tree root exudation affect soil carbon dynamics in situ. This is mainly because there has been no viable method to experimentally control inputs of root exudates at field scale. Here, I present a method to apply artificial root exudates below the soil surface in small field plots. The artificial root exudate system (ARES) consists of a water container with a mixture of labile carbon solutes (mimicking tree root exudate rates and composition), which feeds a system of drip-tips covering an area of 1 m2. The tips are evenly distributed every 20 cm and inserted 4-cm into the soil with minimal disturbance. The system is regulated by a mechanical timer, such that artificial root exudate solution can be applied at frequent, regular daily intervals. We tested ARES from April to September 2015 (growing season) within a leaf-litter manipulation experiment ongoing in temperate deciduous woodland in the UK. Soil respiration was measured monthly, and soil samples were taken at the end of the growing season for PLFA, enzymatic activity and nutrient analyses. First results show a very rapid mineralization of the root exudate compounds and, interestingly, long-term increases in SOM respiration, with negligible effects on soil moisture levels. Large positive priming effects (2.5-fold increase in soil respiration during the growing

  5. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measur...

  6. Avaliação da circulação arterial pela medida do índice tornozelo/braço em doentes de úlcera venosa crônica Evaluation of arterial circulation using the ankle/brachial blood pressure index in patients with chronic venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Noronha Bergonse

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: As úlceras venosas dos membros inferiores são freqüentes e têm grande impacto na qualidade de vida e produtividade do indivíduo, além de alto custo para a saúde pública. OBJETIVOS: Detecção de alterações arteriais em pacientes de úlcera venosa crônica dos membros inferiores com emprego de método não invasivo, de modo a discriminar aqueles em que estaria contra-indicado o tratamento compressivo. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 40 doentes portadores de úlcera venosa crônica, com o intuito de se avaliar a presença de doença arterial periférica pela medida do índice tornozelo/braço por doppler-ultra-som. RESULTADOS: O índice tornozelo/braço mostrou-se alterado (menor que 1 em 9/22 (40,9% doentes com úlcera venosa crônica e hipertensão arterial concomitante, e apenas em 1/13 (7,7% doentes de úlcera venosa crônica sem hipertensão arterial. CONCLUSÕES: Doentes de úlcera venosa crônica e hipertensão arterial concomitantes devem ser submetidos rotineiramente à medida do índice tornozelo/braço para detecção de possível insuficiência arterial periférica associada.BACKGROUND: Chronic venous ulcers are extremely frequent and have a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity of individuals, in addition to high costs to public health. OBJECTIVES: Detection of arterial circulation alterations in chronic venous ulcer legs using a non-invasive method to discriminate patients not indicated to have compressive treatment. METHODS: Forty patients with chronic venous ulcers were investigated for the presence of peripheral arterial disease with measurement of the ankle/brachial index by Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: The resting ankle/brachial pressure index was abnormal (lower than 1 in 9/22 (40.9% patients with concomitant chronic venous ulcers and hypertension and only in one out of 13 (7.7% patients with chronic venous ulcers and no hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with concomitant chronic venous

  7. Clinical case of exudative pleuritis in stallion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A casual exudative pleuritis in 2 years old stallion, Holsteiner breed, has been outlined. The disease is extremely rare in this country. Comprehensive examinations have been made during the period of hospitalization: daily clinical examinations, double renthgenography; regular haematological and biochemical tests; microbiological culture tests with an antibioticogram; laboratory tests of punctate and periodical ultrasound tests. The examinations and tests have been carried out at the Internal Noncontagious Disease Clinic at the Veterinary Faculty of the Thracian University in Stara Zagora

  8. Duration of wound fluid secretion from chronic venous leg ulcers is critical for interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 levels and fibroblast activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zillmer, Rikke; Trøstrup, Hannah; Karlsmark, Tonny;

    2011-01-01

    Wound fluid collected from chronic wounds may be used as a simple gauge of the processes taking place in the tissue. There is lack of information on the optimal conditions for wound fluid procurement. We have studied possible diurnal variations and duration of wound fluid accumulation using reten...

  9. Chickenpox Chorioretinitis with Retinal Exudates and Periphlebitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokuni Kitamei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is rarely associated with posterior segment inflammation. We report on a case of unilateral chickenpox chorioretinitis with retinal exudates and periphlebitis. Case Presentation: A 21-year-old healthy man, who suffered from chickenpox 2 weeks prior to symptom development, exhibited mild anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, sheathing of retinal veins, and yellow-white exudates in his right eye. Varicella zoster virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the aqueous humor. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral prednisolone and valaciclovir. Aqueous cells quickly disappeared and retinal exudates diminished within 1 month, leaving faint retinal scarring. Retinal arteritis had never been observed in this patient. Conclusions: Although the ocular findings in this case were similar to acute retinal necrosis (ARN, the clinical features differed from ARN in the following points: (1 mild anterior chamber inflammation, (2 absence of retinal arteritis, and (3 prompt resolution of inflammatory findings. The distinctive clinical features indicated that chorioretinitis associated with chickenpox may not have the same pathological conditions as ARN.

  10. Venous flow velocity, venous volume and arterial blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of arterial blood flow and venous volume to venous flow velocity was studied in normal subjects. The effects of current modes of treatment in venous thrombosis and of a vasodilator drug on venous flow velocity were also investigated. Total calf flow and venous volume were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography while venous flow axial velocity was determined by the transit time of 131I albumin from calf to inguinal region. Local intravenous epinephrine administration induced venoconstriction and increased venous flow velocity. Intra-arterial isoproterenol and angiotensin increased and decreased arterial flow, respectively, with no change in venous flow velocity or volume, but local heat increased arterial flow and venous flow velocity with no change in venous volume. Local cold, despite venoconstriction, decreased venous flow velocity accompanied by decreased arterial flow. Intravenous heparin did not affect venous flow velocity. Intravenous but not oral nylidrin increased venous flow velocity. Therefore venous flow velocity can be significantly increased by venoconstriction, by large increases in arterial flow (local heat), and by a parenteral vasodilator drug. These experiments indicate that there is a basis for applying heat but not cold in the prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis

  11. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

  12. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Automatic Detection of Retinal Exudates using a Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Nualsawat HIRANSAKOLWONG; Ekkarat POTHIRUK; Kittipol WISAENG

    2013-01-01

    Retinal exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Correct and efficient screening of exudates is very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. Therefore, the retinal image is crucial and essential for experts to detect exudates. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that retinal images in Thailand are poor...

  14. THE CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF EXUDATES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Wisaeng; N. Hiransakolwong; E. Pothiruk

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating ...

  15. Venous thrombosis: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous thromboembolic disease contributes to morbidity and mortality in certain groups of hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery. Although principles of treatment have changed relatively little during the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venography, once the only reliable diagnostic technique, has been largely replaced by noninvasive tests: impedance plethysmography, venous Doppler, 125I-radiofibrinogen-uptake test, and phleborheography. Virchow's triad of stasis, vessel injury, and hypercoagulability remains a valid explanation of the pathogenesis of thrombus formation, but laboratory and clinical data have refined our knowledge of how these factors interact to result in clinically significant disease. Knowledge of the natural history of venous thrombosis, plus heightened awareness of the long-term morbidity and expense associated with the postphlebitic syndrome, have led to increased interest in preventing DVT. Clinically and economically, venous thrombosis is best managed by prevention. 61 references

  16. Success rate of split-thickness skin grafting of chronic venous leg ulcers depends on the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Trine; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Thomsen, Jens Schiersing;

    2011-01-01

    The last years of research have proposed that bacteria might be involved in and contribute to the lack of healing of chronic wounds. Especially it seems that Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in the healing. At Copenhagen Wound Healing Centre it was for many years clinical suspected that...... leg ulcers on 91 extremities, from the 1(st) of March 2005 until the 31(st) of August 2006. This was achieved by analysing the microbiology, demographic data, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes, renal impairment, co-morbidities, approximated size and age of the wounds, immunosuppressive treatment...... and complicating factors on the clinical outcome of each patient. The results were evaluated using a Student T-test for continuous parameters, chi-square test for categorical parameters and a logistic regression analysis to predict healing after 12 weeks. The analysis revealed that only 33,3% of...

  17. The treatment of venous ulcers of the lower extremities

    OpenAIRE

    Whiddon, Lonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Venous hypertension from failure of proper venous valve function in the veins of thelower extremities causes changes over time in the microcirculation of the skin of the distal extremity. These changes set the stage for the development of a chronic nonhealing ulceration, which typically occurs at the ankle. The mainstay of treatment has been conservative, with compression dressings and elevation of the extremity. However, results have been less than satisfactory because of delay in healing an...

  18. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author)

  19. VENOUS INSUFFICIENCY AND THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASE IN BARIATRIC SURGERY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonno van BELLEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Morbid obesity is associated with various co-morbidities, including chronic venous insufficiency. Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity, but with potential risks and possible complications, including venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine the prevalence of clinical and ultrasonographic signs of chronic venous insufficiency in morbid obese patients in preparation for bariatric surgery and the incidence of post-operative venous thromboembolic disease. Methods Patients on work-up for bariatric surgery of Centro Terapêutico Especializado em Fígado (CETEFI and Pro-Gastro surgical teams of the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo were included. The analysed data were pre-operative findings for venous insufficiency (CEAP - clinical, etiological, anatomical, physiopathologic - classification and venous ultrassonographic findings, type of surgery (open or laparoscopic, abdominal circumference, body mass index (BMI and post-operative ultrassonography search for venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Results Between March 2007 and December 2009, 95 patients candidates for bariatric surgery had clinical and duplex scan evaluation of the lower limbs venous system. Of the 95 patients, 53 were submitted to the surgical procedure. There was a predominance of women (77.9%, the average age was 38.5 years, average preoperative weight 124.6 kg and average BMI of 45.5 kg/m2. Regarding obesity, 16.8% were obese, and 83.1% were morbidly obese. In relation to the venous findings, 86.3% of the patients did fit CEAP classification less than 3 and 13.7% greater than or equal to 3. Among the post-operative complications, there were four cases of wound infection. Three patients developed post-operative distal venous thrombosis (7.5%, but no one had clinically manifested pulmonary embolism. Conclusion No relation between BMI, CEAP classification and venous ultrassonographic findings were found. Although

  20. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas;

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  1. Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be

  2. Resultados do tratamento da Insuficiência Venosa Crônica grave com espuma de polidocanol guiada por ultrassom Results of treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency with ultrasound-guided polidocanol foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A insuficiência venosa crônica (IVC em suas formas mais graves, com ulceração e lesões inflamatórias, associa-se a um tratamento cirúrgico convencional de difícil execução. A escleroterapia de veias tronculares com espuma de polidocanol é considerada uma alternativa terapêutica com resultados satisfatórios. OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados da escleroterapia com espuma de polidocanol no tratamento de pacientes com IVC de membros inferiores com úlcera ativa. MÉTODOS: Em um período de 48 meses, 71 pacientes (76 membros foram submetidos à escleroterapia de veias tronculares com espuma de polidocanol a 3% guiada por ultrassom. O seguimento pós-procedimento foi feito por meio de questionário clínico, exame físico e ultrassom Doppler, realizados em sete dias, um e seis meses e, a partir de então, semestralmente. Analisou-se tempo de cicatrização da úlcera, melhora de sintomas clínicos, recanalização, recidiva dos sintomas e complicações. RESULTADOS: O sexo feminino correspondeu a 61% dos casos, e a idade variou de 25 a 85 anos (média de 59 anos. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 460 dias. O refluxo do sistema venoso profundo foi observado em 53,4% dos membros. A cicatrização das úlceras ocorreu em 84,2% dos casos, com um tempo médio de cicatrização de 37 dias. A recanalização ocorreu em 31,5%, porém a recidiva de sintomas, com ressurgimento de úlcera, foi de 11,8%. CONCLUSÃO: A esclerose com espuma é efetiva e apresenta altas taxas de cicatrização de úlceras, com baixos índices de complicações, em pacientes com IVC grave.BACKGROUND: Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI in its most severe forms, with ulceration and inflammatory lesions, is associated with a conventional surgical treatment of difficult execution. Polidocanol foam sclerotherapy of saphenous veins is considered an alternative therapy with satisfactory results. OBJECTIVE: To report the results of polidocanol foam sclerotherapy in

  3. Effectiveness Of 2% And 4% Papain Gels In The Healing Of Venous Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pinto Leite Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of 2% and 4% papain gels in tissue repair of venous ulcers. METHOD Quasi-experimental study with consecutive sample of 16 patients with 30 venous ulcers treated at the outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital, from April to November in 2011, using a form for clinical assessment of the patient and its lesion. Variables were analyzed by Wilcoxon and McNemar test (p < 0.05. RESULTS Most participants were female; aged between 51 and 59 years; obese; with hypertension. Regarding ulcers, there was an average decrease of 7.9 cm2 (50% of its original size in 90 days; 20% of the ulcers completely healed within 56.67 days. There was an increase in epithelialization, significant reduction in the slough and edema, improved depth, in the type and amount of exudate (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION 2% and 4% papain gels were effective in healing venous ulcers.

  4. Venous thromboembolism: The intricacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE has been a subject of great interest of late. Since Rudolph Virchow described the famous Virchow′s triad in 1856, there have been rapid strides in the understanding of the pathogenesis and factors responsible for it. Discovery of various thrombophilic factors, both primary and acquired, in the last 40 years has revolutionized prognostication and management of this potentially life-threatening condition due to its associated complication of pulmonary thromboembolism. Detailed genetic mapping and linkage analyses have been underlining the fact that VTE is a multifactorial disorder and a complex one. There are many gene-gene and gene-environment interactions that alter and magnify the clinical picture in this disorder. Point in case is pregnancy, where the risk of VTE is 100-150 times increased in the presence of Factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation (Prothrombin 20210A and antithrombin deficiency. Risk of VTE associated with long-haul air flight has now been well recognized. Thrombotic events associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS are 70% venous and 30% arterial. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common venous events, though unusual cases of catastrophes due to central vein thrombosis like renal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome (catastrophic APS may occur.

  5. Venous interventions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Kamlesh; Vaidya, Sandeep

    2011-03-01

    Advanced medical treatment options have improved pediatric survival but often require invasive vascular procedures or venous access. These procedures increase the risk for thromboembolism in children, and there has been a corresponding increase in the reported incidence of deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome in the pediatric population. Percutaneous venous interventions using catheter-directed therapy (CDT), like mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis, have been used much less frequently in children, even though they have shown good results in adults. A multidisciplinary team including pediatric hematology, interventional radiology, and intensive care unit is suggested for management of venous thrombosis in children. Indications and contraindications for CDT in children are similar to adults. Mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis are some of the more commonly performed treatments. CDT in children requires adapting to patient size and locally available equipment. Ultrasound guidance for access, "cork" technique, appropriate dosing of tissue plasminogen activator for infusion/pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and simultaneous administration of heparin, plasminogen (fresh frozen plasma), and deficient coagulation factors are some of the important variations of CDT technique in children. Postprocedure monitoring is very important for successful thrombolysis. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters are increasingly being used in children as well, for prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) if there is a significant risk of PE with/without contraindications to anticoagulation. PMID:21335289

  6. Microcirculatory efficacy of topical treatment with aescin + essential phospholipids gel on transcutaneous PO2 in venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Ippolito, E; Ricci, A; Ruffini, M; Dugall, M

    2004-01-01

    A gel including aescin, essential phospholipids (EPL), and heparin (EG) has been used for many years for local treatment of venous, microcirculatory alterations (varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency). Bruises, swelling, thrombophlebitis, and contusions are effectively treated with this compound. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of the effects of an AEPL (aescin+EPL) gel on the microcirculation in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency, venous hypertension (CVH), and venous microangiopathy. Transcutaneous PO(2) was measured at the perimalleolar region. After 2 weeks of treatment, all individual values (100%) were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In all patients, PO(2) increased, indicating a decrease in level of venous microangiopathy. Considering transcutaneous skin PO(2), treatment with AEPL in areas of venous microangiopathy is beneficial in the prevention of ulceration and improves skin healing. PMID:15156250

  7. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal...... concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin....

  8. Advances in our understanding of mechanisms of venous thrombus resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Johanna; Sharma, Smriti; Lang, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, venous thrombosis has been seen as the consequence of a regulated cascade of proteolytic steps leading to the polymerization of fibrinogen and fibrin crosslinking that is facilitated by platelets. A new view of thrombosis is providing a more integrated concept, with components of the vascular wall contributing to the vascular remodeling of thrombosis. Angiogenesis and inflammation are two key mechanisms that safeguard venous thrombus resolution and restitution of vascular patency after thrombosis. Disturbance of these processes leads to thrombus persistence and has potentially severe consequences for affected patients. Examples for clinical conditions associated with recurrent or persisting venous thrombosis are post-thrombotic syndrome or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Recently, studies using animal models of venous thrombosis have contributed to a better understanding of thrombus non-resolution that will eventually lead to modification of current treatment concepts. For example, recent data suggest that innate immunity is involved in the modification of thrombosis. PMID:26629617

  9. Venous interventions. Pt. 1. Techniques and lower torso thromboses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous thrombosis is one of the most common vascular diseases. Without treatment, pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening complication. Long-term complications are chronic venous insufficiency and post-thrombotic syndrome. Medical anticoagulation is currently the standard therapy, since it prevents appositional thrombus growth although it usually can not prevent the development of post-thrombotic syndrome. The structure of the thrombotic material often leads to partial recanalisation with residual stenosis. Early and sufficient systemic thrombolysis with adequate concentration may achieve disintegration of the thrombus and preservation of venous valve function. Supplementary to conservative therapy, local catheter thrombolysis is possible even in cases with contraindications for a systemic thrombolysis therapy. Additional interventional techniques reduce the required concentration of the thrombolytic. Venous stenosis can be treated by balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. This article reviews the different percutaneous treatment options as well as their application and usefulness in thrombosis of the lower torso. (orig.)

  10. Venous hemodynamic changes in lower limb venous disease: the UIP consensus according to scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung B; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Myers, Kenneth; Meissner, Mark; Kalodiki, Evi; Allegra, Claudio; Antignani, Pier L; Bækgaard, Niels; Beach, Kirk; Belcaro, Giovanni; Black, Stephen; Blomgren, Lena; Bouskela, Eliete; Cappelli, Massimo; Caprini, Joseph; Carpentier, Patrick; Cavezzi, Attilio; Chastanet, Sylvain; Christenson, Jan T; Christopoulos, Demetris; Clarke, Heather; Davies, Alun; Demaeseneer, Marianne; Eklöf, Bo; Ermini, Stefano; Fernández, Fidel; Franceschi, Claude; Gasparis, Antonios; Geroulakos, George; Sergio, Gianesini; Giannoukas, Athanasios; Gloviczki, Peter; Huang, Ying; Ibegbuna, Veronica; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kistner, Robert; Kölbel, Tilo; Kurstjens, Ralph L; Labropoulos, Nicos; Laredo, James; Lattimer, Christopher R; Lugli, Marzia; Lurie, Fedor; Maleti, Oscar; Markovic, Jovan; Mendoza, Erika; Monedero, Javier L; Moneta, Gregory; Moore, Hayley; Morrison, Nick; Mosti, Giovanni; Nelzén, Olle; Obermayer, Alfred; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Parsi, Kurosh; Partsch, Hugo; Passariello, Fausto; Perrin, Michel L; Pittaluga, Paul; Raju, Seshadri; Ricci, Stefano; Rosales, Antonio; Scuderi, Angelo; Slagsvold, Carl E; Thurin, Anders; Urbanek, Tomasz; M VAN Rij, Andre; Vasquez, Michael; Wittens, Cees H; Zamboni, Paolo; Zimmet, Steven; Ezpeleta, Santiago Z

    2016-06-01

    thrombosis indicating their pathophysiological and clinical significance. Chapter 3 describes the hemodynamic changes that occur in different classes of chronic venous disease and their relation to the anatomic extent of disease in the macrocirculation and microcirculation. The next four chapters (Chapters 4-7) describe the hemodynamic changes resulting from treatmen by compression using different materials, intermittent compression devices, pharmacological agents and finally surgical or endovenous ablation. Chapter 8 discusses the unique hemodynamic features associated with alternative treatment techniques used by the CHIVA and ASVAL. Chapter 9 describes the hemodynamic effects following treatment to relieve pelvic reflux and obstruction. Finally, Chapter 10 demonstrates that contrary to general belief there is a moderate to good correlation between certain hemodynamic measurements and clinical severity of chronic venous disease. The authors believe that this document will be a timely asset to both clinicians and researchers alike. It is directed towards surgeons and physicians who are anxious to incorporate the conclusions of research into their daily practice. It is also directed to postgraduate trainees, vascular technologists and bioengineers, particularly to help them understand the hemodynamic background to pathophysiology, investigations and treatment of patients with venous disorders. Hopefully it will be a platform for those who would like to embark on new research in the field of venous disease. PMID:27013029

  11. Primary chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities: preoperative color duplex Doppler ultrasound study; Insuficiencia venosa cronica primaria de los miembros inferiores. Valoracion prequirurgica con ecografia Doppler duplex color

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, S.; Diago, T.; Ricart, M.; Chulia, R.; Martin, F. [Hospital Lluis Xativa. Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To asses the role of color duplex Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in the preoperative study of patients with varicose veins in lower extremities. We employed CDU to examine varicose veins in 342 lower limbs, assessing reflux in saphenous veins (SV), deep venous system (DVS) and perforating veins (PV). We analyzed the relationship between the anatomical extent of the reflux and the clinical findings. Insufficiency of the superficial venous system alone was uncommon, occurring in only 10.8% of the limbs examined. Reflux was observed in SV and PV in 48.2% of the legs. It was detected in all three systems in 29.2% of cases. The presence of reflux in more than one system and more than one value was associated with increased clinical severity. The site of venous reflux in lower extremities with varicose veins varies. Greater clinical severity is observed in the presence of more marked reflux in the DVS and PV. CDU provides anatomic and functional data on the three venous systems of the lower limbs, allowing an individualized therapeutic surgery. Preoperative localization of incompetent PV by means of CDU facilities their ligation. CDU is the technique of choice for the preoperative examination of the venous systems of patients with varicose veins. (Author)

  12. Nontraumatic vascular emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute venous occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk factors for acute venous occlusion range from prolonged immobilization to hypercoagulability syndromes, trauma, and malignancy. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of acute venous occlusion and to assess the value of interventional strategies for venous thrombosis treatment in an emergency setting. First, diagnosis and treatment of the most common form of venous occlusion, at the level of the lower extremities, is presented, followed by pelvic vein and inferior vena cava occlusion, mesenteric venous thrombosis, upper extremity occlusion, acute cerebral vein thrombosis, and finally acute venous occlusion of hemodialysis access. In acute venous occlusion of the lower extremity phlebography is still the reference gold standard. Presently, duplex ultrasound with manual compression is the most sensitive and specific noninvasive test. Limitations of ultrasonography include isolated distal calf vein occlusion, obesity, and patients with lower extremity edema. If sonography is nondiagnostic, venography should be considered. Magnetic resonance venography can differentiate an acute occlusion from chronic thrombus, but because of its high cost and limited availability, it is not yet used for the routine diagnosis of lower extremity venous occlusion only. Regarding interventional treatment, catheter-directed thrombolysis can be applied to dissolve thrombus in charily selected patients with symptomatic occlusion and no contraindications to therapy. Acute occlusion of the pelvic veins and the inferior vena cava, often due to extension from the femoropopliteal system, represents a major risk for pulmonary embolism. Color flow Doppler imaging is often limited owing to obesity and bowel gas. Venography has long been considered the gold standard for identifying proximal venous occlusion. Both CT scanning and MR imaging, however, can even more accurately diagnose acute pelvis vein or inferior vena cava occlusion. MRI is

  13. Mineral protection of soil carbon counteracted by root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Nico, Peter S.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Kleber, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Multiple lines of existing evidence suggest that climate change enhances root exudation of organic compounds into soils. Recent experimental studies show that increased exudate inputs may cause a net loss of soil carbon. This stimulation of microbial carbon mineralization (`priming’) is commonly rationalized by the assumption that exudates provide a readily bioavailable supply of energy for the decomposition of native soil carbon (co-metabolism). Here we show that an alternate mechanism can cause carbon loss of equal or greater magnitude. We find that a common root exudate, oxalic acid, promotes carbon loss by liberating organic compounds from protective associations with minerals. By enhancing microbial access to previously mineral-protected compounds, this indirect mechanism accelerated carbon loss more than simply increasing the supply of energetically more favourable substrates. Our results provide insights into the coupled biotic-abiotic mechanisms underlying the `priming’ phenomenon and challenge the assumption that mineral-associated carbon is protected from microbial cycling over millennial timescales.

  14. Automatic Detection of Retinal Exudates using a Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualsawat HIRANSAKOLWONG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinal exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Correct and efficient screening of exudates is very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. Therefore, the retinal image is crucial and essential for experts to detect exudates. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that retinal images in Thailand are poor quality images. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using the support vector machine classifiers. The retinal images are segmented following key preprocessing steps, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. On data sets of poor quality images, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is 94.46%, 89.52% and 92.14%, respectively.

  15. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guodong; Zhou, Baoli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zijun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yiming; Lü, Shuwen; Zou, Qingdao; Gao, Yuan; Teng, Long

    2016-01-01

    Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR), RS2 (moderately resistant, MR) and L-402 (highly susceptible, T). The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2) were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains) suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in the other

  16. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR, RS2 (moderately resistant, MR and L-402 (highly susceptible, T. The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2 were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in

  17. Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the deep leg veins, from which calf muscles pump blood back to the heart; the valves also control ... play an important role in the circulation of blood, acting as a pump to move blood from the legs back to ...

