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Sample records for chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

  1. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

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    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  2. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

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    Cordier Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than lymphocyte counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage. ICEP is a rare disorder of unknown cause. Its exact prevalence remains unknown. ICEP may affect every age group but is rare in childhood. It is twice as frequent in women as in men. One third to one half of the ICEP patients have a history of asthma. The mainstay of treatment of ICEP is systemic corticosteroids. Response to oral corticosteroid therapy is dramatic and has led to the consideration of corticosteroid challenge as a diagnostic test for ICEP. Nevertheless, relapses or development of severe asthma are frequent when tapering or withdrawing treatment. Long-term oral corticosteroid therapy is necessary in up to half of the patients.

  3. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Material and Methods: A double helical CT was performed in 6 patients referred to our center because of a chest X-ray with pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical presentation was cough, fever and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Patients' age ranged from 25 to 55 years; 4 were women and 2 were men, one of the latter had a history of bronchial asthma. All patients received treatment with corticosteroids, with remission of the clinical and radiological parameters. Three patients underwent a control CT. Results: Findings consisted in focal parenchymal alterations, with areas of pulmonary consolidation and areas of 'ground glass' appearance; both patterns coexisted in certain areas. In 3 cases the lesions extended from the apices to the pulmonary bases, with predominance of the upper and middle fields. In 1 patient, there was frank predominance in the left hemi thorax. In another patient, who had a history of asthma, there were signs of pulmonary hyperinflation, with diffuse thickening of the bronchial walls, added to the previously mentioned findings, which involved the entire lung. In the mediastinum, 1 patient had lymph nodes larger than 1 cm, 3 had lymph nodes that were not enlarged but were more numerous than usual, and in the remaining patients no lymph nodes were found. The control CT's showed almost total resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: The combination of eosinophilia and characteristic pulmonary infiltrates with a likely clinical presentation, associated with an optimal response to treatment with corticosteroids allows to make a reliable diagnosis and avoids the need for a pulmonary biopsy. (author)

  4. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a paediatric case

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    Tassinari, Davide; Di Silverio Carulli, Chiara; Visciotti, Francesca; Petrucci, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare disorder in children, characterised by respiratory and systemic symptoms, with a generally good prognosis. A 11-year-old asthmatic girl was admitted to our clinic with a 3-month history of progressive cough, dyspnoea, weight loss and asthenia. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates to the x-ray, multiple nodules with a surrounding ground-glass halo and peripheral predominance to the chest CT suggested the diagnosi...

  5. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

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    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent.

  6. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

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    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent. PMID:23279770

  7. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with mucous plugs: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), a rare eosinophilic lung disease of unknown etiology, is characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia, chest radiograph infiltrates, and prompt response to corticosteroid therapy.1 The first detailed description of CEP was described by Carrington et al 2 in 1969. The usual symptoms are cough, dyspnea, fever, and weight loss. It is most often seen in middle aged woman and has a subacute onset.1 We report a case of CEP presenting with right lower lung infiltrates and mucus plugging that causing bronchus obstruction.

  8. Unusual Presentation of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia with “Reversed Halo Sign”: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reversed halo sign (RHS) may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), but is rarely associated with other diseases. Herein, we present a case of a 21-year-old woman with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of RHS. This is an unusual and rare presentation of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

  9. Unusual Presentation of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia with “Reversed Halo Sign”: A Case Report

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    Gholamnejad, Mahdia; Rezaie, Nader

    2014-01-01

    The reversed halo sign (RHS) may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), but is rarely associated with other diseases. Herein, we present a case of a 21-year-old woman with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of RHS. This is an unusual and rare presentation of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  10. Idiopathic Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Retrospective Analysis of 17 Cases from a Single Center in Turkey

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    Sibel Arınç

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is a rare eosinophilic lung disorder with an unknown etiology and is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or peripheral eosinophilia, and the accumulation of eosinophils in the lungs. We aimed to present diagnostic test results and follow-up outcomes of 17 patients who were diagnosed with ICEP in our hospital in light of literature. Methods: Between 2008 and 2013, we examined 17 cases of ICEP. We evaluated clinical and laboratory findings together with the long-term follow-up data. Results: The patients had a mean age of 40.8 years at presentation, and the female/male ratio was 0.8. The most common symptoms were cough (94%, shortness of breath (76%, and high fever (35%. Bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil percentages of the patients ranged from 3% to 80%. Nine (53% patients experienced recurrence. Six patients were maintained on low dose steroid due to repeating relapses. Among these patients, 7 (77.7% had a total IgE level of above 500/IU/mL. Conclusion: Relapses are common in ICEP after the withdrawal of corticosteroid treatment or during dose reduction. We point out the importance of the close monitoring of patients for identifying relapse. A higher total IgE level during diagnosis may serve as a predictor of recurrence.

  11. 慢性嗜酸粒细胞肺炎临床诊治研究进展%Research progress of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松桃; 王导新

    2012-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare eosinophilic lung disease of unknown etiology characterized by eosinophils infiltrating in the lung.The clinical manifestations of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia are atypical,so this disease can be disdiagnosed easily.This paper reviews the definition,clinical manifestation,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.%慢性嗜酸粒细胞肺炎是一种少见的病因不明的嗜酸粒细胞肺疾病,以嗜酸粒细胞在肺中聚集为特征.慢性嗜酸粒细胞肺炎临床表现多不典型,误诊率高.本文从定义、临床表现、诊断、治疗及预后对该病作一综述,以提高对其的认识.

  12. Acute respiratory failure secondary to eosinophilic pneumonia following influenza vaccination in an elderly man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Prapaporn Pornsuriyasak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure with diffuse pulmonary opacities is an unusual manifestation following influenza vaccination. We report herein a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed fever with worsening of respiratory symptoms and severe hypoxemia requiring ventilatory support shortly after influenza vaccination. Bronchoalveolar lavage was compatible with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Rapid clinical improvement was observed 2 weeks after systemic corticosteroid treatment, followed by radiographic improvement at 4 weeks. No disease recurrence was observed at the 6-month follow-up.

  13. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

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    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  14. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia involving with mediastinal lymph nodes: radiologic study of three cases. Neumonia eosinofila cronica asociada a adenopatias mediastinicas: estudio radiologico de tres casos

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    Calvo Garcia, A.; Gordillo Gutierrez, I.; Guembe Urtiaga, P. (Hospital Gregorio Maraon, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an uncommon disorder in our setting. Chest x-ray is essential to diagnosis. To date, we have found only three reported cases in which mediastinal lymph nodes were involved. We present three additional cases with standard thoracic study. (Author)

  15. [A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia].

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    Kai, Naoko; Shirai, Ryo; Hirata, Norio; Iwata, Atsuko; Umeki, Kenji; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kishi, Kenji; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2009-03-01

    A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia is described. A 32-year-old woman was previously admitted to another hospital because of acute onset of dyspnea accompanied by cough and fever. Chest X-ray films revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs two days after her symptoms occurred. Her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 13% eosinophils and transbronchial lung biopsy specimen also showed many eosinophils infiltrating in the lesions of the bronchial submucosa and alveolar septa. No infectious causes or related drugs were found. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed, and her condition improved gradually without steroid treatment. Because she recovered clinically and radiologically, she was discharged from hospital. Half a month later she was treated with Nicolase because of pharyngitis. She was admitted to the hospital again because of dyspnea, cough and fever three days after commencing to take Nicolase. Chest X-ray films also revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs with pleural effusion, and her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 37% eosinophils. When the drug lymphocyte stimulation test was performed, it was positive for Nicolase. Therefore drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed. This is a very rare case of Nicolase (serrapeptase)-induced eosinophilic pneumonia after recovering from acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

  16. Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke and Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Zekai; ALİOĞLU, Bülent; ÖZBEK, Emel ÖZYÜREK Namık

    2008-01-01

    We present the case reports of two children with a parasitic infestation associated with hypereosinophilia. One of those patients, who had been exposed to excessive second-hand tobacco smoke, was diagnosed as having acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The second patient had neither a history of exposure to second-hand smoke nor a prior diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. We suggest that passive smoking may trigger acute eosinophilic pneumonia, a condition that develops frequently in children...

  17. Minocycline induced eosinophilic pneumonia: case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Klerkx, S; K. Pat; Wuyts, Wim

    2009-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman with eosinophilic pneumonia due to minocycline is described and a review of available literature is added. Until now, only 49 cases have been described, mainly in the Japanese population. Minocycline induced eosinophilic pneumonia is probably underreported and even underdiagnosed. This case highlights the importance of careful history taking, especially the use of drugs. Relatively safe drugs (like minocycline) can cause serious adverse events. On presentation, the disease...

  18. Eosinophilic pneumonias. A clinical case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with sertraline and literature review

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    Roberto Serini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP is one of the heterogeneous group of disorders termed eosinophilic lung diseases showing an abnormal accumulation of eosinophils in distal airways, air spaces, and the interstitial compartment of the lung. AEP is characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure, a typical radiographic pattern similar to that of acute pulmonary edema, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy with no relapse when tapering or withdrawing treatment in the absence of infection. It can be idiopathic o secondary to known causes such as drugs, or fungal and parasitic infections. Clinical case: We report a case of a 76-year-old woman who developed symptoms, respiratory signs, and radiological and histological findings compatible with secondary AEP, we assessed as being associated with sertraline assumption (second case in literature. Discussion: The AEP we detected could be related to a secondary hypersensitivity syndrome to drug exposure (DRESS syndrome: Drug Rush with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms characterized by 1 skin rush, 2 increased eosinophilia, and 3 systemic involvement. The presence of all three criteria confirmed our diagnosis.

  19. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

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    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon; Park, Ki-Jong

    2016-06-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  20. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. A clinical and follow-up study of 62 cases. The Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Maladies "Orphelines" Pulmonaires (GERM"O"P).

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    Marchand, E; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Lauque, D; Durieu, J; Tonnel, A B; Cordier, J F

    1998-09-01

    Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare disorder of unknown cause with nonspecific respiratory and systemic symptoms but rather characteristic peripheral alveolar infiltrates on imaging, developing mainly in women and in atopic subjects. The disorder is highly responsive to oral corticosteroid therapy, but relapses are frequent on reducing or stopping treatment. The long-term course of the disease and data regarding outcome, particularly the need for prolonged oral corticosteroid therapy and the development of severe asthma, are somewhat contradictory. A multicentric retrospective study was conducted in an attempt to describe better the initial features and, above all, the later course of CEP in a large homogeneous series of 62 stringently selected patients of whom 46 were followed for more than 1 year. The prevalence of smokers was low (6.5%) and about half of our patients (51.6%) had a previous, and often prolonged, history of asthma. The clinical and roentgenographic features were in keeping with previous studies, but we found that computed tomography could disclose ground glass opacities not detected by X-ray, and that migratory infiltrates before treatment were more frequent (25.5%) than reported previously. The bronchoalveolar lavage cellular count always showed a striking eosinophilic pattern, thus allowing distinction between CEP and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, both syndromes sharing many common clinical and imaging features. About two-thirds of the patients (68%) showed a ventilatory defect in pulmonary function tests, with about one-half of these presenting with an obstructive pattern, sometimes without previous asthma. Along with the submucosal eosinophilic infiltration noted in 2 patients without ventilatory defect, this is strong evidence to confirm that CEP is not only an alveolointerstitial but also an airway disease. The dramatic response to oral corticosteroid therapy was observed in all treated patients. Although only 1

  1. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

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    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  2. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

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    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  3. Chronic rhinitis: Effects of local corticosteroids on eosinophils

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    Ursulović Dejan D.; Janošević Ljiljana B.; Janošević Slobodanka B.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical manifestation of chronic rhinitis is due to local release of mediators from inflammatory cells. Eosinophil leukocytes are important in pathogenesis of nasal hypersensitivity as well as nasal hyperreactivity [1,2]. The aim of the study was to follow-up the effect of local corticosteroid treatment on a number of eosinophils in nasal secretion of patients with chronic rhinitis. The study was prospective and controlled. A total number of 88 subjects was included in the study. Patients wi...

  4. Emergency cesarean section as a result of acute eosinophilic pneumonia during pregnancy.

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    Kotani, Yasushi; Shiota, Mitsuru; Umemoto, Masahiko; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Tobiume, Takako; Tsuritani, Hiromitsu; Shimaoka, Masao; Doh, Kunihiko; Hoshiai, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltrative shadows on radiography. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia follows an acute course within 1 week and the symptoms include fever, dyspnea, and cough. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia has a good prognosis and responds promptly to steroid treatments. Here we present a critical case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia during pregnancy, which led to emergency cesarean section because of fetal distress. The patient was a 24-year-old gravida at 34 + 6 weeks gestation, with fever, and an elevated CRP; thus antibiotics were started. At 35 + 1 weeks gestation, cardiotocography (CTG) revealed late decelerations, fetal distress was diagnosed, and an emergency cesarean section was performed. The pre-operative maternal blood gas analysis showed a low PaO(2) of 55.7 mmHg and a chest X-ray revealed ground-glass opacities and pleural effusions in the middle lower lung fields bilaterally. A male of 2,336 g in weight was delivered with Apgar scores of 8 and 8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. Due to the clinical progress and the elevated eosinophil count (532/microl) in the peripheral blood differential leukocyte count, the diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was made. With the administration of oxygen and steroid treatment, the patient's general condition recovered. Both the mother and the baby were discharged on the 10(th) post-operative day and the patient has been leading a normal life with no recurrence for > 3 years since delivery. PMID:19851054

  5. Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a 14-month-old girl

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    Ha Neul Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (IAEP, characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure associated with diffuse radiographic infiltrates and pulmonary eosinophilia, is rarely reported in children. Diagnosis is based on an association of characteristic features including acute respiratory failure with fever, bilateral infiltrates on the chest X-ray, severe hypoxemia and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid >25% eosinophils or a predominant eosinophilic infiltrate in lung biopsies in the absence of any identifiable etiology. We present a 14-month-old girl who was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit because of acute respiratory distress. She had a fever, dry cough, and progressive dyspnea for 1 day. Chest X-ray showed multifocal consolidations, increased interstitial markings, parenchymal emphysema and pneumothorax. IAEP was confirmed by marked pulmonary infiltrates of eosinophils in the lung biopsy specimen. Most known causes of acute eosinophilic pneumonia, such as exposure to causative drugs, toxins, second-hand smoking and infections were excluded. Her symptoms were resolved quickly after corticosteroid therapy.

  6. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis; Case report and literature review

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    Arindom Aich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been diseasefree with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman.

  7. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis: Case report and literature review.

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    Aich, Arindom; Al-Ismaili, Suad; Ramadhan, Fatma A; Al-Wardi, Talal H M; Al-Salmi, Quasem; Al-Hashami, Hilal

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been disease-free with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman. PMID:26629385

  8. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

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    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment.

  9. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

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    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

  10. Categorization and Clinicopathological Features of Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Eosinophilic Mucin in a Korean Population

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    Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Hak-Jun; Lee, Jin-Woo; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Min; Rha, Ki-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with eosinophilic mucin is relatively rare in Korea. We categorized CRS patients with characteristic eosinophilic mucin into several groups and compared the groups based on their clinicopathological features. Methods In total, 52 CRS patients with eosinophilic mucin were enrolled. Based on the presence or absence of an allergy (A) to a fungus or fungal element (F) in the mucin, the patients were divided into four groups: allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (...

  11. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10–40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a...

  12. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10-40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  13. Experimental studies of chronic pneumonia of sheep.

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    Gilmour, J S; Jones, G E; Rae, A G

    1979-01-01

    Strains of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from sheep affected with chronic pneumonia were inoculated by endobronchial route to conventionally-reared and SPF (Specific Pathogen-Free) lambs. Changes resembling those of the naturally-occurring disease were produced in most lambs given the organisms in combination and in some given M. ovipneumoniae alone. Similar but less extensive changes were seen in SPF lambs and fewer animals were affected. Different strains of M. ovipneumoniae did not affect the extent of changes produced in SPF lambs. M. ovipneumoniae became established in the lungs of both types of sheep; P. haemolytica did so less readily. It was concluded that chronic pneumonia may be reproduced in conventional animals by combined inoculation of M. ovipneumoniae and P. haemolytica. Age and status of immunity to mycoplasmas may account for the different responses of conventional and SPF lambs.

  14. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk...... and 2,864 moderate COPD exacerbations were recorded. Among all participants with COPD, blood eosinophils above versus below 0.34∙10(9) cells/L had a multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.76 (95%CI: 1.56-1.99) for severe exacerbations and of 1.15 (1.05-1.27) for moderate exacerbations...

  15. Eosinophilic pneumonia associated with daptomycin: a case report and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanourgiakis Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although several studies did not demonstrate that daptomycin may cause significantly higher rates of pulmonary adverse effects when compared with vancomycin or penicillinase-resistant penicillins, there have been a few case reports of severe pulmonary complications associated with daptomycin administration. Case presentation A rare case of eosinophilic pneumonia occurring 10 days after daptomycin administration in a 78-year-old Caucasian man with possible infectious endocarditis is described. He developed new onset fever, up to 38.5°C, with bilateral pulmonary crackles on physical examination and with no signs of severe respiratory failure. A chest computed tomography-scan showed bilateral nodular consolidations with air bronchograms and pleural effusions. Immediate discontinuation of daptomycin was followed by vigorous improvement of clinical signs and symptoms with progressive resolution of pulmonary consolidations a month later. Conclusion Physicians should be aware of this rare but serious complication during daptomycin treatment, and prompt discontinuation of the offending agent, with or without additional supportive treatment, must occur immediately.

  16. The utility of thoracic ultrasound in patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Yoon

    Full Text Available Thoracic ultrasound (TUS is an easy-to-use imaging modality that aids physicians in the differential diagnosis of respiratory diseases. However, no data exist on the TUS findings of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP or their clinical utility in patients with AEP. Thus, we performed an observational study on TUS findings and their clinical utility for follow-up in patients with AEP. We prospectively screened patients who visited the emergency department for acute respiratory symptoms at the Armed Forces Capital Hospital in South Korea between February 2014 and July 2014. Of them, patients suspected to have AEP underwent an etiological investigation, including flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and TUS, and we evaluated TUS findings and serial changes on TUS during the treatment course compared with those from chest radiographs. In total, 22 patients with AEP were identified. The TUS examinations revealed that all patients exhibited multiple diffuse bilateral B-lines and lung sliding, with (n = 5 or without pleural effusion, which was consistent with alveolar-interstitial syndrome. B-line numbers fell during the course of treatment, as the lines became thinner and fainter. A-lines were evident in 19 patients on day 7 of hospitalization, when B-lines had disappeared in 13 patients, and all pleural effusion had resolved. All patients exhibited complete ultrasonic resolution by day 14, along with clinicoradiological improvement. Chest radiographs of five patients taken on day 7 seemed to show complete resolution, but several abnormal B-lines were evident on TUS performed the same day. As a result, our data show common TUS findings of AEP and suggest that AEP may be included as a differential diagnosis when multiple diffuse bilateral B-lines with preserved lung sliding are identified on a TUS examination in patients with acute symptoms, and that TUS is a useful modality for evaluating the treatment response in patients with AEP.

  17. Communicating hydrocephalus following eosinophilic meningitis is pathogenic for chronic Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Storch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian Republic. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Viliuiski river basin in the Republic of Sakha in 2000 and to the capital Yakutsk in 2006. The severity of the core clinical picture with predominant sensory ataxia, gait apraxia, lower limb spasticity, cognitive impairment and bladder dysfunction correlated with the degree of MRI findings showing enlargement of inner ventricular spaces as in communicating hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies revealed transient eosinophilia during the preceding acute meningitis-like phase, but no ongoing inflammatory process in the CSF. We found immune reactions against Toxocara canis in the majority of chronic VE patients but rarely in controls (P = 0.025; Fisher's exact test. Histological analysis of subacute to subchronic VE brain samples showed eosinophilic infiltrations with no signs of persistent Toxocara canis infection. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our data showed that pressure by the communicating hydrocephalus as a mechanical factor is the major pathogenic mechanism in chronic VE, most likely triggered by eosinophilic meningitis. There are no signs for an ongoing inflammatory process in chronic VE. The past eosinophilic reaction in VE might be caused by Toxocara ssp. infection and might therefore represent the first hint for an initial cause leading to the development of chronic VE. Our data provide a framework for future studies and potential therapeutic interventions for this enigmatic epidemic neurological disease potentially spreading in Sakha Republic.

  18. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Leading to Acute Respiratory Failure in a Current Systemic Corticosteroid User

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hwa Yong; Choe, Ju Won; Kwon, Minsuk; Jang, Ju Young; Jung, Jae Woo; Choi, Jae Chol; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Jae Yeol

    2013-01-01

    A 69-year-old female patient visited the emergency room with fever (38.3℃) and dyspnea. She had been taking prednisolone (5 mg once per day) and methotrexate (2.5 mg once per week) for rheumatoid arthritis for 2 years. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral, multifocal ground glass opacity with interlobular septal thickening. Peripheral blood leukocyte count was 6,520/mm3 (neutrophils, 77.4%; eosinophils, 12.1%). During the night, mechanical ventilation was initiated due to the devel...