  18. Citrate Root Exudation under Zn and P Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bless Aplena Elen Siane

    2012-01-01

    Zinc and phosphorus are essential nutrients with low bioavailability in calcareous soils. Some plants exude organic acids to increase the solubility of these two nutrients. The objective of this study was to examine citrate exudation rates of different lupin (Feodora and Energy) and rapeseed (Dunkeld, Yickadee and Rainbow) cultivars underdeficiencies of Zn and P. The plants were cultivated into three different nutrient solutions (complete, -Zn, and -P)with pH around 7. Under Zn deficiency, ra...

  19. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil so...

  20. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    This focused review describes the current knowledge of the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and as well as venous thromboembolism this disease shares inflammatory mechanisms with IBD. Patients...

  1. Unilateral, recurrent exudative retinal detachment in association with pansinusitis [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Saatci, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: To report a patient with unilateral exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis.Methods: Case report.Results: A 65-year-old woman with a two-month history of blurred vision, red eye and lid swelling in her left eye was referred to us. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left. Conjunctival vessels were engorged in the OS. Funduscopy revealed a 360° exudative detachment in OS and computerized tomography (CT imaging revealed pansinusitis. Systemic antibiotic treatment was employed and exudative detachment regressed. However, exudative detachment remitted as soon as antibiotic treatment ceased. Finally she underwent sinus surgery and decompression of the orbita. Her visual acuity improved to 20/100 just two days after the surgery, stabilized at 20/30 and no further recurrences occured during the follow-up of 10 months.Conclusion: Since exudative retinal detachment usually accompanies systemic inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, systemic screening and collaboration with other disciplines are mandatory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case that developed exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis and only recovered after decompression surgery.

  2. Predicting the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Heit, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease with a 30% ten-year recurrence rate. The highest incidence of recurrence is in the first 6 months. Active cancer significantly increases the hazard of early recurrence, and the proportions of time on standard heparin (APTT≥0.2 anti-Xa U/mL) and warfarin (INR≥2.0) treatment, significantly reduce the hazard. The acute treatment duration does not affect recurrence risk after treatment is stopped. Independent predictors of late recurrence include ...

  3. Iliofemoral and iliocaval interventions in deep venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant spontaneous thrombus disintegration in deep venous thrombosis (DVT) occurs very infrequently. On the contrary, these thrombi are prone to appositional growth and migration into the pulmonary arteries. The development of chronic venous insufficiency due to post-thrombotic syndrome is a frequent consequence of DVT. Therapeutic options in DVT include anticoagulation and recanalising procedures such as thrombolysis and thrombectomy. After appropriate indication assessment, the interventional radiologist can offer an efficacy-proven minimally-invasive vessel restitution approach by performing locoregional thrombolysis, pharmacomechanical therapy or, particularly in iliocaval thrombosis, mechanical thrombectomy. These methods not only serve to restitute of vessel patency, but also allow preserving venous valve function. In DVT with recurrent pulmonary embolism, retrievable filters with extended implantation duration can be deployed. In chronic proximal venous flow obstruction or in case of significant residual stenosis after thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty with stent implantation is the treatment modality of choice. Consequently, the radiologist can adopt an important role in the treatment of extensive venous disease. In this article, the treatment modalities concerning iliofemoral and iliocaval thrombosis are demonstrated and illustrated. (orig.)

  4. Transhepatic venous catheters for hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El Gharib; Gamal Niazi; Waleed Hetta; Yahya Makkeyah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe our experience with the technique of transhepatic venous access for hemodialysis and to evaluate its functionality and complications. Patients and methods: From March 2012 till October 2012, 23 patients with age ranging from 12 to 71 years old having end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were included in our study and were subjected to transhepatic venous catheter insertion. In 21 patients there were not any remaining patent peripheral venous accesses. In 2 patients there wer...

  5. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  6. Travel and venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Alexander S; Goghlan, Douglas C

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues about whether and to what extent travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). Almost certainly, the strength of any association was greatly exaggerated in recent press reports. Conclusions from case-control studies vary, with some finding no excess of recent travel among patients with venous thromboembolism and others reporting a two-four fold excess. The strongest evidence that prolonged air travel predisposes to thrombosis comes from the travel history of people who present with PE immediately after landing. Two independent analyses suggest that the risk of early embolism increases exponentially with travel times beyond 6 hours and may reach 1:200,000 passengers traveling for more than 12 hours. The most likely explanation is venous stasis in the legs from prolonged sitting, and there is evidence (preliminary and controversial) that elastic support stockings may prevent deep vein thrombosis in people who travel long-distances. There is an urgent need for more and better studies to define the absolute hazard from travel-related thrombosis and the personal risk factors that may contribute. Without these, it is difficult to give a balanced account to people who intend to travel or to consider definitive prevention trials. Case reports suggest that in most cases, travel-related thrombosis has affected people who were also at risk because of previous thrombosis, recent injury, or other predispositions. This makes it sensible to target such "at risk" people with advice about hazards and precautions, at least until formal study validates some other approach. PMID:12172438

  7. Profiling of secondary metabolites in root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Böttcher, Christoph; Schmidt, Stephan; Scheel, Dierk

    2014-12-01

    To explore the chemical composition of root exudates of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana a workflow for nontargeted metabolite profiling of the semipolar fraction of root exudates was developed. It comprises hydroponic plant cultivation and sampling of root exudates under sterile conditions, sample preparation by solid-phase extraction and analysis by reversed-phase UPLC/ESI-QTOFMS. Following the established workflow, root exudates of six-week-old plants were profiled and a set of reproducibly occurring molecular features was compiled. To structurally elucidate the corresponding metabolites, accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry and on-line hydrogen/deuterium exchange were applied. Currently, a total of 103 compounds were detected and annotated by elemental composition of which more than 90 were structurally characterized or classified. Among them, 42 compounds were rigorously identified using an authenticated standard. The compounds identified so far include nucleosides, deoxynucleosides, aromatic amino acids, anabolites and catabolites of glucosinolates, dipeptides, indolics, salicylic and jasmonic acid catabolites, coumarins, mono-, di- and trilignols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and oxylipins and exemplify the high chemical diversity of plant root exudates. PMID:25457500

  8. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  9. THE CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF EXUDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wisaeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating function, including retinal color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal, color space selection and removal of the optic disc, was also designed to standardize the workflow of retinal analysis. Afterward, detection of exudate based on optimal global thresholding and improved adaptive Otsu’s algorithm was applied. Two experiments were conducted to validate the detection performance with local databases and a publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The first experiment showed the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.8, 95.3 and 94.9%, respectively. The cross validation results of the second experiment, 60% (53 of the retinal images were used for training and 40% (36 for testing, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 84.2, 85.9 and 85.2%, respectively. This result indicates the proposed clinical application provides an effective tool in the screening of exudates.

  10. Assessment of venous leg ulcers: an in-depth discussion of a literature-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimoto, B T

    2001-05-01

    Venous leg ulcers represent a significant public health problem that will increase as the population ages. The elderly, the most likely to be afflicted by this condition, present the clinician with special challenges. The diagnosis of venous leg ulcers involves taking a careful history, paying attention to the existence of factors that predispose individuals to the development of chronic venous insufficiency. Clinical features of venous insufficiency are important because their recognition allows clinicians to distinguish venous from other chronic ulcers. An essential part of the assessment of all patients with chronic wounds is an evaluation of intercurrent diseases, common in the elderly, which may impact on the wound healing process. Thus, in addition to managing venous insufficiency and the wound bed, all other factors, systemic and local, that may impede healing need to be investigated and corrected if necessary. Social and psychological issues common to all chronic illnesses need to be addressed as well. This holistic approach should be standard practice and is applicable to the assessment and management of all chronic leg ulcers. This often requires coordinating a multidisciplinary team of wound healing caregivers. More work needs to be done to clarify a few issues because areas of controversy persist. Although a great deal is known about the effects of vitamin deficiency on acute wounds, less is known about chronic ulcers. Similarly, the role of vitamin supplementation in managing chronic ulcers needs further study. Guidelines are needed to determine indications for wound culturing. In addition, more study is required to establish the most effective means of obtaining quantitative cultures. However, the relationship between bacteria and chronic wound healing goes beyond simple quantitation and other factors such as bacterial virulence and host resistance. These controversial issues will be reviewed. Treatment and prevention of venous leg ulcers will be

  11. AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

  12. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  13. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  14. Management of symptomatic venous aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Roberto; Rosati, Maria Sofia; Siani, Andrea; Irace, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Venous aneurysms (VAs) have been described in quite of all the major veins. They represent uncommon events but often life-threatening because of pulmonary or paradoxical embolism. We describe our twelve patients' series with acute pulmonary emboli due to venous aneurysm thrombosis. Our experience underlines the importance of a multilevel case-by-case approach and the immediate venous lower limbs duplex scan evaluation in pulmonary embolism events. Our data confirm that anticoagulant alone is not effective in preventing pulmonary embolism. We believe that all the VAs of the deep venous system of the extremities should be treated with surgery as well as symptomatic superficial venous aneurysm. A simple excision can significantly improve symptoms and prevent pulmonary embolism. PMID:22566766

  15. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, /sup 60/Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient.

  16. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biologica...

  17. Changos in phenolic contents of sheshum leaf exudates in response to infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Bakshi; Chauhan, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    An increase in phenolic contents of leaf exudates was found after infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae, but phenolic content decreased as the disease progressed. Healthy leaf exudates show a gradually decline in phenolic contents as the leaves mature.

  18. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    conception occur together. In pregnancy, the risk of VTE is increased ~5-fold, while the use of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) doubles the risk and this relative risk is higher with the more recent pills containing desogestrel, gestodene and drospirenone when compared with those with levonorgestrel....... Similarly, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT......BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...

  19. Venous Thromboembolism. Diagnostic Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines to the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and the development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) as manifestations of oneself pathology. Most of the pistons of the PTE (90%), they originate in the deep veins of the inferior members, proximal to the veins popliteas. In strange occasions, they make it in the veins of the superior members. The diagnosis, localization and extension of the DVT and of the PTE they are necessary to treat appropriately this given illness their high morbid mortality. The great majority of the PTE is symptomatic but it is necessary to know the risk of subsequent PTE examining the permeability of the deep veined system in the patient with suspicion of recent or old PTE to prevent its recurrence

  20. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Karlovsky Petr; Steingrobe Bernd; Ratzinger Astrid; Hettwer Ursula; Khorassani Reza; Claassen Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrom...

  1. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise;

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S...

  2. Exudation of Allelopathic Substances in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 16 (2007), s. 6453-6459. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Epicatechin * Fagopyrum esculentum * palmitic acid * root exudates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  3. Stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis concomitant to exudative maculopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, G; Upendran, M; Bandello, F; Chakravarthy, U

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo report the clinical course of patients presenting with stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) concomitant with exudative maculopathies.MethodsRetrospective case series. Multimodal imaging findings, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were reviewed. Genetic testing for the RS1 gene was performed in one patient.ResultsWe identified two female patients who fit the definition of SNIFR and presented with concomitant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD). In both the patients, SD-OCT showed exudative macular features and splitting (bilateral in patient 1, unilateral in patient 2) of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) in the macula with no other evidence of hereditary or an acquired predisposing condition. Genetic testing excluded mutation of RS1 gene in patient 1. The fundi of both the patients showed characteristic signs of active choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and following anti-VEGF treatment, visual acuity improved and CNV-related exudative changes resolved. However, the split along the OPL remained unaltered.ConclusionsSNIFR may be associated with n-AMD. It is important to recognise the presence of retinoschisis when there is other exudative pathology as the former may be misinterpreted as intraretinal fluid, prompting unnecessary treatment. PMID:26915743

  4. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  5. Epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease that frequently recurs. Recurrence can be prevented by anticoagulants, but this comes at the risk of bleeding. Therefore, assessment of the risk of recurrence is important to balance the risks and benefits of anticoagulant treatment. This review briefly outlines what is currently known about the epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis, and focuses in more detail on potential new risk factors for venous recurrence. The general implications of these findings in patient management are discussed.

  6. Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  7. Evaluation of colloidal radioactive chromium phosphate retention in the articular exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope measurements were carried out in patients receiving intra-articular injection of colloidal solution of radioactive chromium phosphate for chronic synovial exudates in knee joints. The degree of isotope escape outside the joint and its accumulation in the inguinal lymph nodes and liver were evaluated. Twenty-three joints were studied, in 9 cases some escape of the isotope from the joint and absence of accumulation in lymph nodes was observed. In the remaining 14 cases the accumulation in lymph nodes was observed, in 12 of them the amount of isotope was below 1% of the administered dose, in 2 cases was about 2%. In these cases the amount of the isotope escaping from the joint was from several to over ten per cent. In one case some accumulation of the isotope was observed also in the liver. (author)

  8. Measuring venous oxygenation using the photoplethysmograph waveform

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Z. D.; Kyriacou, P. A.; Silverman, D. G.; Shelley, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigate the hypothesis that the photoplethysmograph (PPG) waveform can be analyzed to infer regional venous oxygen saturation. METHODS: Fundamental to the successful isolation of the venous saturation is the identification of PPG characteristics that are unique to the peripheral venous system. Two such characteristics have been identified. First, the peripheral venous waveform tends to reflect atrial contraction. Second, ventilation tends to move venous blood preferenti...

  9. Cerebral venous thrombosis: diagnosis dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging Magnetic resonance (MR) or advanced modilities such as cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), MRV (MR Venography) will helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment. These imaging moda...

  10. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On...

  11. Radioisotopic phlebography in investigating venous diseases of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to analyse the interest of isotope phlebography in diagnosis of deep thrombosis and of chronic venous disease in the lower extremity as well as its value in relation to contrast venography. Out of 30 patients, 17 underwent both examinations. With contrast venography as a means of testing, radioisotope phlebography has a sensitivity of 71%, a specificity of 100%, an accuracy of 88%. Thirteen patients only had isotope phlebography. Results were confirmed everybody by clinical developments. The main interest of isotope phlebography is the diagnosis of femoral and iliac thromboses with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at this point. In chronic venous disease isotope phlebography only shows indirect signs but gives information on the permeability of deep veins, wich is enough to make a therapeutic decision

  12. Effectiveness of papain gel in venous ulcer treatment: randomized clinical trial1

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luiza Soares Rodrigues; Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de Oliveira; Débora Omena Futuro; Silvia Regina Secoli

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness of 2% papain gel compared to 2% carboxymethyl cellulose in the treatment of chronic venous ulcer patients. METHOD: randomized controlled clinical trial with 12-week follow-up. The sample consisted of 18 volunteers and 28 venous ulcers. In the trial group, 2% papain gel was used and, in the control group, 2% carboxymethyl cellulose gel. RESULTS: the trial group showed a significant reduction in the lesion area, especially between the fifth and twelfth wee...

  13. RheoStim: Development of an Adaptive Multi-Sensor to Prevent Venous Stasis

    OpenAIRE

    Weyer, Sören; Weishaupt, Fabio; Kleeberg, Christian; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is often underestimated and, in the absence of therapy, results in increasingly severe complications, including therapy-resistant tissue defects. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate therapy is of particular importance. External counter pulsation (ECP) therapy is a method used to assist the venous system. The main principle of ECP is to squeeze the inner leg vessels by muscle contractions, which are evoked by functional electrical stimulation...

  14. Venous admixture in COPD: Pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, CB; Celli, B

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive and interstitial lung diseases impair pulmonary gas exchange leading to wasted ventilation (alveolar dead space) and wasted perfusion (venous admixture). These two fundamental types of abnormality represent opposite ends of the spectrum of ventilation-perfusion mismatch with V̇/Q̇ ratios of infinity and zero. Treatment approaches that improve airway function, reduce air trapping and hyperinflation have received much attention and might be successful at ameliorating the pro...

  15. Memory Bandage for Functional Compression Management for Venous Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Bipin Kumar; Jinlian Hu; Ning Pan

    2016-01-01

    In current compression practice for the treatment of chronic venous disorders, there has always been a challenge of controlled compression by a bandage to achieve a particular pressure range in the affected region of the limb. The challenges in compression in the products could be solved if there were the possibility of stress control in fabric. Herein, we are exploiting the newly discovered phenomena, i.e., stress memory, in a memory polymer (MP) for the design and investigation of a smart b...

  16. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil

  17. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  18. Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

    2008-01-01

    Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions. PMID:18925589

  19. Microbial Products Trigger Amino Acid Exudation from Plant Roots1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald A.; Fox, Tama C.; King, Maria D.; Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Teuber, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    Plants naturally cycle amino acids across root cell plasma membranes, and any net efflux is termed exudation. The dominant ecological view is that microorganisms and roots passively compete for amino acids in the soil solution, yet the innate capacity of roots to recover amino acids present in ecologically relevant concentrations is unknown. We find that, in the absence of culturable microorganisms, the influx rates of 16 amino acids (each supplied at 2.5 μm) exceed efflux rates by 5% to 545% in roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Medicago truncatula, maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Several microbial products, which are produced by common soil microorganisms such as Pseudomonas bacteria and Fusarium fungi, significantly enhanced the net efflux (i.e. exudation) of amino acids from roots of these four plant species. In alfalfa, treating roots with 200 μm phenazine, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, or zearalenone increased total net efflux of 16 amino acids 200% to 2,600% in 3 h. Data from 15N tests suggest that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol blocks amino acid uptake, whereas zearalenone enhances efflux. Thus, amino acid exudation under normal conditions is a phenomenon that probably reflects both active manipulation and passive uptake by microorganisms, as well as diffusion and adsorption to soil, all of which help overcome the innate capacity of plant roots to reabsorb amino acids. The importance of identifying potential enhancers of root exudation lies in understanding that such compounds may represent regulatory linkages between the larger soil food web and the internal carbon metabolism of the plant. PMID:15347793

  20. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  2. [The treatment of malignant tumors on venous leg ulcers. Case presentation and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, W; Kohl, K; Riebe, H; Jünger, M; Ladwig, A

    2008-11-01

    Malignant changes in persistent venous leg ulcers are a grave complication of chronic impaired wound healing. In our case, a venous leg ulcer had persisted on the right calf for 30 years. Exophytic tumors in the ulcer with frequent bleeding prompted biopsies. A squamous cell carcinoma was found, but only in the second biopsy. The surgical procedure was planned so that in a single session both the tumor and the underlying causes of the chronic venous insufficiency in the leg could be treated appropriately. Extirpation of the enlarged lymph nodes in the groin was combined with crossectomy and removal of the long saphenous vein, followed by circular radial excision of the ulcer scar fascia (fasciotomy). The excised tissue was examined histologically. Muscle biopsies were taken from the site of suspicious adhesions of the fascia to the calf muscle. The large, circular defects on the lower leg were covered with the appropriate dressing to condition the wound bed. After three weeks the well-granulated area was covered with meshed split skin grafts. During the operation and in the post-operative phase, machine-assisted and manual decongestion was performed, an established therapy for lymphedema, chronic venous insufficiency and chronic venous ulcers. PMID:18850078

  3. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Martin, E.; Willi, U.V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, D. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  4. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  5. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a thrombotic event and to provide an overview of the risk of venous thrombosis per combined oral contraceptive. We found that the UGT2B7 gene in the first-pass metabolism may at least in part explain the r...

  6. Venous Complications of Pancreatitis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yashant Aswani; Priya Hira

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis is notorious to cause vascular complications. While arterial complications include pseudoaneurysm formation with a propensity to bleed, venous complications can be quite myriad. Venous involvement in pancreatitis often presents with thrombosis. From time to time case reports and series of unusual venous complications associated with pancreatitis have, however, been described. In this article, we review multitudinous venous complications in the setting of pancreatitis and propose ...

  7. Obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from cerebral venous thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare form of stroke in childhood. Increased intracranial pressure is a well-defined complication of cerebral venous thrombosis but obstructive hydrocephalus as a presentation finding of cerebral venous thrombosis is rarely described. A child case of cerebral sinus thrombosis presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and management of clinical condition is presented with discussion of reported cases and treatment recommendations.

  8. Percutaneous Intervention of Sequential Coronary Venous Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki DOGAN; Karabulut, Ahmet; Uzunlar, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    We present a case with coronary bypass grafts in which venous graft was anastomosed to obtuse marginal (OM) 1 and OM2 branches sequentially. We performed percutaneous intervention to the proximal circumflex (CX), OM1, and bridging segment of the venous graft. Finally, bridging segment of the venous graft began to function as a CX body extending between the OM1 and OM2.

  9. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a thromb

  10. Efficacy of endovenous ablation of the saphenous veins for prevention and healing of venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, William A

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, endovenous ablation (EVA) has replaced surgical stripping as the preferred method of eliminating saphenous reflux in symptomatic patients. Studies have examined the success of EVA at saphenous closure and improving leg pain and edema. However, less information is available on the ability of these techniques to promote venous leg ulcer healing or to prevent recurrence. The comparison of surgery and compression with compression alone in chronic venous ulceration (ESCHAR) trial identified the role of saphenous stripping in reducing the rate of ulcer recurrence after healing, supporting this procedure for Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, and Pathologic (CEAP) clinical class 5 and 6 patients. In patients with venous ulcers, it remains controversial whether EVA procedures provide results similar to those of saphenous stripping in clinically relevant outcomes. This review examines the evidence supporting the use of thermal or nonthermal EVA in patients with healed or active venous ulcers and saphenous insufficiency. PMID:26993692

  11. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  12. Exudative Retinal Detachment Treatment in a Patient with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Sampo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, without associated hypertension, successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman with a medical history of TTP presented with unilateral exudative retinal detachment. Biological and radiological assessment eliminated other causes of exudative retinal detachment, including hypertension. Plasma exchange was performed, followed by a rapid improvement in visual acuity and total disappearance of serous detachment. Conclusion: Exudative unilateral retinal detachment is a rare complication of TTP and can be successfully treated by plasma exchange.

  13. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Diabetic Retinopathy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkarat Pothiruk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is globally the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in diabetic patients. Retinal image is essential and crucial for ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Many of technique can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that the retinal images in Thailand are low-quality images. The existing algorithm cannot detect low-quality image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for detection of exudates in low quality retinal image. Approach: In this study, we presented a new method towards the development for detecting exudates pathologies of DR. The color retinal images are segmented using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM clustering and morphological methods and following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, remove noise and color space selection. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the algorithm can achieve good performance even on low-quality retinal images. Result/Conclusion: The result shows that accuracy values increase when the FCM clustering is combined with morphological methods techniques. If any applications need to detect maximum number of exudates pixels or require execution speed, the FCM clustering technique could be used in isolation. However, if the applications require higher accuracy, the FCM clustering combined with morphological methods should be chosen. This system intends to help ophthalmologists in DR screening process to detect symptoms faster and more easily. This is not a final result application but it can be a preliminary diagnosis tool or decision support system for ophthalmologists. Human ophthalmologists are still needed for the cases where detection results are not very obvious.

  14. Chemical and spectroscopic studies of Cercidium praecox gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León de Pinto, G; Martínez, M; Rivas, C

    1994-07-01

    The structure of the polysaccharide from Cercidium praecox (R&P) Harms gum exudate has been studied by Smith degradation, by sugar and methylation analyses, and by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed a (1-->4)-xylan core. Some xylose residues are substituted at O-2 by alpha-D-glucuronic acid and 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid residues. beta-D-Glucuronic acid is present, probably as terminal residues. The arabinose is present as alpha-L-furanose and beta-L-pyranose. PMID:8062287

  15. Cell wall loosening proteins of the stigma exudate

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwland, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Outline of the thesis: The idea, formulated by Cosgrove, that cell wall loosening of the maternal tissue facilitates pollen tube growth is a central theme of this thesis. This idea was originally proposed for beta-expansins released by maize pollen. Since the pollen coat of dry stigma type plants, like maize, bears a functional similarity with the exudate of wet stigma type plants (e.g. tobacco and petunia), this research was started with the analysis of the putative function of the pistil-sp...