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity is associated with severe pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seop Eom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a heterogeneous disorder, and various aspects of COPD may be associated with the severity of pneumonia in such patients. AIMS: We examined the risk factors associated with severe pneumonia in a COPD population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study using a prospectively collected database of pneumonia patients who were admitted to our hospital through emergency department between 2008 and 2012. Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and those with an immunocompromised status were excluded. RESULTS: Of 148 pneumonia patients with COPD for whom chest computed tomography (CT scans were available, 106 (71.6% and 42 (28.4% were classified as non-severe and severe pneumonia, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the severity of airflow limitation [odds ratio (OR, 2.751; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.074-7.050; P = 0.035] and the presence of emphysema on a chest CT scan (OR, 3.366; 95% CI, 1.104-10.265; P = 0.033 were independently associated with severe pneumonia in patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD including the airflow limitation grade and the presence of pulmonary emphysema were independently associated with the development of severe pneumonia.

  20. Eosinophils Reduce Chronic Inflammation in Adipose Tissue by Secreting Th2 Cytokines and Promoting M2 Macrophages Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is now recognized as a low-grade, chronic inflammatory disease that is linked to a myriad of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and liver diseases. Recently it is found that eosinophils accelerate alternative activation macrophage (AAM polarization by secreting Th2 type cytokines such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, thereby reducing metainflammation in adipose tissue. In this review, we focused on the role of eosinophils in regulating metabolic homeostasis and obesity.

  1. Minocycline-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon W. Hung

    2015-01-01

    Minocycline is commonly used for pneumonia, acute bronchitis, urinary tract infections, and acne and is likely the cause of AEP in our patient. There are 26 case reports of minocycline-induced AEP. In most cases, outcomes were favorable and symptoms rapidly resolved upon discontinuation of minocycline, with 11 cases employing steroids, one case twelve hours of CPAP and another 5 days of intubation. None resulted in mortality. Although it is difficult to evaluate without further studies, steroids should be recommended for minocycline-induced AEP, especially for those with severe or persistent symptoms.

  2. Elevated expression of CC Chemokine ligand 23 in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poposki, Julie A.; Uzzaman, Ashraf; Nagarkar, Deepti R.; Chustz, Regina T.; Peters, Anju T.; Suh, Lydia A.; Carter, Roderick; Norton, James; Harris, Kathleen E.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Tan, Bruce K.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Conley, David B.; Kern, Robert C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kato, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic disease characterized by local inflammation of the sinonasal tissues. The pathogenesis of CRS remains controversial but it has been associated with the accumulation of various immune and inflammatory cells in sinus tissue. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of chemokine CCL23, known to bind to CCR1 and recruit monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in patients with CRS. Methods We collected nasal tissue from patients with CRS and control subjects. We assayed mRNA for CCL23 by using real-time PCR and measured CCL23 protein by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results CCL23 mRNA was significantly elevated in nasal polyps from patients with polypoid CRS (CRSwNP) (p<0.05) compared to inferior turbinate and uncinate tissue from patients with CRS or control subjects. CCL23 protein was also elevated in nasal polyps, although these levels were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed CCL23 expression in mucosal epithelial cells and inflammatory cells, but accumulation of CCL23 positive inflammatory cells occurred only in nasal polyps. Immunofluorescence data showed CCL23 co-localization with ECP positive eosinophils. The concentration of CCL23 in nasal polyps positively correlated with the concentration of ECP, suggesting that eosinophils are major CCL23 producing cells in nasal polyps. Finally, we found that CCL23 protein was significantly elevated in nasal polyps from patients with CRSwNP with aspirin sensitivity. Conclusion Overproduction of CCL23 in nasal polyps may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic CRSwNP via the recruitment of CCR1 positive inflammatory cells including monocytes and macrophages, and the amplification of local inflammation. PMID:21497884

  3. Lung lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured lung lobar volume by using helical computed tomography (HCT) in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 7 patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD-IP), and 5 healthy volunteers HCT scanning was done at the maximal inspiratory level and the resting end-expiratory level. To measure lung lobar volume, we traced the lobar margin on HCT images with a digitizer and calculated the lobar volume with a personal computer. The lower lobar volume and several factors influencing it in chronic interstitial pneumonia were studied. At the maximal inspiratory level, the lower lobar volume as a percent of the whole lung volume was 46.8±4.13% (mean ± SD) in the volunteers, 39.5±6.19% in the patients with IIP, and 27.7±7. 86% in the patients with CVD-IP. The lower lobar volumes in the patients were significantly lower than in the volunteers. Patients with IIP in whom autoantibody tests were positive had lower lobar volumes that were very low and were similar to those of patients with CVD-IP. These data suggest that collagen vascular disease may develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The patients with IIP who had emphysematous changes on the CT scans had smaller decreases in total lung capacity and lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity than did those who had no emphysematous changes, those two groups did not differ in the ratio of lower lobar volume to whole lung volume. This suggests that emphysematous change is not factor influencing lower lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia. We conclude that chronic interstitial pneumonia together with very low values for lower lobar volume may be a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease. (author)

  4. Chronic granulomatous disease presenting as refractory pneumonia in late adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    SARWAR, Ghulam; de Malmanche, Theo; Rassam, Loui; Grainge, Christopher; Williams, Andrew; Arnold, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of refractory pneumonia in an adult patient with underlying chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Her lobectomy tissue grew B urkholderia cepacia and histopathology revealed diffuse severe pneumonic consolidation with suppurative/necrotizing granulomata. An initial attempt to find an underlying immune deficiency was unsuccessful. Following recurrent invasive infections, repeat immunological assessment revealed reduced neutrophil function, demonstrating skewed carrier status (...

  5. Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancil, Aaron S; Hewett, Rhys; Hayat, Jamal O; Poullis, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the oesophagus, characterized by symptoms of dysphagia or food bolus obstruction. Diagnosis is supported by typical histological findings. This article covers pertinent aspects of the disease, pathogenic explanations and treatment options. PMID:27388380

  6. Expression of cysLT1 and cysLT2 Receptor in Chronic Hyperplastic Eosinophilic Sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) from sinus tissues and abundant sinus eosinophils are characteristic features of chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic sinusitis (CHS). CysLTs exert their action through G-protein-coupled receptors named cysLTs receptor type I (cysLT1R) and type II (cysLT2R). These expressions of cysLT receptors in the sinus mucosa have yet to be clarified and the relationship between eosinophilia and the expression of these receptors remains obscure. We compared the expressions of cysLT1R and cysLT2R in the sinus mucosa in patients with CHS, non-eosinophilic chronic sinusitis (NECS), and control sinus tissues; and analyzed the correlation between the expression of CysLTRs and the presence of sinus eosinophils by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. A significantly higher percentage of eosinophils expressing cysLT2R protein was observed in patients with CHS compared with NECS and controls. In addition, cysLT2R mRNA expression in CHS was significantly higher than in NECS and controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between cysLT2R mRNA expression and the number of infiltrated eosinophils. In contrast, the cysLT1R mRNA expression did not differ significantly among these groups. The effect of cysLTs on sinus eosinophils may be mediated through the cysLT2R in patients with CHS. These results may suggest the therapeutic benefit of cysLT2R antagonists in CHS

  7. Pathogenetic approaches to the treatment of children with chronic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rano Musajanova

    2011-01-01

    We observed 60 children with chronic pneumonia aged from 3 to 14 years compared with 20 healthy children of the same age. Analysis of the biochemical data in children who received thiotriazoline showed reliable reduce of malondialdehyde and dien conjugates in comparison with control group. The levels of superoxidismutase and catalase increased. The results of immunological investigations showed that in children who took thiotriazoline noted reliable increase of T-lymphocytes, T-helpers, T-sup...

  8. Clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic pneumonia in pneumoconiosis and dust bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical and radiologic symptomatology of chronic pneumonia is described for pneumoconiosis and chronic dust bronchitis. Combined X-ray methods of examination permit the physicians to discover this complication in dust diseases of the lungs in the presence of diffuse pneumosclerotic changes in 76.5+-3 % of cases. These data approach the values of chronic pneumonia incidence among the population. Chronic pneumonia diagnosis should be complex. If no less than 2 to 3 X-ray signs of the disease have been found simultaneously, the significance of radiologic diagnosis of chronic pneumonia in dust pathology of the lungs, rises. Radiologic examination, supported by clinical, anamnestic and laboratory data, allows one to differentiate chronic pneumonia from coniotuberculosis. Chest X-rays in dust pathology of the lungs, complicated by chronic pneumonia, should be carried out with regard to clinical indications

  9. Management guidelines of eosinophilic esophagitis in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, A; Koletzko, S; Heuschkel, R;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. With few exceptions, 15 eosinophils per high-power field...

  10. Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway and Eosinophilic Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis/ Nasal Polyposis. Potential Role of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Novo, C

    2006-01-01

    linked to inflammation. Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 receptor expression was increased in chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyp subjects in contrast to EP1 and EP3, which were down regulated in the polyp group, suggesting a distinctive role of these receptors in the pathophysiology of nasal polyposis. Finally, based on our previous findings and parallel work of our group, we studied the influence of S. aureus enterotoxins in the regulation of both eosinophilic inflammatory and eicosanoid pathway...

  11. One case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia and review of literature%急性嗜酸粒细胞性肺炎1例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏风芹; 刘学东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Methods The clinical data of one case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia and literatures were comprehensively analyzed. Results The patient had cough and sputum for more than ten days, had chest tightness and chest pain for eight days,had fever for four days. Chest CT showed double pneumonia, bilateral pleural effusion. Anti-infective treatment failed, the condition progressively aggravated. Eosinophils were more than 50% in pleural effusion. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia was considered. After treatment with hormone on the basis of the anti-infection, the condition improved. Conclusions Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare and self-limiting disease, and hormone treatment is effective.%目的 探讨急性嗜酸性粒细胞肺炎的临床表现、诊断、治疗方法及预后.方法 结合我院收治的1例急性嗜酸粒细胞性肺炎的临床资料及国内外文献报道的病例进行综合分析.结果 患者18岁,青年男性,咳嗽、咯痰10余天,胸闷、胸痛8 d,加重伴发热4 d入院.胸部CT示双肺炎,双侧胸腔积液,抗感染治疗无效,病情进行性加重,胸水中找到嗜酸粒细胞大于50%,考虑急性嗜酸粒细胞性肺炎,在抗感染基础上加用激素治疗后好转.结论 急性嗜酸粒细胞性肺炎是一种少见病,有自限性,激素治疗有效.

  12. Primary Cytomegalovirus-Related Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Three-year-old Child with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Reesi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia (EP is rare in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. We report a case of EP in association with a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in a three-yearold Omani child with ALL. The patient presented with fever while undergoing maintenance chemotherapy. He was admitted to the Child Health Department of Royal Hospital, in Muscat, Oman, in November 2011. He was initially thought to have sepsis but failed to respond to antibiotics. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass lung opacification. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cytology was consistent with the diagnosis of EP. Polymerase chain reaction tests for CMV were performed on the BAL and blood samples and were both markedly elevated. The patient made a full recovery after treatment with prednisolone and ganciclovir. The association between CMV infection and EP as well as the management of this combination in immunocompromised patients has never been reported in the English literature.

  13. Chronic interstitial pneumonia with honeycombing in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brichet, A.; Tonnel, A.B.; Brambilla, E.; Devouassoux, G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Copin, M.C.; Wallaert, B. [A. Calmette Hospital, Lille (France)

    2002-10-01

    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) results from coal mine dust inhalation. The paper reports the presence of a chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with honeycombing in 38 cases of coal miners, with or without CWP. The 38 patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria which are unusual in CWP, i.e. fine inspiratory crackles and severe dyspnea. There were 37 men and one woman; mean age was 67.5 {+-} 9.1 years. Thirty-two were smokers. Duration of exposure was 26.7 {+-} 9.9 years. All the patients had clinical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), lung function, laboratory investigations, wedged fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In eight cases, lung specimens were obtained. Seventeen out of 38 had finger clubbing. 17 had radiological signs of CWP limited to the upper lobes or diffusely distributed. CT showed honeycombing (36 cases), and/or ground glass opacities (30 cases) with traction bronchiectasis (8 cases) predominant in the lower lobes. BAL analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of neutrophils (9.4% {+-} 6). Lung function showed a restrictive pattern associated with a decreased DLCO and hypoxemia. Lung specimens demonstrated in 2 cases a homogenous interstitial fibrosis of intra-alveolar septum with an accumulation of immune and inflammatory cells without temporal variation and with obvious honeycombing. The 6 other cases showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia. These cases, should alert other clinicians to a possible association between CIP with honeycombing and coal dust exposure, with or without associated CWP.

  14. Chronic granulomatous disease presenting as refractory pneumonia in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Ghulam; de Malmanche, Theo; Rassam, Loui; Grainge, Christopher; Williams, Andrew; Arnold, David

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of refractory pneumonia in an adult patient with underlying chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Her lobectomy tissue grew B urkholderia cepacia and histopathology revealed diffuse severe pneumonic consolidation with suppurative/necrotizing granulomata. An initial attempt to find an underlying immune deficiency was unsuccessful. Following recurrent invasive infections, repeat immunological assessment revealed reduced neutrophil function, demonstrating skewed carrier status (lyonization) for X-linked CGD (only 3% normal cells). A pathogenic mutation in the CYBB gene was found on sequencing. CYBB gene encodes the gp91phox, a catalytic subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase that produces reactive oxygen species in phagocytes. Lyonization increases with age, explaining the delayed clinical CGD. CGD is a rare neutrophil disorder that usually presents in early life with recurrent infections due to bacteria and fungi primarily involving lungs and skin. It is secondary to a defective NADPH oxidase system needed to kill intracellular organisms and activate the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. PMID:26090111

  15. [Serrapeptase-induced lung injury manifesting as acute eosiniphilic pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S; Kawanami, R; Motizuki, Y; Nakahara, Y; Kawamura, T; Tanaka, A; Watanabe, S

    2000-07-01

    An 84-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of fever, cough, and hemoptysis. The patient had acute respiratory failure (PaO2 < 40 mmHg) on admission, with diffuse interstitial infiltration and bilateral pleural effusion. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was bloody, and contained a high percentage of eosinophils (32%). A diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was established, and the patient made a rapid recovery after corticosteroids were administered. When the DLST (drug lymphocyte stimulation test) was performed after the corticosteroid therapy was stopped, it was positive for serrapeptase, which had been prescribed for chronic cystitis for 3 months before the onset of the pneumonia. This was a case of drug (serrapeptase)-induced pneumonitis manifesting as acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

  16. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restroom and before eating. Use lukewarm water and soap for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, using an alcohol- ... at higher risk for pneumonia? Do I have bacterial, viral or fungal pneumonia? What’s the best treatment? ...

  17. Chronic Lipoid Pneumonia in a 9-Year-Old Child Revealed by Recurrent Chest Pain

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hochart; Thumerelle, C.; Petyt, L.; Mordacq, C.; Deschildre, A.

    2015-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia in children is a rare disorder due to accumulation of fatty oily material in the alveoli and usually associated with an underlying condition. In absence of obvious context, diagnosis remains difficult with nonspecific clinical and radiological features. We report the first case of voluntary chronic aspiration of olive oil responsible for exogenous lipoid pneumonia, in a previously healthy 9-year-old boy. Clinical presentation was atypical; LP was revealed by isolated chest pa...

  18. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better than treating it. Vaccines are available to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia and the flu. Other preventive measures include washing your hands frequently and not smoking. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  19. Eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined by the presence of at least 10% eosinophils in the total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count. Although there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF, parasitic infection is the main cause. The three common parasites causing eosinophilic meningitis include Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, and Taenia solium. Even though these parasites are endemic in tropical countries, they are now spreading globally due to extensive traveling, and physicians worldwide should pay more attention to this condition. This chapter will review risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of these three parasites.

  20. Chronic Lipoid Pneumonia in a 9-Year-Old Child Revealed by Recurrent Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochart, A; Thumerelle, C; Petyt, L; Mordacq, C; Deschildre, A

    2015-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia in children is a rare disorder due to accumulation of fatty oily material in the alveoli and usually associated with an underlying condition. In absence of obvious context, diagnosis remains difficult with nonspecific clinical and radiological features. We report the first case of voluntary chronic aspiration of olive oil responsible for exogenous lipoid pneumonia, in a previously healthy 9-year-old boy. Clinical presentation was atypical; LP was revealed by isolated chest pain. We discuss radiological and bronchial alveolar lavage characteristics suggestive of lipoid pneumonia. Conclusion. Lipoid pneumonia is a disease to be reminded of in children, which can occur with original findings in terms of etiology and clinical presentation. PMID:26078902

  1. Chronic Lipoid Pneumonia in a 9-Year-Old Child Revealed by Recurrent Chest Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hochart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoid pneumonia in children is a rare disorder due to accumulation of fatty oily material in the alveoli and usually associated with an underlying condition. In absence of obvious context, diagnosis remains difficult with nonspecific clinical and radiological features. We report the first case of voluntary chronic aspiration of olive oil responsible for exogenous lipoid pneumonia, in a previously healthy 9-year-old boy. Clinical presentation was atypical; LP was revealed by isolated chest pain. We discuss radiological and bronchial alveolar lavage characteristics suggestive of lipoid pneumonia. Conclusion. Lipoid pneumonia is a disease to be reminded of in children, which can occur with original findings in terms of etiology and clinical presentation.

  2. Eosinophilic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  3. Interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in paediatric patients suffering from an underlying chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Carla; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Terranova, Leonardo; Ierardi, Valentina; Gambino, Monia; Principi, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in school-age children and adolescents suffering from an underlying chronic disease. To increase our knowledge in this regard, an oropharyngeal swab was obtained from school-age children and adolescents suffering from asthma (n = 423), cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 212) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (n = 296). S. pneumoniae detection and serotyping were performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and S. aureus detection was performed using the RIDAGENE MRSA system. Among asthmatic, CF and DM1 patients, both pathogens were identified in 65/423 (15.4%), 21/212 (9.9%) and 62/296 (20.9%) children, respectively; S. pneumoniae alone was identified in 127/434 (30.0%), 21/212 (9.9%) and 86/296 (29.1%), respectively; S. aureus alone was identified in 58/434 (13.7%), 78/212 (36.8%) and 49/296 (16.6%), respectively. S. pneumoniae colonisation rates were higher in younger children and declined with age, whereas the frequency of S. aureus colonisation was quite similar in the different age groups. Among asthmatic and CF patients aged 6-9 years, S. aureus carriage was significantly higher in children who were positive for S. pneumoniae (P <0.05). No significant association emerged between S. aureus carriage and carriage of S. pneumoniae serotypes included in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). This study shows for the first time that school-age children and adolescents with asthma, CF and DM1 are frequently colonised by S. pneumoniae and S. aureus and that no negative relationship seems to exist between these pathogens. Moreover, the supposed protection offered by PCV administration against S. aureus colonisation was not demonstrated.

  4. Chronic meningitis with intracranial hypertension and bilateral neuroretinitis following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampatsas, Konstantinos; Patel, Himanshu; Basheer, Sheikh N; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-12-23

    A previously well 12-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of headache, nausea, vomiting and left-sided weakness. He subsequently developed meningism, right abducens nerve palsy, persistent papilloedema and reduced visual acuity in association with a bilateral macular star, consistent with neuroretinitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination indicated chronic meningitis and serological testing confirmed recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, although PCR in CSF was negative. He was treated for aseptic meningitis with ceftriaxone, aciclovir, azithromycin and acetazolamide for intracranial hypertension, with gradual improvement in clinical condition and visual acuity over several weeks. This is the first report of M. pneumoniae chronic meningitis further complicated with bilateral neuroretinitis and intracranial hypertension. Evidence of central nervous system inflammation in the absence of direct infection suggests an immune-mediated pathophysiology. Although the use of macrolides with antibiotic and immunomodulatory activity might be beneficial, it was not possible to ascertain whether it influenced clinical recovery in this case.

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand R Gupte; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition,it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modi f icat ions, topical cor t icosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination.

  6. Coinfection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot cattle with chronic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar, Farshid M.; Clark, Edward G.; Janzen, Eugene; West, Keith; Wobeser, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Chronic, antibiotic-resistant pneumonia, sometimes with concurrent polyarthritis, occurs in feedlot cattle in western Canada. The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and Haemophilus somnus was determined by using immunohistochemical staining of lung and heart tissue from 2 groups of animals with this history. Mycoplasma bovis antigen was present in 44/48 cases submitted between 1995 and 1998 (retrospective group) and 15/16 of cases from 1999 (prospective group), and w...

  7. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off infection. Vaccines may help prevent pneumonia in children, the elderly, and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema , HIV, cancer, or other chronic conditions. A drug called palivizumab ( ...

  8. Eosinophilic cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease. We describe three cases, where presentations of the disease are similar. To highlight probable causes of the disease, symptoms, clinical findings and treatment modalities, we reviewed 56 cases over a 10-year period. The most common symptoms were...

  9. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskjær; Husby, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    , oral steroids, inhaled (swallowed) steroids, and leucotriene receptor antagonists. Detailed information on the eosinophilic inflammatory processes in the oesophageal mucosa was initially obtained from animal models, in particular with regard to the role of interleukin-5 and the chemokine eotaxin-1...

  10. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae as a cause of chronic adenoiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheshil Dixit

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a child with chronic adenoiditis caused by a PspK+ NESp. We tested the pneumococcal isolate, designated C144.66, for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of the pspK gene and the expression of PspK. Sequence typing and genome sequencing were performed. C144.66 was found to be resistant to erythromycin and displayed intermediate resistance to penicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. C144.66 has the pspK gene in place of the capsule locus. Additionally, PspK expression was confirmed by flow cytometry. NESp are a growing concern as an emerging human pathogen, as current pneumococcal vaccines do not confer immunity against them. An inability to vaccinate against NESp may result in increased carriage and associated pathology.