  16. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies. PMID:16935213

  17. Therapy of chronic wounds with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeschlein, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The central portion of chronic wounds is often hypoxic and relatively hypothermic, representing a deficient energy supply of the tissue, which impedes wound healing or even makes it impossible. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and a low thermal load to the skin surface. wIRA produces a therapeutically usable field of heat and increases temperature, oxygen partial pressure and perfusion of the tissue. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen and consequently as well for wound healing, especially in chronic wounds, and infection defense. wIRA acts both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA can advance wound healing or improve an impaired wound healing process and can especially enable wound healing in non-healing chronic wounds. wIRA can considerably alleviate the pain and diminish wound exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects.In a prospective, randomized, controlled study of 40 patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs irradiation with wIRA and visible light (VIS accelerated the wound healing process (on average 18 vs. 42 days until complete wound closure, residual ulcer area after 42 days 0.4 cm² vs. 2.8 cm² and led to a reduction of the required dose of pain medication in comparison to the control group of patients treated with the same standard care (wound cleansing, wound dressing with antibacterial gauze, and compression garment therapy without the concomitant irradiation. Another prospective study of 10 patients with non-healing chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs included extensive thermographic investigation. Therapy with wIRA(+VIS resulted in a complete or almost complete wound healing in 7 patients and a marked reduction of the ulcer size in another 2 of the 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and required dose of pain

  18. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA in acute and chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, as a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue penetration and a low thermal load to the skin surface, can improve the healing of acute and chronic wounds both by thermal and thermic as well as by non-thermal and non-thermic effects. wIRA increases tissue temperature (+2.7°C at a tissue depth of 2 cm, tissue oxygen partial pressure (+32% at a tissue depth of 2 cm and tissue perfusion. These three factors are decisive for a sufficient supply of tissue with energy and oxygen and consequently also for wound healing and infection defense. wIRA can considerably alleviate pain (without any exception during 230 irradiations with substantially less need for analgesics (52–69% less in the groups with wIRA compared to the control groups. It also diminishes exudation and inflammation and can show positive immunomodulatory effects. The overall evaluation of the effect of irradiation as well as the wound healing and the cosmetic result (assessed on visual analogue scales were markedly better in the group with wIRA compared to the control group. wIRA can advance wound healing (median reduction of wound size of 90% in severely burned children already after 9 days in the group with wIRA compared to 13 days in the control group; on average 18 versus 42 days until complete wound closure in chronic venous stasis ulcers or improve an impaired wound healing (reaching wound closure and normalization of the thermographic image in otherwise recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers both in acute and in chronic wounds including infected wounds. After major abdominal surgery there was a trend in favor of the wIRA group to a lower rate of total wound infections (7% versus 15% including late infections following discharge from hospital (0% versus 8% and a trend towards a shorter postoperative hospital stay (9 versus 11 days. Even the normal wound healing process can be improved.The mentioned effects have been proven in six

  19. Case of cerebral venous thrombosis with unusual venous infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Ramakrishna; Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  20. Radiologically-placed venous ports in children under venous anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Joo Yeon; Jeon, Ung Bae; Choo, Ki Seok; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Yong Woo; Lee, Yun Jin; Nam, Sang Ool; Lim, Young Tak [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiologic venous port placement in children under venous anesthesia. Between April 2009 and July 2011, 44 ports were implanted in 41 children (24 boys, 17 girls). The age of patients ranged from 9 months to 19 years (mean, 6.5 years) and their body weights ranged from 6.8 kg to 56.3 kg (mean, 23.2 kg). Right internal jugular vein access was used in 42 ports, right subclavian vein in 1, and left subclavian in 1. Durability and complications of port implantation were reviewed. The technical success rate was 100%. The catheter life was 10-661 days (mean 246 days). Two patients died during the follow-up period, 21 and 6 ports were removed at the end of treatment or as a result of complications, respectively. One port was removed and replaced by a Hickmann catheter. Three ports were explanted due to port-related sepsis, one due to a catheter kink, and two for unexplained fever or insertion site pain. The overall port-related infection was 3 cases (6.8%, 0.28/1000 catheter days). Venous port placement by interventional radiologists in children under intravenous sedation is relatively safe, with a high rate of technical success and low rate of complications.

  1. Radiologically-placed venous ports in children under venous anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiologic venous port placement in children under venous anesthesia. Between April 2009 and July 2011, 44 ports were implanted in 41 children (24 boys, 17 girls). The age of patients ranged from 9 months to 19 years (mean, 6.5 years) and their body weights ranged from 6.8 kg to 56.3 kg (mean, 23.2 kg). Right internal jugular vein access was used in 42 ports, right subclavian vein in 1, and left subclavian in 1. Durability and complications of port implantation were reviewed. The technical success rate was 100%. The catheter life was 10-661 days (mean 246 days). Two patients died during the follow-up period, 21 and 6 ports were removed at the end of treatment or as a result of complications, respectively. One port was removed and replaced by a Hickmann catheter. Three ports were explanted due to port-related sepsis, one due to a catheter kink, and two for unexplained fever or insertion site pain. The overall port-related infection was 3 cases (6.8%, 0.28/1000 catheter days). Venous port placement by interventional radiologists in children under intravenous sedation is relatively safe, with a high rate of technical success and low rate of complications.

  2. Venous sinus stenting for pseudotumour cerebri with venous sinus stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relation between venous sinus stenosis and pseduotumour cerebri and to discuss the efficacy and strategy of venous sinus stenting for its treatment. Methods: Venous sinus stenting was performed in a total of 9 patients with pseudotumour cerebri accompanied by dural sinus stenosis. The clinical data, including the clinical presentations, intracranial pressure, angiographic findings, pressure of dural sinus,methods of treatment and the therapeutic results, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Bilateral disc edema was seen in all patients. The pressure gradient in the lateral sinuses was obviously high before stenting (22.67±7.25)mmHg in all patients and a reduction in intra-sinus pressure and pressure gradient was also found (5.78±3.77)mmHg. The symptoms associated with intracranial hypertension were gradually improved or disappeared in two weeks after the placement of the stent in all cases, and the intracranial pressure dropped evidently (12.78±5.97)cm H2O. Vision was improved in 7 cases at three months, whereas it remained poor in 2 cases despite normalized intracranial pressure. There was no other permanent procedure-related morbidity. The patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years, and no recurrence developed. Conclusion: Lateral sinus stenting is an effective method for the treatment of pseudotumour cerebri with dural sinus stenosis. (authors)

  3. Sepsis, venous return, and teleology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, R G

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of heart-circulation interaction is crucial to our ability to guide our patients through an episode of septic shock. Our knowledge has advanced greatly in the last one hundred years. There are, however, certain empirical phenomena that may lead us to question the wisdom of our prevailing treatment algorithm. Three extreme but iatrogenically possible haemodynamic states exist. Firstly, inappropriately low venous return; secondly, overzealous arteriolar constriction; and finally, misguided inotropy and chronotropy. Following an unsuccessful fluid challenge, it would be logical to first set the venous tone, then set the cardiac rate and contractility, and finally set the peripheral vascular resistance. It is hypothesized that a combination of dihydroergotamine, milrinone and esmolol should be superior to a combination of noradrenaline and dobutamine for surviving sepsis. PMID:25245463

  4. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  5. The regulation of gelation of Phloem exudate from cucurbita fruit by dilution, glutathione, and glutathione reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosi, M C; Melroy, D L; Park, R B

    1988-04-01

    The average glutathione equivalent concentration in phloem exudate collected from squash fruit (Cucurbita moschata [Duchesne] Poir. var Butternut) and pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita pepo [L.] var Jack-o-lattern) was 1.02 and 0.60 millimolar, respectively. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity in phloem exudate from squash and pumpkin fruit averaged 0.48 and 1.74 micromole NADPH oxidized per minute per milliliter, respectively. Protein concentrations in fruit phloem exudates averaged 67 milligrams per milliliter for squash and 57 milligrams per milliliter for pumpkin. The phloem-specific P-proteins account for most of the protein content of exudate. Pure exudate from fruit does not gel for hours or days, but when diluted with neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions, exudate gels rapidly. Exudate solutions undergo biphasic pH changes with dilution. We suggest that P-protein undergoes conformational change upon dilution, exposing titratable groups and sulfhydryl residues. Oxidation of the latter forms the intermolecular disulfide bridges of the gel. The gelation of diluted exudate is regulated by factors (oxygen, pH, glutathione, NADPH) which affect the maintenance of reduced sulfhydryl residues and the activity of glutathione reductase. While these factors may also act in vivo to regulate redox conditions in phloem, their relationship to hypothetical sol/gel transitions or motile and nonmotile phases in the transport conduit is unknown. PMID:16666036

  6. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  7. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mansour; Bashshur, Ziad F.; Sibai, Tarek A.; Abla Mehio-Sibai; Hamam, Rola N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the s...

  8. Enhancement of Phloem Exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (Evergreen Ash) using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, L R; Bassham, J A; Calvin, M

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of (14)C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem origin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excised leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H(2)O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants. PMID:16662189

  9. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

  10. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, L.R.; Bassham, J.A., Calvin, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of /sup 14/C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H/sub 2/O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants.

  11. Enhancement of Phloem Exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (Evergreen Ash) using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, L. R.; Bassham, James A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem origin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excised leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants. Images PMID:16662189

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  13. Venous thromboembolism deserves your attention

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Samama, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The survey of how Canadian intensive care units (ICUs) prevent and diagnose venous thromboembolism (VTE) presented in this issue of Critical Care illustrates considerable variability. Lack of optimal patient care reflects how VTE is rated in ICUs. The discussion should no longer focus on the incidence of thrombosis, but rather on its prevention. Unfractionated heparin remains the most commonly used agent to prevent VTE, despite the recognized efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight hepari...

  14. Cerebral sino-venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of cerebral sino-venous thrombosis were reported. Repeated CT findings were studied and discussed on account of the treatments for those pathologic conditions. Those of studied cases are; a 22-year-old postpartum woman, a 42-year-old woman with irregular vaginal bleeding, and a 26-year-old man with severe reactive emesis after drinking alcohol. They were treated conservatively. Case 1 died in its acute stage. In the remaining ones, each had an uneventful recovery. CT scan findings of them manifested their exact clinical conditions. These findings were devided into two categories, one was direct signs expressed sino-venous occlusion, the other was indirect signs which appeared as a result of these occlusion. Direct signs cannot always get in every cases with sino-venous occlusion, but as for indirect signs, we can get various changes corresponding to the time taken CT photoes, and they are useful to decide appropriate treatments at that time. Considering suitable treatments for this disease, it is necessary to select most suitable ones according to their pathologic conditions, which may be precisely drawn with CT scans. (J.P.N.)

  15. The effects of cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang WU; Weiping FANG; Shuijin ZHU; Kuiying JIN; Daofan JI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of upland cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae were studied, through the compared analysis of the root exudates components between the resistant and suscept-ive cotton materials, using a pair of resistant and sus-ceptive isogenic lines to Verticillium wilt, Z5629 and Z421, as well as 4 other upland cotton cultivars with different resistant levels of Verticillium wilt. The results showed that the amino acids in the root exudates of the resistant cultivars were much less than that of the sus-ceptible ones. Compared with the susceptible ones, there were a lack of aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine and proline in the root exudates from the resistant cul-tivars. On the contrary, arginine was lacking in the sus-ceptive cultivars. The saccharide types in the root exudates were no different between the two kinds of cultivars, but the contents of glucose, fructose and suc-rose in the root exudates of the susceptible varieties were much higher than those in the resistant ones. The experiment of Verticillium dahliae culture showed that the cotton root exudates from resistant cultivars can effectively restrain the spore germination and mycelium growth of Verticillium dahliae, and the argi-nine was the leading amino acid in this inhibitory action, besides the nutrition of the root exudates. However, the cotton root exudates from the susceptive cotton cultivars can improve the growth and develop-ment of Verticillium dahliae effectively; among the amino acid in the exudates, alanine was the most active one in this stimulating function.

  16. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  17. Sarcoidosis, Celiac Disease and Deep Venous Thrombosis: a Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Çelik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology and it may rarely be associated with a second disorder. Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy characterized with malabsorption caused by gluten intolerance, and several reports indicate an association between celiac disease and sarcoidosis. In addition, although celiac disease is associated with several extraintestinal pathologies, venous thrombosis has been rarely reported. Herein we present a rare case report of a patient with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis, celiac disease and deep venous thrombosis because of the rare association of these disorders. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain, weight loss, chronic diarrhea and a 5-day history of swelling in her right leg. A diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis was achieved by doppler ultrasonographic examination. The diagnosis of celiac disease was made by biopsy of duodenal mucosa and supported with elevated serum level of anti-gliadin IgA and IgG, and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was achieved by transbronchial needle aspiration from the subcarinal lymph node during flexible bronchoscopy.

  18. Transpleural central venous catheter discovered during thoracotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ashima Malhotra; Prakash Sharma; Ashvini Kumar; Nikhil Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    We report an uncommon complication of subclavian central venous catheterization, discovered at thoracotomy. The central venous catheter (CVC) was placed by left infraclavicular route after induction of general anesthesia. CVC was secured after aspiration of blood and satisfactory central venous tracing. On thoracotomy, CVC was noticed to traverse the pleural cavity while the tracing was normal. CVC was thus removed consequent to which bleeding from each puncture site was noticed, that were se...

  19. Bioassay and Identification of Root Exudates of Three Fruit Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Hong Zhang; Zhi-Quan Mao; Li-Qin Wang; Huai-Rui Shu

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the allelopathic potential of root exudates of three fruit tree species on apple germination. The results showed that root exudates of apple (Malus pumila L.) and peach (Prunus persica L.), each at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L, inhibited germination and radicle growth of apple seeds by 56.7%, 60.7%, 51.5%, and 59.3%, respectively. The corresponding shoot growth inhibition rate was 49.5%, 46.7%, 36.4%, and 44%, respectively. Root exudates of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) had no significant effect on apple seeds.Qualitative determination of root exudates of apple, peach, and jujube tree was developed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The root exudates of apple seedlings mainly contain organic acids, glycol, esters, and benzenphenol derivatives. Peach root exudates contained phenolic acids and benzenphenol derivatives in addition to two unidentified compounds. The root exudates of jujube did not contain any phenolic acids.

  20. The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

  1. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  2. A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Viant

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  3. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tawaraya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L−1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

  4. [Toilet of chronic wound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strok, Nevenka; Huljev, Dubravko

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wound toilet, with appropriate care of the surrounding skin, is one of the basic steps that must be performed in the treatment of patients with chronic wound. On wound cleaning and bandaging, it is of utmost importance to choose an appropriate technique of cleansing, select an appropriate solution for leaching and choose an appropriate wound dressing. In this way, the wound is protected from dirt from the environment and microorganisms, while protecting the surrounding tissue from the wound exudate, providing optimal conditions for better and faster wound healing and contributing to improved patient quality of life. The frequency of dressing change is individual and must be tailored to each patient in correlation with the psychosocial status of the patient, the type of the wound, the amount and type of wound exudate, as well as what is to be put on the wound. One of the most important elements in wound toilet is appropriate care for the surrounding skin. Basic guidelines for skin care must meet three basic criteria: adequate washing and cleansing of the skin, maintain the physiological balance of the skin and protect the skin from external damage. PMID:24371977

  5. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism: similarities with atherothrombosis and the role of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Nicoletta; Donadini, Marco P; Ageno, Walter

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease. Major provoking factors (e. g. surgery, cancer, major trauma, and immobilisation) are identified in 50-60 % of patients, while the remaining cases are classified as unprovoked. However, minor predisposing conditions may be detectable in these patients, possibly concurring to the pathophysiology of the disease, especially when co-existing. In recent years, the role of chronic inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases and traditional cardiovascular risk factors has been extensively investigated. Inflammation, with its underlying prothrombotic state, could be the potential link between these risk factors, as well as the explanation for the reported association between arterial and venous thromboembolic events. PMID:25472800

  6. Wartime major venous vessel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to declare our experience and to identify the important factors that influence the mortality and morbidity in patients with combat-related penetrating wounds of the abdomen (CR-PWA) with major venous vessel injuries. Twenty-six wounded with combat-related injuries of major abdominal venous vessels, admitted in the University Clinic cardiovascular surgery department during the period from 1 August 1991 through 30 October 1995, were analyzed. Patients with concomitant injured arteries and extra-abdominal injuries (n=150; 85.2%) were excluded from this study. The Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) score for each patient was calculated. Fifteen patients (57.69%) sustained with PATI score greater than 25 died. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days (range 0-86). The average hospitalization time for those surviving their complications was 17 days with a PATI of 25 or less, and 43 days with a score more than 25. Three clinical assessments of the long-term outcome were performed after a median of about 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Surviving patients (42.31%) were symptom free and had normal Duplex scans as well as no other surgical related complications. Higher PATI scores, postoperative complications and reoperations exert an unfavorable effect on patient outcome. PMID:18006557

  7. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Eren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a major complication of cancer and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of VTE is 0.6-7.8% in patients with cancer more than double the incidence of VTE in patients without cancer. The risk of VTE which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE is increased two to seven fold in patients with cancer. VTE risk is especially high among certain groups such as hospitalized patients with cancer and those receiving active antineoplastic therapy. Also cancer patients, who undergoing major surgery, are increased risk of VTE. Trauma, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, previous VTE and genetic component are also predisposing factors for VTE. Patients with cancer who develop VTE should be managed multidisciplinary treatment guidelines. The primary goal of thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer is to prevent VTE. The large majority of cancer patients should be treated with therapeutic doses of unfractioned heparin (UFH or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH. Prophylaxis should include cancer patients who underwent major surgery for cancer and patients with a history of VTE.

  8. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Azimi, Aziza; Gislason, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  9. Effect of Human Burn Wound Exudate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel R; Fleuchot, Betty; Lauciello, Leonardo; Jafari, Paris; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim; Que, Yok-Ai; Perron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Burn wound sepsis is currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality after burn trauma. Infections by notorious pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii impair patient recovery and can even lead to fatality. In this study, we investigated the effect of burn wound exudates (BWEs) on the virulence of those pathogens. BWEs were collected within 7 days after burn trauma from 5 burn patients. We first monitored their effect on pathogen growth. In contrast to A. baumannii and S. aureus, P. aeruginosa was the only pathogen able to grow within these human fluids. Expression of typical virulence factors such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine was even enhanced compared the levels seen with standard laboratory medium. A detailed chemical composition analysis of BWE was performed, which enabled us to determine the major components of BWE and underline the metabolic modifications induced by burn trauma. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound environment and the establishment of an in vitro system to analyze the initial steps of burn wound infections. IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of severe burn wounds is currently a major medical challenge. Of the infections by bacteria able to colonize such injuries, those by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most severe, causing major delays in burn patient recovery or leading to fatal issues. In this study, we investigated the growth properties of several burn wound pathogens in biological fluids secreted from human burn wounds. We found that P. aeruginosa strains were able to proliferate but not those of the other pathogens tested. In addition, burn wound exudates (BWEs) stimulate the expression of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The chemical composition analysis of BWEs enabled us to determine the major components of these fluids. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound

  10. Compression for Primary Prevention, Treatment, and Prevention of Recurrence of Venous Leg Ulcers: An Evidence-and Consensus-Based Algorithm for Care Across the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Catherine R; Yates, Stephanie; McNichol, Laurie; Gray, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency is a prevalent disease that frequently leads to development of venous leg ulcers. While a number of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines have been developed that provide guidance for clinicians when caring for patients with chronic venous insufficiency, they lack adequate detail concerning selection and application of compression for prevention and management of venous leg ulcers. In order to address this need, the WOCN Society appointed a task force to develop an algorithm for compression for primary prevention, treatment, and prevention of recurrent venous leg ulcers in persons with chronic venous insufficiency. The task force used findings from a scoping literature review to identify current best evidence needed to support decision points and pathways within the algorithm. In addition, the task force convened a panel of 20 clinicians and researchers with expertise in lower extremity venous disorders in order to establish consensus around pathways and decision points within the algorithm lacking robust evidence. Following initial construction of the algorithm, a second interdisciplinary group of expert clinicians established content validity and provided additional qualitative feedback used to complete final revisions of the algorithm. This article reviews the process used to create this landmark algorithm, including generation of the evidence- and consensus-based statements used in its construction, the various pathways, and rich supplemental materials embedded within the algorithm, and the process used to establish content validity. PMID:27163774

  11. Sustaining Behavior Changes Following a Venous Leg Ulcer Client Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charne Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous leg ulcers are a symptom of chronic insufficiency of the veins. This study considered the sustainability of behavior changes arising from a client focus e-Learning education program called the “Leg Ulcer Prevention Program” (LUPP for people with a venous leg ulcer. Data from two related studies were used to enable a single sample (n = 49 examination of behavior maintenance across an average 8 to 9 months period. Physical activity levels increased over time. Leg elevation, calf muscle exercises, and soap substitute use were seen to fluctuate over the follow up time points. The use of a moisturizer showed gradual decline over time. The provision of a client-focused venous leg ulcer program was associated with behavior changes that had varied sustainability across the evaluation period.

  12. Overview of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers: a US perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Chu EF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available E Foy White-Chu,1 Teresa A Conner-Kerr2 1Oregon Health and Science University, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR, 2Winston-Salem State University, Department of Physical Therapy, Winston Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Comprehensive care of chronic venous insufficiency and associated ulcers requires a multipronged and interprofessional approach to care. A comprehensive treatment approach includes exercise, nutritional assessment, compression therapy, vascular reconstruction, and advanced treatment modalities. National guidelines, meta-analyses, and original research studies provide evidence for the inclusion of these approaches in the patient plan of care. The purpose of this paper is to review present guidelines for prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers as followed in the US. The paper further explores evidence-based yet pragmatic tools for the interprofessional team to use in the management of this complex disorder. Keywords: venous insufficiency, varicose ulcer, wound, compression bandages

  13. A critical review of modern and emerging absorbent dressings used to treat exuding wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, India R; Miraftab, Mohsen; Collyer, Graham

    2012-12-01

    Wound management has progressed significantly over the last five decades. This emanates from a greater understanding of wound healing, technological progression and improved clinical and scientific research. There are currently a plethora of absorbent dressings on the wound care market which claim to have the ability to manage exudates whilst encouraging healing. However, it is becoming clear, from analysing randomised controlled trials, that some of these absorbent dressings are not meeting their expectations when applied in a clinical setting. Many clinicians now feel that there should be more focus, not only on a dressing's ability to manage exudate efficiently, but on a dressing's ability to proactively encourage healing and thus exudate reduction will ensue. This paper proposes to critically review modern and emerging absorbent wound care dressings used to manage exuding wounds and discuses some advances in this area. PMID:22248337

  14. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Retinal Fundus Images using Differential Morphological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Tripathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic method for exudate detection from colour fundus imagesbased on Differential Morphological Profile (DMP.The detection of exudates is important for the identification of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. The method involves of three main phases. Inthe first phase, pre processing tasks like Gaussian smoothing and contrast enhancement is done. In the second phase, DMP is applied on the pre-processed image. The image obtained from DMP containshighlighted bright regions consisting of exudates and optic disc. In the next phase, feature extraction based on location of optic disc, shape index and area is done to obtain actual exudates. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by applying it on the DIARETDB1 database. The specificity,sensitivity and PPV of the proposed method were compared with two other methods. The results showthat the proposed method gives better results than the other conventional methods.

  15. Tachyphylaxis during ranibizumab treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibel; Doguizi; Sengul; Ozdek; Selcen; Yuksel

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,We are intestigators from Turkey primarily studying exudative age-related macular degeneration(AMD).Here we present the results of our retrospective clinical study on tachyphylaxis development during the treatment of exudative AMD with ranibizumab,which,we believe,will form a basis for further prospective studies to predict the drug response in anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  16. TableCross: Exuding a Shared Space into Personal Spaces to Encourage Its Voluntary Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimoto, Kazushi; Ikenoue, Akari; Shimizu, Koji; Tajima, Tomonori; Tanaka, Yuta; Baba, Yutaka; Wang, Xihong

    2011-01-01

    A shared space should be cooperatively maintained by all users. However, due to social loafing, often nobody maintains it and its condition worsens. We propose exudation of a shared space. Part of a shared space is exuded into personal workspaces so that office workers are forced to subjectively experience the atmosphere of the shared space, even while they remain at their personal workspaces. This paper illustrates the first prototype named “TableCross,” which reflects the degree of disorder...

  17. Atypical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis: A Case report of exudative retinal detachment and choroidal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya A Al-Zahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid.

  18. Early Signs of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Mariko; Kawasaki, Ryo; Uchida, Atsuro; Koto, Takashi; Shinoda, Hajime; Tsubota, Kazuo; Wong, Tien Yin; Ozawa, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the relationship between the early signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the risk of developing exudative AMD (typical AMD or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy [PCV]) in the fellow eye of Japanese patients with unilateral exudative AMD, focusing particularly on eyes with only pigmentary abnormality. Methods This study is a retrospective observational consecutive case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients who revisited ...

  19. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won Ki

    2014-01-01

    Sohee Jeon, Won Ki LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates.Materials and methods: Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All...

  20. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon S.; Lee WK

    2014-01-01

    Sohee Jeon, Won Ki LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates.Materials and methods: Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All pat...

  1. Exudative Inflammatory Eye Response in Cataract Surgery: Current View on the Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Belousova N.Y.

    2011-01-01

    There has been analyzed one of the most frequent and serious complications of cataract surgery — exudative inflammatory response (EIR) of eye. There has been presented current view on etiopathogenesis of the condition, classifications and the description of clinical presentation of various EIR types have been given. Known techniques of prognosis and prevention of postoperative exudative uveites have been presented. There have been given present methods of complex treatment of eye EIR: drug tr...

  2. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (C

  3. [THE MORPHOMETRY IN CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXUDATIVE FLUIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snikhovskaya, K V; Shabalova, I P

    2015-08-01

    The cytological technique takes a leading position in diagnostic of tumor processes according exudative fluids. However, its results depend on large number of subjective factors. The morphometry is one of techniques by virtue of which objectification of data of cytological analysis is possible. The study was carried out to establish differences of morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cells of pleural effusion. The morphometric analysis of cells of mesothelium, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach was implemented. The parameters characterizing size (area, perimeter) and form (form factor) of nucleus and cell, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio. The results demonstrated that in pleural effusion between cells of proliferating mesothelium and malignant neoplasms exist significant differences in morphometric parameters (p<0.001). The differences between area of nuclei and cells are especially significant. The comparison of data of morphometry of cells of breast cancer; adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach demonstrated that despite of some morphological similarities, analysis of morphometric parameters can provide important data for proper establishment of cytological diagnosis. PMID:26596045

  4. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy: Follow-Up and Treatment Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cebeci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the follow-up and treatment results of cases with the diagnosis of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in our clinic. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 eyes of 10 cases of FEVR that were followed up and some of them were treated in our clinic. Results: Nine male and one female patients with a mean age of 10.1 (3-30 years were included in the study. Seven patients had a family history of FEVR. Twelve eyes of 8 patients had laser photocoagulation to peripheral avascular areas, 3 patients had vitreoretinal surgery on one of their eyes three times. Unilateral total retinal detachment was determined in two patients at the initial visit and in three patients at the follow-up visits; because no improvement in the vision was expected, surgery was not done. Conclusion: FEVR is an inherited disease that can be detected in any age and can cause severe vision loss. These patients should be followed up throughout the life, and the essential treatment at the appropriate time can lead to partial visual recovery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 370-3

  5. New trends in healing chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    KREJSKOVÁ, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Basic theoretical bases As a chronic wound is called a secondarily healing wound which despite adequate therapy does not tend to heal for a period of 6-9 weeks. The cause of the chronic wound occurrence and its transformation into an acute wound can be infection, influence of associated diseases, skin top layer microtraumatization or skin necrosis cavity. Among the most frequent types of chronic wounds there are aligned venous ulcerations, arterial rodent ulcers, decubitus ulcers and neuropat...

  6. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  7. The effect of a silver-containing Hydrofiber dressing on superficial wound bed and bacterial balance of chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Pat; Sibbald, R Gary

    2005-12-01

    The treatment of chronic wounds represents a major cost to society and has a profound effect on the participant's quality of life. Chronic wounds may have an increased bacterial burden that can impair healing without all the clinical signs of infection. Silver dressings may provide an alternative topical method to control bacterial burden. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical improvement in chronic wounds through the effect on wound size, maceration, resolution of surface slough and conversion to healthy granulation during a 4-week application of the silver-containing Hydrofiber dressing. This was a single centre, open-label case series study which included a total of 30 evaluable participants: four with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers, 13 venous stasis ulcers, four pressure ulcers and nine miscellaneous wounds that did not fit any of the previous categories. All participants had adequate vascular supply, indicating the potential to heal. The wounds were stalled or had the signs and symptoms consistent with critical colonisation. The underlying cause of the ulceration was identified and corrected, or the symptoms and signs were treated. This was followed by the application of silver-containing Hydrofiber dressings for a period of 4 weeks. The majority of wounds treated decreased in size (70%) with decreased exudate, decreased purulence and resolution of surface slough (75%). There was an increased quality and quantity of healthy granulation tissue. Unlike some silver dressings, the Hydrofiber and silver combination dressing was unlikely to cause burning and stinging on application. Peri-wound maceration was present in 54% of participants at baseline, and 85% of these resolved with this dressing. A desloughing action was seen in those patients with pre-existing slough at baseline and its removal will lower the bacterial burden of the wound. PMID:16618321

  8. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  9. Increased rheumatoid factor and deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Olesen, Christine L; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    general population. METHODS: We included 54628 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1981-83) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (2004-12), all with a measured concentration of IgM rheumatoid factor and without autoimmune rheumatic disease or venous thromboembolism. The main outcome......BACKGROUND: The risk of deep venous thrombosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of rheumatoid factor are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in individuals without autoimmune rheumatic disease in the...

  10. Measurement of venous compliance (8-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirsk, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The prime objective of this International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) investigation is to measure the bulk compliance (distensibility) of the veins in the lower leg before, during, and after spaceflight. It is of particular interest whether venous compliance over the range of both positive and negative transmural pressures (various states of venous distention and collapse) changes throughout the duration of spaceflight. Information concerning the occurrence and character of compliance changes could have implications for the design of improved antigravity suits and further the understanding of inflight and postflight venous hemodynamics.

  11. ALGORITHM OF DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF AN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AT PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIPHERAL UVEITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. I. Khoroshikh; O.I. Krivosheina; Ye. V. Melekhin

    2015-01-01

    The results of clinical trial of various approaches in treatment the exudative forms of macular degenerations, including age-related, against chronic slow intensity inflammatory process on the extreme retinal periphery of an eye are described in represented material. There were 91 patients (105 eyes) in the research with different types of an exudative macular degeneration. The general criteria of inclusion were: age of 18–80 years old, complaints to discomfort in eyes, a spot before an eye, ...

  12. Phleboscintigraphic detection of incompetent perforating veins to guide the surgical treatment of venous stasis ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most venous leg ulcers are due to the incompetence of perforating veins. The principal aim of surgery in the treatment of chronic ulcers which are not responsive to conservative therapy, is the identification, division and ligation of those incompetent perforating veins which transmit the hig venous pressure to the ulcerated area. Both radionuclide scanning and contrast venography may be accurate methods of evaluating the deep venous system and incompetent perforating veins; however, the role of radionuclide scanning in this setting is not fully exploited. The authors present one case of chronic, refractory postphlebitic ulcer in which radionuclide venography was employed to detect the incompetent perforating vein responsible for the development of the ulcer. Radionuclide venography (with Tc-99m red blood cells) allowed the main perforating vein to be clearly detected among others already identified by contrast venography. After surgical treatment the ulcer healed, and the perforating vein had disappeared when venoscintigraphy was repeated. In the author's opinion radionuclide venography is a useful support to contrast venography in planning the surgical treatment of venous stasis ulcers. (orig.)

  13. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required

  14. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  15. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytinger, V. F., E-mail: baitinger@mail.tomsknet.ru; Kurochkina, O. S., E-mail: kurochkinaos@yandex.ru; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V. [Research Institute of Microsurgery, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Dzyuman, A. N. [Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  16. A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: Results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI [Ein neues, nicht-invasives, klinisch-diagnostisches Verfahren zur Ermittlung eines Sauerstoff-Status chronischer Unterschenkelgeschwüre mit peri-ulzeralen transkutanen Sauerstoffpartialdruck-Messungen: Ergebnisse der Anwendungen bei chronisch-venöser Insuffizienz (CVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnikol, Wolfgang K. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available [english]
    The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO, using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1 the oxygen characteristic (K-PO, and (2 the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated hypoxia with K-PO values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance. The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily divided into “simple” hypoxia (Grade I, intense hypoxia (Grade II and extreme hypoxia (Grade III, with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III.Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94% were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO, with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healings, resulting in the so

  17. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Chang, Leng-Chee; Wall, Marisa; Wong, D K W; Yu, Xianzhong; Wei, Yanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 year. Recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-cancer activities. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of fermented noni exudates (fNE) were previously found to induce significant tumor rejection in a S180 mouse sarcoma tumor model, while natural killer (NK) cells were demonstrated to be markedly involved in fNE-induced antitumor activity. In this study, fNE was partitioned into three fractions and their antitumor effects were examined using i.p. injection or as water supplement. The in vivo animal study results showed that when delivered by i.p. injection, n-butanol fraction of fNE (BuOH) effectively rejected (100%) tumor challenge and eradicated existing tumors (75%). When delivered as a water supplement, 62.5% of the mice receiving the n-butanol or ethyl acetate fractions resisted tumor cells. The tumor-resistant mice effectively rejected more and higher doses of tumor challenge, indicating that the immune system was activated. The findings confirm those of an earlier study showing fNE to have anti-tumor activity and demonstrating that the n-butanol fraction of fNE contains active antitumor components, to be further identified. More importantly, the antitumor effect of fNE and its fractions as water supplements renders a significant potential for identifying novel and powerful new dietary products for cancer prevention. PMID:24649140

  18. Treatment of hepatic venous stenosis by transfemoral venous balloon dilation following living donor liver transplantation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Jiang; Yangsui Liu; Lianbao Kong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic venous stenosis may be a cause of graft failure in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Balloon dilation and metallic frame approaches have been used successfully to treat hepatic venous stenosis. Here, we report the effect of transfemoral venous balloon dilation for treating a child with hepatic venous stenosis after LDLT.

  19. Salvage of Intraoperative Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Venous Congestion with Augmentation of Venous Outflow: Flap Morbidity and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ochoa, MD

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Arterial and venous anatomies play unique roles in flap reliability. DIEP flap venous congestion must be treated expeditiously with venous augmentation to relieve venous congestion and mitigate flap morbidity.

  20. Intraneural Venous Malformations of the Median Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rodríguez, Alba; Midón Míguez, José

    2016-01-01

    Venous malformations arising from the peripheral nerve are a rare type of vascular malformation. We present the first case of an intraneural venous malformation of the median nerve to be reported in a child and review the previous two cases of median nerve compression due to a venous malformation that have been reported. These cases presented with painless masses in the volar aspect of the wrist or with symptoms suggestive of carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical suspicion should lead to the use of Doppler ultrasonography as the first-line diagnostic tool. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology can confirm the diagnosis, as phleboliths are pathognomonic of venous malformations. Surgical treatment appears to be the only modality capable of successfully controlling the growth of an intraneural malformation. Sclerotherapy and radiotherapy have never been used to treat this type of malformation.

  1. Current perspective of venous thrombosis in the upper extremity

    OpenAIRE

    Flinterman, L.E.; Meer, van der, W.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Doggen, C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Venous thrombosis of the upper extremity is a rare disease. Therefore, not as much is known about risk factors, treatment and the risk of recurrence as for venous thrombosis of the leg. Only central venous catheters and strenuous exercise are commonly known risk factors for an upper extremity venous thrombosis. In this review an overview of the different risk factors, possible treatments and the complications for patients with a venous thrombosis of the upper extremity is given

  2. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  3. Rhizosphere water dynamics: role of exudates in mediating water retention and flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, significant amount of literature showed that rhizosphere's physical and chemical properties markedly differ from those of the bulk soil. Plants invest large portion of their photosynthetic carbon in developing root architecture that optimally exploits water and nutrient distributions in the soil. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these exudates play a major role in altering the of the soil water retention properties. In this study, we investigated the role of root exudates on rhizosphere water dynamics using analog system. Glass beads were used to represent loose soil and dilute solutions of polygalacutronic acid (PGA) to mimic exudates (0, 1, 5, 15 and 29 g/L). The samples were subjected to periods of drying and subsequent equilibration. At each stage, the water potential was measured using WP4C Dewpoint PotentiaMeter. On the other hand, sand samples were saturated with PGA at the same concentration used to study the effect of exudates on water evaporation rate. The effect of root exudates on soil water retention can be attributed to at least two factors. The most widely speculated effect is through enhanced of soil aggregation. This effect is primarily due to capillary adhesion in fine pores within aggregates and is consistent with visual observation of pronounced aggregation in many rhizosphere soils. The second factor is related to osmotic effect of the exudate solution. Our observations show that the capillary effect is mostly limited to higher water potential regime (> -1 bar suction). Whereas the osmotic effect dominates in <- 1 bar suction. At the same time, the osmotic potential results from these organic exudates play an important role in reducing the evaporation rate. These results will provide direct quantitative evidence of how rhizosphere organic matter helps plant-soil relations.

  4. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sohee Jeon, Won Ki LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates.Materials and methods: Eleven eyes (11 patients exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All patients were treated with monthly scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections for 6 months. Changes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity, amount of hard exudates on fundus photography, and macular edema detected by central subfield thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography after six serial injections, were assessed. The amount of hard exudates at each visit was evaluated as pixels in fundus photography, using an Adobe Photoshop program. Results: Ten of 11 patients completed follow-up. The mean Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity was 59.9±5.7 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/63 at baseline evaluation. The best corrected visual acuity exhibited no significant difference at month 6 compared with at baseline (57.9±6.0 letters or 20/70 at month 6; P=0.085. At month 6, mean central subfield thickness decreased from 370.4±56.5 to 334.6±65.0 µm (P=0.009. The mean amount of hard exudates increased from 4467.1±2736.1 to 6592.4±2498.3 pixels at month 6 (P=0.022. No serious adverse events occurred.Conclusion: Continuous intravitreal bevacizumab was found to have no benefit in visual acuity and amount of hard exudates, despite the improvement of macular edema at 6 months. Keywords: bevacizumab, diabetic macular edema, hard exudates

  5. A multi-step system for screening and localization of hard exudates in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Bhola, Vishal; Raghavendra, B. S.; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2012-03-01

    The number of people being affected by Diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate. Monitoring of the diabetic condition and its effects on the human body are therefore of great importance. Of particular interest is diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a result of prolonged, unchecked diabetes and affects the visual system. DR is a leading cause of blindness throughout the world. At any point of time 25 - 44% of people with diabetes are afflicted by DR. Automation of the screening and monitoring process for DR is therefore essential for efficient utilization of healthcare resources and optimizing treatment of the affected individuals. Such automation would use retinal images and detect the presence of specific artifacts such as hard exudates, hemorrhages and soft exudates (that may appear in the image) to gauge the severity of DR. In this paper, we focus on the detection of hard exudates. We propose a two step system that consists of a screening step that classifies retinal images as normal or abnormal based on the presence of hard exudates and a detection stage that localizes these artifacts in an abnormal retinal image. The proposed screening step automatically detects the presence of hard exudates with a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV ). The detection/localization step uses a k-means based clustering approach to localize hard exudates in the retinal image. Suitable feature vectors are chosen based on their ability to isolate hard exudates while minimizing false detections. The algorithm was tested on a benchmark dataset (DIARETDB1) and was seen to provide a superior performance compared to existing methods. The two-step process described in this paper can be embedded in a tele-ophthalmology system to aid with speedy detection and diagnosis of the severity of DR.

  6. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  7. Entrapment of guidewire during central venous catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is common in the setting of ICU for various reasons like monitoring of CVP, fluid administration and vasopressor or drug infusions. Guidewires are routinely used in the Seldinger technique during central venous catheter placement CVC placement is not innocuous as numerous complications may occur, with varying frequency and severity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3080-3081

  8. Prevention and treatment of venous ulceration.

    OpenAIRE

    Negus, D.

    1985-01-01

    Venous ulcers are related to incompetence of the direct calf and ankle perforating veins, the majority of which follow deep vein thrombosis. Prevention of the latter by intravenous micro-dose heparin (1 unit/kg/hour) is effective, safe and inexpensive. Its efficacy has been proved in two controlled clinical trials. Venous ulcers have been treated by perforating vein ligation, with saphenous ligation and stripping where necessary, and with the addition of permanent knee-length elastic compress...

  9. Chronic venous disease as a clinical manifestation of tibial osteochondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondromas are the most common type of benign tumor of the skeleton. They most frequently affect the distal extremity of the femur, with the tibia being the second most commonly affected long bone. Vascular complications of these lesions are rare, but pseudoaneurysm formation is the most frequently reported of them. In this case report, we describe a case of compression of the popliteal neurovascular bundle by a tibial osteochondroma in a diabetic patient who had been admitted to hospital to treat an infected lesion on his left foot and complained of edema and paresthesia of the left lower limb.

  10. Chronic venous disease as a clinical manifestation of tibial osteochondroma

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Fernandes Lima; Ilidio Almeida Lima; Sergio Luiz Bizerra Oliveira; Vanessa Heinrich Barbosa de Oliveira Lima; Carlos Alexandre de Souza Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondromas are the most common type of benign tumor of the skeleton. They most frequently affect the distal extremity of the femur, with the tibia being the second most commonly affected long bone. Vascular complications of these lesions are rare, but pseudoaneurysm formation is the most frequently reported of them. In this case report, we describe a case of compression of the popliteal neurovascular bundle by a tibial osteochondroma in a diabetic patient who had been admitted to hospita...

  11. Progressive compression versus graduated compression for the management of venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Venous leg ulceration (VLU) is a chronic condition associated with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), where the most frequent complication is recurrence of ulceration after healing. Traditionally, graduated compression therapy has been shown to increase healing rates and also to reduce recurrence of VLU. Graduated compression occurs because the circumference of the limb is narrower at the ankle, thereby producing a higher pressure than at the calf, which is wider, creating a lower pressure. This phenomenon is explained by the principle known as Laplace's Law. Recently, the view that compression therapy must provide a graduated pressure gradient has been challenged. However, few studies so far have focused on the potential benefits of progressive compression where the pressure profile is inverted. This article will examine the contemporary concept that progressive compression may be as effective as traditional graduated compression therapy for the management of CVI. PMID:27594309

  12. The importance of venous hypertension in the formation of dural arteriovenous fistulas: a case report of multiple fistulas remote from sinus thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various hypotheses have been reported concerning the pathogenesis of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). However, it is still controversial whether sinus thrombosis or venous hypertension has a greater influence on the formation of DAVFs. We present a rare case of multiple DAVFs that developed after sinus thrombosis. Chronic venous hypertension secondary to sinus thrombosis in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus induced the multiple DAVFs, including one in the right cavernous sinus, which was remote from the occluded sinus. This case indicates the importance of venous hypertension in the formation of DAVFs. (orig.)

  13. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, A. A., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru; Nigmatullina, A. R. [Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation); Urakov, A. L., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru [Institute of Mechanics Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, T.Baramzinoy street 34, Izhevsk, Russia, 426067, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  14. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  15. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Drake

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics" containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10 through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N

  16. Organic acid exudation from the roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana seedlings under low phosphorus stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanchun YU; Jian YU; Qihua SHAN; Li FANG; Defeng JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) seedlings under low phosphorus stress was studied using the solution culture method. The results revealed that organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir and Masson pine seedlings under low phosphorus stress increased. Compared with P3 (KH2PO4, 0.5 mmol/L), the average organic acid exuda-tion from the root of Masson pine seedlings under P0 (KH2PO4, 0 mmol/L), P1 (KH2PO4, 0.03 mmol/L) and P2(KH2PO4, 0.09 mmol/L) increased by 328.6%, 267.9% and 126.4% respectively. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province in China had the highest organic acid exuda-tion. Under low phosphorus stress, the increase in organic acid exudation from the different provinces of Chinese fir and Masson pine varied. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid exudation, that from Guangxi Province mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation, and that from Guizhou Province, China mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid and malic acid exudation. Chinese fir mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation.

  17. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in assessing venous vascular abnormalities in the head and neck: a demonstration of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in a subset of multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mark Haacke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its impact on the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS remains controversial. Although the initial thrust in evaluating CCSVI was with ultrasound, other modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to study venous vascular abnormalities. This review focuses on the findings of a number of past MRI studies including a look at a combined study of four previous works with a cohort of 559 MS patients regarding structure and function of the extra-cranial vasculature. Strengths and limitations of each paper are discussed which give insight into conflicting reports of venous abnormalities in MS patients and healthy controls. Guidelines for data acquisition and analysis for future studies related to extra-cranial structure and flow, both arterial and venous, are discussed. This includes the grading of stenosis of the internal jugular veins (IJVs as well as normalized flows through major veins of the neck. The lack of agreement between most studies is likely due to inconsistent data acquisition and incomplete data analysis. Our own work over four independent sites shows good agreement, indicating that there is a high incidence of stenosis and structural venous abnormalities in the MS population and that this change results in reduced outflow of the IJVs and increased collateralization of venous return to the heart compared to healthy controls.

  18. Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in non-healing venous ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Burçin Abud; Kemal Karaarslan; Işıl Kılınç Karaarslan; Süreyya Talay; Soysal Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower extremity is still an important difficulty. The principal treatment of these ulcers includes compression therapy, local wound care and surgery. Unresponsiveness to these standard treatments is a frequent situation with negative effects on life quality and reductions in personal productivity. Therefore, there is a need for new applications to increase the effectiveness of treatment in treatment-resistant cases. In the prese...

  19. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Cirrhosis by Measuring Liver Stiffness and Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Sharma; Ashish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim : Transient elastography (TE) of liver and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) allows accurate prediction of cirrhosis and its complications in patients with chronic liver disease. There is no study on prediction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) using TE and HVPG in patients with cirrhosis. Patients and Methods : Consecutive cirrhotic patients who never had an episode of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) were enrolled. All patients were assessed by psychometry (number conn...

  20. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Isabell; Ceseri, Maurizio; Stockie, John M

    2015-10-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first mathematical model for exudation, while also introducing several essential modifications to this hypothesis. We derive a multiscale model consisting of a nonlinear system of differential equations governing phase change and transport within wood cells, coupled to a suitably homogenized equation for temperature on the macroscale. Numerical simulations yield stem pressures that are consistent with experiments and provide convincing evidence that a purely physical mechanism is capable of capturing exudation. PMID:26400199

  1. Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

  2. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol, respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones and plant exudates (including ethanol in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF, adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss, to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU. Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization, which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  3. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:24688531

  4. Natural variation of root exudates in Arabidopsis thaliana-linking metabolomic and genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönchgesang, Susann; Strehmel, Nadine; Schmidt, Stephan; Westphal, Lore; Taruttis, Franziska; Müller, Erik; Herklotz, Siska; Neumann, Steffen; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Many metabolomics studies focus on aboveground parts of the plant, while metabolism within roots and the chemical composition of the rhizosphere, as influenced by exudation, are not deeply investigated. In this study, we analysed exudate metabolic patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and their variation in genetically diverse accessions. For this project, we used the 19 parental accessions of the Arabidopsis MAGIC collection. Plants were grown in a hydroponic system, their exudates were harvested before bolting and subjected to UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. Metabolite profiles were analysed together with the genome sequence information. Our study uncovered distinct metabolite profiles for root exudates of the 19 accessions. Hierarchical clustering revealed similarities in the exudate metabolite profiles, which were partly reflected by the genetic distances. An association of metabolite absence with nonsense mutations was detected for the biosynthetic pathways of an indolic glucosinolate hydrolysis product, a hydroxycinnamic acid amine and a flavonoid triglycoside. Consequently, a direct link between metabolic phenotype and genotype was detected without using segregating populations. Moreover, genomics can help to identify biosynthetic enzymes in metabolomics experiments. Our study elucidates the chemical composition of the rhizosphere and its natural variation in A. thaliana, which is important for the attraction and shaping of microbial communities. PMID:27363486

  5. CAD scheme for detection of hemorrhages and exudates in ocular fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Mizukusa, Yutaka; Fujita, Akihiro; Kakogawa, Masakatsu; Kawase, Kazuhide; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes a method for detecting hemorrhages and exudates in ocular fundus images. The detection of hemorrhages and exudates is important in order to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most significant factors contributing to blindness, and early detection and treatment are important. In this study, hemorrhages and exudates were automatically detected in fundus images without using fluorescein angiograms. Subsequently, the blood vessel regions incorrectly detected as hemorrhages were eliminated by first examining the structure of the blood vessels and then evaluating the length-to-width ratio. Finally, the false positives were eliminated by checking the following features extracted from candidate images: the number of pixels, contrast, 13 features calculated from the co-occurrence matrix, two features based on gray-level difference statistics, and two features calculated from the extrema method. The sensitivity of detecting hemorrhages in the fundus images was 85% and that of detecting exudates was 77%. Our fully automated scheme could accurately detect hemorrhages and exudates.

  6. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  7. [Local tissue hypoxia consequence in the trophic venous ulceration in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, R Z; Zakharova, N B; Burov, Iu A; Iakusheva, E A; Nikitina, V V; Stepanova, T V; Mikul'skaia, E G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the data of examination and the results of the treatment of 25 patients aged over 80 years (mean age 68.5+/-7 years) suffering from varicosity with long nonhealing trophic ulcers of the distal limb segments (CVI CMP C6) and 20 patients of the same age groups with CVI CEAP stages 3-5. All patients with CVI underwent either full-scope phlebectomy (64.4%) or partial truncal phlebectomy (35.6%), in which the trunk of the greater saphenous vein was stripped up to the upper third of the leg. A TCM-3 outfit (RADIOmeter, Denmark) was employed to measure oxygen tension in limb tissues. Parameters of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant tissue defence were measured intraoperatively in the capillary blood of the fingers as well as in the venous blood withdrawn from the cubital vein and the greater saphenous vein in the lower third of the leg near ulcer). The data obtained evidenced that lipid peroxidation activity was most pronounced in the soft tissues of the lower third of the leg in the group of patients with remarkable chronic venous insufficiency without trophic venous ulcers (GVI CEAP C3-5) and was significantly depleted after formation of varicose ulcers (CVI CEAP C6) associated with remarkable tissue hypoxia (TepO2 1.7-7.0 mm Hg). In all patients with CVI, the syndrome of lipid peroxidation was associated with the lowering of antioxidant defence activity. Patients with trophic venous ulcers had the signs of active inflammation in the soft tissues of the leg. The data obtained in the course of the study made it possible to optimize the treatment policy for elderly patients with trophic venous ulcers. In addition to the lowering of venous hypertension, the treatment included correction of microcirculatory disorders related to local hypoxia. Of special importance was reperfusion attenuation in the postoperative period. PMID:18004264

  8. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  9. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  10. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  11. Two cases of exudative retina detachment and uveitis following H1N1 influenza vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong; CHANG Li-bing; ZHAO Min; LI Xiao-xin

    2011-01-01

    Uveitis was a rare adverse event of vaccination.We met two cases of acute uveitis with exudative retinal detachment following vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Case 1 was a 10-year-old boy who was admitted for bilateral blurred vision at 10 days after vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Vitreous opacity was obvious in both eyes.Broad exudative retinal detachment was observed in the right eye.Case 2 was a 47-year-old female who suffered from an acute high fever at 2 days after the vaccination of H1 N1 influenza.Later,she encountered bilateral headache and decreasing vision.In both eyes,mutton fat keratic precipitates,positive Tyndall phenomenon,congestion of optic disc and exudative retinal detachment were observed.

  12. An association between subclinical familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and rod-cone dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ilhan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old Caucasian man presented with a complaint of nyctalopia. Visual acuity in both eyes was 20/20 and anterior segment biomicroscopy results were unremarkable. Fundoscopy revealed peripheral avascular zones, minimal peripheral retinal exudation from the retinal vessels, peripheral retinal telangiectasias and anastomosis in both eyes, and retinal vascular dragging toward the temporal periphery in both eyes. Full field electroretinography showed that rod responses were almost absent and that cone responses were reduced. Macular optical coherence tomography showed normal structure in both eyes. Vascular changes were attributed to a subclinical form of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. This was an interesting case due to the association of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy with rod-cone dystrophy.

  13. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  14. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroui Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  15. Familial risk of venous thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H T; Riis, A H; Diaz, L J;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism has genetic determinants, but population-based data on familial risks are limited. Objectives: To examine the familial risk of venous thromboembolism. Methods: We undertook a nationwide study of a cohort of patients with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary...... expected number of venous thromboembolism cases among siblings, using population-specific, gender-specific and age-specific incidence rates. Results: We identified 30 179 siblings of 19 599 cases of venous thromboembolism. The incidence among siblings was 2.2 cases per 1000 person-years, representing a...... with pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism has a strong familial component....