  11. Costs and health care resource utilization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with newly acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Junji Lin,1 Yunfeng Li,2 Haijun Tian,2 Michael J Goodman,1 Susan Gabriel,2 Tara Nazareth,2 Stuart J Turner,2,3 Stephen Arcona,2 Kristijan H Kahler21Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at increased risk for lung infections and other pathologies (eg, pneumonia; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of pneumonia on health care resource utilization and costs in this population. The purpose of this study was to estimate health care resource utilization and costs among COPD patients with newly acquired pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective claims analysis using Truven MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare databases was conducted. COPD patients with and without newly acquired pneumonia diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and September 30, 2011 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to create a 1:1 matched cohort. Patient demographics, comorbidities (measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index, and medication use were evaluated before and after matching. Health care resource utilization (ie, hospitalizations, emergency room [ER] and outpatient visits, and associated health care costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the risk of hospitalization and ER visits, and gamma regression models and two-part models compared health care costs between groups after matching. Results: In the baseline cohort (N=467,578, patients with newly acquired pneumonia were older (mean age: 70 versus [vs] 63 years and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (3.3 vs 2.6 than patients without pneumonia. After propensity score matching, the pneumonia cohort was nine times more likely

  12. Exhaled nitric oxide levels in exacerbations of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide is known to be present in the exhaled air of normal subjects and at higher concentrations in asthmatics. The aim of this study was to measure exhaled nitric oxide levels in patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbations of asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or with pneumonia. Within 24 hours of admission exhaled nitric oxide levels were measured by a chemiluminescent analyzer in 11 patients with acute sever asthma, 19 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in 12 patients with pneumonia. In asthmatics measurements were made on 3 occasions, at day 1, 4, and 28 and were related to changes in peak expiratory flow rate. On admission median exhaled nitric oxide levels (range) were significantly higher in asthmatics 22 (9.3-74) parts per billion in comparison to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 10.3 (2.7-34) parts per billion; p<0.01, pneumonia 7 (4-17) parts per billion; p<0.001, and normal subjects 8.7 (5-13.3) parts per billion; p<0.001. Following treatment the asthmatics had a significant reduction in their exhaled nitric oxide levels from 22 (9.3-74) parts per billion on day 1 to 9.7 (5.7-18.3) parts per billion on day 28; p=0.005. Peak expiratory flow rate measurements increased from 200 (120-280) l/min on day 1 to 280 (150-475) l/min on day 4; p<0.05 and to 390 (150-530) l/min on day 28; p<0.01. A strong negative correlation existed between peak expiratory flow rate measurements and exhaled nitric oxide levels in asthmatics on day 28 (r=-0.70; p=0.017). Acute exacerbations of asthma are associated with increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide in contrast to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute pneumonia. Exhaled nitric oxide may be a useful indirect marker of asthmatic airway inflammation. The differing time course of response of nitric oxide to peak flow measures suggests that these two measures are reflecting differing airway events. (author)

  13. Eosinophil count - absolute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  14. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Health Information > Condition Information Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of ... of Programs and Services Doctors Who Treat Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Rohit K. Katial Rafeul Alam Joshua J. ...

  15. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V;

    1997-01-01

    the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... against P. aeruginosa sonicate and a shift from an acute type to a chronic type of lung inflammation compared to those in the control and cortisone-treated groups were observed. These findings indicate that ginseng treatment of an experimental P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats promotes a cellular response...... resembling a TH1-like response. On the basis of these results it is suggested that ginseng may have the potential to be a promising natural medicine, in conjunction with other forms of treatment, for CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  16. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Girolamo Pelaia; Alessandro Vatrella; Maria Teresa Busceti; Luca Gallelli; Cecilia Calabrese; Rosa Terracciano; Rosario Maselli

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes un...

  17. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  18. FIP1L1-PDGFRα alone or with other genetic abnormalities reveals disease progression in chronic eosinophilic leukemia but good response to imatinib

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin-na; CHEN Sai-juan; PAN Qin; FU Jian-fei; SHI Jing-yi; JIN Jie; LI Jun-ming; HU Jiong; ZHAO Wei-li; CHEN Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Background The FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) and is a direct therapeutic target of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate.Methods In 24 hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) patients, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nested PCR and sequence analysis, we investigated the frequency of FIPIL1-PDGFRα and other abnormalities of tyrosine kinase family genes like PDGFRα, PDGFRβ, C-KIT, FGFR1, ABL and FLT3 as well as gene mutation "hotspots", like MPL515 and JAK2V617F, frequently involved in myeloproliferative diseases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to confirm the 4q12 deletion.Results The FIPILI-PDGFRα fusion transcript was found in 8 (33%) of 24 patients with HES, corresponding to the chromosome 4q12 deletion identified by FISH. The FIP1L1-PDGFRα-associated patients diagnosed with CEL, frequently had hepatosplenomegaly, eosinophil-related tissue damage, anemia, thrombocytopenia, myelofibrosis and a short overall survival time. Nevertheless, imatinib mesylate induced rapid and complete hematological responses in treated FIP1L1-PDGFRα cases, followed by molecular remission and reversal of myelofibrosis. FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion could co-exist with other mutations of tyrosine kinase family genes, like FLT3 or PDGFRβ. We also demonstrated that the SNPs of PDGFRβ were associated with selective splicing of exon 19 in case 20.Conclusions Correlating the CEL genotype with phenotype, FIPIL 1-PDGFRα emerges as a relatively homogeneous clinicobiological entity that co-exists with other abnormalities of tyrosine kinase family genes. It reflects the disease progression and there is a good response to imatinib. Detection of the FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion gene is valid for both CEL diagnosis and therapy surveillance.

  19. Eosinophil ETosis and DNA Traps: a New Look at Eosinophilic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Honda, Kohei; Hirokawa, Makoto; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2016-07-01

    The traditional paradigm of eosinophils as end-stage damaging cells has mainly relied on their release of cytotoxic proteins. Cytokine-induced cell survival and secretion of granular contents from tissue-dwelling eosinophil are thought to be important mechanisms for eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, although the occurrence of cytolysis and its products (i.e., free extracellular granules) has been observed in affected lesions. Recent evidence indicates that activated eosinophils can exhibit a non-apoptotic cell death pathway, namely extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) that mediates the eosinophil cytolytic degranulation. Here, we discuss the current concept of eosinophil ETosis which provides a new look at eosinophilic inflammation. Lessons from eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis revealed that ETosis-derived DNA traps, composed of stable web-like chromatin, contribute to the properties of highly viscous eosinophilic mucin and impairments in its clearance. Intact granules entrapped in DNA traps are causing long-lasting inflammation but also might have immunoregulatory roles. Eosinophils possess a way to have post-postmortem impacts on innate immunity, local immune response, sterile inflammation, and tissue damage. PMID:27393701

  20. A single weekly dose of imatinib is sufficient to induce and maintain remission of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia in FIP1L1-PDGFRA-expressing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Grzegorz; Stella-Hołowiecka, Beata; Majewski, Mirosław; Całbecka, Małgorzata; Gajkowska, Jolanta; Klimkiewicz, Ryszard; Moskwa, Andrzej; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Lewandowska, Monika; Hołowiecki, Jerzy

    2008-04-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is defined as chronic, unexplained hypereosinophilia with organ involvement. A subset of HES patients presents an interstitial deletion in chromosome 4q12, which leads to the expression of an imatinib-responsive fusion gene, FIP1L1-PDGFRA. These patients are diagnosed as chronic eosinophilic leukaemia (CEL). We treated seven CEL and HES patients, six of which expressed FIP1L1-PDGFRA, with imatinib using initial daily doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg. In a remission maintenance phase, the patients were treated with imatinib once weekly. All imatinib-treated patients achieved a complete haematological remission (CHR), and five of the six patients with FIP1L1-PDGFRA expression exhibited molecular remission. The decreased imatinib doses were as follows: 200 mg/week in three patients, 100 mg/week in two patients and 100 mg/d in the remaining two patients. For remission maintenance, imatinib doses were set at 100 mg/week in five patients and 200 mg/week in two patients. At a median follow-up of 30 months all patients remained in CHR and FIP1L1-PDGFRA expression was undetectable in five of the six FIP1L1-PDGFRA-expressing patients. These data suggest that a single weekly dose of imatinib is sufficient to maintain remission in FIP1L1-PDGFRA- positive CEL patients. PMID:18307562

  1. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway Mediates Fip1-like1-platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α-induced Cell Infiltration and Activation: Possible Molecular Mechanism for the Malignant Phenotype of Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fip1-like1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α fusion gene (F/P is responsible for 14-60% cases of hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES, also known as F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (F/P(+ CEL. The major pathogenesis of F/P(+ CEL is known to involve migration and activation of mast cells and eosinophils, leading to severe multi-organ dysfunction, but the mechanism was still unclear. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and serine-threonine protein kinase Akt have been reported to be targets of F/P in the F/P-promoted cell proliferation. They are extensively involved in the migration and adhesion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and also control cell invasion in some leukemias. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in eosinophil/neutrophil activation and infiltration; its possible role in regulating F/P induced cytotoxicity and upregulation of A4-integrin in eosinophils, and inducing eosinophil activation through controlling F/P-induced Nuclear factor-kB activity. Akt was recently shown to be stimulated by F/P, synergistically with stem cell factor, resulting in the induction of MCs migration and excessive activation. PI3K/Akt pathway is also a principal mediator of interleukin-5 (IL-5-induced signal transduction promoting eosinophil trafficking and degranulation, whereas IL-5 is a necessary cytokine for F/P-mediated CEL development. We, therefore, propose the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt pathway might be vital downstream of F/P to induce target cell activation and tissue infiltration, resulting in the malignant phenotype seen in F/P(+ CEL.

  2. Regulation of virulence gene expression resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae interactions in chronic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Cope

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a common inflammatory disease of the sinonasal cavity mediated, in part, by polymicrobial communities of bacteria. Recent molecular studies have confirmed the importance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi in CRS. Here, we hypothesize that interaction between S. pneumoniae and NTHi mixed-species communities cause a change in bacterial virulence gene expression. We examined CRS as a model human disease to validate these polymicrobial interactions. Clinical strains of S. pneumoniae and NTHi were grown in mono- and co-culture in a standard biofilm assay. Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RTqPCR was used to measure gene expression of key virulence factors. To validate these results, we investigated the presence of the bacterial RNA transcripts in excised human tissue from patients with CRS. Consequences of physical or chemical interactions between microbes were also investigated. Transcription of NTHi type IV pili was only expressed in co-culture in vitro, and expression could be detected ex vivo in diseased tissue. S. pneumoniae pyruvate oxidase was up-regulated in co-culture, while pneumolysin and pneumococcal adherence factor A were down-regulated. These results were confirmed in excised human CRS tissue. Gene expression was differentially regulated by physical contact and secreted factors. Overall, these data suggest that interactions between H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae involve physical and chemical mechanisms that influence virulence gene expression of mixed-species biofilm communities present in chronically diseased human tissue. These results extend previous studies of population-level virulence and provide novel insight into the importance of S. pneumoniae and NTHi in CRS.

  3. Eosinophils in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施焕中

    2004-01-01

    @@ The contribution of eosinophils to host-defense and inflammatory responses has undergone periodic reevalu-ations. Thirty years ago, eosinophil was considered as a principal effector cell in host-defense against parasites.

  4. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Shironjit; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common condition and a major cause of mortality. COPD is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction. The physiological abnormalities observed in COPD are due to a combination of emphysema and obliteration of the small airways in association with airway inflammation. The predominant cells involved in this inflammatory response are CD8+ lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. Although eosinophilic airway inflammation is usually considered a f...

  5. Inhaled corticosteroid use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of pneumonia: a retrospective claims data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawn BP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara P Yawn,1 Yunfeng Li,2 Haijun Tian,2 Jie Zhang,2 Steve Arcona,2 Kristijan H Kahler2 1Department of Research, Olmsted Medical Center, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Department of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Background: The use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in controlled clinical trials and case-control analyses. Objective: Using claims databases as a research model of real-world diagnosis and treatment, to determine if the use and dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS among patients with newly diagnosed COPD are associated with increased risk of pneumonia. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients diagnosed with COPD between January 01, 2006 and September 30, 2010, drawn from databases (years 2006–2010. Patients (aged ≥45 years were followed until first pneumonia diagnosis, end of benefit enrollment, or December 31, 2010, whichever was earliest. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the association of ICS use and risk of pneumonia, controlling for baseline characteristics. Daily ICS use was classified into low, medium, and high doses (1 µg–499 µg, 500 µg–999 µg, and ≥1000 µg fluticasone equivalents daily and was modeled as a time-dependent variable. Results: Among 135,445 qualifying patients with a total of 243,097 person-years, there were 1020 pneumonia incidences out of 5677 person-years on ICS (crude incidence rate, 0.180 per person-year, and 27,730 pneumonia incidences out of 237,420 person-years not on ICS (crude incidence rate, 0.117 per person-year. ICS use was associated with a dose-related increase in risk of pneumonia, with adjusted hazard ratios (versus no use; (95% confidence interval of 1.38 (1.27–1.49 for low-dose users, 1.69 (1.52–1.88 for medium-dose users, and 2.57 (1.98–3.33 for high

  6. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  7. Secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia during treatment of chronic hepatitis C: role of pegylated interferon alfa-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Soares Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic hepatitis C has frequent side effects such as cytopenias and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, pulmonary toxicity associated with interferon is rarely described. This paper describes the clinical case of a 67-year-old female patient with chronic hepatitis C who presented an acute onset of dry cough, dyspnoea, and fever 36 weeks after the use of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. The lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP. Corticotherapy was initiated, with clinical and radiological improvement. This paper aims to advise physicians to this occasional, though severe, adverse event related to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment.

  8. Eosinophil: central mediator of allergic asthma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hua-hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is a chronic disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, reversible airway obstruction, airway remodelling and mucus hypersecretion. It has been widely recognized that the infiltration of the lung with increased number of eosinophils is a hallmark of this disease.1

  9. Eosinophilic granuloma of temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease which can affect the temporal bone. Also known as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, the lesion is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of Langerhans cells. Although initially silent, the disease may erode the mastoid cortex, destroy the tegmen, and extend into the cranial vault, as well as erode the semicircular canals or cochlea. These lesions almost always become infected and can be confused with chronic otomastoiditis. Equally important, temporal bone involvement may represent only one manifestation of a multifocal disease. This report describes a case of 40-year-old male with eosinophilic granuloma involving the right temporal bone extending into midbrain region causing focal compression and displacement of part of the temporal lobe.

  10. Isolation of Human Eosinophils

    OpenAIRE

    Akuthota, Praveen; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Highly purified eosinophils can be isolated from peripheral blood by negative selection using an antibody-based magnetic negative selection protocol. The basic protocol describes a sequential fractionation of peripheral blood in which CD16+ granulocytes are enriched first from whole blood, followed by isolation of eosinophils. This technique is easy to use, fast, and highly reproducible. Support protocols describe a staining methods that can be used to evaluate the purity of eosinophils and d...

  11. Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps clinical comparative study%嗜酸性粒细胞性和非嗜酸性粒细胞性的慢性鼻窦炎鼻息肉部分临床对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾艳辉; 王艳军; 亚力坤·亚生

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨嗜酸性粒细胞性和非嗜酸性粒细胞性伴鼻息肉慢性鼻鼻窦炎的临床特点.[方法]回顾性分析76例慢性鼻窦炎鼻息肉患者,根据外周血嗜酸性粒细胞增高及鼻分泌物涂片嗜酸性粒细胞含量,将其分为嗜酸性粒细胞组和非嗜酸性粒细胞组,比较两组症状VAS评分、鼻息肉主观评分、鼻窦CT Lund-MacKay评分、嗅觉功能、鼻阻力、血清总IgE等指标间的差异.[结果]76例患者中,非嗜酸性组45例,嗜酸性组31例.非嗜酸性粒细胞组鼻息肉在临床病例中占59.2%;两组间症状VAS评分和鼻息肉主观评分无显著性差异(t=0.87,P=0.40;t=0.58,P=0.64).鼻窦CT的Lund-MacKay评分,嗜酸性组的筛窦病变程度较非嗜酸性组严重,存在显著性差异(t=2.11,P=0.03),而其余各鼻窦及OMC区均无显著性差异.两组间嗅觉功能以及双侧鼻腔总阻力亦无显著性差异(t=0.15,P=0.88;t=0.57,P=0.61).[结论]嗜酸性粒细胞升高在慢性鼻窦炎鼻息肉的发病中不起主导作用,对临床症状、鼻息肉大小、嗅觉功能和鼻阻力等方面没有显著影响,但可能与筛窦的病变程度存在一定相关性.%[Objective] To study the eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic nasal sinusitis with nasal polyps' clinical characteristics.[Methods] Retrospective analysis of 76 cases with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps,according to peripheral blood eosinophilia and nasal secretion smear eosinophil content,which can be divided into eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic group,compared two groups of symptoms of VAS score,nasal polyps,nasal sinus CT subjective scoring the score of Lund-MacKay,olfactory function,nasal resistance,total serum IgE index difference.[Results] in the 76 patients,non eosinophilic group 45 cases,31 cases of eosinophilic group.Non eosinophilic group of nasal polyps in clinical cases accounted for 59.2%; VAS score between two groups of symptoms of nasal polyps and subjective scores showed no

  12. [Pemphigus with eosinophilic spongiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, S; Ortíz Medina, A

    1977-01-01

    A bibliographic review of a new subject-pemphigus with eosinophilic spongiosis accomplished: Three clinical courses are recognized: a) pemphigus in its initial phase, b) pemphigus markedly seborrheic, which presents during its evolution, some morphologic anomalies, c) pemphigus that appear like an authentic Duhring in its initial phase and during part of its evolution. On studying the histopathology three aspects are observed; 1) pure eosinophilic spongiosis with two modalites: diffuse or vesiculate; 2) mixed eosinophilic spongiosis and, 3) alternate eosinophilic spongiosis. The review report the study of this new observation and discusses the nosological situation as well as its pausible causation.

  13. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs and Eosinophils (Eos with Host Mast Cells (MCs and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Khatami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance. Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host and recruited immune cells: (a, acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs, IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b, intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs, tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c, chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mfs, increased (irregular size B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth and/or thinning (necrosis and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  14. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mϕs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth) and/or thinning (necrosis) and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  15. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, Mahin [Inflammation and Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute (Ret), the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mϕs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth) and/or thinning (necrosis) and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune

  16. Understanding Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Learn About Pneumonia 5 Facts You Should Know about Pneumonia Pneumonia ... vaccinated and practicing good health habits What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both ...

  17. Eosinophilic activation in cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, D. Y.; Götz, M.; Eichler, I; Urbanek, R

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The neutrophil is a potent contributor to pulmonary destruction in cystic fibrosis. Since eosinophils also possess destructive potential the involvement of eosinophils in cystic fibrosis has been investigated. METHODS--Eosinophil numbers and levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a marker of eosinophil activation, were determined in the serum of 42 patients with cystic fibrosis and in the sputum of 10 of them. To determine neutrophil activation levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO...

  18. Eosinophils in glioblastoma biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Colleen S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The development of this malignant glial lesion involves a multi-faceted process that results in a loss of genetic or epigenetic gene control, un-regulated cell growth, and immune tolerance. Of interest, atopic diseases are characterized by a lack of immune tolerance and are inversely associated with glioma risk. One cell type that is an established effector cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease is the eosinophil. In response to various stimuli, the eosinophil is able to produce cytotoxic granules, neuromediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-fibrotic and angiogenic factors involved in pathogen clearance and tissue remodeling and repair. These various biological properties reveal that the eosinophil is a key immunoregulatory cell capable of influencing the activity of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Of central importance to this report is the observation that eosinophil migration to the brain occurs in response to traumatic brain injury and following certain immunotherapeutic treatments for GBM. Although eosinophils have been identified in various central nervous system pathologies, and are known to operate in wound/repair and tumorstatic models, the potential roles of eosinophils in GBM development and the tumor immunological response are only beginning to be recognized and are therefore the subject of the present review.

  19. High body mass index and risk of exacerbations and pneumonias in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    descent, aged 20-100 years, from the Copenhagen General Population Study, for FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and TMEM18 (rs6548238), and created an allele score. A total of 10 883 individuals had spirometric COPD with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) < lower limit......BACKGROUND: In the clinic, the combination of obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been increasing. However, whether high body mass index (BMI) affects the risk of exacerbations and pneumonias in individuals with COPD is presently unknown. Genetics can be used to assess the...... of normal (LLN). In these individuals, we observed 1453 exacerbations and 3390 pneumonias during 4.7 years of follow-up. RESULTS: For each increase in allele score, BMI was 0.28 kg/m(2) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.30) higher. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic hazard ratios (HRs) per one allele...

  20. 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Astegiano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease.

  1. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; de Boer, Anthonius;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and non......-fatal pulmonary endpoints. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 405 elderly patients with COPD was performed. All patients underwent extensive investigations, including electrocardiography. Follow-up data on mortality were obtained by linking the cohort to the Dutch National Cause of Death Register...... and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia) by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the follow-up 132 (33%) patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59). The major causes of death were...

  2. Relationship between the use of inhaled steroids for chronic respiratory diseases and early outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Almirall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. METHODS: Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality. RESULTS: Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%. In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002 in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787. This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542, with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194, but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027. Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis.