  16. Venous injury in abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of serious brain injury in infants and young children who have characteristic clinical and imaging findings that are discordant with the clinical history provided. Recent attention has focused on abnormalities of the cranial venous sinuses and cortical veins, both on MRI and at autopsy. Although many have interpreted these to be secondary to the AHT, some have recently argued that these venous abnormalities represent primary cortical sinus and venous thrombosis that leads secondarily to subdural hemorrhage and secondary brain injury. Direct trauma to the veins and sinuses has been reported at autopsy in AHT, but there has been no systematic study of venous abnormalities in cases of AHT. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and characteristics of venous and sinus abnormalities in AHT. We included all children <36 months of age who were diagnosed with abusive head trauma between 2001 and 2012 and who had MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) venography as part of their diagnostic workup. We analyzed age, gender and clinical findings. MRI and MR venography were analyzed independently by two neuroradiologists with a focus on abnormalities involving the intracranial veins and venous sinuses. A total of 45 children were included. The median age was 3 months (range 15 days to 31 months) and 28 were boys (62%). Clinical findings included retinal hemorrhage in 71% and extracranial fractures in 55%. CT or MRI demonstrated subdural hemorrhage in 41 (91%); none had subdural effusions. In 31 cases (69%) MR venography demonstrated mass effect on the venous sinuses or cortical draining veins, with either displacement or partial or complete effacement of the venous structures from an adjacent subdural hematoma or brain swelling. We also describe the lollipop sign, which represents direct trauma to the cortical bridging veins and was present in 20/45 (44%) children. Evidence of displacement or compression of cortical veins

  17. Venous injury in abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Nemours A. I. duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States); Bradford, Ray; Thamburaj, K.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Dias, Mark S. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of serious brain injury in infants and young children who have characteristic clinical and imaging findings that are discordant with the clinical history provided. Recent attention has focused on abnormalities of the cranial venous sinuses and cortical veins, both on MRI and at autopsy. Although many have interpreted these to be secondary to the AHT, some have recently argued that these venous abnormalities represent primary cortical sinus and venous thrombosis that leads secondarily to subdural hemorrhage and secondary brain injury. Direct trauma to the veins and sinuses has been reported at autopsy in AHT, but there has been no systematic study of venous abnormalities in cases of AHT. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and characteristics of venous and sinus abnormalities in AHT. We included all children <36 months of age who were diagnosed with abusive head trauma between 2001 and 2012 and who had MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) venography as part of their diagnostic workup. We analyzed age, gender and clinical findings. MRI and MR venography were analyzed independently by two neuroradiologists with a focus on abnormalities involving the intracranial veins and venous sinuses. A total of 45 children were included. The median age was 3 months (range 15 days to 31 months) and 28 were boys (62%). Clinical findings included retinal hemorrhage in 71% and extracranial fractures in 55%. CT or MRI demonstrated subdural hemorrhage in 41 (91%); none had subdural effusions. In 31 cases (69%) MR venography demonstrated mass effect on the venous sinuses or cortical draining veins, with either displacement or partial or complete effacement of the venous structures from an adjacent subdural hematoma or brain swelling. We also describe the lollipop sign, which represents direct trauma to the cortical bridging veins and was present in 20/45 (44%) children. Evidence of displacement or compression of cortical veins

  18. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-06-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root-root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone-flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root-root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  19. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  20. Pleural Effusion in Meigs' Syndrome-Transudate or Exudate?: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenke, Rafal; Maskey-Warzechowska, Marta; Korczynski, Piotr; Zielinska-Krawczyk, Monika; Klimiuk, Joanna; Chazan, Ryszarda; Light, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Although Meigs' syndrome is regarded as a well-defined entity, contradictory data on pleural fluid characteristics have been presented, with some papers classifying it as a transudate, whereas others stating that it is an exudate.The aims of the study were: (1) to evaluate pleural fluid characteristics in patients with Meigs' syndrome and (2) to analyze the prevalence of transudative and exudative pleural effusion in relation to the applied definition of the syndrome.We performed a search through medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and GOOGLE SCHOLAR) to identify papers on Meigs' syndrome published between 1940 and 2013. Two authors independently reviewed each paper searching for prespecified data: (1) signs and symptoms, (2) tumor characteristics, (3) clinical and laboratory data on ascites, (4) clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on pleural fluid, (5) clinical course after tumor removal. All case reports were reclassified according to a new unequivocal classification of Meigs' syndrome-related entities.A total of 653 papers were initially identified, and 454 articles reporting 541 patients were included in the final analysis. After reclassification according to our case definitions, there were 196, 113, and 108 patients defined as classic Meigs' syndrome, nonclassic Meigs' syndrome, and pseudo-Meigs' syndrome, respectively. Significantly more patients presented with right-sided than left-sided and bilateral pleural effusions (P  3.0 g/dL was applied as a criterion of pleural exudate, 88.8% (80/90) of effusions were classified as exudates. Increasing the cut-off level to 3.5 g/dL resulted in only a modest decrease in the percentage of exudative effusions (81%, 73/90).Surprisingly few reports on Meigs' syndrome present data reliably defining the character of pleural effusion. The available data indicate, however, that the majority of pleural effusions in patients with this entity are exudates. This finding may be a prerequisite for the

  1. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  2. The Role of Prophylactic Ibuprofen and N-Acetylcysteine on the Level of Cytokines in Periapical Exudates and the Post-Treatment Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Aghajanpour Mir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive-microbial disturbances. Objective:To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- alpha, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and posttreatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results:There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion:The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain

  3. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by roots could increase the bioavailability of Zn and P in calcareous soils. Methods White lupin was grown in nutrient solution and in two calcareous soils in a rhizobox. Rhizosphere soil solution wa...

  4. Rapid regression of exudative maculopathy in idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome after intravitreal ranibizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Salom, David; Navarrete, Javier; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2012-05-01

    The idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome is a rare retinal vascular disorder characterized by multiple leaking aneurysmal dilations, retinal vasculitis, neuroretinitis and peripheral vascular ischemia. Visual loss mainly occurs due to the development of retinal neovascularization and/or exudative maculopathy. Although the treatment of choice has not yet been established, retinal photocoagulation seems to be the best option to control the disease and to prevent its progression. Herein, we report a case of idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome with both retinal neovascularization and macular exudation successfully managed with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis(®)) as adjunctive therapy to retinal photocoagulation. PMID:22949913

  5. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with

  6. Antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerubo, Leonidah Omosa; Midiwo, Jacob Ogweno; Derese, Solomon; Langat, Moses K; Akala, Hosea M; Waters, Norman C; Peter, Martin; Heydenreich, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    From the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus fourteen known methylated flavonoids and one phenol were isolated and characterized. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic analysis. The surface exudate and the flavonoids isolated showed moderate to good antiplasmodial activity with 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-dimethoxyflavanone having the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC50 values of 3.2 +/- 0.8 and 4.4 +/- 0.01 microg/mL respectively. PMID:23513721

  7. Modulation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity by hydrofiber-foam hybrid dressing – relevant support in the treatment of chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Krejner, Alicja; Grzela, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Success in chronic wound therapy requires careful selection of appropriate dressing, which enables effective management of wound exudate. According to current knowledge, exudate may contain large quantities of proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are responsible for delay in wound healing. Therefore, neutralization of MMPs may be beneficial for treatment efficacy. The aim of the study was to test whether AQUACEL Foam, a novel, technologically advanced hydrofi...

  8. Zinc-resistance gene CzrC identified in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifierz, Mackenzie J; Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Weese, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus (MRSH) was investigated for czrC, a gene conferring zinc-resistance. The czrC gene was identified in 50% (14/28) of MRSH isolates, representing 14 pigs with exudative epidermitis from 8 farms. Newly weaned pigs, which are particularly susceptible to exudative epidermitis, are commonly fed high levels of zinc oxide. PMID:24790238

  9. The Role of Platelets in Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research.......Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than...... previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous...

  10. The Role of Platelets in Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research. PMID:26926584

  11. Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in non-healing venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Abud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower extremity is still an important difficulty. The principal treatment of these ulcers includes compression therapy, local wound care and surgery. Unresponsiveness to these standard treatments is a frequent situation with negative effects on life quality and reductions in personal productivity. Therefore, there is a need for new applications to increase the effectiveness of treatment in treatment-resistant cases. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the results of topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in resistant venous ulcers. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of patients with treatment-resistant venous ulceration who were treated with amelogenin extracellular matrix protein between June 2011 and December 2012.. Results: 26 patients (21 male and 5 female with a total number of 28 ulcers (24 patients with 1 ulcer, 2 patients with two ulcers were evaluated. The patients were treated with topically applied amelogenin extracellular matrix protein and regional four bandage compression. Bandages were changed weekly. Each cure continued for six weeks. In fourteen patients (15 ulcers, we observed a complete healing by the end of the first cure. In another twelve cases (13 ulcers, the same period resulted with a reduction in wound diameter. We continued to the second cure for these patients. By the end of the second cure, complete healing was achieved in five cases (6 ulcers. Conclusion: Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein may be considered as an effective therapeutic choice for refractory venous ulcers.

  12. Clover root exudate produces male-biased sex ratios and accelerates male metamorphic timing in wood frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R

    2015-12-01

    In amphibians, abnormal metamorph sex ratios and sexual development have almost exclusively been considered in response to synthetic compounds like pesticides or pharmaceuticals. However, endocrine-active plant chemicals (i.e. phytoestrogens) are commonly found in agricultural and urban waterways hosting frog populations with deviant sexual development. Yet the effects of these compounds on amphibian development remain predominantly unexplored. Legumes, like clover, are common in agricultural fields and urban yards and exude phytoestrogen mixtures from their roots. These root exudates serve important ecological functions and may also be a source of phytoestrogens in waterways. I show that clover root exudate produces male-biased sex ratios and accelerates male metamorphosis relative to females in low and intermediate doses of root exudate. My results indicate that root exudates are a potential source of contaminants impacting vertebrate development and that humans may be cultivating sexual abnormalities in wildlife by actively managing certain plant species. PMID:27019728

  13. Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. Al-Yahya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylophosphamide (CYCL is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA, for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Nitric oxide (NO bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL

  14. Effects of radiotherapy on central venous ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During radiotherapy of patients with implant able central venous ports we are often afraid of complications resulting from ports damage on the one hand and their interaction with surrounding tissues on the other hand. In experimental conditions venous ports were exposed to radiation. It was found that radiation reflected from a port is negligible and should not put patients at risk. Radiotherapy does not cause any changes within a port chamber, however it substantially affects elasticity of a polyurethane port catheter and to a minimal extent affects silicone catheter. (authors)

  15. Effect of Pingyangmycin on human venous malformation endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Fang Zhao; Zhi Jun Sun; Yu Lin Jia; Jun Jia; Ya Meng Si; Ji Hong Zhao; Wen Feng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Purpose: Venous malformations are common vascular anomalies with a propensity of the head and neck. Intralesional injection of Pingyangmycin (PYM, bleomycin A5 hydrochloride) is a widely used sclerotherapy method for the treatment of venous malformation.

  16. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture...... subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R(2) = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the...

  17. Thrombin Avtivable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor in Venous and Arterial Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijne, E.L.E.

    2011-01-01

    textabstractVenous and arterial thromboses are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Venous thrombosis is the result of pathological occlusive clot formation in the veins. It occurs mainly in the deep veins of the leg (deep vein thrombosis), from which parts of the clot frequently embolize to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). Less than 5% of all venous thromboses occur at other sites (e.g. arm or cerebral veins). Rarely occurring, but often life-threathening venous thrombosis is splanchnic v...

  18. Risk factors for a first and recurrent venous thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Flinterman, Linda Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify new risk factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis of both the upper and lower extremity, and assess the incidence of recurrence and mortality after a first venous thrombosis. An overview was provided of the current literature on risk factors and treatment for a first venous thrombosis of the upper extremity (chapter 2). We investigated the association between levels of coagulation factors, blood group and a first venous thrombosis of the upper e...

  19. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There...

  20. Obstruction of Venous Drainage Linked to Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ke; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chung, Chih-Ping; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Wu, Jiang; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal extracranial venous drainage modality has been considered an etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA). Evidence suggests that the transmission of the intrathoracic/intraabdominal pressure during a Valsalva maneuver (VM) is mainly through the vertebral venous system, and patency of internal jugular vein (IJV) is essential for venous drainage and pressure releasing. We hypothesize that obstruction of IJV venous drainage is a contributing factor in TGA pathogenesis. A magnetic resonan...

  1. Study on the antibiosis of exudate JK-91-b against rice sheath blight (SHB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZhiyi; YINShangzhi; GAOXianting

    1994-01-01

    Antagonistic bacterial strain 91-b possessed stronger antagonistic ability against SHB infection. The control effects of the bacterization against SHB were 58.1% in greenhouse and 45.1% in paddy. The effect of antibiosis JK-91-b exudated by strain 91-b was studied in the present research.

  2. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.; Pohnert, Georg; Pavia, Henrik; Bjærke, Oda; Pender-Healy, Larisa A.; Tiselius, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here ...

  3. [Role of herpes simplex virus in the development of exudative erythema multiforme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samgin, M A; Ivanov, O L; Kuzheleva, S A; Biriukov, A V; L'vov, N D

    1990-03-01

    The paper presents analysis of current knowledge on etiology and immunopathogenesis of multiform exudative erythema (MEE). Among a variety of pathogenetic actions of herpes simplex on immune system are those relevant to MEE onset. These variants are dealt with in detail. The view on MEE as resultant from herpes simplex infection promises appearance of new prospective modes of etiotropic therapy. PMID:2370760

  4. A novel method for retinal exudate segmentation using signal separation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elaheh; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Early diagnosis of this disease is vital to the prevention of visual loss. The analysis of retinal lesions such as exudates, microaneurysms and hemorrhages is a prerequisite to detect diabetic disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in fundus images. This paper presents an automatic method for the detection of retinal exudates. The novelty of this method lies in the use of Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) algorithm to separate lesions from normal retinal structures to facilitate the detection process. In the first stage, vessels are separated from lesions using the MCA algorithm with appropriate dictionaries. Then, the lesion part of retinal image is prepared for the detection of exudate regions. The final exudate map is created using dynamic thresholding and mathematical morphologies. Performance of the proposed method is measured on the three publicly available DiaretDB, HEI-MED and e-ophtha datasets. Accordingly, the AUC of 0.961 and 0.948 and 0.937 is achieved respectively, which are greater than most of the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27393810

  5. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may...

  6. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah;

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high...

  7. Metabolite fingerprinting of exudates from carrot roots grown under phosphorus stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To see if differences in the metabolite content of exudates obtained from cultured carrot roots grown in the presence and absence of phosphorus could be detected, crude samples were analyzed via Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FTMS). The highly accurate masses and elemental compo...

  8. Influence of aluminum on growth, mineral nutrition and organic acid exudation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A randomized complete block design experiment with six aluminum (Al) concentrations was carried out to evaluate the effect of aluminum on nutrient content, plant growth, dry matter production and Al-induced organic acid exudation in rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). One rambutan cultivar was grown in...

  9. Oxalate and root exudates enhance the desorption of p,p'-DDT from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2006-05-01

    The abiotic desorption of p,p'-DDT from seven Chinese soils spiked with p,p'-DDT and the effects of oxalate at 0.001-0.1M and the root exudates of maize, wheat, and ryegrass were evaluated using batch experiments. Soil organic carbon played a predominant role in the retention of DDT. Oxalate significantly increased the desorption of p,p'-DDT, with the largest increments ranging from 11% to 54% for different soils. Oxalate addition also resulted in the increased release of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic ions from soils. Root exudates had similar effects to those of oxalate. Root exudates significantly increased DDT desorption from the soils, and the general trend was similar among the plant species studied for all the soils (p > 0.05). Low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon amendments caused partial dissolution of the soil structure, such as the organo-mineral linkages, resulting in the release of organic carbon and metal ions and thus the subsequent enhanced desorption of DDT from the soils. The enhancing effects of oxalate and root exudates on DDT desorption were influenced by the contents of soil organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon in soils. PMID:16307790

  10. Malate Exudation by Six Aerobic Rice Genotypes Varying in Zinc Uptake Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Zhang, F.; Hoffland, E.

    2009-01-01

    Received for publication February 2, 2009. Zinc (Zn) uptake by plant roots from soils low in plant-available Zn may be increased by Zn-mobilizing rhizosphere processes, including exudation of low-molecular-weight organic anions. A rhizotron experiment with a low Zn clay soil and a nutrient solution

  11. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  12. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D; Venge, P; Dahl, R; Søndergaard, J

    1988-01-01

    A skin window technique was used to study the morphology of leucocytes in upper dermis and exudate during nickel challenge in patients with contact allergy to nickel. Contact allergic patients and healthy volunteers tested with a skin widow without addition of nickel to the chamber medium served as...

  13. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  14. Use of a hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norkus, A; Dargis, V; Thomsen, J K;

    2005-01-01

    was conducted on 97 patients with an ankle brachial pressure index > or = 0.8 and a highly exuding leg ulcer. Ulcer duration was at least four weeks.Treatment continued until healing or for a maximum of 12 months. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in healing time or wound area reduction...

  15. Clinical outcomes of the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration with Pegaptanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate the results of intravitreal use of Pegaptanib in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Material end methods. Our study includes 77 patients with exudative AMD, who received 9 injections of Pegaptanib 0.3mg with 6-weeks intervals between them. So the primary treatment lasted one year. During and after the treatment these patients underwent fluorescent angiography (FAG, optical coherence tomography (OCT, fundus photography and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA examination. According to the results of these examinations a decision about a further treatment, whether it was necessary, was taken. Results. By the end of our 2-year study 38 patients after therapy with Pegaptanib had complete obliteration of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV, 19 patients were switched to Ranibizumab, one patient underwent photodynamic therapy with Visudyne, 14 patients had severe progression of AMD, when there was no sense in further treatment, 2 patients dropped out the study because of cerebral insult, 3 patients refused of any further treatment, in spite of persisting exudative activity of the CNV after the primary treatment. Conclusion. Intravitreal аpplication of Pegaptanib is a relatively effective treatment option of exudative AMD as BCVA was stabilized or improved in 55.8% of patients, macular edema decreased in 67.5% of patients and neovascular membrane was obliterated in 49.35% of patients.

  16. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Massive Lumbosacral Subcutaneous Exudate After Surgical Treatment of a Large Lipomyelocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Yi; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Yongning

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lipomyelocele is an uncommon type of lipoma that occurs with spina bifida. We present the clinical course and therapeutic process of a female who underwent resection of a lipomyelocele and developed a massive lumbosacral subcutaneous exudate postoperatively. The therapeutic process is described in detail, and a review of the relevant literature on lipomyelocele is presented. A 23-year-old woman presented to our institution complaining of a large lumbosacral subcutaneous mass. She underwent surgical resection of the mass and untethering of the spinal cord under intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. A massive lumbosacral subcutaneous exudate developed postoperatively. After excluding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, we placed a suction drain. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the editor of this journal. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. Postoperative pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of lipomyelocele. Continuation of the negative-pressure drain for 1 week yielded >1000 mL of fluid. The patient recovered well and developed no further subcutaneous exudate. In a patient with massive lumbosacral subcutaneous exudate after surgical treatment of a large lipomyelocele, continuous negative-pressure drainage can be an effective treatment method after excluding CSF leakage. PMID:26426667

  18. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  19. Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Presenting as Jugular Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Jugular venous thrombosis is unusual and is associated with central venous catheterisation, intravenous drug abuse and head and neck sepsis. It is rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in a forty year old female which presented with jugular venous thrombosis. The discussion includes investigation and treatment options for this condition.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneo-venous shunt. 876.5955 Section 876.5955...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5955 Peritoneo-venous shunt. (a) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a...

  2. PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sguizzatto, Guilherme Turolla

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and its complications in orthopedic surgery is increasingly significant. This review discusses the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in general and orthopedic surgery, its incidence, predisposing factors and complications. It also presents an updated presentation and critique of prophylaxis currently available in our environment.

  3. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T;

    2005-01-01

    and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel...

  4. Nonclinical aspects of venous thrombosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Evi; Harrouk, Wafa; DeFelice, Albert; Tesfamariam, Belay

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state which carries an excess risk of maternal venous thrombosis. Endothelial injury, alterations in blood flow and activation of the coagulation pathway are proposed to contribute to the hypercoagulability. The risk for thrombosis may be accentuated by certain drugs and device implants that directly or indirectly affect the coagulation pathway. To help ensure that these interventions do not result in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes during pregnancy, gravid experimental animals can be exposed to such treatments at various stages of gestation and over a dosage range that would identify hazards and inform risk assessment. Circulating soluble biomarkers can also be evaluated for enhancing the assessment of any increased risk of venous thrombosis during pregnancy. In addition to traditional in vivo animal testing, efforts are under way to incorporate reliable non-animal methods in the assessment of embryofetal toxicity and thrombogenic effects. This review summarizes hemostatic balance during pregnancy in animal species, embryofetal development, biomarkers of venous thrombosis, and alterations caused by drug-induced venous thrombosis. PMID:26404176

  5. Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Blann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent ultimate cause of death is myocardial arrest. In many cases this is due to myocardial hypoxia, generally arising from failure of the coronary macro- and microcirculation to deliver enough oxygenated red cells to the cardiomyocytes. The principle reason for this is occlusive thrombosis, either by isolated circulating thrombi, or by rupture of upstream plaque. However, an additionally serious pathology causing potentially fatal stress to the heart is extra-cardiac disease, such as pulmonary hypertension. A primary cause of the latter is pulmonary embolus, considered to be a venous thromboembolism. Whilst the thrombotic scenario has for decades been the dominating paradigm in cardiovascular disease, these issues have, until recently, been infrequently considered in cancer. However, there is now a developing view that cancer is also a thrombotic disease, and notably a disease predominantly of the venous circulation, manifesting as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Indeed, for many, a venous thromboembolism is one of the first symptoms of a developing cancer. Furthermore, many of the standard chemotherapies in cancer are prothrombotic. Accordingly, thromboprophylaxis in cancer with heparins or oral anticoagulation (such as Warfarin, especially in high risk groups (such as those who are immobile and on high dose chemotherapy, may be an important therapy. The objective of this communication is to summarise current views on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of arterial and venous thrombosis in cancer.

  6. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

  7. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  8. Laser irradiation effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms isolated from venous leg ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffoni, Marina; Bessa, Lucinda J; Grande, Rossella; Di Giulio, Mara; Mongelli, Matteo; Ciarelli, Antonio; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-10-01

    Chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers, represent a significant cause of morbidity in developed countries, predominantly in older patients. The aetiology of these wounds is probably multifactorial, but the role of bacteria in their pathogenesis is still unclear. Moreover, the presence of bacterial biofilms has been considered an important factor responsible for wounds chronicity. We aimed to investigate the laser action as a possible biofilm eradicating strategy, in order to attempt an additional treatment to antibiotic therapy to improve wound healing. In this work, the effect of near-infrared (NIR) laser was evaluated on mono and polymicrobial biofilms produced by two pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus PECHA10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PECHA9, both isolated from a chronic venous leg ulcer. Laser effect was assessed by biomass measurement, colony forming unit count and cell viability assay. It was shown that the laser treatment has not affected the biofilms biomass neither the cell viability, although a small disruptive action was observed in the structure of all biofilms tested. A reduction on cell growth was observed in S. aureus and in polymicrobial biofilms. This work represents an initial in vitro approach to study the influence of NIR laser treatment on bacterial biofilms in order to explain its potentially advantageous effects in the healing process of chronic infected wounds. PMID:22182280

  9. CLINICAL CO RELATION BETWEEN ARTERIAL VERSUS VENOUS AMMONIA LEVELS IN HEPATIC ENCEPHLOPATHY IN CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Hepatic encephalopathy is a reversible neuropsychiatry state that complicates liver disease. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy in chronic liver is function is widely accepted to be due to failure of hepatic clearance of toxins products from gut exact toxin involved remains controversial but ammonia is thought to be an important factor. Ammonia levels help both in diagnosis and serve as a guide in treatment. Diagnosis of Hepatic Encephalopathy can be done based on clinical criteria and the severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy can be graded by West Haven Criteria. This criterion is the simplest grading of Hepatic Encephalopathy based on clinical findings. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To correlate between Ammonia levels and clinical severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Cirrhosis of liver and correlate between Arterial versus venous ammonia levels with severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy. RESULTS: Male patients had higher incidence than females. Severity of hepatic encephalopathy was graded by West Haven grading. Arterial total ammonia and venous ammonia was correlated with the clinical severity of HE. Of the 50 patients 3 had grade 1, 18 had grade 2, 22 had grade 3 and 7 had grade 4. Arterial and venous ammonia levels co related with severity of HE. The highest level of arterial ammonia was seen in grade 3 and grade 4.It was seen that other lab parameters also increased with severity of HE. But were not significant. Serum albumin was inversely co related with severity of HE. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial total ammonia correlated better with the severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy as compared to venous ammonia levels. Venous total ammonia did not correlate with severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy and with arterial ammonia levels.

  10. Indigenous cost-effective peritoneo-venous shunt for refractory ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, K; Kumar, A Suresh; Sabanathan, S; Gowrishankar, A; Kumar, P Sasi; Rajkumar, J S

    2004-01-01

    About 5% of patients with chronic liver disease develop massive refractory ascites. These patients cease to respond to diuretic therapy and may develop prerenal azotemia. There is a small but definite role for the peritoneo-venous shunt in these patients. In our study of 36 patients, managed with locally made, single-valved peritoneo-venous shunts (GSAIMS shunts), shunt failure and complication rates were assessed postoperatively. There is a definite improvement in quality of life with this cost-effective locally made shunt if patients are selected carefully. Long-term follow-up of these patients is not possible because most of these patients succumb to advanced liver disease. PMID:15285240

  11. Root exudation of phytochemicals in Arabidopsis follows specific patterns that are developmentally programmed and correlate with soil microbial functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Chaparro

    Full Text Available Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (p<0.05 between microbial functional genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and secondary metabolites with the corresponding compounds released by the roots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed.

  12. Root Exudation of Phytochemicals in Arabidopsis Follows Specific Patterns That Are Developmentally Programmed and Correlate with Soil Microbial Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Manter, Daniel K.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (p<0.05) between microbial functional genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and secondary metabolites with the corresponding compounds released by the roots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed. PMID:23383346

  13. Adaptive compression therapy for venous leg ulcers: a clinically effective, patient-centred approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Keith G; Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Partsch, Hugo; Caprini, Joseph A; Comerota, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    A prospective, randomised, 12-week study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two compression methods for venous leg ulcers (VLUs); a new adaptive compression therapy (ACT) system, combining intermittent and sustained pneumatic compression (n = 38) and a conventional four-layer bandage system (n = 52). Primary outcomes were ulcer healing and safety. Secondary outcomes were comfort, compliance, ulcer pain, patient-perceived product performance and quality of life. Ulcer healing rate was similar (31·6% versus 42·3%, respectively, P = 0·30) between the treatments. Adverse events and patient-rated comfort were also similar. Average daily usage for the dual system was 10·5 and 1·8 hours in the sustained and intermittent modes, respectively, representing its use during 71% of waking hours. Predicted final ulcer pain was also similar (P = 0·68). Performance was subjectively better for adaptive compression and significantly higher for exudate management (P = 0·04), skin protection (P quality-of-life score was 0·1025 higher for adaptive compression (P = 0·0375). Subjects with healed ulcers attained higher final scores than unhealed subjects (P = 0·0004). This study provides evidence that ACT is comparably efficacious to successfully heal VLUs compared with four-layer bandage management but is better accepted and achieves higher patient-reported quality-of-life scores in these challenging patients. PMID:24802769

  14. Evaluation of hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity with doppler ultrasonography during the puerperium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekindil, Goekhan [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Varol, Fuesun G. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Ali Yuece, M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Yardim, Turgut [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    1999-03-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate pregnancy-induced changes of hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity in the puerperium and to determine if these changes disappeared by the end of the puerperium. Methods and material: Healthy normal volunteers (90) were examined on the 2nd and 7th days of puerperium and between the 6th and 8th weeks postpartum. Doppler waveform patterns were obtained in the middle hepatic vein and main portal vein. The hepatic venous pulsatility was named as normal, damped or flat. Results: On the 2nd day postpartum, the hepatic vein pulsatility was shown as normal in 8 (26%), damped in 11 (37%) and flat in 11 (37%) cases. On the 7th day postpartum, 15 (50%) cases had normal, 9 (30%) cases had dampened, and 6 (20%) cases had still flat pattern. The majority of the cases (60%) displayed normal hepatic venous pulsatility in the 6th and 8th weeks of puerperium, whereas 23% had still dampened and 17% had flat patterns. There was a trend toward normal pulsatility with increasing puerperal age. The mean portal venous velocity was still higher than the non-pregnant levels and did not showed significant alterations during puerperium. Conclusion: This study emphasised that, since pregnancy-induced alterations in hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity had not completely returned to normal in most cases until the end of the puerperium, these physiological changes should be considered whenever hepatic and portal systems are interpreted with Doppler sonography during the puerperal period.

  15. Endovascular treatment for intracranial venous sinus thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and risk of endovascular treatment for intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. Methods: Twenty seven patients with intracranial venous sinus thrombosis confirmed by CT, MRI, MRV and/or DSA, from 2004 September to 2006 September, were treated with anticoagulant therapy but without response and then followed by multiple modalities including endovascular treatment. Nineteen of them accepted intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombus maceration, another 5 accepted intravenous thrombolysis, mechanical thrombus maceration and intraarterial thrombolysis and the last 3 with stenting. Results: After thrombolysis, symptoms and signs of 23 patients improved obviously and headache disappeared in 18 of them, but with only mild degree in other 5 and no improvement in 3. Twenty one patients among them achieved recanalization of sinuses completely as confirmed on postprocedural angiography, MRI and MRV studies taken prior to hospital discharge and other 3 achieved recanalization of sinuses partly. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment is an effective and safe measure for potentially catastrophic intracranial dural sinus thrombosis. (authors)

  16. Malposition and complications following venous catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malposition and complications following central venous catheterization largely depend on the site of venous approach. Malpositions are very common after subclavian vein catheterization, and even more common after left jugular vein catheterization. On the contrary, their incidence after right jugular puncture is very low. Among complications, pneumothorax is quate common after subclavian vein catheterization, and migration of the catheter towards the heart after right jugular puncture. Vascular damages may occur in any approach: their early detection on chest radiographs very much depends on a rigorous technique. Radiology plays an important role in the early detection of malposition and complications, which is greatly facilitated by a few ml of contrast medium injected through the catheter

  17. Deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitfod, Lotte; Broholm, R; Baekgaard, N

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) occurs either spontaneously, as a consequence of strenuous upper limb activity (also known as the Paget-Schroetter syndrome) or secondary to an underlying cause. Primary and secondary UEDVT differs in long-term sequelae and mortality. This review will...... condition. Malignancy and therapeutic interventions are major risk factors for the secondary deep vein thrombosis in combination with the patient's characteristics, comorbidities and prior history of deep vein thrombosis. Complications: recurrent deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and Post....... Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent PTS in primary UEDVT; however, there is no consensus on which treatment is the best. Anticoagulation is still considered the treatment of choice for at least 3-6 months, until Randomized Controlled Trials may have demonstrated otherwise....

  18. Basic Mechanisms and Pathogenesis of Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esmon, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    In 1856 Virchow proposed a triad of causes for venous thrombosis, postulating that stasis, changes in the vessel wall or changes in the blood could lead to thrombosis. We now know that abnormally high levels of some coagulation factors and defects in the natural anticoagulants contribute to thrombotic risk. Among these, factor V Leiden, which renders factor Va resistant to activated protein C, is the most prevalent with approximately 5% of the Caucasian population having this genetic alterati...

  19. Pulmonary Venous Obstruction in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang-Chi Liaw; Hung Chang; Tsai-Sheng Yang; Ming-Sheng Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background. We study the clinical significance and management of pulmonary venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize the syndrome that we term “pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome” (PVOS) between January 2005 and March 2014. The criteria for inclusion were (1) episodes of shortness of breath; (2) chest X-ray showing abnormal pulmonary hilum shadow with or without presence of pulmonary edema and/or pleural effusion; (3) CT scan demo...

  20. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez MM; Hogue S; Preblick R; Kwong WJ

    2015-01-01

    Maria M Fernandez,1 Susan Hogue,1 Ronald Preblick,2 Winghan Jacqueline Kwong2 1RTI-Health Solutions, Market Access and Outcomes Strategy, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Daiichi Sankyo, Inc., Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Parsippany, NJ, USA Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent l...

  1. Plant growth inhibiting flavonoids in exudate of Cistus ladanifer and in associated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Sosa, T; Escudero, J C

    2001-03-01

    Of the aglycone flavonoids identified in the exudate of cistus ladanifer, two, the flavone apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl and the flavonol kaempferol-3,7-di(O)-methyl inhibit development of the seedlings of Rumex crispus at 0.5 and 1 mM. Additive effects were observed between the major flavonols of the exudate kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl and kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl in inhibiting the size of the cotyledons and delaying the germination and cotyledon emergence. The presence of apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl, kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl, and kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl was detected in the soils associated with C. ladanifer during the summer and autumn months. That these compounds are present in the soil and are not restricted to the leaves provides support for the hypothesis that C. ladanifer has allelopathic potential. PMID:11441450

  2. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  3. Micropropagation and Phenolic exudation protocol for Excoecaria agallocha-an important mangrove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manickam Arumugam; Rajaram Panneerselvam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standard micropropagation protocol for an important vulnerable mangrove Excoecaria agallocha. Methods: Collection of explants, surface sterilization, phenolic exudation and medium was standardized. Shoot induction, shoot multiplication and rooting were carried out in MMS medium supplemented with BAP, Kinetin, Zeatin, 2ip, NAA, IAA and IBA. Hardening was carried out after root well established. Results: The best phenolic exudation removal was resulted in 4 g/L activated charcoal. The maximum shoot induction response showed in MMS medium and better shoot induction was performed in the concentration of BAP (3.9 μmol) and NAA (1.34 μmol). Rooting induction was performed high range at 5.02 μmol of IAA. Well rooted micro-shoots were hardened and acclimatized. Conclusions: From the present investigation, it can be concluded that a standard micropropagation protocol was developed for an important vulnerable mangrove species.

  4. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  5. Effects of root exudates on the leachability, distribution, and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene from mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Li, Jian; Dai, Minyue; Yan, Chongling

    2016-03-01

    In this study, column leaching experiments were used to evaluate the leachability, distribution and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene by root exudates from contaminated mangrove sediments. We observed that root exudates significantly promoted the release and enhanced the bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene from sediment columns. The concentration of phenanthrene and pyrene and cumulative content released from the analyzed sediment samples following root exudate rinsing decreased in the following order: citric acid > oxalic acid > malic acid. After elution, the total concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in sediment layers followed a descending order of bottom (9-12 cm) > middle (5-7 cm) > top (0-3 cm). Furthermore, a positive correlation between leachate pH values and PAH concentrations of the leachate was found. Consequently, the addition of root exudates can increase the leachability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene. PMID:26573317

  6. Endovascular treatment of intracranial venous sinus thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment for intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. Methods: Ten patients with intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, confirmed by CT, MRI, MRV and / or DSA and encountered during the period of Aug. 2005-Aug. 2007, were treated with endovascular management after they failed to respond to anticoagulant therapy. Of ten patients, intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombus maceration were carried out in 6, while intravenous thrombolysis, mechanical thrombus maceration together with intra-arterial thrombolysis were employed in 4. After the treatment, the anticoagulant therapy continued for 6 months. The patients were followed up for 12-29 months (mean 21 months). Results: After the treatment, the clinical symptoms and signs were completely or partially relieved in eight patients, including disappearance of headache (n=6) and relive of headache (n=2). No obvious improvement was found in one patient and linguistic function disturbance was seen in the remaining one. Lumbar puncture showed that the cerebrospinal fluid pressure returned to normal in all patients. Neither recurrence of thrombosis nor new symptom of neuralgic dysfunction was observed. No procedure-related intracranial or systemic hemorrhagic complications occurred both during and after the operation. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment is an effective and safe procedure for the potentially catastrophic intracranial venous thrombosis. (authors)

  7. [Anatomic and functional features of venous valves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griton, P; Vanet, P; Cloarec, M

    1997-05-01

    The comparison of the venous system in the human organism, and in particular the venous valves of the lower limbs, with studies conducted in animal models helped us to understand better the mechanisms involved in adapting to the upright position and walking. We examined work conducted in several species from the horse to the dog, especially in animals who often take on an upright position such as the chimpanzee and the kangouroo, in search for structures comparable to those in man. Different types of valves can be described in man: flotting valves (bicuspid, pigeon nest valves); reinforced valves (mid-thigh); reinforcing valves (periarticular zone in the knee); finally, "flat" valves which are highly resistant formations but with little anti-back flow action. We also describe valvular structures with muscle cells found in the plantar aspect of the foot and the veins of the quadriceps muscle, these valves may have an active hematopropulsive action (Bassi). These results allowed us to identify certain common points between the structures observed in the posterior legs of certain animals and to propose models for investigating venous diseases. PMID:9480339

  8. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, U. E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Garniek, A.; Galili, Y.; Golan, G.; Bensaid, P.; Morag, B

    2004-12-01

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur.

  9. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  10. [Retinal venous obliteration and general pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aconiu, M; Mihălaş, G; Nemoianu, C

    1992-01-01

    The study of 148 retinal venous obliterations have shown 81 occlusions of central vein and 67 of I and II venous branch. A number of 90 was for the feminine gender (sex) and 59 for the masculine sex. The average age for the appearance of the venous occlusions was 62 years old, having extreme limits between 36-84 years old. Bilaterality has been for 3 cases. Concerning the associated medical affections, hypertension was for 67 patients, myocardiosclerosis have been mentioned for 67 patients, atherosclerosis for 21 patients, pulmonary scleroemphisis for 12 patients. Arterial hypertension with its aspersion that is arteriosclerosis are the main factors that have generated retinal circulation modifyings and have led to a degree of arterial insufficiency. Comparing the ophthalmological aspect to the pressure in the ophthalmic artery, most of the patients had a concordance of TACR and the retinal and choroidal angiosclerosis. The oscillometric examination to the inferior members has been effectuated for 21 patients and it has shown diminished values only for 3 cases. The forecast of the disease is still reserved. Following a group of 40 patients having OVR between 5 and 15 years old it has been established an average survival of 6.2 years. It is mentioned that 26% between these have dyed during the first six years. PMID:1520668

  11. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, S. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Neonatology, Berlin (Germany); Govaert, P. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cowan, F.M. [Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lequin, M.H. [Erasmus MC/Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Saliou, G. [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2014-07-15

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  12. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur

  13. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Isabell; Ceseri, Maurizio; Stockie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related ...

  14. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado; Andrea Cristina Bogas; Pomini, Armando M.; Fernando Dini Andreote; Maria Carolina Quecine; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Welington Luiz Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and met...

  15. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ba′arah, Basel T.

    2009-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous ...

  16. Comparative effects of argon green and krypton red laser photocoagulation for patients with diabetic exudative maculopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Khairallah, M; Brahim, R; Allagui, M.; Chachia, N

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Focal treatment of diabetic macular oedema is usually done using a haemoglobin absorbing wave-length, such as argon green laser. This study aimed to compare photocoagulation with argon green (514 nm) and krypton red (647 nm), which is poorly absorbed by haemoglobin, in the focal treatment of patients with diabetic exudative maculopathy. METHODS: A total of 151 eyes of 78 outpatients were assigned randomly to receive either argon green (n = 79) or krypton red (n = 72) laser tr...

  17. Rapid Regression of Exudative Maculopathy in Idiopathic Retinitis, Vasculitis, Aneurysms and Neuroretinitis Syndrome after Intravitreal Ranibizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Salom, David; Navarrete, Javier; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome is a rare retinal vascular disorder characterized by multiple leaking aneurysmal dilations, retinal vasculitis, neuroretinitis and peripheral vascular ischemia. Visual loss mainly occurs due to the development of retinal neovascularization and/or exudative maculopathy. Although the treatment of choice has not yet been established, retinal photocoagulation seems to be the best option to control the disease and to preve...

  18. Roles of antibody and complement in the bactericidal activity of mouse peritoneal exudate neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, P. H.; Spencer, L. K.; Hill, N L; McDonald, P J; Finlay-Jones, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of complement and antibody to phagocytosis and, as a separate process, intracellular killing of Proteus mirabilis, were investigated using mouse peritoneal exudate neutrophils. Phagocytosis of P. mirabilis was promoted by both immune mouse (IMS) and normal mouse (NMS) sera. Opsonization by IMS promoted significantly greater phagocytosis than did NMS, as did NMS compared with heated IMS (HIMS). The ability of NMS to opsonize P. mirabilis for both phagocytosis and phagocytic k...

  19. Differing Organic Acid Exudation Pattern Explains Calcifuge and Acidifuge Behaviour of Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Germund; Ström, Lena

    1995-01-01

    Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of ...

  20. An association between subclinical familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and rod-cone dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ilhan; Umit Yolcu; Fatih Cakir Gundogan; Fahrettin Akay

    2014-01-01

    A 21-year-old Caucasian man presented with a complaint of nyctalopia. Visual acuity in both eyes was 20/20 and anterior segment biomicroscopy results were unremarkable. Fundoscopy revealed peripheral avascular zones, minimal peripheral retinal exudation from the retinal vessels, peripheral retinal telangiectasias and anastomosis in both eyes, and retinal vascular dragging toward the temporal periphery in both eyes. Full field electroretinography showed that rod responses were almost absent an...

  1. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Kateřina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2015), s. 821-831. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA ČR GAP504/10/0132 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : giant hogweed * root exudates * UHPLC–TOF-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  2. Antigenic evidence for host origin of exudative fluids in lesions of Treponema pallidum-infected rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Wos, S M; Wicher, K.

    1985-01-01

    Mucoid fluid accumulating within syphilitic lesions has been considered to be of Treponema pallidum origin. To test this assumption, we examined testicular exudative fluids from T. pallidum-infected rabbits for the presence of T. pallidum antigens by various sensitive immunochemical methods, including Western blot analysis. Antigenic analysis of these fluids revealed host components but not treponemal antigens. Prolonged immunization of rabbits, guinea pigs, and a goat with this material in c...

  3. Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R Nanthakumar; Ambrose S Stephen; E Sriram; Babu, G.; K Chitra; C Uma maheswara Reddy

    2009-01-01

    Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspir...

  4. Casuarina root exudates alter the physiology, surface properties, and plant infectivity of Frankia sp Strain CcI3

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin, Nicholas J.; Furnholm, Teal; Lavenus, Julien; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Doumas, Patrick; Bogusz, Didier; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S.

    2012-01-01

    The actinomycete genus Frankia forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants, representing more than 200 different species. Very little is known about the initial molecular interactions between Frankia and host plants in the rhizosphere. Root exudates are important in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, especially for initiating Nod factor synthesis. We measured differences in Frankia physiology after exposure to host aqueous root exudates to assess their effects on...

  5. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  6. Serum VEGF and CFH in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paulina; Steindl, Kerstin; Aggermann, Tina; Schmid-Kubista, Katharina; Krugluger, Walter; Hageman, Gregory S.; Binder, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine serum vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) levels and the association of the complement factor H gene (CFH) Y402H polymorphism in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in comparison to unaffected control subjects. Methods Sixty-six AMD patients and 66 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were included in this case-control study. The serum VEGF165 was assayed by ELISA (R&D). Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Chisquared tests were used regarding the polymorphism, a t-test regarding the VEGF-levels. Results Levels of serum VEGF165 were similar in both groups (p-value = 0.2112). Genotype frequency differed significantly between patients with exudative AMD and the healthy control group (p = 0.003136). The serum VEGF165 levels were similar irrespective of the presence of the CFH Y402H polymorphism (p = 0.4113) and independent of the specific genotype (p = 0.9634). Conclusion In the present study exudative AMD is not associated to serum VEGF165 levels; furthermore, our data does not establish a statistical link between VEGF165 and the CFH Y402H polymorphism. PMID:21158586

  7. Phytochemical screening of the exudate of Aloe otallensis and its effect on Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tesfaye Nigusse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis (A. otallensis on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani as compared to standard drugs and to screen its phytochemical constituents. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done by using the method mentioned by Evans and Trease on methanolic extract of the exudates of Aloe otallensis leaves. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donavani which is found from the Parasitology Unit of Black Lion Hospital. The result was compared to standard drugs of sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin. Results: The extract has a good antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.1230 μg/mL on L. donovani (AM 563. The experimental data showed that relatively it had better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses were done by GraphPad Prism version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of A. otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the exudates of A. otallensis has a good antileishmaniasis activity and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent presents in high concentration to know which one has the strongest effect.

  8. Purification of exuding water in reclaimed land by combination of irradiation and biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dirty water exuding from garbage-filled reclaimed land contains a large quantity of organic contaminating substances. The main component of the contaminating substances is humus called humic acid and fulvic acid. It is difficult to apply biological treatment such as activated sludge process to exuding water because the biological decomposition property of the humus is generally poor. Sufficient effect cannot be expected by physicochemical process such as active carbon treatment and flocculation-precipitation treatment because the molecular weight distribution of the humus is very wide. If irradiation and biological treatment can be combined, the irradiation dose required can be largely reduced. Therefore, exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated to see the change of its BOD. The irradiating condition in irradiation-biological treatment was clarified, and the possible method of the combined treatment was decided for trial. The peak value of BOD and the dose required to reach the peak were almost proportional to the initial concentration, and pH did not much affect the change of BOD. The low dose rate did not bring about much merit. (Kako, I.)

  9. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  10. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  11. Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nanthakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspirin suspended in 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC was given orally to group 1 rats as a negative control group. Group 2 and group 3 animals received methanolic extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata respectively. Sucralfate was given orally to group 4 animals as a positive control. The methanolic extract of commiphora caudata has been found to reduce total acidity as much as by sucralfate. However, it has not changed the fluid secretion. The gum preparation not only reduced the total acidity but also considerably reduce the gastric fluid secretion. In case of ulcer score sucralfate, methanolic extract and the gum have produced the low ulcer score compared to aspirin. Increased gastric mucosal protective mechanism by bark extract and gum exudate is probably due to the presence of some active principles present in the plant. However, further investigations are required to elucidate their exact mechanism of anti-ulcer activity.

  12. Model system for studies of microbial dynamics at exuding surfaces such as the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odham, G.; Tunlid, A.; Valeur, A.; Sundin, P.; White, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    An autoclavable all-glass system for studying microbial dynamics at permeable surfaces is described. Standard hydrophobic or hydrophilic membranes (46-mm diameter) of various pore sizes were supported on a glass frit through which nutrient solutions were pumped by a peristaltic pump. The pump provided a precisely controlled flow at speeds of 0.5 to 500 ml of defined or natural cell exudates per h, which passed through the membrane into a receiving vessel. The construction allowed a choice of membranes, which could be modified. The system was tested with a bacterium, isolated from rape plant roots (Brassica napus L.), that was inoculated on a hydrophilic membrane filter and allowed to develop into a biofilm. A defined medium with a composition resembling that of natural rape root exudate was pumped through the membrane at 0.5 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopic examinations indicated that the inoculum formed microcolonies embedded in exopolymers evenly distributed over the membrane surface. The lipid composition and content of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in free-living and adhered cells were determined by gas chromatography. The bacterial consumption of amino acids in the exudate was also studied.

  13. Phytochemical screening of the exudate of Aloe otallensis and its effect on Leishmania donovani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zerihun Tesfaye Nigusse; WoldeaAbebe Wondifraw; Sefinew MigbaruAbate

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis (A. otallensis) on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) as compared to standard drugs and to screen its phytochemical constituents. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done by using the method mentioned by Evans and Trease on methanolic extract of the exudates of Aloe otallensis leaves. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donavani which is found from the Parasitology Unit of Black Lion Hospital. The result was compared to standard drugs of sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin. Results: The extract has a good antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.1230 μg/mL on L. donovani (AM 563). The experimental data showed that relatively it had better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses were done by GraphPad Prism version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of A. otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the exudates of A. otallensis has a good anti-leishmaniasis activity and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent presents in high concentration to know which one has the strongest effect.

  14. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  15. Organic acids from root exudates of banana help root colonization of PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Qiwei; Raza, Waseem; Li, Rong; Vivanco, Jorge M; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    The successful colonization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere is an initial and compulsory step in the protection of plants from soil-borne pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the role of root exudates in the colonization of PGPR. Banana root exudates were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) which revealed exudates contained several organic acids (OAs) including oxalic, malic and fumaric acid. The chemotactic response and biofilm formation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 were investigated in response to OA's found in banana root exudates. Furthermore, the transcriptional levels of genes involved in biofilm formation, yqxM and epsD, were evaluated in response to OAs via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results suggested that root exudates containing the OAs both induced the chemotaxis and biofilm formation in NJN-6. In fact, the strongest chemotactic and biofilm response was found when 50 μM of OAs were applied. More specifically, malic acid showed the greatest chemotactic response whereas fumaric acid significantly induced biofilm formation by a 20.7-27.3% increase and therefore biofilm formation genes expression. The results showed banana root exudates, in particular the OAs released, play a crucial role in attracting and initiating PGPR colonization on the host roots. PMID:26299781

  16. Contribution of Individual Chemoreceptors to Sinorhizobium meliloti Chemotaxis Towards Amino Acids of Host and Nonhost Seed Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2016-03-01

    Plant seeds and roots exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil that attract bacteria to the spermosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti utilizes eight chemoreceptors (McpT to McpZ and IcpA) to mediate chemotaxis. Using a modified hydrogel capillary chemotaxis assay that allows data quantification and larger throughput screening, we defined the role of S. meliloti chemoreceptors in sensing its host, Medicago sativa, and a closely related nonhost, Medicago arabica. S. meliloti wild type and most single-deletion strains displayed comparable chemotaxis responses to host or nonhost seed exudate. However, while the mcpZ mutant responded like wild type to M. sativa exudate, its reaction to M. arabica exudate was reduced by 80%. Even though the amino acid (AA) amounts released by both plant species were similar, synthetic AA mixtures that matched exudate profiles contributed differentially to the S. meliloti wild-type response to M. sativa (23%) and M. arabica (37%) exudates, with McpU identified as the most important chemoreceptor for AA. Our results show that S. meliloti is equally attracted to host and nonhost legumes; however, AA play a greater role in attraction to M. arabica than to M. sativa, with McpZ being specifically important in sensing M. arabica. PMID:26713349

  17. Isolation and identification of Desmodium root exudates from drought tolerant species used as intercrops against Striga hermonthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A M; Caulfield, J C; Hao, B; Pickett, J A; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R

    2015-09-01

    Plants from the genus Desmodium, in particular D. uncinatum, are used on sub-Saharan small-holder farms as intercrops to inhibit parasitism of cereal crops by Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica via an allelopathic mechanism. The search for Desmodium species which are adapted to more arid conditions, and which show resilience to increased drought stress, previously identified D. intortum, D. incanum and D. ramosissimum as potential drought tolerant intercrops. Their potential as intercrops was assessed for resource poor areas of rain-fed cereal production where drought conditions can persist through normal meteorological activity, or where drought may have increasing impact through climate change. The chemical composition of the root exudates were characterised and the whole exudate biological activity was shown to be active in pot experiments for inhibition of Striga parasitism on maize. Furthermore, rain fed plot experiments showed the drought tolerant Desmodium intercrops to be effective for Striga inhibition. This work demonstrates the allelopathic nature of the new drought tolerant intercrops through activity of root exudates and the major compounds seen in the exudates are characterised as being C-glycosylflavonoid. In young plants, the exudates show large qualitative differences but as the plants mature, there is a high degree of convergence of the C-glycosylflavonoid exudate chemical profile amongst active Desmodium intercrops that confers biological activity. This defines the material for examining the mechanism for Striga inhibition. PMID:26164239

  18. Effect of root exudates of different resistant varieties of cucumber on fusarium wilt and preliminary studies on their resistance mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benli HUANG; Yundong XU; Ye WU; Shunqi ZHANG; Xuchao CHEN

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of root exudates of cucumber varieties, Jinyan 4 (susceptible variety), Jinchun 4 (resistant variety) and Yinnan Black seed squash on fusa-rium wilt. The results showed that fusarium wilt occurrence of plants treated with the root exudate of Jinyan 4 was earlier. The infection rate was significantly higher 15 days after inoculation, but similar to the control 20 days after inocula-tion. In contrast, the infection rate of plants treated with the root exudate of Jinchun 4 was significantly lower than that of the control. The plant height and fresh weight of Jinyan 4 treated with its own root exudate were lower than those of the control, and the root vigor decreased but the conductance increased. There was no significant effect of the root exudates from Jinchun 4 and Black seed squash on plant height and fresh mass of Jinyan 4. We found that the root exudate of susceptible cucumber variety stimulated the growth of Fusarium oxysporum pathogen, in contrast, that of resistance variety and Black seed squash suppressed the growth.