  3. Aspiration pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  4. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hariman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α.

  5. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  6. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  7. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Evison

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  8. Recent discoveries and emerging therapeutics in eosinophilic esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Aakash; Cheng, Edaire

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease culminating in severe eosinophilic inflammation and dysfunction of the esophagus. This chronic disorder of the esophagus causes significant morbidity, poor quality of life, and complications involving fibrosis and esophageal remodeling. Overlapping features between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pose great challenges to differentiating the two conditions, although the two disorders are not mutually exclusive. Recent...

  9. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam J Warnier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and non-fatal pulmonary endpoints. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 405 elderly patients with COPD was performed. All patients underwent extensive investigations, including electrocardiography. Follow-up data on mortality were obtained by linking the cohort to the Dutch National Cause of Death Register and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the follow-up 132 (33% patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59. The major causes of death were cardiovascular and respiratory. The relative risk of all-cause mortality increased with 21% for every 10 beats/minute increase in heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.21 [1.07-1.36], p = 0.002. The incidence of major non-fatal pulmonary events was 145/1000 py (120-168. The risk of a non-fatal pulmonary complication increased non-significantly with 7% for every 10 beats/minute increase in resting heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.07 [0.96-1.18], p = 0.208. CONCLUSIONS: Increased resting heart rate is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in elderly patients with COPD. An increased resting heart rate did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients.

  10. Bronchitis and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the difference between bronchitis and pneumonia? Bronchitis is most often a bacte- rial or viral infection that causes swelling of the tubes (bronchioles) leading to the lungs. Pneumonia is an acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the ...

  11. Equine eosinophilic enterocolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kostiuk, D

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year-old Morgan stallion was presented with a 9-week history of diarrhea. Biopsy of nodules in the rectal mucosa yielded a diagnosis of eosinophilic enterocolitis. Treatment with steroids was instituted and the feces firmed within 2 days. Continued treatment with oral prednisone kept the feces at a normal consistency for 4 months.

  12. Dyspnea and Wheezing after Adenosine Injection in a Patient with Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old nonsmoker female was referred for evaluation of chronic cough of 13 months duration. After an initial work-up, the patient was diagnosed to have chronic cough due to eosinophilic bronchitis. The diagnostic work-up for eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchial biopsy is discussed. Eosinophilic bronchitis is differentiated from asthma. In addition, the patient developed dyspnea, flushing, and wheezing after the administration of adenosine during a cardiac stress test in spite of a negative methacholine challenge. This indirect stimulus of airway hyperresponsiveness suggests the possible involvement of mast cells in eosinophilic bronchitis.

  13. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  14. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  15. Chronic non-progressive pneumonia of sheep in New Zealand - a review of the role of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, M R; Ionas, G; Clarke, J K

    1999-10-01

    Chronic non-progressive pneumonia (CNP) is a common disease which affects lambs in New Zealand during late summer and autumn. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can be recovered from a high proportion of lesions but it is also present in some normal lungs. Bacteria, especially Pasteurella haemolytica, can also be recovered from more than half the lungs of affected animals. Isolates of M. ovipneumoniae are genetically heterogeneous, as demonstrated by examination of their DNA or total cellular proteins, and are serologically heterogeneous as shown by metabolic inhibition tests. The number of strains present in New Zealand is large and several distinguishable strains can be recovered from each affected lung. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has pathogenic potential as indicated by its ability to produce hydrogen peroxide, cause ciliostasis and by its possession of a capsule. Chronic non-progressive pneumonia can be transmitted consistently to over 50% of lambs by inoculation of pooled pneumonic lung homogenate and transmission can be suppressed by broad spectrum antibiotics. In contrast, penicillin does not prevent the development of lesions but diminishes their severity. Pooled lung homogenate treated with digitonin, which inactivates mycoplasmas, has failed to transmit CNP. Pure cultures of M. ovipneumoniae produce only mild lesions in some animals, whereas inoculation with pooled lung homogenate (from which no viruses were isolated) containing mixed strains of M. ovipneumoniae and free from bacteria, is more effective in producing lesions. Research work to date suggests that CNP may be initiated by colonisation of the lung by M. ovipneumoniae which causes ciliostasis and elicits an exudate allowing colonisation of the lungs by bacteria especially M. haemolytica and by other strains of M. ovipneumoniae. The immune response to the initial strain of M. ovipneumoniae may inhibit its replication but would be less effective in inhibiting heterologous strains of the organism allowing

  16. [THREE CASES OF DRUG-INDUCED PNEUMONIA CAUSED BY MESALAZINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Norimichi; Yokomura, Koshi; Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Takefumi; Matsui, Takashi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    We report three cases of drug-induced pneumonia caused by mesalazine. They were all diagnosed as ulcerative colitis and treated with mesalazine orally. Our three cases and literature review revealed that mesalazine-induced pneumonia resemble like eosinophilic pneumonia or organizing pneumonia and that have good prognosis with drug cessation or administration of corticosteroid. The patient of ulcerative colitis is increasing every year and it is anticipated that the patient with mesalazine-induced pneumonia may also increase. In the treatment of ulcerative colitis with mesalazine, we should pay attention with patient's cough or fever for early detection of drug-induced pneumonia.

  17. Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.O.; Moser, C.; Kharazmi, A.;

    2006-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PM...

  18. Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P Ø; Moser, C; Kharazmi, A;

    2006-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary accumulation of PMNs...

  19. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario; Maccari, Uberto

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The obj...

  20. 'Crazy-paving' pattern: an exceptional presentation of cryptogenic organising pneumonia associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Jain, Sudhir; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is a distinct but uncommon entity with characteristic clinicoradiological features and histological findings. When the aetiology of OP remains unknown, it is termed as cryptogenic OP (COP). COP is seen in the majority of patients with OP and usually observed in non/former smokers. A 54-year-old man, a smoker, presented with breathlessness, cough and mucoid sputum. Imaging demonstrated unilateral 'Crazy-paving' pattern in the left upper lobe and left-sided effusion. In addition, paraseptal emphysema and left lower lobe bullae along with very severe obstructive ventilatory defect and impaired diffusion suggested chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Transbronchial biopsy was suggestive of OP. In the absence of a definite aetiology, a diagnosis of COP associated with COPD was established. COP presenting as a unilateral 'Crazy-paving' pattern is yet to be documented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of COP presenting as unilateral 'Crazy-paving' pattern associated with COPD. PMID:27154992

  1. Generation of genic diversity among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains via horizontal gene transfer during a chronic polyclonal pediatric infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Luisa Hiller

    Full Text Available Although there is tremendous interest in understanding the evolutionary roles of horizontal gene transfer (HGT processes that occur during chronic polyclonal infections, to date there have been few studies that directly address this topic. We have characterized multiple HGT events that most likely occurred during polyclonal infection among nasopharyngeal strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from a child suffering from chronic upper respiratory and middle-ear infections. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics were performed on six isolates collected during symptomatic episodes over a period of seven months. From these comparisons we determined that five of the isolates were genetically highly similar and likely represented a dominant lineage. We analyzed all genic and allelic differences among all six isolates and found that all differences tended to occur within contiguous genomic blocks, suggestive of strain evolution by homologous recombination. From these analyses we identified three strains (two of which were recovered on two different occasions that appear to have been derived sequentially, one from the next, each by multiple recombination events. We also identified a fourth strain that contains many of the genomic segments that differentiate the three highly related strains from one another, and have hypothesized that this fourth strain may have served as a donor multiple times in the evolution of the dominant strain line. The variations among the parent, daughter, and grand-daughter recombinant strains collectively cover greater than seven percent of the genome and are grouped into 23 chromosomal clusters. While capturing in vivo HGT, these data support the distributed genome hypothesis and suggest that a single competence event in pneumococci can result in the replacement of DNA at multiple non-adjacent loci.

  2. Cellular mechanisms underlying eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Calabrese, Cecilia; Terracciano, Rosa; Maselli, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes underlying immune responses mediated by T helper (Th)2 cell-derived cytokines, whilst neutrophilic asthma is mostly dependent on Th17 cell-induced mechanisms. These immune-inflammatory profiles develop as a consequence of a functional impairment of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes, which promotes the activation of dendritic cells directing the differentiation of distinct Th cell subsets. The recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying asthmatic inflammation are contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, potentially suitable for the implementation of future improvements in antiasthma pharmacologic treatments. PMID:25878402

  3. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Pelaia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes underlying immune responses mediated by T helper (Th2 cell-derived cytokines, whilst neutrophilic asthma is mostly dependent on Th17 cell-induced mechanisms. These immune-inflammatory profiles develop as a consequence of a functional impairment of T regulatory (Treg lymphocytes, which promotes the activation of dendritic cells directing the differentiation of distinct Th cell subsets. The recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying asthmatic inflammation are contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, potentially suitable for the implementation of future improvements in antiasthma pharmacologic treatments.

  4. CD69 expression on airway eosinophils and airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-ying; SHEN Hua-hao; James J Lee; Nancy A Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic airway disease with inflammation characterized by physiological changes(airway hyper-responsiveness, AHR) and pathological changes (inflammatory cells infiltration and mucus production). Eosinophils play a key role in the allergic inflammation. But the causative relationship between eosinophils and airway inflammation is hard to prove. One of the reasons is lack of activation marker of murine eosinophils. We investigated the expression of CD69 on murine eosinophils in vitro, the relationship between the expression of CD69 on eosinophils from peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice.Methods Eosinophils from peripheral blood of IL-5 transgenic mice (NJ.1638) were purified. Mice were divided into five groups: wild type mice sensitized and challenged with saline (WS group), wild type mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (WO group), IL-5-/- mice sensitized and challenged with saline and transferred with purified eosinophils (ISE group), IL-5-/- mice sensitized and challenged with OVA and transferred with purified eosinophils (IOE group), IL-5-/- mice sensitized and challenged with OVA and transferred with purified eosinophils, pretreated with anti CD4 monoclonal antibody (IOE+antiCD4mAb group).IL-5-/- mice were sensitized with OVA at day 0 and day 14, then challenged with OVA aerosol. On days 24, 25, 26and 27 purified eosinophils were transferred intratracheally to IL-5-/- mice. On day 28, blood and BALF were collected and CD69 expression on eosinophils measured by flowcytometry.Results Purified eosinophils did not express CD69. But eosinophils cultured with PMA+MA, IFN- γ, IL-5 or GM-CSF expressed CD69 strongly. Eosinophils from blood of WO, WS group did not express CD69 at all. The numbers of eosinophils in BALF of WO group, IOE group, ISE group and IOE+antiCD4mAb group were significantly higher than in mice of WS group which did not have eosinophils at all. CD69 expression

  5. Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Bochner, Bruce S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is clearly related to airway or blood eosinophilia, and asthmatics with significant eosinophilia are at higher risk for more severe disease. Eosinophils actively contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammatory cascades through the production and release of diverse chemokines, cytokines, lipid mediators and other growth factors. Eosinophils may persist in the blood and airways despite guidelines-based treatment. This review details eosinophil effector mechanisms, surface markers, and clinical outcomes associated with eosinophilia and asthma severity. There is interest in the potential of eosinophils or their products to predict treatment response with biotherapeutics and their usefulness as biomarkers. This is important as monoclonal antibodies are targeting cytokines and eosinophils in different lung environments for treating severe asthma. Identifying disease state-specific eosinophil biomarkers would help to refine these strategies and choose likely responders to biotherapeutics. PMID:27386041

  6. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrenski Aleksandra; Eri Živka; Tegeltija Dragana; Kašiković-Lečić Svetlana; Panjković Milana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thick...

  7. Vaccination promotes TH1-like inflammation and survival in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Cryz, S J;

    1995-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF) we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by vaccination. Rats were immunized with either a depolymerized alginate toxin A conjugate (D-ALG toxin A), purified alginate, an O......-polysaccharide toxin A conjugate, or sterile saline. After challenge none of the rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A died, in contrast to the other two vaccine groups combined (p = 0.03). A significant reduction in the severity of the macroscopic lung inflammation was seen in rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A, compared...... with the other three groups (p = 0.009). The histopathologic response in the control rats was dominated by numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) surrounding the alginate beads. In contrast, the histopathologic response in rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A changed within the first week after challenge from...

  8. EFFECTS OF RADIX ANGELICAE SINENSIS AND SHUANGHUANGLIAN ON A RAT MODEL OF CHRONIC PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PNEUMONIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.K.Johansen; C.Moser; V.Faber; A.Khamzmi; J.Rygaard; N.Hφiby; Z.J.Song

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects of two kinds of Chinese herbal medicine, Radix angelicae sinensis(RAS) (当归)and Shuanghuanglian(SHL)(双黄连) on chronic Pseudomortas aerug/nosa(PA)lung infection in a rat model mimicking cystic fibrosis(CF).Methods. Rats were divided into RAS, SIlL and control groups. All rats were challenged intratracheally with alginate embedded PA and the trealments with herbal medicine started on the same day of challenge. The drugs were administered subcutaneously once a day for ten days and the control group was treated with sterile saline. The rats were sacrificed two weeks after challenge. Results. Significantly improved lung bacterial clearance(P <0.05, P < 0.01) and milder macroecopic lung pathology (P<0.005) were found in the two treated groups compared to the control group. In tbe SHL treated group, the neutrophil percent in the peripheral blood leukocytes(P < 0.05), the anti-PA IgG level in serum (P < 0.05), the incidence of lung abscesses(P < 0.005) and the incidence of acnte lung inflammafion(P < 0.05) were signitlcanfly lower than in the control group. The RAS treatment reduced fever(P < 0.05), decreased the incidence of lung abscesses(P <0.005) and lung mast cell number (P< 0.05), and lowered anti-PA IgG1 level in serum(P< 0.05) when compared to the control group. The anti-PA bacterial activity test in SHL was weakly positive whereas in RAS it was negative. Conclusion. The treatment with both herbal medicines could increase the resistance of the rats against PA lung infection and they therefore might be potential premising drugs for stimulation of the immtme system in CF patients with chronic PA lung infection.

  9. The analysis of IgE and eosinophil determinations in acute and chronic urticaria children%儿童急、慢性荨麻疹 IgE 及嗜酸性粒细胞检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德丰; 陆元善; 袁艳; 杨晓林; 吴跃平; 马东礼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate IgE levels,eosinophil change and their clinical significance in acute and chronic urticaria children.Methods Respectively by chemiluminescence,enzyme-linked immunofluorescence and volume,conductivity and scattering (VCS)principle,serum total IgE levels,food,mites and plant-specific IgE levels and eosinophil percentages were determined,and the samples were collected from 77 acute and 46 chronic urticaria children.The differences between acute and chronic urticaria children were analyzed comparatively.Results There was no statistical significance in total IgE levels and positive rates to food,mites and plant-specific IgE levels between acute and chronic urticaria children with other allergic diseases(P >0.05),but there was a significantly higher total IgE level in chronic group than that in acute group in acute and chronic urticaria children without other allergic diseases (P 0.05).Conclusions Eosinophil percentage is not a good index for differential diagnosis in acute and chronic urticaria children.IgE has a certain significance for diagnosing acute and chronic urticaria without other allergic diseases.However,in other cases,serum level of total IgE is not a good index for differential diagnosis in acute and chronic urticaria children.Integrating case history,course of disease and clinical symptom can help with making a correct diagnosis.%目的:探讨儿童急、慢性荨麻疹 IgE 水平和嗜酸性粒细胞变化及其临床意义。方法分别用化学发光法、酶免荧光法和 VCS(体积、电导性和散射)原理检测77例急性和46例慢性荨麻疹患儿血清总 IgE 水平,食物、螨虫及植物类特异性 IgE 和嗜酸性粒细胞比例,比较急、慢性荨麻疹患儿间上述指标的差异。结果伴有其它过敏性疾病的急、慢性荨麻疹患儿间血清总 IgE 水平,食物、螨虫及植物类特异性 IgE 阳性率差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),但不伴有其它过敏性疾

  10. An improved method to visualize eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C A; Glaessgen, A

    2006-01-01

    We previously found in Giemsa-stained colorectal sections from IBD patients that eosinophilic granulocytes turned fluorescent when excited with indirect fluorescent light, while other inflammatory cells were non-fluorescent. We now studied with that method, the frequency of eosinophilic granulocytes in sections from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE). Cell counting was done in consecutive sections stained with Giemsa stain using indirect fluorescence light (G-IFL setting) and with hematoxylin-eosin using transmitted light (HE-TL setting) in 5 cases of EE and in 10 consecutive cases of reflux esophagitis (RE) grade 2. In EE 45.0 eosinophils/case (range 39-51) were recorded with the G-IFL setting but only 33.4 eosinophils/case (range 28-39) with the HE-TL setting (p cell counting is not necessary. PMID:17091778

  11. A case of an unexplained eosinophilic myocarditis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshen, T P; Chalkley, M; Stauthammer, C

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old spayed female Munsterlander was evaluated for a chronic low grade fever and a two month history of exercise intolerance. On physical examination, tachycardia and a grade II/VI right systolic heart murmur were detected. Echocardiography revealed marked thickening of the atrial and ventricular walls with mixed echogenicity and concentric hypertrophy of the left and right ventricles and equivocal systolic dysfunction. Serum cardiac troponin I level was markedly elevated. Endomyocardial biopsy was attempted; however, the patient arrested during the procedure and resuscitation was unsuccessful. Post-mortem examination revealed severe, chronic atrial and ventricular eosinophilic myocarditis associated with marked interstitial fibrosis. Serological testing, histopathology and immunohistochemistry staining did not reveal an underlying infectious agent or neoplasm. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary eosinophilic myocarditis in the absence of a peripheral eosinophilia and multi-organ eosinophilic inflammation in a dog. PMID:27170173

  12. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  13. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  14. Early detection of interstitial pneumonia by monitoring KL-6 in a chronic hepatitis C patient undergoing pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa-Yamada, Yuki; Joshita, Satoru; Tsukahara, Yoshinori; Kimura, Takefumi; MORITA, Susumu; Kamijo, Atsushi; Umemura, Takeji; Ichijo, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Tanaka, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C developed interstitial pneumonia (IP) while undergoing pegylated interferon (PEG IFN)-alpha-2a and ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Serum levels of sialylated carbohydrate antigen KL-6 (KL-6), a known marker of disease activity in fibrosing lung disorders, had been regularly measured once a month for early detection of IP, and had begun rising noticeably from 12 weeks to 540 U/mL at 33 weeks of treatment. On examination, remarkable fine crackles were detec...

  15. Effect of recombinant human interleukin-2 on the course of experimental chronic respiratory tract infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Iizawa, Y; Nishi, T; Kondo, M.; Tsuchiya, K.; Imada, A

    1988-01-01

    The effect of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rIL-2) on the course of experimental chronic respiratory tract infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice was examined. rIL-2 was administered subcutaneously once a day for 7 or 14 days, starting 2 weeks after the mice were infected. Administration of 2 or 20 micrograms of rIL-2 per mouse daily for 7 days reduced bacterial counts in the lungs dose dependently. At a dose of 0.2 microgram per day, proliferation of bacteria in the lungs was s...

  16. A compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Lynn Parrott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, walking pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review.

  17. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Gretchen L; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, "walking" pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  18. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-10-31

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings.

  19. Eosinophilic ascites: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hesham; Joseph, Moby

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic ascites is a rare feature of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We would like to highlight this increasingly recognised diagnosis in a case of unexplained ascites. We present a challenging case of a woman aged 25 years who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, generalised abdominal pain and swelling 8-week following delivery of her first baby. Her symptoms were primarily aggravated by eating, and she had also noticed postprandial itching and self-limiting generalised rash. She had a strong history of atopy. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and distension with shifting dullness. Urticarial skin rash was noted on the face, neck, chest and abdomen. Routine biochemistry was normal apart from peripheral eosinophilia. Imaging confirmed moderate ascites. Diagnostic paracentesis showed exudative ascites with numerous eosinophils. Histology of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract showed infiltration of the oesophageogastroduodenal and rectosigmoid mucosa with eosinophils. The patient significantly improved following a course of steroids and six-food elimination diet. PMID:27600059

  20. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EoE commonly have other allergic diseases such as rhinitis, asthma, and/or eczema. Certain families may have ... swallowed from an asthma inhaler or mixture to control inflammation and suppress the eosinophils. Systemic corticosteroids such ...

  1. 64 Effect of Formoterol on Eosinophil Trans-Basement Migration Induced by Interleukin-8-Stimulated Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    KAWASHIMA, Akiko; Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are often increased in the airways of either chronic severe disease or acute exacerbation of asthma. Neutrophils migrated in response to interleukin-8 (IL-8) may lead eosinophils to accumulate in the airways of asthma and possibly aggravate this disease. In this study, we investigated whether formoterol modify the trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils stimulated with neutrophils and IL-8. Methods Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral...

  2. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis and Concomitant Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, Michael A.; Garg, Ankit; Ro, Brandon; Wang, Christopher; Yang, Tony T. C.; Plener, Ian S.; Grin, Andrea; Colak, Errol

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an idiopathic benign chronic disease characterized by flask-like outpouchings of the esophageal wall. It is unknown whether there is a genuine association between EIPD and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Aims. To investigate a possible relationship between EIPD and EoE. Methods. Patients with radiographic or endoscopic evidence of pseudodiverticulosis were identified from the database at a single academic center. Cases were analyzed in three areas: clinical information, endoscopic findings, and course. Results. Sixteen cases of esophageal pseudodiverticulosis were identified. Five patients had histologic evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with EoE had pseudodiverticula in the mid-to-distal esophagus while those with EIPD had pseudodiverticula predominantly in the proximal esophagus (p eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:27648438

  3. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Pressanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other limbs. Cytological and histopathological examinations showed lesions consistent with an atypical form of feline eosinophilic dermatosis associated with secondary bacterial infection. In both cats, antibiotics combined with immunosuppressive treatment partially improved the lesions, which continued to progress on a waxing and waning course, even in the absence of treatment. Allergy work-up did not permit the identification of an underlying allergic triggering factor. The severity of the lesions, the unusual presentation and the unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive therapy in two feline littermates suggested a genetic form of eosinophilic dermatosis.