  19. Venous Return and Clinical Hemodynamics: How the Body Works during Acute Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…

  20. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Treating venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Venous leg ulcers account for approximately 70% of all leg ulcers and affect 2.2 million Americans annually. After a comprehensive patient and wound assessment, compression therapy remains the cornerstone of standard care. Adjuvant care with topical or systemic agents is used for wounds that do not heal within 4 weeks. Once healed, long-term compression therapy with stockings or surgical intervention will reduce the incidence of recurrence. This continuing medical education article aims to outline optimal management for patients with venous leg ulcers, highlighting the role of a multidisciplinary team in delivering high quality care. PMID:26979355

  1. Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

    2012-04-01

    Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the

  2. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor

  3. Examining factors that influence the adoption of health-promoting behaviours among people with venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charne; Kapp, Suzanne; Donohue, Lisa

    2014-04-01

    People living with venous disease are encouraged to make a number of behaviour modifications to facilitate healing and to prevent a recurrence of a venous leg ulcer. This investigation sought to examine factors described in the literature that shape the effectiveness of multi-component education programs and conduct a secondary analysis of data to examine relationships between various health behaviours for people with a venous leg ulcer who participated in a standardised e-learning education program. This study found few statistically significant and typically minor relationships between health behaviours after participants had completed the education program. No significant differences were identified by participant gender, age or need for a carer, for either the number of health behaviours performed after the education or the number of behaviour changes made during the education. Participants performing few of the recommended health-promoting behaviours prior to the education achieved more behaviour change than those already engaged in the sought after activities [F(2,154) = 16·038, P = 0·000]. The notable lack of associations between the performance of the health-promoting behaviours places emphasis on the need for comprehensive investigation of the moderators and mediators of multi-faceted behaviour change to promote wound healing and chronic disease management. PMID:22891981

  4. The effect of the use of ultrasound in the success of peripheral venous catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmailoğlu, Elif Günay; Zaybak, Ayten; Akarca, Funda Karbek; Kıyan, Selahattin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterisation in patients where difficulty was experienced in peripheral venous catheterisation. The study was conducted in the emergency department at a university hospital in İzmir Turkey. After obtaining institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 60 patients with a history or suspicion of difficult cannulation were enrolled with 30 patients in traditional and 30 in ultrasound group. In the ultrasound group, peripheral intravenous catheterisation was performed using a portable ultrasound device with 13.5 MHz ultrasound probe and 20 gauge intravenous catheter. The success rate of peripheral venous catheterisation was 30% in the control group and 70% in the treatment group. The success rate was significantly higher among the treatment group. The mean intensity of felt pain was 6.00 ± 1.98 in the control group and 4.77 ± 1.74 in the treatment group. The mean intensity of felt pain was significantly lower in the treatment group. The state of chronic disease affected the success rate in patients in the treatment group. PMID:25175514

  5. Influence of Pneumoperitoneum on the Deep Venous System during Laparoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wazz, Gabi; Branicki, Frank; Taji, Hakam; Chishty, Imran

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is widespread concern that laparoscopic procedures that are usually performed under general anesthesia, using muscle relaxation, in a reverse Trendelenberg position and with pneumoperitoneum, may lead to venous stasis in lower limbs. Objective: To evaluate perioperative changes in the venous system and determine the frequency of deep venous thrombosis associated with minimally invasive surgery. Design: Prospective consecutive series. Subjects: Sixty-five patients undergoing ...

  6. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Two Patients with Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Carreira, M. C.; D. Cánovas Vergé; Branera, J.; Zauner, M.; J. Estela Herrero; E. Tió; G. Ribera Perpinyà

    2014-01-01

    Although few patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension develop cerebral venous thrombosis, the association between these two entities seems too common to be simply a coincidental finding. We describe two cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. In one case, extensive cerebral venous thrombosis involved the superior sagittal sinus and multiple cortical cerebral veins. In the other case, only a right frontoparietal cortical vein was invo...

  7. Effect of peritoneo-venous shunt on portal pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta, A K; Leevy, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    The cause of variceal bleed after a peritoneo-venous shunt is not known. Portal haemodynamic consequences of a peritoneo-venous shunt are poorly understood. The most critical period after a peritoneo-venous shunt is the early postoperative period when rapid mobilisation of peritoneal fluid occurs. Serial changes in the portal pressure during the early postoperative period have not been recorded. In the present study preoperative wedge hepatic vein (WHV), right atrial (RA) and pulmonary capill...

  8. Antithrombotic Agents in the Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2004-01-01

    @@ Venous thromboembolism is a major health problem,carrying significant morbidity and mortality, with an incidence that exceeds I per 1 000. Independent risk factors for venous thromboembolism include increasing age, male gender, surgery, trauma, hospital or nursing home confinement, neurologic disease with extremity paresis, central venous catheter/transvenous pacemaker, prior superficial vein thrombosis, and varicose, among women, the risk factors include pregnancy, oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement therapy.

  9. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies

    OpenAIRE

    Byju, N.; James Jose; Saifudheen, K; V Abdul Gafoor; P Jithendranath

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a well-recognized entity, but its clinical presentation is varied and often mimics many neurological disorders, making it a diagnostic challenge. Cerebral venous thrombosis has a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, which may evolve suddenly or over weeks. It mimics many neurological conditions such as meningitis, encephalopathy, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and stroke. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as multiple lower cranial nerve palsies, ...

  10. Magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of thoracic venous obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y C; Su, C T; Yang, P C; Wang, T C; Chiu, L C; Hsu, J C

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of orthogonal magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and to compare the results of MRA with those of digital subtraction venography (DSV) in thoracic venous diseases. Ten normal volunteers were evaluated using two-dimensional time-of-flight MRA in three orthogonal planes to determine the image quality of each venous segment. Twelve consecutive patients suspected of having thoracic venous disease were studied with both MRA and DSV. In the normal subjects, the plane perpendicular to the target vein provided the most consistent visualization. Using three orthogonal MRA images, a diagnostic-quality image was obtained in 175 (83%) of 210 venous segments in normal volunteers. In patients with thoracic venous obstructive disease, MRA was more effective than DSV in detecting total (84 vs 54), patent (56 vs 36), stenotic (13 vs 10), and obstructive (15 vs 8) venous segments, poststenotic or postobstructive veins (15 vs 10), thrombosis of the internal jugular vein (7 vs 2), intraluminal thrombus (5 vs 3), and azygos veins (12 vs 2). Using venous segments visible on DVS (n = 54) as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of MRA were 94% and 100%, respectively, in detecting venous patency, and 100% and 98% in detecting complete venous obstruction. In the shoulder region, the sensitivity and specificity of MRA were 93% and 100%, respectively, in detecting venous patency, and 100% and 97% in detecting venous obstruction. We conclude that MRA with three orthogonal planes can provide relatively complete and reliable venous mapping, without the need for contrast medium. PMID:9481063

  11. Venous Thromboembolism in the Cancer Population: Pathology, Risk, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hawbaker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the incidence of these events has been increasing over the past decade. Venous thromboembolic events include both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These events contribute to higher morbidity and mortality rates. Understanding the complex pathogenesis of and risk factors for cancer-associated VTE will help guide advanced practitioners to improve outcomes with prophylaxis. The American Socie...

  12. Venous port catheter dislocation as an unusual cause of pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Serhat Sanrı

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of central venous port catheter is a very useful method for long-term therapy in patients with malignancy. Catheter insertion technique and maintenance of equipment is very important to the prevention of catheter-related complications. The most frequent complications are deep venous thrombosis, port infection, catheter obstruction. İn this article, pneumonia occurrence after chemotherapy infusion in a patient who has a completely extravasated central venous port catheter discussed.

  13. Effect of age on the biomechanical and microcirculatory properties of the skin in healthy individuals and during venous ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam H Mattar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With aging there is alteration of elastic properties of the skin and skin-blood flow. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare age-related changes in selected biomechanical parameters of the skin (skin hardness, skin extensibility, relaxation time constant, τ and subcutaneous microcirculatory quality (SMQ in individuals with and without venous diseases. Materials and Methods: Two groups were studied: the first group was of asymptomatic healthy individuals and the second group included patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI and venous ulceration, without edema. Both groups were subdivided to three age categories (21-40, 41-60 and 61-90 years old. Skin hardness was measured by durometer, extensibility and τ were measured using extensometer and SQM was assessed via postural vasoconstrictive response (LDF. Results: Results showed that skin hardness, extensibility, and τ-values were increased, whereas LDF was decreased in the older groups as compared with younger groups. These changes are attributed to alterations in the skin structure and reduced capillaries density networks. Similar behavior was found in the biomechanical and microcirculatory changes in patients with venous ulceration and CVI, but these changes were more increased further in older patients with venous ulceration as compared with older patients with CVI and that can be attribute to more intense response against tissue injury. Conclusions: Since aging elevated skin hardness and extensibility, but lowered vasoconstrictive response in individuals, with and without, venous diseases, we conclude that aging process is likely to cause an accumulation of damaged skin tissues and that could induce an apparent antigen-driven response that altered skin structure and the subsequent biomechanical properties obtained in this study.

  14. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The rhizosphere is a specialised micro-niche for bacteria that have an active exchange of signals and nutrients with the host plant. Nearly 20% of photosynthates are released as root exudates, which consist of primary metabolites and products of secondary metabolism which are largely phenolic in nature. Previously, using rhizosphere metabolomics, we showed that nearly 50% of organic carbon in the exudates is in the form of phenolic compounds, of which the largest fraction is from the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we have demonstrated that a biased rhizosphere can be created using plants with varying levels of phenylpropanoids due to mutations in the biosynthetic or regulatory genes. These phenylpropanoids levels are reflected in the exudates, and exudates from lines with regulatory gene mutations, tt8 and ttg, have higher levels of phenylpropanoids, whereas biosynthetic mutant line, tt4, has very low and undetectable levels of phenylpropanoids. The biased rhizosphere of tt8 and ttg lines provides a nutritional advantage to rhizobacteria that can utilize these phenylpropanoids such as quercetin. With such a strategy to increase the competitiveness of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas putida, this system can be applied to improve plant performance. In order to better understand the metabolic basis of the nutritional advantage behind the competitiveness of the favoured P. putida, we elucidated its quercetin utilization pathway. We have recently cloned the gene for quercetin oxidoreductase (QuoA) and expressed it in transgenic Arabidopsis lines to alter the plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, using a gain of function approach. Since phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants involve formation of quercetin from naringenin, we envisaged that QuoA expression in plants will provide us with a genetic tool to "reverse" this biosynthetic step. This perturbation led to a decrease in flavonoids and an increase in lignin

  15. Levoatriocardinal vein with normal intracardiac anatomy and pulmonary venous return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Odemis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Levoatriocardinal vein (LACV is characterized by an abnormal connection between pulmonary and systemic venous return. This extremely rare cardiac malformation is usually associated with left-sided obstructive lesions including mitral atresia, hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, and abnormal pulmonary venous connection. Patients may have low systemic cardiac output and pulmonary venous obstruction symptoms. In this manuscript, we report a case with LACV and normal pulmonary venous return with absence of any intracardiac pathology. LACV was demonstrated with echocardiography, angiography, and computed tomography. Surgical correction was made successfully.

  16. Levoatriocardinal vein with normal intracardiac anatomy and pulmonary venous return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levoatriocardinal vein (LACV) is characterized by an abnormal connection between pulmonary and systemic venous return. This extremely rare cardiac malformation is usually associated with left-sided obstructive lesions including mitral atresia, hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, and abnormal pulmonary venous connection. Patients may have low systemic cardiac output and pulmonary venous obstruction symptoms. In this manuscript, we report a case with LACV and normal pulmonary venous return with absence of any intracardiac pathology. LACV was demonstrated with echocardiography, angiography, and computed tomography. Surgical correction was made successfully

  17. Memory Bandage for Functional Compression Management for Venous Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In current compression practice for the treatment of chronic venous disorders, there has always been a challenge of controlled compression by a bandage to achieve a particular pressure range in the affected region of the limb. The challenges in compression in the products could be solved if there were the possibility of stress control in fabric. Herein, we are exploiting the newly discovered phenomena, i.e., stress memory, in a memory polymer (MP for the design and investigation of a smart bandage for functional compression benefits. A memory bandage is developed using a blend yarn consisting of MP filaments (segmented polyurethane and nylon filaments. Results showed the possibility to control or manage the internal stress developed in the bandage in wrapped position by simple heating, and thus allowing pressure readjustment externally. Extra pressure generated by the bandage increases with increasing the level of temperature and strain (p < 0.05. The pressure variations also depend on the number of layers and limb circumference (p < 0.05. The memory bandage could have a great potential over existing conventional compression products, as they could give more freedom to govern pressure level whenever needed during the course of compression therapy as a novel wound care management system.

  18. Patterns of the Cranial Venous System from the Comparative Anatomy in Vertebrates: Part II. The Lateral-Ventral Venous System

    OpenAIRE

    Aurboonyawt, T.; Pereira, V.; Kring, T.; Toulgoat, F.; Churojana, A.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2008-01-01

    Comparing the adult submammalian brain with the human embryonic brain, some patterns of venous drainage are quite similar. The veins lying on the lateral surface of the brain in submammals resemble those of the human embryo. In addition, the new longitudinal venous anastomosis ventral to the brain vesicles occurring late in human embryonic development seems to be similar to the late appearance of the basal vein and the ventral brain stem venous plexus found in adult mammals including man. The...

  19. Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walser, Eric M., E-mail: walser.eric@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or 'port') is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient's lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today's ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

  20. Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or “port”) is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient’s lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today’s ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

  1. Diagnosis and endovascular treatment of multiple cerebral venous and venous sinuses thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Eighty-five cases with multiple cerebral venous and venous sinuses thrombosis including the diagnosis and endovascular therapy were reported. Methods: The long T2 and short T1 signals in the related regions of multiple venous sinuses on MRI and prolonged blood circulation time of the brain with tortuous dilatation of vein in angiography were the important characteristics for the diagnosis. Of the 85 cases, the treatment procedures were consisted of injecting urokinase intermittently via common carotid artery and intra-sinus contact thrombolysis as well as warfarin intake orally. Results: Intracranial pressure of 80 cases reduced down between 230 and 300 mm H2O, and clinical deficits were markedly improved within 10 days. Re-angiography of 18 cases revealed recanalization partly in 5 cases and circulation time appeared near normal i 8 cases during one week after therapy. Conclusions: Combined intraarterial thrombolysis consecutively with general anticoagulation for the treatment of multiple thrombosis in cerebral venous sinuses may be one of the effective means

  2. 77 FR 10748 - Scientific Information Request on Mechanical Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS... Pharmacologic and Mechanical Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism Among Special Populations Review, which is... review of the evidence for pharmacologic and mechanical prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE)...

  3. Role of Tissue Factor in Venous Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, David A.; Boles, Jeremiah; Mackman, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the mechanisms by which clots are formed in the deep veins have not been determined. Tissue factor (TF) is the primary initiator of the coagulation cascade and is essential for hemostasis. Under pathological conditions, TF is released into the circulation on small-membrane vesicles termed microparticles (MPs). Recent studies suggest that elevated levels of MPTF may trigger thrombosis. This review provides an overview of the role of TF in VTE. PMID:20690821

  4. [Phlebitogenicity of venous catheters of Vialon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassolt, A

    1985-12-01

    During three days 132 surgical patients with postoperative infusion treatment were checked on the frequency of venous reactions in the arms when catheters/cannulas of 4 different materials were used and the outcome compared. A significant result was obtained in connection with the I-cath catheter made of vialon (a polyurethanelike resin polymer) and the L-cath of polyurethane. Phlebitis was decreased to 27.3% resp. 24.2% - approximately half of its usual frequency - when I-cath of polyvinyl-chloride and FEP-teflon vasofix cannulas were applied (both 51.5%). The different predisposing factors of infusion phlebitis are under discussion. PMID:4093198

  5. Pulmonary arterio-venous micro fistulae - Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients with pulmonary arterio-venous micro-fistulae - of which two were male (50%) - the ages varying from 10 to 43 (X sup(∼) = 22,7), were studied at the Cardiology Centre of the 6th Ward of Santa Casa da Misericordia Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. They were all basically suffering from Manson's Schistosomiasis, the hepato-splenic form in 3 cases (75%) and the Rendu Osler Weber disease with juvenile cirrhosis in 1 case (25%). All four of them had portal hypertension. The individual cases were clinically evaluate with X-rays, scintillographic and hemodynamic tests. (author)

  6. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Nelson, Jim A; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C) to soil - primarily via root exudates- are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands) were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ∼3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ∼46 and ∼41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function compared to site/land cover specific factors. Supporting the finding that exudate effects were minor, we found that an absence of LMW-C elicited the greatest difference in function compared to those treatments receiving any LMW-C. Additionally, exudate treatments did not alter microbial community composition and observable differences were instead due to land cover. These results confirm the strong effects of land cover/site legacies on soil microbial communities. In contrast, short-term changes in exudate composition, at meaningful concentrations, may have little impact on microbial function and composition. PMID:26322029

  7. Radiographic signs of non-venous placement of intended central venous catheters in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in children, and inadvertent arterial or extravascular cannulation is rare but has potentially serious complications. To identify the radiographic signs of arterial placement of CVCs. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of arterially malpositioned CVCs on chest radiograph. These cases were identified through departmental quality-assurance mechanisms and external consultation. Comparison of arterial cases was made with 127 age-matched chest radiographs with CVCs in normal, expected venous location. On each anteroposterior (AP) radiograph we measured the distance of the catheter tip from the right lateral border of the thoracic spine, and the angle of the vertical portion of the catheter relative to the midline. On each lateral radiograph we measured the angle of the vertical portion of each catheter relative to the anterior border of the thoracic spine. When bilateral subclavian catheters were present, the catheter tips were described as crossed, overlapping or uncrossed. On AP radiographs, arterially placed CVCs were more curved to the left, with catheter tip positions located farther to the left of midline than normal venous CVCs. When bilateral, properly placed venous catheters were present, all catheters crossed at the level of the superior vena cava (SVC). When one of the bilateral catheters was in arterial position, neither of the catheters crossed or the inter-catheter crossover distance was exaggerated. On lateral radiographs, there was a marked anterior angulation of the vertical portion of the catheter (mean angle 37 ± 15 standard deviation [SD] in arterial catheters versus 5.9 ± 8.3 SD in normally placed venous catheters). Useful radiographic signs suggestive of unintentional arterial misplacement of vascular catheters include leftward curvature of the vertical portion of the catheter, left-side catheter tip position, lack of catheter crossover on the frontal radiograph, as well as exaggerated

  8. Radiographic signs of non-venous placement of intended central venous catheters in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Erin C. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Taylor, George A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in children, and inadvertent arterial or extravascular cannulation is rare but has potentially serious complications. To identify the radiographic signs of arterial placement of CVCs. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of arterially malpositioned CVCs on chest radiograph. These cases were identified through departmental quality-assurance mechanisms and external consultation. Comparison of arterial cases was made with 127 age-matched chest radiographs with CVCs in normal, expected venous location. On each anteroposterior (AP) radiograph we measured the distance of the catheter tip from the right lateral border of the thoracic spine, and the angle of the vertical portion of the catheter relative to the midline. On each lateral radiograph we measured the angle of the vertical portion of each catheter relative to the anterior border of the thoracic spine. When bilateral subclavian catheters were present, the catheter tips were described as crossed, overlapping or uncrossed. On AP radiographs, arterially placed CVCs were more curved to the left, with catheter tip positions located farther to the left of midline than normal venous CVCs. When bilateral, properly placed venous catheters were present, all catheters crossed at the level of the superior vena cava (SVC). When one of the bilateral catheters was in arterial position, neither of the catheters crossed or the inter-catheter crossover distance was exaggerated. On lateral radiographs, there was a marked anterior angulation of the vertical portion of the catheter (mean angle 37 ± 15 standard deviation [SD] in arterial catheters versus 5.9 ± 8.3 SD in normally placed venous catheters). Useful radiographic signs suggestive of unintentional arterial misplacement of vascular catheters include leftward curvature of the vertical portion of the catheter, left-side catheter tip position, lack of catheter crossover on the frontal radiograph, as well as exaggerated

  9. Endovascular treatment of central venous obstruction as a complication of prolonged hemodialysis – Preliminary experience in a tertiary care center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh K; Sharma, Madhurima; Lal, Anupam; Gupta, Vivek; Sharma, Ashish; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central venous disease is a serious complication in patients undergoing hemodialysis, often presenting with symptoms of venous hypertension. Treatment is aimed to provide symptomatic relief and to maintain hemodialysis access site patency. Aim: To describe our initial experience in the endovascular treatment of central venous stenosis or obstruction in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study carried out in a tertiary care center. Study duration was 24 months. Follow-up was variable. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients of chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis presented with central vein stenosis or obstruction having ipsilateral vascular access, between July 2012 and July 2014. All the patients underwent endovascular treatment and were analyzed retrospectively. Results and Conclusion: A total of 11 patients (4 male and 7 female) underwent 18 interventions for 13 stenotic segments during a time period of 2 years. Eight stenotic segments were in brachiocephalic vein, three in subclavian vein, and two in axillary veins. The technical success rate for endovascular treatment was 81.8%. Two patients underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone and presented with restenosis later. Balloon angioplasty followed by stenting was done in seven patients, two of which required reintervention during follow-up. We found endovascular treatment safe and effective in treating central venous disease. PMID:26752817

  10. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL‑1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL‑1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin‑1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL‑1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL‑1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)‑1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius

  11. CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION: NEW ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF THE DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Klimenko, A. A.; N. A. Shostak; N. A. Demidova; I. V. Novikov

    2014-01-01

    The review presents data on the incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary thromboembolism and describescongenital and acquired coagulation abnormalities in patients with venous thromboembolism. It considers the potential factors of development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and some medical conditions and diseases, which favors the development of pulmonary hypertension after prior pulmonary thromboembolism.

  12. Compression Stockings for Treating Venous Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Benigni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to treat venous leg ulcers, it is recommended to use high pressure compression (30–40 mmHg at the ankle. Compression stockings which are not operator dependant could be the best option because of their pressure control. However 30–40 mmHg compression stockings are often hard to put on. Putting two lower pressure compression stockings over each other could be a good therapeutic alternative. Objectives. To compare the in vitro pressures given by the manufacturers of 2 antiulcer kits with the in vivo interface pressures measured in healthy subjects and to evaluate the stiffness and friction indices from those kits based on the interface pressure in order to assess their clinical properties. Material and Methods. Using a Kikuhime pressure device, interface pressure was measured in 12 healthy subjects at the reference point B1. One stiffness index (Static Stiffness Index (SSI and a friction index have been calculated. Results. Mediven Ulcer kit gets the recommended pressures whereas Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit does not for treating a venous leg ulcer. Jobst’s Ulcer Care transmits entirely the pressure in relation to a friction index close to 1. Conclusion. This antiulcer kit study underlines that in vivo and in vitro pressures can be different (Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit and Mediven Ulcer kit. In order not to lose pressure, it is important to take into account the friction index when superimposing two stockings.

  13. The cerebral venous system and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark H; Imray, Christopher H E

    2016-01-15

    Most hypobaric hypoxia studies have focused on oxygen delivery and therefore cerebral blood inflow. Few have studied venous outflow. However, the volume of blood entering and leaving the skull (∼700 ml/min) is considerably greater than cerebrospinal fluid production (0.35 ml/min) or edema formation rates and slight imbalances of in- and outflow have considerable effects on intracranial pressure. This dynamic phenomenon is not necessarily appreciated in the currently taught static "Monro-Kellie" doctrine, which forms the basis of the "Tight-Fit" hypothesis thought to underlie high altitude headache, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema. Investigating both sides of the cerebral circulation was an integral part of the 2007 Xtreme Everest Expedition. The results of the relevant studies performed as part of and subsequent to this expedition are reviewed here. The evidence from recent studies suggests a relative venous outflow insufficiency is an early step in the pathogenesis of high altitude headache. Translation of knowledge gained from high altitude studies is important. Many patients in a critical care environment develop hypoxemia akin to that of high altitude exposure. An inability to drain the hypoxemic induced increase in cerebral blood flow could be an underappreciated regulatory mechanism of intracranial pressure. PMID:26294747

  14. Do we have to anticoagulated patients with cerebral venous thrombosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feher, G; Illes, Z; Hargroves, D; Komoly, S

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although anticoagulation is recommended for the initial and long term treatment with regards to thrombotic risks for patients with CVT, the role of anticogalution has not been fully elucidated. The aim of...