  4. Eosinofilia reacional, leucemia eosinofílica crônica e síndrome hipereosinofílica idiopática Reactive eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari Chauffaille

    2010-01-01

    conditions described as eosinophilia. Now these conditions are better understood due to the evolution of cellular and molecular biology. This knowledge has helped to characterize distinct disorders involving myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Hence, eosinophilia is categorized as reactive, clonal or idiopathic. With the introduction of anti-tyrosine kinase (imatinib mesylate therapy, which is effective for the FIP1L1/PDGFRa rearrangement, there is a possibility to control or cure chronic eosinophilic leukemia. For this reason, precise and fast diagnosis is necessary for ideal therapeutic decisions before organic lesions that are irreversible, such as heart injury, become established. The aim of this manuscript is to review eosinophilia and offer an update on diagnostic and therapeutic investigations.

  5. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  6. Pneumonia (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of ...

  7. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000082.htm Mycoplasma pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by ...

  8. No prognostic significance of chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in acute coronary syndromes: insights from the Global Utilization of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries IV Acute Coronary Syndromes trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhout, Cynthia M; Gnarpe, Judy; Chang, Wei-Ching;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although relationships between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and the risk of coronary events in stable coronary artery disease patients have been reported, a similar link in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has not been consistently observed. METHODS: In a nested ...

  9. Lung-resident eosinophils represent a distinct regulatory eosinophil subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnil, Claire; Raulier, Stéfanie; Paulissen, Geneviève; Xiao, Xue; Birrell, Mark A; Pirottin, Dimitri; Janss, Thibaut; Starkl, Philipp; Ramery, Eve; Henket, Monique; Schleich, Florence N; Radermecker, Marc; Thielemans, Kris; Gillet, Laurent; Thiry, Marc; Belvisi, Maria G; Louis, Renaud; Desmet, Christophe; Marichal, Thomas; Bureau, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5-independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite-induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5-dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L-CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus. Gene expression analyses revealed a more regulatory profile for rEos than for iEos, and correspondingly, mice lacking lung rEos showed an increase in Th2 cell responses to inhaled allergens. Such elevation of Th2 responses was linked to the ability of rEos, but not iEos, to inhibit the maturation, and therefore the pro-Th2 function, of allergen-loaded DCs. Finally, we determined that the parenchymal rEos found in nonasthmatic human lungs (Siglec-8+CD62L+IL-3Rlo cells) were phenotypically distinct from the iEos isolated from the sputa of eosinophilic asthmatic patients (Siglec-8+CD62LloIL-3Rhi cells), suggesting that our findings in mice are relevant to humans. In conclusion, our data define lung rEos as a distinct eosinophil subset with key homeostatic functions. PMID:27548519

  10. [Anesthetic management of posterior lumbar spinal fusion in a patient suspected of having acute exacerbation of chronic interstitial pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mayuko; Takenami, Tamie; Otsuka, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Norito; Yoshino, Kazuhisa; Matsumoto, Shigehiro; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

    2014-02-01

    A patient complicated with interstitial pneumonia required emergency posterior lumbar spinal fusion. The blood gas analysis showed relatively benign values (PaO2 81 torr, PaCO2 44 torr, under room air), but the honeycombing lungs were noted in the bilateral lung fields on CT, and the KL-6 level was high (1,000 U x ml(-1)), for which the acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was suspected. Sivelestat sodium administration was initiated during the surgery and continued postoperatively. During surgery, setting the FIO2 at 0.34, the P/F ratio and intra-airway pressure could be maintained at 500 and 25 mmHg, respectively. To reduce postoperative respiratory complication, anesthesia was maintained with desflurane, which is dissipated easily, and 0.5% ropivacaine 15 ml was subcutaneously injected to the surgical field at the time of wound closure to reduce the total doses of intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative analgesics. After the completion of surgery, the endotracheal tube was removed with head elevated position, and the patient was transported back to the ward. No acute exacerbation occurred thereafter, and the patient was discharged 67 days after surgery. The prediction of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia is difficult. Moreover, there is no established preventive method, although the mortality is high. Therefore, physicians should be thoroughly informed about the currently available evidence, including developmental factors. PMID:24601111

  11. Otras enfermedades obstructivas: bisinosis, bronquitis crónica y EPOC de origen laboral y bronquitis eosinofílica Other obstructive diseases: byssinosis, chronic bronchitis and occupational COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Michel De la Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Además del asma ocupacional y las enfermedades derivadas de la inhalación aguda, otras enfermedades obstructivas también reconocen un origen laboral. Aunque en la actualidad la bisinosis es una enfermedad rara en España, describimos las características de la misma por su interés histórico dentro de las enfermedades respiratorias de origen laboral y porque todavía sigue vigente en los países en vías de desarrollo. La bronquitis crónica también puede estar relacionada con la exposición laboral a polvos y humos, con frecuencia denominada "bronquitis industrial". La relación ocupacional de la EPOC ha sido más controvertida a lo largo de la historia, pero en la actualidad esta relación está aceptada; describimos la evidencia actual que sustenta esta relación. En último lugar, describimos la bronquitis eosinofílica sin asma, entidad descrita por primera vez en 1989 y que en ocasiones también puede tener un origen laboral, compartiendo agentes etiológicos con el asma ocupacional.Besides occupational asthma and diseases derived from acute inhalation, other obstructive diseases also have an occupational origin. Although at present byssinosis is a rare disease in Spain, we describe its characteristics because of its historical interest amongst occupational respiratory diseases and because it is still relevant in developing countries. Chronic bronchitis can also be related to exposure at work to dust and smoke, and is often referred to as "industrial bronchitis". Historically, the relation of CPOD to occupation has been subject to controversy, but nowadays this relationship is accepted; we describe the present evidence supporting this relationship. Finally, we describe eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma, an entity that was described for the first time in 1989 and that can sometimes have an occupational origin, sharing aetiological agents with occupational asthma.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandra; D’Alessandro; Dario; Esposito; Marcella; Pesce; Rosario; Cuomo; Giovanni; Domenico; De; Palma; Giovanni; Sarnelli

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis(Eo E) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and refluxlike symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with Eo E is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of Eo E, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of Eo E in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the firstline therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, Eo E is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on Eo E pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments.

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Jay A; Chehade, Mirna

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease that can present with a constellation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in conjunction with significant infiltration of the esophageal tissue with eosinophils. Clinical and histologic resolution of the disease can be seen with dietary restriction therapies and systemic and topical corticosteroids. Because most patients have an atopic background and the disease seems to have an underlying T-helper type 2 pathogenesis, allergists and gastroenterologists need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of this disease. In this review, clinical characteristics, endoscopic and histologic findings, and available therapy options are discussed. PMID:22244233

  14. Barrett's esophagus and eosinophilic esophagitis in a young pediatric patient with esophageal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zsa Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case and follow up of a 4 year old girl who was born with esophageal atresia and was found to have concomitant Barrett's esophagus and eosinophilic esophagitis. Development of metaplasia has generally been regarded as a chronic, long term complication post esophageal atresia repair, however this case highlights the need for early and regular endoscopic surveillance in this vulnerable patient population. In addition to this, eosinophilic esophagitis has only rarely been reported in patients with concomitant Barrett's esophagus. Our patient is the youngest in reported literature with Barrett's changes post esophageal atresia repair, and the first such reported patient with both eosinophilic esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus.

  15. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EoE evaluation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Food Allergies Adverse immune responses to food are the main cause of EoE ... empiric elimination diets for eosinophilic esophagitis in adults » Eosinophilic Esophagitis in black children: An overlooked ... Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , ...

  16. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  17. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  18. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montiel-Jarquín Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopahologic studies.The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in Wodd J Gastroenterol 2007 luly;13 (27):3760-3762,about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies,which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  19. Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis Following Diagnostic Curettage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai SR

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis appears after injury from a preoperative diagnostic procedure. It is an unusual and distinctive inflammatory uterine disease process, in response to eosinophil chemotactic substances. We report this case of a 55-year-old lady who developed severe eosinophilic endometritis following a diagnostic curettage

  20. Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis Following Diagnostic Curettage

    OpenAIRE

    Desai SR; Shweta A. Shinagare

    2010-01-01

    Severe Eosinophilic Endometritis appears after injury from a preoperative diagnostic procedure. It is an unusual and distinctive inflammatory uterine disease process, in response to eosinophil chemotactic substances. We report this case of a 55-year-old lady who developed severe eosinophilic endometritis following a diagnostic curettage.

  1. Murine eosinophil differentiation factor. An eosinophil-specific colony- stimulating factor with activity for human cells

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A purified murine lymphokine, eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF), was found to be a selective stimulus for the clonal proliferation and differentiation of murine eosinophil progenitor cells, establishing it as the murine eosinophil colony-stimulating factor (Eo-CSF). EDF was also active on human eosinophil progenitors and mature blood eosinophils, but had no effect on neutrophil or macrophage precursor cells, nor on blood neutrophils. In culture of human bone marrow cells, EDF stimulated...

  2. Nasal Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis with Orbital Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Moghimi, Mansour; Sharouny, Hadi; Behniafard, Nasim

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is an extremely rare, chronic, benign, idiopathic disorder that mostly affects the upper respiratory tract, particularly the nasal cavity, and features progressive submucosal perivascular fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of EAF with orbital involvement have been reported. We report a case of sinonasal EAF with orbital extension that presented with left nasolacrimal duct obstruction. A 35-year-old man presented with left epiphora, proptosis, anterolateral globe displacement and nasal obstruction. Endoscopic sinus examination showed a firm, gritty, creamy, yellow, fibrous, adherent mass of maxillary sinus. Diagnosis was established with histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of the lesion. Although EAF is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of upper airway tract, particularly the nasal cavity. Biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and treatment planning. Resecting of the involved tissues completely is essential for prevention of recurrence. PMID:25601283

  3. Vaccination promotes TH1-like inflammation and survival in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. A new prophylactic principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Cryz, S J; Hougen, H P;

    1997-01-01

    of the macroscopic lung inflammation compared to the other vaccination groups (p = 0.009). The same effect could be obtained by IFN-gamma treatment (p = 0.004). The chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection was established in two inbred mice strains C3H/HeN, known as TH1 responders, and Balb/c, known as TH2 responders......The ongoing lung tissue damage in chronically Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has been shown to be caused by elastase liberated from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), which dominate the chronic inflammation in these patients. Most CF patients, however, contract...... the chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa after a one-year period (median) of intermittent colonization. Therefore, prevention of the onset of the chronic infection or prevention of the dominance of the inflammation by PMNs would be important goals for a vaccine strategy against P. aeruginosa in CF...

  4. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Sastre; Victoria del Pozo

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, ...

  5. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF EOSINOPHILIC LYMPHOGRANULOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jizeng; Chen Jumei; Zhang Chenguang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To research the formative mechanism of eosinophilic lymphogranuloma (ELG), investigate its essence, provide morphologic base for treatment.Methods: The biopsies and surgical specimens of 41 cases were studied with the light microscope, fluorescein microscope, electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods. In these cases, 10 cases levels of serum IgE were measured, it was high level, and 11 cases cured with radiotherapy. Results: The lesions mainly included proliferation of both lymph tissues and post-capillary venues and formed many new scattered lymph follicles.Marked hyperplasia of plasmocytes and mast cells and diffusible infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes were observed in tissues. The eosinophilic granulocytes were obviously degranulated. When stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antiserum IgE, the cells showed yellow-green fluorescence, which showed reticular shape in the germinal center of lymph follicles. The swollen tumor-like masses could disappear with radiotherapy, and the eosinophilic granulocytes count in circulation and level of serum IgE reduced to normal.Conclusion: The serum IgE is high lever and it is positive reaction in the tissues strongly. It is accord with allergic granuloma. The lymphocytes are allergenic ambocepotor cells, the x-ray can kill them and stop allergenic agent, the illness was recovered.

  6. Toxocara-induced eosinophilic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.; Egbers, M.W.E.C.; Lokhorst, W.H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The immunoinflammatory response to parasitic nematode infections and allergic diseases have some similarities, the most profound being the increases in eosinophils and serum total IgE concentration. Whether parasitic infections stimulate or inhibit allergic asthma is a matter of debate. We investiga

  7. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunie Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI, a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  8. Human cathelicidin LL-37 is a chemoattractant for eosinophils and neutrophils that acts via formyl-peptide receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjabringa, G.S.; Ninaber, D.K.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Rabe, K.F.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by the presence of eosinophils and neutrophils. However, the mechanisms that mediate the influx of these cells are incompletely understood. Neutrophil products, including neutroph

  9. Lipoid pneumonia presenting as non resolving community acquired pneumonia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hadda, Vijay; Gopi C Khilnani; Ashu S Bhalla; Mathur, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat containing substances like, petroleum jelly, mineral oils, few laxatives etc. It usually presents as insidious onset chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, specially, when exposure to fatty substance is acute and/or massive. Radiologically, it may mimic carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized...

  10. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  11. The glucocorticoid RU24858 does not distinguish between transrepression and transactivation in primary human eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianzhi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids are used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis is considered to be one of the main mechanisms behind the anti-asthmatic effect of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid binding to its receptor (GR can have a dual effect on gene transcription. Activated GR can activate transcription (transactivation, or by interacting with other transcription factors such as NF-κB suppress transcription (transrepression. RU24858 has been reported to transrepress but to have little or no transactivation capability in other cell types. The dissociated properties of RU24858 have not been previously studied in non-malignant human cells. As the eosinophils have a very short lifetime and many of the modern molecular biological methods cannot be used, a "dissociated steroid" would be a valuable tool to evaluate the mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in human eosinophils. The aim of this study was to elucidate the ability of RU24858 to activate and repress gene expression in human eosinophils in order to see whether it is a dissociated steroid in human eosinophils. Methods Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated under sterile conditions and cultured in the presence and/or absence RU24858. For comparison, dexamethasone and mometasone were used. We measured chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. Apoptosis was measured by DNA fragmentation and confirmed by morphological analysis. Results RU24858 (1 μM increased CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression on eosinophils to a similar extent as mometasone (1 μM and dexamethasone (1 μM. Like dexamethasone and mometasone, RU24858 did suppress IL-8 and MCP-1 production in eosinophils. RU24858 also increased spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis to a similar degree as dexamethasone and mometasone, but unlike dexamethasone and mometasone it did not reverse IL-5- or GM

  12. Aspirin attenuates the anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline via inhibition of cAMP production in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kim, You-sun; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong-Sic; Yoon, Chang Min; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline is commonly used to treat severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by non-eosinophilic inflammation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most widely used medications worldwide, but up to 20% of patients with asthma experience aggravated respiratory symptoms after taking ASA. Here we evaluated the adverse effect of ASA on the therapeutic effect of theophylline in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma. A non-eosinophilic asthma mouse model was ...

  13. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  14. Lipoid pneumonia: An uncommon entity

    OpenAIRE

    Khilnani G; Hadda V

    2009-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s) is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or c...

  15. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-10-31

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings. PMID:22750539

  16. MR findings of eosinophilic granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong O; Yee, Mi Kyeung; Cho, Kil Ho [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Hyosung Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Suhjoo MR Clinic, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    To describe the MR findings for the three phases of eosinophilic granuloma, as defined by Mirra's conventional radiographic criteria. Eighteen lesions in 14 patients with proven eosinophilic granuloma were retrospectively analyzed. Among this total, three vertebral lesions were excluded, and the remaining is were classified as early, middle, or late phase on the basis of Mirra's radiographic criteria. For each phase, we compared MR findings with regard to signal intensity, homogeneity, contrast enhancement, perilesional marrow edema, and soft tissue change. For the three vertebral lesions excluded because the application of radiographic criteria was difficult, MR findings for paravertebral soft tissue reaction and degree of cord compression were compared. Of the fifteen cases classified, eight were early phase, five were mid phase, and two were late phase. During each phase, all lesions except one, as seen on T1-weighted images(T1WI), showed iso-signal intensity. On T2WI, all lesions showed high signal intensity. Contrast study demonstrated marked contrast enhancement. Thus, no remarkable differences were found in the signal intensity degree of contrast enhancement of each phase. With regard to heterogeneity, this was demonstrated in most early phase lesions, reflecting necrosis and hemorrhage of those lesions. Soft tissue swelling was more severe during the early phase than the mid or late phase, but marrow edema was similar in each of the three phase. One of three patients with vertebraplana showed para-vertebral soft tissue swelling and cord compression, but this was not seen in the two other cases. For evalvating the extent of eosinophilic granuloma and its relationship with surrounding structures, MRI was superior to conventional radiography. During the early phase of the disease, lesions showed greater inhomogeneity and more aggressive soft tissue reaction than during the mid and late phase.The use of MRI for the evalvation of eosinophilic granuloma

  17. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  18. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  19. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment decreases the inflammatory response in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J;

    1996-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF), we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by intraperitoneal treatment with recombinant rat interferon-gamma (rrIFN-gamma). Rats were treated either before or after intratracheal ch...

  20. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  1. [Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

    2005-04-01

    We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions. PMID:15830305

  2. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and hepatic dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Zhou; Jin-Ming Chen; Qin Du

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal disorder with eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal wall and various gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders that are associated with peripheral eosinophilia.We report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, which had features of the predominant subserosal type presenting with ascites and hepatic dysfunction, and which responded to a course of low-dose steroid.

  3. Roles of integrin activation in eosinophil function and the eosinophilic inflammation of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Barthel, Steven R; Johansson, Mats W.; McNamee, Dawn M.; Deane F Mosher

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Integrins are highly versatile cellular receptors that regulate extravasation of eosinophils from the postcapillary segment of the bronchial circulation to the airway wall and airspace. Such movement into the asthmatic lung is described as a sequential, multistep paradigm, whereby integrins on circulating eosinophils become activated, eosinophils tether in flow and roll on bronchial endothelial cells, integrins on rolling eosino...

  4. Identification of an unusual Brucella strain (BO2 from a lung biopsy in a 52 year-old patient with chronic destructive pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulter Chris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is primarily a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species. There are currently ten Brucella spp. including the recently identified novel B. inopinata sp. isolated from a wound associated with a breast implant infection. In this study we report on the identification of an unusual Brucella-like strain (BO2 isolated from a lung biopsy in a 52-year-old patient in Australia with a clinical history of chronic destructive pneumonia. Results Standard biochemical profiles confirmed that the unusual strain was a member of the Brucella genus and the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence was 100% identical to the recently identified B. inopinata sp. nov. (type strain BO1T. Additional sequence analysis of the recA, omp2a and 2b genes; and multiple locus sequence analysis (MLSA demonstrated that strain BO2 exhibited significant similarity to the B. inopinata sp. compared to any of the other Brucella or Ochrobactrum species. Genotyping based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA established that the BO2 and BO1Tstrains form a distinct phylogenetic cluster separate from the other Brucella spp. Conclusion Based on these molecular and microbiological characterizations, we propose that the BO2 strain is a novel lineage of the newly described B. inopinata species.

  5. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    OpenAIRE

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi; Valeria Barbosa Moreira; Angela Santos Ferreira; Selma M. De A. Sias; Rodrigues, Cristovão C.; Graça Helena M. do C. Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to pr...

  6. Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 7 year-old male presented with recurrent fever, cough and respiratory distress for over last 2 years. Based on extremely high eosinophil count, high Immunoglobulin E, increase in eosinophilic precursors in bone marrow, and positive antigen test for Wuchereria bancrofti, a diagnosis of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with Eosinophilic Leukemoid Reaction was made. Complete recovery was achieved with Diethylcarbamazine for 3 weeks. We are reporting this case as the first case of Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia with eosinophilic leukemoid reaction in a child.

  7. Eosinophilic granuloma of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takahiro; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Ogura, Koichi; Imanishi, Jungo; Hozumi, Takahiro; Funata, Nobuaki

    2011-05-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma occurs almost exclusively in the diaphysis or metaphysis, when tubular bones are affected. The investigators present an extremely rare case of eosinophilic granuloma arising at the epiphysis of the femoral head in an 8-year-old boy. Plain radiographs and computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion, suggesting chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. However, the findings on magnetic resonance images were different from typical features of chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. The lesion was curetted. Histological diagnosis was eosinophilic granuloma. Differential diagnoses of a radiolucent lesion at the epiphysis in a child should include, though quite rare, eosinophilic granuloma.

  8. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More serious infections can result in respiratory failure, liver failure, and heart failure. Sometimes, bacterial infections occur during or just after viral pneumonia, which may lead to more serious forms ...

  9. Eosinophilic myocarditis: characteristics, diagnostics and outcomes of a rare condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T K M; Watson, T; Pemberton, J; Pemberton, L; Lowe, B; Ellis, C; Kingston, N; Ruygrok, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare and potentially fatal condition characterised by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltration of myocardium. We report seven consecutive cases of eosinophilic myocarditis at our centre and discuss the important characteristics, investigation and management of this disease. PMID:27633471

  10. The Pneumonia Severity Index as a Predictor of In-Hospital Mortality in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Hu

    Full Text Available To determine whether the pneumonia severity index (PSI can predict in-hospital mortality for AECOPD patients and compare its usefulness with the CURB65 and BAP65 indexes to predict mortality.Demographics, clinical signs and symptoms, comorbidities, and laboratory and radiographic findings of hospitalized AECOPD patients were obtained. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The PSI, CURB65 and BAP65 scores were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to identify the PSI, CURB65 and BAP65 scores that could discriminate between non-survivors and survivors. To control for the confounding factor of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV regarding the mortality of AECOPD, subgroup analysis was performed when excluded patients who had met the criteria of IMV but who had not received the cure of IMV according to their wishes.During the in-hospital period, 73 patients died and 679 patients recovered. Age, PaO2<60 mmHg, pH < 7.35, PaCO2≥50 mmHg, nursing home residency, congestive heart failure, liver disease, sodium<130 mmol/L, lower FEV1% and altered mental status were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs of the PSI for death were 0.847 (95% CI: 0.799-0.895. The cut-off value was 116.5 with a sensitivity of 82.2% and a specificity of 77.6%. However, the AUCs of the CURB65 and BAP65 for death were only 0.744 (95% CI: 0.680-0.809 and 0.665 (95% CI: 0.594-0.736, respectively. Subgroup analysis also showed that the PSI score could predict the mortality of AECOPD patients with an AUC = 0.857 (95% CI: 0.802-0.913, with exclusion of the patients who met the criteria of IMV but who did not receive the cure of IMV.The PSI score may be used to predict in-hospital mortality for hospitalized AECOPD patients, with a prognostic capacity superior to CURB65 and BAP65.

  11. Lipoid pneumonia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadda, Vijay; Khilnani, Gopi C

    2010-12-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon disease caused by the presence of lipid in the alveoli. It is classified into two major groups, depending on whether the lipid/oil in the respiratory tract is from an exogenous (exogenous lipoid pneumonia) or endogenous/idiopathic (endogenous lipoid pneumonia) source. The usual presentation occurs with insidious onset and nonspecific respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea and/or cough. The main radiological findings include airspace consolidations, ground-glass attenuation, airspace nodules and 'crazy-paving' pattern. However, the radiological appearance of the disorder can mimic many other lung diseases, including carcinoma. Owing to the nonspecific clinical presentation and radiological features, the diagnosis is often missed or delayed. Pathologically, lipoid pneumonia is a chronic foreign body reaction to fat, characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease requires a high index of suspicion and can be confirmed by demonstration of lipid-laden macrophages in respiratory samples such as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or fine-needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from lung lesions. Treatment protocols for this illness are poorly defined. PMID:21128754

  12. How Is Pneumonia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pneumonia Treated? Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type ... can go back to their normal routines. Bacterial Pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia is treated with medicines called antibiotics. ...

  13. EOSINOPHILIC OTITIS MEDIA A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic otitis media is actually a recent introduction. These patients may manifest with sudden hearing loss. There may be associated bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diagnostic criteria of this condition are rather vague. A review of literature shows that demonstration of eosinophils in the middle ear secretion of these patients could be considered to be pathognomonic of this condition

  14. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  15. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  16. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids. PMID:26106168

  17. EFFECTS OF RADIX ANGE LICAE SINENSIS AND SHUANGHUANGLIAN ON A RAT MOD EL OF CHRONIC PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA PNEUMONIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the e ffects of two kinds of Chinese herbal me dicine, Radix angelicae sinensis(RAS)(当归)and Shuanghuanglian(SHL)(双黄连) on chronic Pseudomon as aeruginosa(PA)lung infection in a rat model mimicking cystic fibrosis(C F).Methods.Rats were divided into RAS, SHL and control groups. All ra ts were challenged intratracheally with alginate embedded PA and the treatments with herbal medicine started on the same day of challenge. The drugs were admini stered subcutaneously once a day for ten days and the control group was treated with sterile saline.The rats were sacrif iced two weeks after challenge.Results. Significantl y imp roved lung bacterial clearance(P<0.05, P<0 .01) and milder macroscopic lung patholog y (P<0.005) were found in the two treated groups compared to the control group. In the SHL treated group, the neutrophil p ercent in the peripheral blood leukocyte s(P<0.05), the anti-PA IgG level in serum (P<0.05), the incidence of lung abscesse s (P<0.005) and the incidence of acute lung inflammation(P<0.05) were significantly l o wer than in the control group. The RAS t reatment reduced fever(P<0.05), decrease d the incidence of lung abscesses(P<0.00 5) and lung mast cell number (P<0.05), a nd lowered anti-PA IgG1 level in serum(P <0.05) when compared to the control grou p . The anti-PA bacterial activity test in SHL was weakly positive whereas in RAS it was negative.Conclusion.The treatment w ith both herbal medicines could increase the resistance of the rats against PA l ung infection and they therefore might b e potential promising drugs for stimulat ion of the immune system in CF patients with chronic PA lung infection

  18. Gemifloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; WANG Rui; Falagas E. Matthew; CHEN Liang-an; LIU You-ning

    2012-01-01

    Background Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of gemifloxacin for the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB).Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing gemifloxacin with other approved antibiotics.The PubMed,EMBASE,Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched,with no language restrictions.Results Ten RCTs,comparing gemifloxacin with other quinolones (in 5 RCTs) and β-lactams and/or macrolides (in 5 RCTs),involving 3940 patients,were included in this meta-analysis.Overall,the treatment success was higher for gemifloxacin when compared with other antibiotics (odds ratio 1.39,95% confidence interval 1.15-1.68 in intention-to-treat patients,and 1.33,1.02-1.73 in clinically evaluable patients).There was no significant difference between the compared antibiotics regarding microbiological success (1.19,0.84-1.68) or all-cause mortality (0.82,0.41-1.63).The total drug related adverse events were similar for gemifloxacin when compared with other quinolones (0.89,0.56-1.41),while lower when compared with β-lactams and/or macrolides (0.71,0.57-0.89).In subgroup analyses,administration of gemifloxacin was associated with fewer cases of diarrhoea and more rashes compared with other antibiotics (0.66,0.48-0.91,and 2.36,1.18-4.74,respectively).Conclusions The available evidence suggests that gemifloxacin 320 mg oral daily is equivalent or superior to other approved antibiotics in effectiveness and safety for CAP and AECB.The development of rash represents potential limitation of gemifloxacin.

  19. Relationship between chronic cough and mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in chil-dren%儿童慢性咳嗽与肺炎支原体感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宇枫

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between chronic cough and mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children.Methods: The children with chronic cough who hospitalized in the hospital from February 2010 to February 2011 received mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody detection, the relationship between mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and age, X - ray changes of the children with chronic cough was analyzed.Results: Among 78 children in observation group, 42 children were found with positive mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody, accounting for 53.85%; 5 children in control group were found with positive mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody, accounting for 8.33%, the positive detection rate of mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (x2 = 14.98, P = 0.000).The positive rate of mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody in 1 ~ 3 - year old group was significantly higher than those in the other age groups (P <0.05).80.77% of the children had bilateral pulmonary changes in varying degrees, the proportion of bronchitis was the highest.Among 63 children with X-ray changes, 42 children were found with positive mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody, and the other 21 children were found without mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody, the positive rate of mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody was significantly higher than the negative rate of mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody (x2 = 8.29, P = 0.009 ).All the children completed the treatment and follow- up for 1 ~ 3 months, cough relieved obviously in 80.95% of the children (34/42) within one week and disappeared in 95.24% of the children (40/42) within one month.Conclusion: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is related to chronic cough of children closely, routine mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody detection should be carried out at the same of searching the causes of chronic cough to supply reference for clinical treatment.%目的:探讨儿童慢性咳嗽与肺炎支

  20. Esophageal microbiome in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kirk Harris

    Full Text Available The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis.In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST. Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease.Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects.Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD.

  1. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  2. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  3. Atypical pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis . 2007;44:S27-S72. PMID: 17278083 ... by: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Perelman ...

  4. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting in an adolescent with isolated colonic involvement.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.; Lichtman, S; Lentz, J.; Stringer, D; Sherman, P

    1986-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis most commonly involves the stomach and proximal small intestine with eosinophilic inflammation of either the mucosa, submucosa or serosa. The patient reported here had isolated eosinophilic colitis. The initial presentation with iron deficiency anaemia owing to occult gastrointestinal blood loss emphasises the need to evaluate the entire gastrointestinal tract in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  5. Eosinophilic Enteritis Confined to an Ileostomy Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette U. Laxa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition that can manifest anywhere from esophagus to rectum. Its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, malignancy, food allergy, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug sensitivity. We present the case of a 41-year-old male diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy formation utilizing Seprafilm®, who later developed eosinophilic enteritis of the loop ileostomy site. This is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis and its possible link to the use of bioabsorbable adhesion barriers.

  6. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction. PMID:25623943

  7. Immunoglobulin A antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J.S; Juul, Svend; Vammen, S;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between the progression of small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. METHODS: Patients from a hospital-based mass screening programme for AAA with annual follow-up (mean 2.7 years....... pneumoniae. Aneurysm progression correlated with evidence of chronic C. pneumoniae infection....

  8. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

  9. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:15492606

  10. Coxiella burnetii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, T J

    2003-04-01

    This report reviews the pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestation of infections due to Coxiella burnetii. Q fever, a zoonosis, is due to infection with C. burnetii. This spore-forming microorganism is a small gram-negative coccobacillus that is an obligate intracellular parasite. The most common animal reservoirs are goats, cattle, sheep, cats, and occasionally dogs. The organism reaches high concentrations in the placenta of infected animals. Aerosolisation occurs at the time of parturition and infection follows inhalation of this aerosol. There are three distinct clinical syndromes of the acute form of the illness: nonspecific febrile illness, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The chronic form of Q fever is almost always endocarditis, but occasionally it is manifest as hepatitis, osteomyelitis or endovascular infection. The pneumonic form of the illness can range from very mild-to-severe pneumonia requiring assisted ventilation. Multiple round opacities are a common finding on chest radiography. Treatment with doxycycline or a fluoroquinolone is preferred. Susceptibility to macrolides is variable. In conclusion, Coxiella burnetii pneumonia should be considered when there is a suitable exposure history and when outbreaks of a pneumonic illness are being investigated. PMID:12762362

  11. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gioffredi, Andrea; Maritati, Federica; Oliva, Elena; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, defined as an eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplo...

  12. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  13. Eosinophilic Pancreatitis Diagnosed With Endoscopic Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Kakodkar, Samir; Omar, Hina; Cabrera, Julio; Chi, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic pancreatitis (EP) is a rare clinical entity, and few cases have been reported. It usually presents on imaging as a pancreatic mass leading to common bile duct obstruction and jaundice. Since it can mimic a malignancy, eosinophilic pancreatitis is often diagnosed after “false positive” pancreatic resections. To our knowledge, we report the only known case of EP in which the diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration and core biopsy of the pancreas during EUS, sparing the patient...

  14. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  15. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Cruise, K M; Mitchell, G F; Watt, S M

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 X 10(7) eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where necessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10(8) eosinophils (purity > 95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 X 10(4) cells/minute, purity > 99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (bwtween 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation by using 125I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3 alpha, 6 alpha-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights > 50,000). No 125I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). PMID:7409032

  16. Lipoid pneumonia: An uncommon entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized granuloma. Pathologically it is a chronic foreign body reaction characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease is often missed as it is usually not considered in the differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia; it requires a high degree of suspicion. In suspected cases, diagnosis may be confirmed by demonstrating the presence of lipid-laden macrophages in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from the lung lesion. Treatment of this illness is poorly defined and constitutes supportive therapy, repeated bronchoalveolar lavage, and corticosteroids.

  17. Lipoid pneumonia: an uncommon entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, G C; Hadda, V

    2009-10-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s) is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized granuloma. Pathologically it is a chronic foreign body reaction characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease is often missed as it is usually not considered in the differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia; it requires a high degree of suspicion. In suspected cases, diagnosis may be confirmed by demonstrating the presence of lipid-laden macrophages in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from the lung lesion. Treatment of this illness is poorly defined and constitutes supportive therapy, repeated bronchoalveolar lavage, and corticosteroids. PMID:19901490

  18. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  19. Adult eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypereosinophilic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritJs (EGE) in the adult is a distinctive pathologically-based disorder characterized by an eosinophil-predominant mucosal inflammatory process. Most often, the disorder is detected during endoscopic investigation for abdominal pain or diarrhea. Other causes of gastric and intestinal mucosal eosinophilia require exclusion, including parasitic infections and drug-induced causes. Occasionally, the muscle wall or serosal surface may be involved. EGE appears to be more readily recognized, in large part, due to an evolution in the imaging methods used to evaluate abdominal pain and diarrhea, in particular, endoscopic imaging and mucosal biopsies. Definition of EGE, however, may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not well standardized. Also, the eosinophilic inflammatory process may be either patchy or diffuse and the detection of the eosinophilic infiltrates may vary depending on the method of biopsy fixation. Treatment has traditionally focused on resolution of symptoms, and, in some instances, eosinophil quantification in pre-treatment and post-treatment biopsies. Future evaluation and treatment of EGE may depend on precise serological biomarkers to aid in definition of the long-term natural history of the disorder and its response to pharmacological or biological forms of therapy.

  20. Unusual infections in resected adenoid of children: PCR for C. pneumonia, M. pneumonia, H. pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadi, Mohammad; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Taj, Farideh Ebrahimi; Javahertrash, Naser; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Bakhshyeh, Masomeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Recurrent or chronic adenotonsillar infections mainly affect children.The possible role for infectious agents in adenoid hypertrophy have reported. Searching the DNAs (PCR) of M. pneumonia, C. pneumonia and H. pylori in resected adenoid of children with adenoid surgery. A cross-sectional study done in ENT and Pediatric Department of Rasul Akram Hospital during 2006-2008. 53 children with recurrent or chronic adenotonsillar infections candidate for adenoid surgery were selected .The ...

  1. FastStats: Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Pneumonia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Mortality data Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pneumonia American Lung Association : Pneumonia Get Email Updates To ...

  2. What Is Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah) is an infection in ... such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi—can cause pneumonia. The infection inflames your lungs' air sacs, which ...

  3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body Some lung ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibits Activated Human T Lymphocyte Proliferation by the Induction of Apoptotic and Pyroptotic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Zavaleta, Norma; Carmody, Aaron; Messer, Ronald; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an omnipresent obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects numerous host species. C. pneumoniae infections of humans are a common cause of community acquired pneumonia but have also been linked to chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and asthma. Persistent infection and immune avoidance are believed to play important roles in the pathophysiology of C. pneumoniae disease. We found that C. pneumoniae organisms inhibited activated but ...

  5. Eosinophils and eosinophil-derived proteins in children with moderate asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, MO; Hovenga, H; Gerritsen, J; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory parameters can contribute to the diagnosis of asthma, which is often a difficult procedure in paediatric patients, The aim of this study was to investigate the value of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in the diagnosis of paediatric asthma. The num

  6. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  7. 细菌生物被膜与慢性难治性肺部感染%Bacterial Biofilm and Chronic Refractory Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃芬; 张继华

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解细菌生物被膜的形成及在肺部感染中的作用。方法:收集近年有关细菌生物被膜与难治性肺部感染的研究资料并加以归纳综合。结果:细菌生物被膜与难治性肺部感染的发生密切相关。结论:细菌生物被膜的形成与治疗研究对肺部感染的防治有可观的前景。%Objective: To investigate the formation and functions of bacterial biofilm in pneumonia. Methods:Collecting and summarizing the related literatures about bacteria biofilm and refractory pneumonia in recent years. Results: Refractory pneumonia is closely related to bacteria biofilm. Conclusions: The formations and treatments studying of bacterial biofilm have bright future in the preventmem and treatment of pneumonia.

  8. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  9. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  10. Not Your Typical Pneumonia: A Case of Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Ashley; Rouf, Emran; Whittle, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The constellation of chronic cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis can include a broad range of differential diagnoses. Although uncommon, exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) should be considered when patients present with this symptom complex. We report a case of a 72-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, cough, and dyspnea. The admission computed tomography scan of the chest revealed progressive interstitial infiltrates. Bronchoscopy revealed diffuse erythema without bleeding. Culture and cy...

  11. Role of PGE2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sastre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, respiratory system appears to be unique in that PGE2 has beneficial effects. We described that the difference in airway function observed in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma could be due to differences in PGE2 production. PGE2 present in induced sputum supernatant from NAEB patients decreases BSMC proliferation, probably due to simultaneous stimulation of EP2 and EP4 receptors with inhibitory activity. This protective effect of PGE2 may not only be the result of a direct action exerted on airway smooth-muscle proliferation but may also be attributable to the other anti-inflammatory actions.

  12. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  13. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with multiple gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otowa, Yasunori; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Urade, Takeshi; Chono, Teruhiro; Morimoto, Haruki; Yokoyama, Kunio; Hirata, Kenro; Kawamura, Shiro; Shimada, Etsuji; Fujita, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an inflammation of the digestive tract that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. There are no specific symptoms, and are related to the layer in which eosinophilic infiltration is observed. A 69-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of general malaise, diarrhea, and dysgeusia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed reddish elevated lesions that were edematous all over the gastric mucosa. In addition, three tumors were also observed. The biopsies of the reddish elevated mucosa revealed eosinophilic infiltration and tubular adenocarcinoma from the tumors. Colonoscopy showed abnormal reddish elevated mucosa. The biopsies from the reddish elevated mucosa showed eosinophilic infiltration. From the abdominal contrast computed tomography scan, tumor stain was seen in the anterior wall of the gastric body. No ascites, intestinal wall thickening, or lymph node swelling were found. A slight elevation in the serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), 480 IU/ml, was found from the laboratory test results; other laboratory results were within normal limits including the number of peripheral eosinophils. No specific allergen was found from the multiple antigen simultaneous test and from the skin patch test. The parasitic immunodiagnosis was negative. He was diagnosed with EG associated with gastric cancer and underwent total gastrectomy, regional lymph node dissection with reconstruction by a Roux-en-Y method. He was prescribed prednisolone after the operation and showed a good clinical response. There are many case reports on EG, but none of them were associated with cancer. We encountered a case of EG associated with multiple gastric cancer; the patient underwent total gastrectomy.

  14. SOCS3 silencing attenuates eosinophil functions in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Ma Paz; Cañas, Jose A; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

  15. SOCS3 Silencing Attenuates Eosinophil Functions in Asthma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Paz Zafra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3. In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process.

  16. Eosinophilic pleural effusion complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Austin N; Kuhlmann, Erica; Kuzniar, Tomasz J

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is primarily a disease of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, who typically present with bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, and expectoration of mucus plugs. We report a case of a young man with a history of asthma who presented with cough, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have lobar atelectasis and an eosinophilic, empyematous pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy and sputum cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, and testing confirmed strong allergic response to this mold, all consistent with a diagnosis of ABPA. This novel and unique presentation of ABPA expands on the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusions. PMID:21311176

  17. Case report 542: Eosinophilic granuloma of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case is presented of a solitary lesion of eosinophilic granuloma in a 33-year-old white woman. The lesion was quite small and cortically based. It contained a small sequestrum involving the medial surface of the femur just below the lesser trochanter. CT studies were very helpful in delineating the lesion. A radionuclide bone scan showed uptake at the site of the lesion. A biopsy specimen demonstrated the typical lesional tissue of eosinophilic granuloma. Of interest was a mild leucocytosis with a slightly elevated ESR. There were findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease on chest roentgenograms. (orig./GDG)

  18. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5α receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor α) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments. PMID:25900924

  19. CT manifestations of adult mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the conventional CT and HRCT manifestations of adult mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Methods: Conventional CT and HRCT were performed in 16 adult patients with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia proven by serology. The CT images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Areas of ground-glass opacity (GGO) were found in 12 cases. GGO showed lobular or patchy distribution in 9 cases. Air-space consolidation was observed in 8 cases, 'tree in bud' sign in 9, thickening of the interlobular septa in 3, and thickening of bronchovascular bundle in 1. 15 cases had two or more findings simultaneously. Conclusion: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia has some characteristic CT findings, which can help to distinguish it from bacterial pneumonia

  20. The role of transcription factors in eosinophil differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltus, G.E. (Gerrie Elisabeth)

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma. Eosinophils normally constitute only a few percent of circulating leukocytes. Increased numbers of eosinophils are found in peripheral blood, tissues, and bronchoalveolar lavage of allergic asthma p

  1. Role of P G E 2 in Asthma and Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre, Beatriz; del Pozo, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but unlike asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. Several studies suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in orchestrating interactions between different cells in several inflammatory diseases such as asthma. PGE2 is important because of the multiplicity of its effects on immune response in respiratory diseases; however, ...

  2. Bacterial DNA delays human eosinophil apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Hasala, Hannele; Sareila, Outi; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial DNA delays human eosinophil apoptosis correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +358 3 3551 6687; fax: +358 3 3551 8082. (Ilmarinen, Pinja) (Ilmarinen, Pinja) The Immunopharmacology Research Group--> , Medical School--> , University of Tampere and Research Unit--> , Tampere University Hospital--> , Tampere--> - FINLAND (Ilmarinen, Pinja) The Immunopharmacology ...