  15. Venous aneurysm complicating arteriovenous fistula access and matrix metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An arteriovenous fistula (AVF for placed for hemodialysis may be burdened by one particular complication-the formation of a venous aneurysm. It has been shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL could represent markers of disease in both venous and arterial vessels.

  16. Septic Mesenteric Venous Thrombophlebitis: A Rare Complication of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Kykalos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric venous thrombophlebitis represents a very rare complication of acute appendicitis. Based on the findings of a 45-year-old patient with mesenteric venous thrombophlebitis due to acute appendicitis, we herein describe the diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic options in this uncommon disease. The treatment in our case consisted of simple appendectomy and perioperative anticoagulation therapy.

  17. Central venous catheters and catheter locks in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC).......To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC)....

  18. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Böni

    Full Text Available Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food

  19. Root Exudates, Rhizosphere Zn Fractions, and Zn Accumulation of Ryegrass at Different Soil Zn Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Hong; LIU Huai; MA Qi-Fu; XIONG Zhi-Ting

    2007-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted using a root-bag technique to study the root exudates, rhizosphere Zn fractions, and Zn concentrations and accumulations of two ryegrass cultivars (Lolium perenne L. cvs. Airs and Tede) at different soil Zn levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mmol kg-1 soil). Results indicated that plant growth of the two cultivars was not adversely affected at soil Zn level≤8 mmol kg-1. Plants accumulated more Zn as soil Zn levels increased, and Zn concentrations of shoots were about 540 /μg g-1 in Aris and 583.9μg g-1 in Tede in response to 16 mmol Zn kg-1 soil. Zn ratios of shoots to roots across the soil Zn levels were higher in Tede than in Airs, corresponding with higher rhizosphere available Zn fractions (exchangeable, bound to manganese oxides, and bound to organic matter) in Airs than in Tede. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acids) and amino acids (proline, threonine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid, etc.) were detected in root exudates, and the concentrations of LMW organic acids and amino acids increased with addition of 4 mmol Zn kg-1 soil compared with zero Zn addition. Higher rhizosphere concentrations of oxalic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, phenylalanine, leucine, and proline in Tede than in Airs likely resulted in increased Zn uptake from the soil by Tede than by Airs. The results suggested that genotypic differences in Zn accumulations were mainly because of different root exudates and rhizosphere Zn fractions.

  20. High-Density Lipoprotein Function in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Laura; Kern, Sabine; Weger, Martin; Hausberger, Silke; Trieb, Markus; Gasser-Steiner, Vanessa; Haas, Anton; Scharnagl, Hubert; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported with regard to the associations of AMD with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study is the first to assess HDL composition and metrics of HDL function in patients with exudative AMD and control patients. Methods Blood samples were collected from 29 patients with exudative AMD and 26 age-matched control patients. Major HDL associated apolipoproteins were determined in apoB-depleted serum by immunoturbidimetry or ELISA, HDL-associated lipids were quantified enzymatically. To get an integrated measure of HDL quantity and quality, we assessed several metrics of HDL function, including cholesterol efflux capacity, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities using apoB-depleted serum from study participants. Results In our study, we observed that the HDL associated acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) was significantly increased in AMD patients (pAMD patients when compared with the control group. The ability of apoB-depleted serum to inhibit monocyte NF-κB expression was significantly improved in AMD patients (mean difference (MD) -5.6, pAMD subjects (MD -24.1, pAMD in this study, despite an increased content of HDL associated SAA in AMD patients. Unexpectedly, anti-inflammatory activity of apoB-depleted serum was even increased in our study. Our data suggest that the investigated parameters of serum HDL function showed no significant association with exudative AMD. However, we cannot exclude that alterations in locally produced HDL may be part of the AMD pathogenesis. PMID:27171197

  1. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A; Windhab, Erich J; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID:26808048

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen increases plasma exudation in rat trachea: involvement of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernareggi, M; Radice, S; Rossoni, G; Oriani, G; Chiesara, E; Berti, F

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the microvascular permeability changes in tracheal tissue of rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Rats, following exposure to HBO or ambient air (control animals) for 1.5, 3 and 6 h, were prepared for recording of nitric oxide exhaled (FENO) in air using a chemiluminescence analyser. The level of FENO was not statistically different in the two groups. Plasma exudation, evaluated by measuring the leakage of Evans blue (EB) dye into the tracheal tissue, was significantly elevated (48, 86 and 105% at 1.5, 3 and 6 h, respectively) in HBO-treated rats. Plasma exudation in the trachea of control rats was significantly increased (42%, P<0.05) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), whereas it was significantly reduced (31%, P<0.05) in rats exposed to HBO for 3 h. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and flunisolide significantly prevented the increase in plasma leakage in HBO-treated rats. In contrast, indomethacin was devoid of anti-exudative activity in these experiments. Western immunoblot showed a significant increase in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein in the tracheal homogenates of HBO-treated rats, as compared to basal levels. These results indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the maintenance of microvascular permeability in tracheal tissue of rats. The protective effect observed with the steroid seems to support this hypothesis. Furthermore, the beneficial action of NAC underlines that reactive oxygen species participate in the microvascular permeability changes observed in tracheal tissue of rats exposed to HBO. PMID:10188993

  3. Exudation of organic acids by a marsh plant and implications on trace metal availability in the rhizosphere of estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify a variety of low molecular weight organic acids exuded by the sea rush Juncus maritimus collected at two locations with different sediment characteristics (sandy and muddy) and to examine whether specific differences in physico-chemical sediment characteristics influenced plant exudation. Just after collection, plant roots were rinsed and put in contact with deionised water for 2 h. In the obtained solution the organic acids, exuded by the plants, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Juncus maritimus was shown to be capable of releasing malonate and oxalate. Sediments and rhizosediments (sediment in contact with the plant roots and rhizomes, corresponding to the area of higher belowground biomass) from the areas where the plants had been collected were characterised in terms of physical and chemical composition, including acid volatile sulphide and total-recoverable metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd). It was found that the extent of exudation varied markedly between sites. The identified organic acids were used as extractants of metals from sediments and rhizosediments and the results were compared with those provided by a very commonly used sequential extraction approach, which was carried out in parallel. This work demonstrates that J. maritimus can release organic compounds that can act as complexing agents of trace metal and therefore organic exudates should be accounted for when dealing with estuarine environment quality.

  4. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Moghaddam, Sayyed Gholam Reza; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rezvani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran). The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6%) males and 155 (47.4%) females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%), 48 (14.7%), and 45 (13.8%) cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4%) of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2%) patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years) and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years) cases (P=0.16). The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE) occurring in young people. PMID:27365554

  5. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions. PMID:27191935

  6. Role of root exudates in dissolution of Cd containing iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere contains organic acids, amino acids and more complex organic molecules that can substantially impact the solubility of soil solid phases. Plant roots and soil microorganisms contribute a large fraction of these organic compounds to DOM, potentially accelerating the transfer of solid phase elements into solution. In highly contaminated soils, heavy metals such as Cd are commonly found coprecipitated with common minerals (e.g. iron oxides). Introducing or changing vegetation on these contaminated soils may increase DOM levels in the soil pore fluids and thus enhance the biological and chemical weathering of soil minerals. Here, we investigate the role of root exudates on mineral dissolution and Cd mobility in contaminated soils. We hypothesize that plant exudates containing nitrogen and sulfur functional groups will dissolve Cd-containing mineral phases to a greater extent than exudates containing only oxygen functional groups, resulting in higher Cd concentrations in solution. Two different iron oxide mineral phases were utilized in a laboratory-scale model study system investigating the effects of low molecular weight, oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compounds on mineral dissolution. Goethite (α-FeOOH) was synthesized in the laboratory with 0, 2.4, 5, and 100 theoretical mol% Cd, and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) was prepared with 0, 10, and 25 theoretical mol% Cd. Phase identity of all minerals was verified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All minerals were reacted with 0.01 mM solutions containing one of four different organic ligands (oxalic acid, citric acid, histidine or cysteine) and aliquots of these solutions were sampled periodically over 40 days. Results from solution samples suggest that oxalic acid, citric acid, and histidine consistently increase mineral dissolution relative to the control (no organic compound present) while cysteine consistently inhibits dissolution relative to the control in

  7. Vitrectomy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Dhananjay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful surgical management of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT. A 33-year-old man with symptomatic serous macular detachment in the left eye (Snellen acuity: 20/200 secondary to a paramacular choroidal hemangioma was treated with TTT. The nonresponsive detachment was subsequently managed by vitrectomy, endophotocoagulation and silicon-oil tamponade. It resulted in complete resolution of the tumor and the detachment. Silicon oil was removed at four months. Visual acuity improved to 20/80 by the last follow-up visit at 10 months without any recurrence.

  8. Microbial impacts on the migration of actinides. Effects of exudates on adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. We have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate with insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed. (author)

  9. MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed

  10. pH of exudate test in the physiological quality of crambe seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Charline Zaratin Alves; Lennis Afraire Rodrigues; Carlos Henrique Queiroz Rego; Josué Bispo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Crambe is a rapeseed with high oil content and can be used as a winter cover or as a source of raw material for the production of biodiesel, however espite the growing interest in the culture, research on the subject is still incipient, especially concerning the seed production and analysis technology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the physiological quality of crambe seeds, 'FMS Brilhante' cultivar, by testing the pH of exudate. Five seed lots were submitted to the determ...

  11. Experimental Investigation on Role of Root Mucilage and Microbial Exudates on Soil Water Retention Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T.

    2011-12-01

    The release of organic molecules by soil microbes and plant roots to adapt their surrounding represents a substantial portion of the energy use by these organisms. The hypothesis in this study is that the long-chain molecules and hydrophilic nature of the released organic compounds deposited on soil surfaces drastically alters the dynamism of the soil water retention curves (SWRC) of the rhizosphere relative to the bulk soil through direct effect besides the well-known indirect influence of the organic matter by modifying the soil structure and providing energy for the biogeochemical processes. The experiment was set up in such away that it suppresses the indirect effect of organic matter (OM) and rather it traces only its immediate effect on SWRC. To achieve this goal inert and uniform size (0.1-0.11 mm) glassbeads were used. We assumed that wet mixing of the glass beads with OM and slow drying the mixture (40-50oC) for 1-day will lead to deposition of the OM only at the surface of the glass beads, the short time being not enough for aggregate formation. This way we can simulate the natural deposition of OM on soil surfaces. Our argument is that this deposited OM has its own distinct time-dependent SWRC which is different from that of bulk soil. Model exudates including PGA, XA, and SPA are used to mimic the behavior of plant root mucilages, bacterial and fungal exudates respectively. These model exudates at varying concentration (0, 0.008, 0.04, and 0.2 gm/l) were wet mixed with glass beads. SWRC was determined using both water-hanging column and pressure plate for both low and high suction ranges respectively. We will present the effect of exudate type and level of concentration on the dynamic behavior of SWRC of the glassbeads by determining: i) the SWRC for each treatment; ii) the rate of drying and wetting at different intervals; iii) the hysteresis of the retention curves; iv) the saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  12. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba′arah Basel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

  13. Prophylactic laser treatment in early age related maculopathy reduced the incidence of exudative complications

    OpenAIRE

    Frennesson, C; Nilsson, S.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the effect of prophylactic laser treatment on drusen area and incidence of exudative lesions in patients with soft drusen maculopathy.
METHODS—In a prospective study, patients with early age related maculopathy (ARM) and good visual acuity were randomised to laser treatment or to a control group. Each group consisted of two subgroups: a fellow eye group and a bilateral drusen group. At 3 years, 36 of 38 enrolled patients remained in the study. Photocoagulation was performed...

  14. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba Arah, Basel T

    2009-05-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy. PMID:20671835

  15. The importance of serum lipids in exudative diabetic macular edema in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçgun, Nil Irem; Yildirim, Zuhal; Kiliç, Nedret; Gürsel, Emin

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between serum lipid levels and exudative diabetic maculopathy in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 27 patients with exudative diabetic macular edema were included in group A and 27 patients without exudative diabetic macular edema were included in group B. All 54 patients have nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Blood cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and hemoglobin levels were measured in patients in group A and group B. The mean concentration of cholesterol in group A (224.30 +/- 49.49 mg/dL), in group B (197.78 +/- 41.49 mg/dL); triglyceride in group A (199.11 +/- 90.51 mg/dL), in group B (160.78 +/- 65.30 mg/dL); HDL in group A (43.48 +/- 10.62 mmol/L), in group B (42.37 +/- 10.92 mmol/L); LDL in group A (150.59 +/- 43.96 mg/dL), in group B (124.37 +/- 40.28 mg/dL); VLDL in group A (40.52 +/- 16.54 mg/dL), in group B (37.89 +/- 23.70 mg/dL); HbA1c in group A (9.62 +/- 2.50), in group B (7.36 +/- 1.62 g/dL); and hemoglobin in group A (13.46 +/- 1.6 g/dL), in group B (13.90 +/- 1.77 g/dL). Serum cholesterol (P = 0.38), LDL (P = 0.026), and HbA1c (P = 0.000) levels were different between the two groups. Triglyceride, HDL, VLDL, and hemoglobin levels were not different between the two groups. We must consider regulation of high blood sugar and elevated total serum cholesterol or LDL levels in patients with macular edema and high hard exudates. PMID:17460181

  16. Acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy in a patient with Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi S J; Tran, Lac H; Kim, Judy E

    2013-01-01

    Acute exudative polymorphous vitelli-form maculopathy (AEPVM) is a rare condition of unclear etiology that has been seen in association with respiratory and viral infections. It has also been reported as a paraneoplastic phenomenon in older individuals. The authors report the first case of AEPVM associated with Lyme disease with over 3.5 years of follow-up. Multimodality serial imaging suggested the lesions began as multiple serous detachments followed by accumulation of photoreceptor outer segments in the subretinal space that gradually resolved over time and gave rise to the characteristic fundus findings at various stages. PMID:24044715

  17. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Engel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different growth, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorous controlled chemostats, to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation, and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and for extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included amount and composition of high molecular weight dissolved combined carbohydrates (>1 kDa, HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 μatm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 μatm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. A reduction in growth rate from μ =0.3 d−1 to μ =0.1 d−1 induced the most profound effect on the performance of E. huxleyi, relative to the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature. At μ =0.3 d−1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature. DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all cultures, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (DO14C/PP × 100; PER of averaged 3.74 ± 0.94%. At μ =0.1 d−1, PO14C decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased, thus leading to a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at μ =0.1 d−1 at greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of HMW-dCCHO and pCCHO were generally higher at μ =0.1 d−1 compared to μ =0.3 d−1. At μ =0.3 d−1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly along with elevated CO2 and temperature. Despite of high PER, the percentage of HMW-dCCHO was smallest at greenhouse conditions. However, highest TEP-formation was observed under greenhouse conditions, together with a pronounced increase in pCCHO concentration, suggesting a stronger partitioning of PP from DOC to POC

  18. Occult pulmonary embolism: a common occurrence in deep venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation-perfusion scans were used in a prospective study to determine the prevalence of occult pulmonary embolus in proven deep venous thrombosis. Fifty-eight patients without symptoms of pulmonary embolism, but with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis, were subjected to chest radiographs, /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated-albumin perfusion scans, and 133Xe ventilation scans. Of the 49 patients with deep venous thrombosis proximal to the calf veins, 17 (35%) had high-probability scans. Of all 58 patients, only 12 (21%) had normal scans. When the study population was compared with a group of 430 patients described in reports of pulmonary perfusion in asymptomatic persons, a significantly higher percentage of high-probability scans was found in the study population with deep venous thrombosis. Baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning is valuable for patients with proven above-knee deep venous thrombosis

  19. Functional total anomalous pulmonary venous connection via levoatriocardinal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Taiyu; Ozawa, Katsusuke; Sugibayashi, Rika; Wada, Seiji; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We report a fetal case of double outlet right ventricle, mitral atresia, and intact atrial septum. Although the pulmonary veins were connected to the left atrium, pulmonary venous blood drained into the right superior vena cava via the stenotic levoatriocardinal vein (LACV), which resulted in a circulation resembling total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) with pulmonary venous obstruction. Since the pulmonary veins were connected to both the stenotic LACV and the "dead-end" left atrium, the pulmonary venous flow had a to-and-fro pattern along with atrial relaxation and contraction. Postnatal echocardiography and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV. Surgical creation of an atrial septal defect on the day of birth successfully relieved pulmonary venous obstruction. Normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV should be considered for TAPVC differential diagnosis in fetuses with a left-side heart obstruction. PMID:27460400

  20. Potential Enhancement of Plant Iron Assimilation by Microbial-Induced Root Exudation of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency in crop plants is a modern agricultural problem worldwide. Although multiple strategies have been evolved to improve Fe assimilation, some plant species, especially dicots and nongraminaceous monocots (strategy I plants, cannot avoid Fe deficiency in low Fe-availability soils. It is well documented that graminaceous plants (strategy II plants employ the chelationbased Fe acquisition, and the strategy I plants use the reduction-based strategy to take up Fe. Intriguingly, under Fe deficiency the strategy I plants have recently been found to acquire Fe via exudation of phenolic compounds to mobilize Fe, which is much similar to the chelation-based mechanism of strategy II plants. Hitherto, increasing evidence has shown that soil microbes play a cooperative role in plant Fe acquisition. Several beneficial rhizobacteria have been found to increase plant Fe accumulation via activation of the reduction-based strategy. Moreover, microbial-induced root exudation of phenolic compounds can also promote plant Fe absorption by efficient mobilization of Fe, which increases Fe bioavailability in calcareous soils. Here, we briefly review the recent progress on the Fe assimilation strategies of strategy I and II plants, and further discuss the possible mechanisms underlying soil microbes enhance plant Fe acquisition.

  1. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Louarn

    Full Text Available Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana.

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL, as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97 (P<.05. Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes.

  3. Influence of Aluminum and Cadmium Stresses on Mineral Nutrition and Root Exudates in Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUO Tian-Rong; ZHANG Guo-Ping; ZHOU Mei-Xue; WU Fei-Bo; CHEN Jin-Xin

    2007-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd) on Al and mineral nutrient contents in plants and Al-induced organic acid exudation in two barley varieties with different Al tolerance. Al-sensitive cv. Shang 70-119 had significantly higher Al content and accumulation in plants than Al-tolerant cv. Gebeina, especially in roots, when subjected to low pH (4.0) and Al treatments (100 μmol L-1 Al and 100 μmol L-1 Al +1.0 μmol L-1 Cd). Cd addition increased Al content in plants exposed to Al stress. Both low pH and Al treatments caused marked reduction in Ca and Mg contents in all plant parts, P and K contents in the shoots and leaves, Fe, Zn and Mo contents in the leaves, Zn and B contents in the shoots, and Mn contents both in the roots and leaves. Moreover, changes in nutrient concentrations were greater in the plants exposed to both Al and Cd than in those exposed only to Al treatment. A dramatic enhancement of malate, citrate, and succinate was found in the plants exposed to 100 μmol L-1 Al relative to the control, and the Al-tolerant cultivar had a considerable higher exudation of these organic acids than the Al-sensitive one, indicating that Al-induced enhancement of these organic acids is very likely to be associated with Al tolerance.

  4. Inf luence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samah; Mamdouh; Mohamed; Fathy; Ashraf; Mohamed; Mohamed; Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ef ect of intra-peritoneal injection of purii ed exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were monitored in the hippocampus region using spectrophotometric method. The levels of the hippocampal monoamines, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography while the acetyl choline neurotransmitter was measured by colorimetric method using choline/acetylcholine assay kit. Results: A sharp disruption in the sex hormones levels of testosterone, progesterone, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone was demonstrated in the serum of the treated mice. At the same time, a signii cant reduction in the endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was observed in the hippocampus region of the injected mice. Moreover, levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and acetyl choline neurotransmitter in the same region were signii cantly af ected as a result of the treatment with Spirulina i ltrate. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of some sterol-like compounds in the cyanobacterial i ltrate. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the capability of Spirulina to release detrimental bioactive metabolites into their surrounding that can disrupt the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems.

  5. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications. PMID:26836615

  6. Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shastry, B.S.; Hartzer, M.K. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Hejtmancik, J.F. [National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-20

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Z{sub max} = 2.1, {theta}{sub max} = 0) and DXS228 (Z{sub max} = 0.5, {theta}{sub max} = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Z{sub max} = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie`s disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Characteristics of Indocyanine Green Angiography in Exudative Age—related Macular Degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuDZ; WenF

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To observe the characteristics of indocyanine green angiography(ICGA)in exudative age-related macular degeneration(AMD).Methods:Thirty-one cases(39 eyes)were diagnosed as exudative AMD by ocular examination,fundus color photography,fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA)and ICGA.Their ages ranged from 50 to 82 years and visual acuities from FC/30cm to 0.7.We analyzed and compared the characteristics of ICGA and FFA in these patients.Results:of 26 eyes with ccult choroidal neovascularization (CNV)by FFA,15(57.7%)had classic CNV by ICGA.Of 4 eyes with serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment(PED)without CNV by FFA,1 had serous PED with classic CNV by ICGA.The hyperfluorescence of the scar staining was detecfed by ICGA.Conclusion:ICGA adds clinically useful information and is an important adjunct in the evaluation,classification,and laser treatment of patients with occult CNV in AMD.

  8. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  9. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro

    2010-01-13

    This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546

  12. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana. PMID:23145139

  13. Modeling Cesium Partitioning in the Rhizosphere: A Focus on the Role of Root Exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Melinda Ann; Siegel, L. S.; Alshawabkeh, A. N.; Carl D. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual model is being developed for prediction of cesium (Cs) partitioning between bound (Csb), aqueous (Csa), and phytoextracted (Csp) phases in the rhizosphere. The model categorizes the processes that impact cesium partitioning into six sub-models: geochemistry, physical factors, root density, microorganisms, nutrients, and root exudates. A seventh sub-model (Cs fate) describes Cs movement between the three phases. Functional relationships and parametric values within and between the submodels are being developed based on literature, field characterization, and laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of root density, microbial population, potassium requirement and concentration, and moisture content on the concentration of root exudates ([E]) and consequently on Cs partitioning. In summary, the model provides a framework for better understanding the fundamental processes that control Cs fate in the rhizosphere. The ability to better understand, predict, and control Cs solubilization could be applied to other metals in the future. Ultimately, the model will be used as a tool for enhancing field implementation of in situ solubilization of metals for a variety of remedial activities.

  14. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  15. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 μg/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 μg/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  16. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  17. [Ambulatory treatment of deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, D; Hezard, N; Brasselet, C

    2001-11-01

    Conventional treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been based, until recently, on non-fractionated heparin by continuous intravenous infusion in hospital until effective anticoagulation could be obtained by oral anticoagulants introduced early. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) seems to be as effective and has a better bio-availability, which means that there are fewer adverse effects. This usage has logically led to the increase in the possibilities of treatment of DVT at home. However, certain precautions are necessary, especially the evaluation of the individual patient's risk with this strategy. This requires multidisciplinary collaboration and the respect of strict rules (precise diagnostic objective, hospital admission at the slightest doubt of pulmonary embolism) to demonstrate the value of ambulatory LMWH therapy which would improve patient comfort and allow early mobilisation. PMID:11794978

  18. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan). PMID:26502582

  19. Venous thrombosis after cardiac catheterization in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing the rate of post-catheterization venous thrombosis were studied in 180 infants below one year of age. The initial cardiac catheterization was performed either with cutdown technique or percutaneously. At repeat catheterization on the ipsilateral side presence or absence of thrombosis was noted. The overall thrombosis frequency was higher than previously reported, 15.6%. The rate increased with decreasing weight. An increased rate of thrombosis was also found with indwelling femoral vein catheter left in place for more than 24 hours, and infection. In 6 cases, thrombosis involved only the catheterized side and would have been missed by recatheterization from the contralateral side. It was noteworthy that 9 of the thromboses spared the catheterized vessel and engaged only the vena cava. Among factors not influencing thrombosis rate were age, type of cardiac malformation, cyanosis, early operation, catheterization time or balloon septostomy. Percutaneous or cutdown technique did not influence thrombosis rate. (orig.)

  20. Hepatic venous outflow obstruction: Three similar syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulas Darda Bayraktar; Soley Seren; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a detailed review of venoocclusive disease (VOD), Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS),and congestive hepatopathy (CH), all of which results in hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This is the first article in which all three syndromes have been reviewed,enabling the reader to compare the characteristics of these disorders. The histological findings in VOD, BCS,and CH are almost identical: sinusoidal congestion and cell necrosis mostly in perivenular areas of hepatic acini which eventually leads to bridging fibrosis between adjacent central veins. Tender hepatomegaly with jaundice and ascites is common to all three conditions.However, the clinical presentation depends mostly on the extent and rapidity of the outflow obstruction.Although the etiology and treatment are completely different in VOD, BCS, and CH; the similarities in clinical manifestations and liver histology may suggest a common mechanism of hepatic injury and adaptation in response to increased sinusoidal pressure.