  3. ROLE OF SERUM EOSINOPHILIC CATIONIC PROTEIN AND TRYPTASE IN MYELOPROLIFERATIVE AND LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Komarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A role of intracellular proteins of eosinophils and mast cells remains unclear in the patients with hematological neoplasia. There is a substantial evidence that eosinophils possess some common mechanisms of cooperation with mast cells. Therapeutic interventions into key events controlling eosinophil migration may be a leading factor in treatment of hypereosinophylic states in onco-hematological disorders. Due to unknown functions of eosinophils in majority of eosinophilia-associated diseases, it would be useful to establish an algorithm of accurate diagnostics in the patients with eosinophilia, in order to choose more effective treatment in future.We studied serum levels of secretable eosinophil and mast cells proteins in oncohematological patients with increased eosinophil counts. The aim of our study was to test a significance of quantitative assay for tryptase and ECP in the patients with myelo- and lymphoproliferative diseases. The study group included thirty-eight patients with oncohematological diseases, accompanied by a marked eosinophilia (> 0.4 x 109/L. Eighteen patients with bronchial asthma (BA, and eight cases of solid tumors comprised a reference group for polyclonal eosinophilia. The levels of ECP and tryptase were measured in blood serum using a commercial fluoroimmunoenzyme assay («Pharmacia», Uppsala, Sweden. Total ECP levels were markedly increased in general group with hematological malignancies (p < 0.03, , and in cases of chronic GvHD (p < 0.03, and in a sub-group with lymphoproliferative disorders (р = 0.007 as compared to the group of non-hematological diseases.Serum levels of tryptase were significantly increased in the patients with chronic GvHD after allo-HSCT and lymphoproliferative diseases, as compared to the group of patients with solid tumors (р = 0.03, as well in GvHD compared with lymphoproliferative disorders (р < 0.05.A direct correlation was found between serum ECP levels and absolute

  4. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGioffredi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  5. Montelukast modulates lung CysLT1 receptor expression and eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jun ZHANG; Lei ZHANG; Shao-bin WANG; Hua-hao SHEN; Er-qing WEI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expressions of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, CysLT1 and CysLT2, in airway eosinophilic inflammation of OVA-induced asthmatic mice and the modulation by montelukast, a CysLT1 receptor antagonist.METHODS: Asthma model was induced by chronic exposure to ovalbumin (OVA) in C57BL/6 mice. The eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were counted, IL-5 level in BAL fluid was measured,and CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptor mRNA expressions were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS:Montelukast (6 mg/kg, once per day for 20 d) significantly suppressed the increased eosinophils in BAL fluid and lung tissue, and increased IL-5 level in BAL fluid in OVA challenged mice. OVA challenge increased CysLT1 but decreased CysLT2 receptor mRNA expression. Montelukast inhibited the increased CysLT1 but not the reduced CysLT2 expression after OVA challenge. CONCLUSION: CysLT receptors are modulated immunologically, and montelukast inhibits up-regulation of CysLT1 receptor and airway eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatic mice.

  6. Eosinophils in the lung – modulating apoptosis and efferocytosis in airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Felton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the key role of the lung in efficient transfer of oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide, a controlled inflammatory response is essential for restoration of tissue homeostasis following airway exposure to bacterial pathogens or environmental toxins. Unregulated or prolonged inflammatory responses in the lungs can lead to tissue damage, disrupting normal tissue architecture and consequently compromising efficient gaseous exchange. Failure to resolve inflammation underlies the development and/or progression of a number of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma. Eosinophils, granulocytic cells of the innate immune system, are primarily involved in defence against parasitic infections. However, the propagation of the allergic inflammatory response in chronic asthma is thought to involve excessive recruitment and impaired apoptosis of eosinophils together with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis. In terms of therapeutic approaches for treatment of asthma, the widespread use of glucocorticoids is associated with a number of adverse health consequences after long-term use, while some patients suffer from steroid-resistant disease. A new approach for therapeutic intervention would be to promote the resolution of inflammation via modulation of eosinophil apoptosis and the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. This review focuses on the mechanisms underpinning eosinophil-mediated lung damage, currently available treatments and therapeutic targets that might in future be harnessed to facilitate inflammation resolution by the manipulation of cell survival and clearance pathways.

  7. Eosinophils in the lung - modulating apoptosis and efferocytosis in airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Jennifer M; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Dransfield, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the key role of the lung in efficient transfer of oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide, a controlled inflammatory response is essential for restoration of tissue homeostasis following airway exposure to bacterial pathogens or environmental toxins. Unregulated or prolonged inflammatory responses in the lungs can lead to tissue damage, disrupting normal tissue architecture, and consequently compromising efficient gaseous exchange. Failure to resolve inflammation underlies the development and/or progression of a number of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma. Eosinophils, granulocytic cells of the innate immune system, are primarily involved in defense against parasitic infections. However, the propagation of the allergic inflammatory response in chronic asthma is thought to involve excessive recruitment and impaired apoptosis of eosinophils together with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis). In terms of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of asthma, the widespread use of glucocorticoids is associated with a number of adverse health consequences after long-term use, while some patients suffer from steroid-resistant disease. A new approach for therapeutic intervention would be to promote the resolution of inflammation via modulation of eosinophil apoptosis and the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. This review focuses on the mechanisms underpinning eosinophil-mediated lung damage, currently available treatments and therapeutic targets that might in future be harnessed to facilitate inflammation resolution by the manipulation of cell survival and clearance pathways. PMID:25071763

  8. Oral azithromycin in extended dosage schedule for chronic, subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease: a probable cure in sight? Results of a controlled preliminary trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaideep DograPoly Clinic, Central Government Health Scheme, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: Two mega trials have raised the question as to whether the hypothesis that infection plays a role in atherosclerosis is still relevant. This controlled preliminary trial investigated an extended dose of azithromycin in the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease (CAD.Patients and methods: Forty patients with documentary evidence of CAD were screened for immunoglobulin G titers against C. pneumoniae and grouped into either the study group (patients with positive titer, n = 32 or control group (patients with negative titer, n = 8. Cases who met inclusion criteria could not have had coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention in the preceding 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from every patient. Baseline blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell indices, serum creatinine, and liver function tests, and repeated every 2 months. A primary event was defined as the first occurrence of death by any cause, recurrent myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for angina. Patients in the study group received 500 mg of oral azithromycin once daily for 5 days, which was then repeated after a gap of 10 days (total of 24 courses in the 1-year trial period. The control group did not have azithromycin added to their standard CAD treatment.Results: In the study group, 30 patients completed the trial. Two patients had to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in the initial first quarter of the 1-year trial period. In the control group, one patient died during the trial, one had to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and one had percutaneous coronary intervention.Conclusion: The patients tolerated the therapy well and there was a positive correlation between azithromycin and secondary prevention of CAD.Keywords: azithromycin, Chlamydia pneumoniae

  9. Lipoid pneumonia: a challenging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kassem; Chalhoub, Michel; Maroun, Rabih; Abi-Fadel, Francois; Zhao, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare medical condition, and is usually classified into two groups, ie, exogenous or endogenous, depending on the source of lipids found in the lungs. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia may result from the aspiration of food and lipids. Although most cases are asymptomatic, common symptoms include cough, dyspnea, chest pain, pleural effusions, fever, and hemoptysis. Radiologically, lipoid pneumonia can manifest as consolidations, pulmonary nodules, or soft-tissue densities. These presentations involve a wide differential diagnosis, including lung cancer. Other rare causes of fatty pulmonary lesions include hamartomas, lipomas, and liposarcomas. The avoidance of further exposures and the use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, and lavage comprise the mainstays of treatment. The exclusion of mycobacterial infections is important during diagnosis, in view of their known association. Generally, acute presentations run a benign course, if promptly treated. Chronic cases are more persistent and difficult to treat. Although the radiologic and pathologic diagnosis is fairly reliable, more research is needed to clarify the optimal treatment and expected outcomes. We report on a 54-year-old man presenting with progressively worsening cough, hemoptysis, and dyspnea over a few weeks. The patient underwent multiple computed tomographies of the chest and bronchoscopies. All failed to diagnose lipoid pneumonia. The diagnosis was finally established using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Most of the paraffinoma was resected during this surgery. He was treated with antibiotics and steroids, and discharged from the hospital in stable condition. PMID:21349583

  10. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

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    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  11. Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinja Ilmarinen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, the most important anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat asthma, promote the intrinsic pathway of eosinophil apoptosis and by this mechanism contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Mitochondria seem to play central roles in both intrinsic mitochondrion-centered and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways of apoptosis in eosinophils. Mitochondria may also be important for survival signalling. In addition to glucocorticoids, another important agent that regulates human eosinophil longevity via mitochondrial route is nitric oxide, which is present in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. Nitric oxide seems to be able to trigger both survival and apoptosis in eosinophils. This review discusses the current evidence of the mechanisms of induced eosinophil apoptosis and survival focusing on the role of mitochondria and clinically relevant stimulants, such as glucocorticoids and nitric oxide.

  12. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27067058

  13. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  14. Immunopathology of chronic rhinosinusitis

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    Atsushi Kato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a heterogeneous disease characterized by local inflammation of the upper airways and sinuses which persists for at least 12 weeks. CRS can be divided into two phenotypes dependent on the presence of nasal polyps (NPs; CRS with NPs (CRSwNP and CRS without NPs (CRSsNP. Immunological patterns in the two diseases are known to be different. Inflammation in CRSsNP is rarely investigated and limited studies show that CRSsNP is characterized by type 1 inflammation. Inflammation in CRSwNP is well investigated and CRSwNP in Western countries shows type 2 inflammation and eosinophilia in NPs. In contrast, mixed inflammatory patterns are found in CRSwNP in Asia and the ratio of eosinophilic NPs and non-eosinophilic NPs is almost 50:50 in these countries. Inflammation in eosinophilic NPs is mainly controlled by type 2 cytokines, IL-5 and IL-13, which can be produced from several immune cells including Th2 cells, mast cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s that are all elevated in eosinophilic NPs. IL-5 strongly induces eosinophilia. IL-13 activates macrophages, B cells and epithelial cells to induce recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells, IgE mediated reactions and remodeling. Epithelial derived cytokines, TSLP, IL-33 and IL-1 can directly and indirectly control type 2 cytokine production from these cells in eosinophilic NPs. Recent clinical trials showed the beneficial effect on eosinophilic NPs and/or asthma by monoclonal antibodies against IL-5, IL-4Rα, IgE and TSLP suggesting that they can be therapeutic targets for eosinophilic CRSwNP.

  15. Cyclophilin D regulates necrosis, but not apoptosis, of murine eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Hogan, Simon P; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Zimmermann, Nives

    2016-04-15

    Eosinophil degranulation and clusters of free extracellular granules are frequently observed in diverse diseases, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Whether these intact granules are released by necrosis or a biochemically mediated cytolysis remains unknown. Recently, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase located within the mitochondrial matrix, cyclophilin D (PPIF), was shown to regulate necrotic, but not apoptotic, cell death in vitro in fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Whether cyclophilin D regulates necrosis in hematopoietic cells such as eosinophils remains unknown. We used PPIF-deficient (Ppif(-/-)) mice to test whether cyclophilin D is required for regulating eosinophil necrosis. PPIF deficiency did not affect eosinophil development or maturation at baseline. After in vitro ionomycin or H2O2 treatment, Ppif(-/-) eosinophils were significantly protected from Ca(2+) overload- or oxidative stress-induced necrosis. Additionally, Ppif(-/-) eosinophils demonstrated significantly decreased necrosis, but not apoptosis, in response to Siglec-F cross-linking, a stimulus associated with eosinophil-mediated processes in vitro and in vivo. When treated with apoptosis inducers, Ppif(+/+) and Ppif(-/-) eosinophils exhibited no significant difference in apoptosis or secondary necrosis. Finally, in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model, although levels of colitogenic cytokines and eosinophil-selective chemokines were comparable between Ppif(+/+) and Ppif(-/-) mice, the latter exhibited decreased clinical outcomes. This correlated with significantly reduced eosinophil cytolysis in the colon. Collectively, our present studies demonstrate that murine eosinophil necrosis is regulated in vitro and in vivo by cyclophilin D, at least in part, thus providing new insight into the mechanism of eosinophil necrosis and release of free extracellular granules in eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:26893161

  16. 不同分期的慢性肾病并发细菌性肺炎的患者降钙素原的表达差异分析%The Analysis of Difference Expression of Procalcitonin in Patients with Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease Complicating with Bacterial Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐革

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较慢性肾病( chronic kidney disease,CKD)并发细菌性肺炎患者( bacterial pneumonia,BP)﹑BP患者以及CKD患者的降钙素( procalcitonin,PCT)表达差异,探讨CKD患者的PCT的基础水平及CKD病程对PCT表达水平的影响。方法回顾性分析并比较CKD、BP、CKD并发BP患者PCT的表达水平,不同慢性肾衰竭分期合并细菌性肺炎患者PCT的表达差异。结果 CKD并发BP组与BP组感染细菌类型差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。 CKD并发BP患者﹑CKD﹑BP患者血清PCT表达差异明显,且明显高于PCT对于细菌感染的阳性临界值0.1ng/mL。 CKD并发BP组与CKD组中的组内PCT表达差异有统计学意义(P0. 05 ); patients with chronic nephropathy complicating bacterial pneumonia, chronic kidney disease, bacterial pneumonia patients serum PCT expression is obviously different,and significantly higher than that of PCT for positive critical value of 0. 1ng/ml bacteriainfection. The expression of PCT 3 CDK compliacting with bacterial pneumonia in patients with chronic ne-phropathy group within the groupdifferences are significant ( P<0. 01 ) . Chronic nephropathy group bacterial pneumonia group, there are differences in the expression level of PCT CKD2period,and the highest expression level in the CKD5 period,chronicne-phropathy group have the same performance. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease on the expression of PCT had a certain influ-ence;chronic kidney disease in patients with bacterial pneumonia,previousPCT diagnosis of bacterial infection of the critical value of the need for appropriate consider raising,avoid excessive use of antibiotics.

  17. Lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampara Guarachi, Gladis Isabel; Barbosa Moreira, Valeria; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Sias, Selma M De A; Rodrigues, Cristovão C; Teixeira, Graça Helena M do C

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O) evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement. PMID:25374742

  18. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement.

  19. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovrenski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thickened by fibrous tissue and infiltrated by a moderate number of lymphocytes. Case Outline. Our patient was a 56-year-old male, heavy smoker, with bilateral lung infiltrations of unknown etiology and several months of discomfort in the form of dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung function tests showed a moderate restrictive ventilation disorder and a severe reduction of diffusing capacity. Since bronchoscopic specimens did not reveal lung lesion etiology, an open lung biopsy of the lower left pulmonary lobe was performed, and based on the obtained surgical material the pathohistologically diagnosis of desquamative interstitial pneumonia was established. The patient was started on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, and he ceased smoking. At the last control examination, two years after the onset of symptoms, the patient was feeling well, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of the thorax showed regression of pathological changes. Conclusion. Although, as in our case, the majority of DIP patients improve on treatment, some patients still develop progressive irreversible fibrosis despite therapy.

  20. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In the hospital, your doctors and nurses helped you breathe better. ... body get rid of the germs that cause pneumonia. They also made sure you got enough liquids ...

  1. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 515 Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP) WHAT IS PCP? HOW IS PCP TREATED? ... BEST? THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS PCP? Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP or pneumocystis) is the most common opportunistic ...

  2. IL-5 Up-regulates the Expression of TGF-β1 in Human Blood Eosinophils in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yabing; LIU Bin; WANG Lu; LI Rong; ZHU Min; CHEN Dong; CHEN Shi

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of IL-5 on the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, eosinophils were incubated in the presence of the same concentrations of IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ, different concentrations of IL-5 in vitro and changes of eosinophil viability were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Non-cytokine was employed as a negative control. 16 h after the cultivation, supernatants and cells were assayed by using TGF-β1 specific ELISA and RT-PCR. The mRNA expression and protein expresssion of TGF-β1 in eosinophils stimulated with different cytokines was observed.The expression of TGF-β1 protein in eosinophils was increased significantly by IL-4 (433.67±9.86vs 228.9±2.87) and IL-5 (403. 72±7.60 vs 228.9±2.87, P<0.05), while decreased by IFNγ (178.47±2.60 vs 228.9±2.87). At the same time, the results demonstrated that the basal level of TGF expression was enhanced by IL5 in all samples (P<0.05). The expression of TGF β1 mRNA was 1.42, 1. 70, 1. 76-folds higher than that of the non-stimulated controls. It is concluded that IL-5 can up-regulate the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, which might have effect in eosinophil-associated chronic rejection.

  3. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis by hydrogen peroxide promotes the resolution of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A C; Alessandri, A L; Athayde, R M; Perez, D A; Vago, J P; Ávila, T V; Ferreira, T P T; de Arantes, A C S; Coutinho, D de Sá; Rachid, M A; Sousa, L P; Martins, M A; Menezes, G B; Rossi, A G; Teixeira, M M; Pinho, V

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are effector cells that have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. Defective removal of these cells likely leads to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the elimination of eosinophils from inflammatory sites. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for certain mediators and molecular pathways responsible for the survival and death of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. Reactive oxygen species have been described as proinflammatory mediators but their role in the resolution phase of inflammation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive oxygen species in the resolution of allergic inflammatory responses. An eosinophilic cell line (Eol-1) was treated with hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis was measured. Allergic inflammation was induced in ovalbumin sensitized and challenged mouse models and reactive oxygen species were administered at the peak of inflammatory cell infiltrate. Inflammatory cell numbers, cytokine and chemokine levels, mucus production, inflammatory cell apoptosis and peribronchiolar matrix deposition was quantified in the lungs. Resistance and elastance were measured at baseline and after aerosolized methacholine. Hydrogen peroxide accelerates resolution of airway inflammation by induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils and decrease remodeling, mucus deposition, inflammatory cytokine production and airway hyperreactivity. Moreover, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by apocynin or in gp91(phox-/-) mice prolonged the inflammatory response. Hydrogen peroxide induces Eol-1 apoptosis in vitro and enhances the resolution of inflammation and improves lung function in vivo by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils. PMID:25675292

  4. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yasukawa

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis-endoscopic distinguishing findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Célia Caetano; Raquel Gon(c)alves; Carla Rolanda

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is the most frequent condition found in a group of gastrointestinal disorders called eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.The hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism is related to a hypersensitivity reaction.Gastroesophageal reflux disease-like complaints not ameliorated by acid blockade or occasional symptoms of dysphagia or food impaction are likely presentations of EE.Due to its unclear pathogenesis and unspecific symptoms,it is difficult to diagnose EE without a strong suspicion.Although histological criteria are necessary to diagnosis EE,there are some characteristic endoscopic features.We present the case of a healthy 55-year-old woman with dysphagia and several episodes of esophageal food impaction over the last six months.This case report stresses the most distinguishing endoscopic findings-mucosa rings,white exudative plaques and linear furrows-that can help in the prompt recognition of this condition.

  6. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jen Chen; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih; Tsang-En Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinic features of eosinophilicgastroenteritis and to examine the diagnosis, treatment,long-term outcome of this disease.METHODS: Charts with a diagnosis of eosinophilicgastroenteritis from 1984 to 2002 at Mackay Memorial Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The diagnosis was established in 13 by histologic evaluation of endoscopic biopsy or operative specimen and in 2 by radiologic imaging and the presence of eosinophilic ascites.RESULTS: All the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 (80 %) had hypereosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count 1 008 to 31 360/cm3). The most common symptoms were abdominal pain and diarrhea. Five of the 15 patients had a history of allergy. Seven patients had involvement of the mucosa, 2 of muscularis, and 6 of subserosa. One with a history of seafood allergy was successfully treated with an elimination diet. Another patient improved spontaneously after fasted for several days. The remaining 13 patients were treated with oral prednisolone, 10 to 40 mg/day initially,which was then tapered. The symptoms in all the patients subsided within two weeks. Eleven of the 15 patients were followed up for more than 12 months (12 to 104 months,mean 48.7), of whom 5 had relapses after discontinuing steroids (13 episodes). Two of these patients required longterm maintenance oral prednisolone (5 to 10 mg/day).CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition of unclear etiology characterized by relapses and remissions. Short courses of corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, although some patients with relapsing disease require long-term low-dose steroids.

  7. Mepolizumab: A Review in Eosinophilic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-08-01

    Mepolizumab (Nucala(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, a cytokine involved in the development, recruitment and activation of eosinophils (cellular mediators of airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and tissue remodelling). The drug is indicated as an add-on treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma, on the basis of its clinical benefit in this setting in the placebo-controlled DREAM, MENSA and SIRIUS trials. Based on the 52-week, phase II, DREAM study (which assessed varying intravenous mepolizumab dosages), intravenous mepolizumab 75 mg every 4 weeks (q4w) and the corresponding (recommended) subcutaneous dosage of 100 mg q4w were studied in the 32- and 24-week phase III MENSA and SIRIUS trials. In patients aged ≥12 years with severe eosinophilic asthma in the phase III studies, adding subcutaneous mepolizumab 100 mg q4w to current asthma therapy significantly reduced the rate of clinically relevant asthma exacerbations and, in those dependent on oral glucocorticoids (OCSs) for asthma control, enabled the daily OCS dose to be significantly reduced, relative to adding placebo. This mepolizumab regimen also significantly improved asthma control, health-related quality of life and (in one of the two studies) lung function, and had acceptable tolerability (with headache the most common adverse event). In the MENSA and SIRIUS extension, COSMOS, mepolizumab provided durable clinical benefit over up to 84 weeks' therapy with no new tolerability concerns. Thus, mepolizumab is a valuable add-on treatment option for adults and adolescents aged ≥12 years who have severe eosinophilic asthma despite optimized standard therapies. PMID:27311938

  8. MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma

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    Choi, Gi Bok; Son, Seok Hyun; Eun, Choong Ki; Park, Sung Kun; Han, Sang Suk [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sun Seob [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Min [Kosin Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo [Maryknoll Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma. We reviewed the MR imaging studies of nine patients [M:F=3:6, aged 6-35 (mean, 20.5) years] with pathologically proven eosinophilic granuloma in the calvaria. The findings were evaluated for involvement of the diploic space, changes in adjacent bone marrow, distinction of the transitional zone, pattern of bone destruction, signal intensity and contrast enhancement of the tumor, and contrast enhancement of the adjacent dura. All lesions involved the diploic space, showed no change in adjacent bone marrow, and had a distinct transitional zone. In most (8/9) cases there was asymmetric bony destruction. On T1-weighted images, signal intensities of the tumors varied, while on T2-weighted images, hyperintensity was observed in seven cases, isointensity in one, and hypointensity in one. After the administration of contrast material, enhancement was homogeneous in four cases and inhomogeneous in five. Enhancement of the adjacent dura was demonstrated in all nine cases. The characteristic MR findings of calvarial eosinophilic granuloma are variable signal intensity on T1WI, high signal intensity on T2WI, and marked contrast enhancement; in addition, there is a distinct transitional zone, asymmetrical bony destruction, and associated dural enhancement.

  9. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  10. [A case of interstitial pneumonia exacerbated by kampo-induced pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuo; Kinebuchi, Shinichi; Sugiyama, Kentaro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Tango, Masuo; Moriyama, Hirochi; Terada, Masaki; Ooi, Hidemi; Hasegawa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kenichi; Satoh, Makoto; Suzuki, Eiichi; Gejyo, Fumitake

    2002-07-01

    A 65-year-old woman who had complained of non-productive cough since May 1998 visited our hospital on November 5, 2000. She had been treated at another hospital with Kampo (Chinese herbal medicine), including Moku-boui-to, Bakumon-do-to, and Saiko-keishi-kankyo-to for chronic non-productive cough. Chest radiographs and CT films showed the reticular shadows that had been present in 1998, in both lower lung fields, and also demonstrated new reticular shadows in the right upper lung field and left lingular segment. Laboratory data revealed hypoxemia and pulmonary function tests revealed restrictive ventilatory disturbance, so she was admitted to our hospital on November 9, 2000. After the cessation of Kampo treatment, her symptoms disappeared, and the hypoxemia, restrictive disturbance, and reticular shadows in the chest radiograph gradually improved. Video-assisted lung biopsy specimens showed thickened alveolar walls with lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration. A leukocyte migration test was positive for Moku-boui-to, Bakumon-do-to, and weakly positive for Saiko-keishi-kankyo-to. Although no challenge test for Kampo was performed, we diagnosed this case as interstitial pneumonia exacerbated Kampo-induced pneumonitis based on these clinical, laboratory and histological findings. PMID:12382427

  11. Delayed tension pneumothorax complicating staphylococcal pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, S. P.; Morcos, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A case is described in which a tension pneumothorax complicated staphylococcal pneumonia 11 months after its onset. The delayed and subacute/chronic nature of the tension pneumothorax is unusual. The case also highlights the difficult differential diagnosis between subpleural lung cysts and encysted pneumothorax.

  12. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  13. Eosinophilic granuloma of the temporal bone- its clinical manifestations and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtane Jyotsna

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma is a variety of Histiocytosis-X. Its etio-logy is unknown. When it involves the temporal bone it may mimic chronic otitis media, or a mastoid abscess, very often leading to an erroneous diagnosis. Its X-ray appearance and histopathology are characteristic. Infiltration with eosinophils and histiocytes is a constant feature. Very good results are achieved with surgery accompanied by radiotherapy. In this series of 3 patients, one pa-tient presented with facial paralysis and another one with bilateral post-auricular swellings. The first 2 cases were diagnosed only after surgery and histopathological examination of the tissue removed, while the third case was diagnosed pre-operatively on clinical and radiological findings.

  14. Respiratory Review of 2012: Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Young-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, despite advances in diagnosis and antibacterial treatment. Pneumonia is often misdiagnosed and mistreated up until recently. Recent classification of pneumonia consists of community-acquired pneumonia, health care-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The etiology, risk factors, and treatment are different among them. This article briefly introduces new concepts and ideas in biomar...

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmenta...

  16. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradding Peter

    2008-01-01

    Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and loca...

  17. Eosinophils Promote Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was a...

  18. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  19. Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Walford HH; Doherty TA

    2014-01-01

    Hannah H Walford,1,2 Taylor A Doherty11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of California, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic infl...

  20. Time course of eosinophilic myocarditis visualized by CMR

    OpenAIRE

    Feuerbach Stefan; Heinicke Norbert; Poschenrieder Florian; Buchner Stefan; Djavidani Behrus; Debl Kurt; Riegger Günter; Luchner Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We report the diagnostic potential of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to visualize the time course of eosinophilic myocarditis upon successful treatment. A 50-year-old man was admitted with a progressive heart failure. Endomyocardial biopsies were taken from the left ventricle because of a white blood cell count of 17000/mm3 with 41% eosinophils. Histological evaluation revealed endomyocardial eosinophilic infiltration and areas of myocyte necrosis. The patient was diagnosed ...

  1. An Extremely Uncommon Case of Parasitic Infection Presenting as Eosinophilic Ascites in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Oncu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 24-year-old male patient admitted for recent ascites and splenomegaly of unknown origin. The patient was referred to our institution with complaints of diarrhea, epigastric pain, abdominal cramping and weight loss over the past three weeks. The acute onset presented with colicky abdominal pain and peritoneal effusion. History revealed reduced appetite and weight gain of 7 kg over the last one month. His past medical history and family history was negative. He had no history of alcohol abuse or viral hepatitis infection. Laboratory data revealed normal transaminases and bilirubin levels, and alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyltransferase were within normal range. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which showed free peritoneal fluid and normal abdominal viscera. Upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed a few days later revealed diffuse severe erythematous pangastritis and gastroduodenal gastric reflux. Duodenal biopsies showed chronic nonspecific duodenitis. Antrum and corpus biopsies showed chronic gastritis. The ascitic fluid was straw-colored and sterile with 80% eosinophils. Stool exam was negative for parasitic infection. Treatment with albendazole 400 mg twice daily for 5 days led to the disappearance of ascites and other signs and symptoms. Three months after albendazole treatment the eosinophilic cell count was normal. The final diagnosis was consistent with parasitic infection while the clinical, sonographic and histological findings suggested an eosinophilic ascites. We emphasize the importance of excluding parasitic infection in all patients with eosinophilic ascites. We chose an alternative way (albendazole treatment to resolve this clinical picture. With our alternative way for excluding this parasitic infection, we treated the patient and then found the cause.

  2. Resected case of eosinophilic cholangiopathy presenting with secondary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Miura; Takehide Asano; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenichiro Kato; Tadahiro Takada; Junichi Fukushima; Fukuo Kondo; Hajime Takikawa

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice.Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pyloruspreserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy.On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia.

  3. Conservative management of eosinophilic enteritis presenting with acute abdominal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bassi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enteritis, an increasing recognized condition, is rare and often presents with non-specific symptoms. We report a case of a 46-year old female who presented with acute onset abdominal pain and nausea associated with ascites, small bowel thickening and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsies taken at esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrating diffuse infiltration by inflammatory cells, mainly eosinophils. Appropriate therapy was instituted. The patient recovered well and was symptom-free at 1-month follow up. In this report, we discuss the clinical presentation and the diagnostic criteria of the eosinophilic enteritis, and examine the pathophysiological theories and therapeutic strategies. The relevant literature on eosinophilic enteritis is summarized.

  4. Why chronic constipation may be harmful to your lungs: a case report and review of lipoid pneumonia and mycobacterium fortuitum leading to acute respiratory failure and septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 43 year-old female with a past medical history of right-sided hemiparesis secondary to motor vehicle accident 17 years prior presented a two week history of cough, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. Her baseline status included using a wheelchair, living alone at home and working as a teacher. On admission she had a temperature of 39.6º C, was tachycardia and hypotensive requiring vasopressors. Labs were remarkable for a white count of 25,000 cells/mcL. Chest x-ray showed right-sided infiltrate and pleural effusion (Figure 1. Bronchoscopy and thoracentesis was performed upon admission. The pleural fluid was exudative with a glucose of 78 and no suggestion of loculations on chest x-ray or ultrasound. The patient was started on therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. On day 4 after admission, the patient had increasing sinus tachycardia, hypotension and was worsening despite being on antimicrobial therapy. A CT angiogram of the chest was performed (Figure 2. ...

  5. Indirect assessment of eosinophiluria in urinary schistosomiasis using eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Ouma, J H; Mwanje, M T;

    1993-01-01

    The pre- and post-treatment level of eosinophiluria, as measured indirectly by the amount of free or cell bound eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) in urine from Schistosoma haematobium-infected Kenyan school children, were measured and compared with intensity......-treatment follow-up, eosinophiluria persisted in a significant proportion of the treated children indicating continued eosinophil activity in the bladder wall. Detection and quantification of early acute inflammatory reactions using ECP/eosinophils in combination with detection of later stages of bladder pathology...

  6. Occupational asthma due to low molecular weight agents: eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic variants

    OpenAIRE

    ANEES, W; HUGGINS, V; Pavord, I.; Robertson, A; Burge, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Despite having a work related deterioration in peak expiratory flow (PEF), many workers with occupational asthma show a low degree of within day diurnal variability atypical of non-occupational asthma. It was hypothesised that these workers would have a neutrophilic rather than an eosinophilic airway inflammatory response.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and survival of cells. When the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene mutation or point mutations in the PDGFRA gene occur in blood ... their families. Mutations that lead to a PDGFRA fusion gene and PDGFRA point mutations are somatic mutations, which means they occur ...

  8. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  9. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor

  10. The History of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    In the United States in the 1930s, although the pathogen was not known, atypical pneumonia was clinically distinguished from pneumococcal pneumonia by its resistance to sulfonamides. Reimann (1938) reported seven patients with an unusual form of tracheo bronchopneumonia and severe constitutional symptoms. He believed the clinical picture of this disease differed from that of the disease caused by influenza viruses or known bacteria and instead suspected "primary atypical pneumonia." For many years, the responsible infectious agent was tentatively classified as a filterable virus that could pass through a Seitz filter to remove bacteria and was reported to be a psittacosis-like or new virus. After that, Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) identified an agent that was the principal cause of primary atypical pneumonia using cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) did not perform an inoculation study in human volunteers. During the 1940s, there were three groups engaged in discovering the etiology of the primary atypical pneumonia. (1) Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases Diseases directed by John Dingle, (2) Dr. Monroe Eaton's group, the Virus Research Laboratory of the California State Public Health Department, (3) The Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research directed by Horsfall. During 1940s, the members of the Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases concluded that the bacteria-free filtrates obtained from the patients, presumably containing a virus, could induce primary atypical pneumonia in human volunteers via Pinehurst trials. During 1950s, serological approaches for identification of the Eaton agent developed such as Fluorescent-Stainable Antibody, and at the beginning of the1960s, the Eaton agent successfully grew in media, and finally accepted as a cause of primary atypical pneumonia. Thus, technical difficulties with visualizing the agent and failure to recognize the full significance of the Pinehurst

  11. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  12. Mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells under flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulfman, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Eosinophils play an important role in allergic inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. Infiltrates of these cells are present in the interstitium and the lumen of the bronchi of asthmatic patients. Eosinophils must pass the endothelium to enter this site of inflammation. A widely accepted par

  13. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Kellermayer; Nina Tatevian; William Klish; Robert J Shulman

    2008-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  14. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  15. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a nickel metal hydride battery worker: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Hou-rong; CAO Min; MENG Fan-qing; WEI Jing-yi; HOU Jie

    2005-01-01

    @@ Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very rare chronic interstitial pneumonia caused by exposure to metal compounds such as cobalt or tungsten carbide. Although GIP was included in an original framework for the histologic classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias by Liebow and Carrington in 1969,1 GIP is currently considered a form of pneumoconiosis.

  16. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  17. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  18. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histiocytosis X is a disease of unknown origin which usually affects multiple organs, including the lung. The age of onset, the clinical course and the pattern of spread allow a distinction to be made between 3 varieties: Letterer-Siwe, Hand-Schuller-Christian and eosinophilic granuloma. The latter form, in adult patients, may predominantly or solely affect the lungs. The authors reviewed clinical, radiographic and CT findings of 7 adult patients with pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma, picked out of a series of 265 cases of interstitial lung pathology, diagnosed since 1973. Typical pulmonary involvement is bilateral, symmetrical and predominates in upper areas. Honeycomb pattern was found in 1 patient at the onset of symptoms, and in 2 cases during the follow-up, without severe reduction in pulmonary volumes. Pneumothorax was obseved in 3 cases and bone lesions in 2. CT added new and important informations such as presence, size and wall thickness of ''cystic'' lesions. New laboratory tests and bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated minor diagnostic usefulness than radiological findings. The authors conclude by discussing such problems as prognostic factors and differential diagnosis

  19. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  20. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  1. 慢性肾脏病合并肺孢子菌肺炎胸部CT表现分析%Analysis of CT manifestations of pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with chronic kidney diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿华; 崔凤; 钟琦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the CT imaging features of pneumocystis pneumonia ( PCP ) in patients with chronic kidney diseases .Methods The CT images of 23 patients with PCP in chronic kidney diseases were analyzed retrospectively .Re-sults The CT images of PCP were shown as follous: patchy shadows and nodules , ground glass opacity , pulmonary consolida-tion, air containing cystic pattern, Fiber grid shadow, Mediastinal lymph node enlargement , angpleural effusion.The lesions pro-gressed gradually to diffuse ground glass and consolidation of the lung .Conclusion The CT images of PCP patients with chronic kidney diseases has its unique characteristics ,which has obvious value for the diagnosis of the disease .%目的:探讨慢性肾脏病合并肺孢子菌肺炎( PCP)的胸部CT表现特点。方法回顾分析2006年1月~2014年2月医院肾内科确诊的23例慢性肾脏病合并肺孢子菌患者的胸部CT影像资料。结果23例慢性肾脏病合并PCP患者的胸部CT表现主要有:斑片结节影、磨玻璃影、肺实变、肺气囊、纤维网格影、纵隔淋巴结肿大、胸腔积液。病变可表现为两肺或单侧肺。疾病早期以斑片结节影为主,逐渐进展呈弥漫磨玻璃及肺实变,伴有纤维网格影。结论慢性肾脏病合并肺孢子菌患者的胸部CT表现具有一定的特征性,对于该病的诊断具有明显的价值。

  2. Chlamydia pneumoniae Promotes Dysfunction of Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Annette R.; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Witt, Colleen M.; Yu, Jieh-Juen; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Chambers, James P.; Perry, George; Guentzel, M. Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    The human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate pancreatic beta cells and mast cells during chlamydial infection. Our study revealed that C. pneumoniae infected mast cells significantly (p< 0.005) decreased beta cell ATP and insulin production, in contrast to uninfected mast cells co-cultured with beta cells. Infected mast cells exhibited pyknotic nuclei and active caspase-3 and caspase-1 expression. Additionally, ex vivo analyses of tissues collected from C. pneumoniae infected mice showed increased interleukin-1β production in splenocytes and pancreatic tissues as was observed with in vitro mast cell-beta cell co-cultures during C. pneumoniae infection. Notably, infected mast cells promoted beta cell destruction. Our findings reveal the negative effect of C. pneumoniae on mast cells, and the consequential impact on pancreatic beta cell function and viability. PMID:25863744

  3. Risks of pneumonia in patients with asthma taking inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Soren; Carlsson, Lars-Göran;

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of asthma treatment. Studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reported increased rates of pneumonia with ICS. Concerns exist about an increased pneumonia risk in patients with asthma taking ICS. Objectives: To evaluate the risks...... of pneumonia in patients with asthma taking ICS. Methods: A retrospective analysis evaluated studies of the ICS budesonide in asthma. The primary data set were all double-blind, placebo-controlled trials lasting at least 3 months, involving budesonide (26 trials, n = 9,067 for budesonide; n = 5...... effect of ICS on pneumonia adverse events (AEs) or serious adverse events (SAEs). Measurements and Main Results: In the primary data set, the occurrence of pneumonia AEs was 0.5% (rate 10.0 events/1,000 patient-years [TPY]) for budesonide and 1.2% (19.3 per TPY) for placebo (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95...

  4. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Kaijalainen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, is an importanthuman pathogen that causes both serious invasive infections, suchas septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia, as well as mild upper respiratoryinfections. It also belongs to the normal nasopharyngeal microbialflora. The purpose of this study was to compare bacteriologicalphenotypic methods with genetechnological methods in the identificationof pneumococci, especially among suspect pneumococcal isolateslacking one or more typical ...

  5. Osteopontin promotes host defense during Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.W. van der Windt; J.J. Hoogerwerf; A.F. de Vos; S. Florquin; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia. Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein involved in inflammatory processes, some of which is mediated by CD44. The aim of this study was to determine the role of OPN during K. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. Wild-type (WT) and

  6. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  7. Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

    2004-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

  8. Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 from equine species.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, C E; Sweeney, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 was isolated from seven tracheobronchial aspirates and one pleural tap of seven adult horses and one foal. There was no direct evidence in these horses that isolation of the pneumococcus was related to a specific disease syndrome. Presenting complaints included two horses with chronic cough, two horses with decreased exercise tolerance, one horse with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and three horses with pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy resolved the primary...

  9. 慢性支气管炎合并肺炎患者血浆中D-二聚体检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of plasma D-dimer detection in chronic bronchitis complicated with pneumonia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海波

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性支气管炎合并肺炎患者血浆中D-二聚体检测的临床意义。方法慢性支气管炎急性发作合并肺炎患者64例和肺栓塞患者30例,对其D-二聚体进行快速定量测定。结果慢性支气管炎急性发作合并肺炎患者和肺栓塞患者D-二聚体差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论检测D-二聚体为判断慢性支气管炎是否合并肺部感染有一定的意义,且有助于判断炎症的轻重及病情变化。%Objective To investigate clinical significance of plasma D-dimer detection in chronic bronchitis complicated with pneumonia patients.Methods There were 64 cases of chronic bronchitis acute attack complicated with pneumonia and 30 cases of pulmonary embolism. Rapid quantitative determination was made for D-dimer in all patients.Results The difference of D-dimer had no statistical significance between chronic bronchitis acute attack complicated with pneumonia patients and pulmonary embolism patients (P>0.05). Conclusion Detection of D-dimer provides certain value for judging whether chronic bronchitis is complicated with pulmonary infection. This method is also helpful to judging status of inflammation and disease.

  10. MULTILOCI SEQUESTERANT STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comuunity-acquired pneumonias in aged patients is the significant epidemiology problem for the public health of almost all the countries. Even more important the problem of microbiological monitoring and epidemiology surveillance for the S. pneumoniae strains as one of the ubiquitous pathogens causing as the community-acquired pneumonias as well the other infections of respiratory tract, what defines their different epidemiological meaning.Multilocus sequence typing is the perspective method of molecular epidemiological surveillance allowing to define the epidemiologically dangerous clones of the ubiquitous microorganisms as Streptococcus pneumomiae. The aim of our research was to conduct the multilocus sequence typing of pneumococci strains isolated in patients with community acquired pneumonias, bronchitis in aged patients.Materials and methods. There were taken 14 strains of S. pneumoniae, isolated in patients with community-acquired pneumonias (seven of them were multiresistant, eight strains were isolated from patients with the chronical onstructive lung diseases and four strains from carriers. Multilocus sequence typing was conduected according to method to M.C. Enright and B.G. Spratt (1998.Results. The strains, isolated in all populations were the related isolates of the species S. pneumoniae, the most of them had the unique genotype defining the sequence type for every strain. There were 6 strains of Taiwan 19F-14 genotype from 14 strains isolated in aged patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Among strains isolated from carriers there were prevailing the strai of R6 genotype.Conclusion. Multilocus sequence typing allows to identify the new genotypes and to prognose the appearing of epidemiologically dangerous strains with new peculiarities.

  11. A novel antagonist of CRTH2 blocks eosinophil release from bone marrow, chemotaxis and respiratory burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royer, J F; Schratl, P; Lorenz, S;

    2007-01-01

    developed small molecule antagonist of CRTH2, Cay10471, on eosinophil function with respect to recruitment, respiratory burst and degranulation. METHODS: Chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils were determined using microBoyden chambers. Eosinophil release...

  12. STAT3 activation and infiltration of eosinophil granulocytes in mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Simon Mayland; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes have been implicated in anticancer immunity but recent data indicate that eosinophils can also promote cancer. Herein, we studied eosinophils in skin lesions from 43 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). The presence of eosinophils correlated with disease stage: 78...

  13. Disseminated eosinophilic disease resembling idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, I; Perl, S; Markovics, A

    2001-09-29

    True idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been described in human beings and cats, but not in dogs. The syndrome is characterised by prolonged unexplained peripheral mature eosinophilia, the infiltration of many organs by eosinophils, organ dysfunction and a fatal outcome. This paper describes an idiopathic disseminated eosinophilic disease in a dog involving various organs, manly the heart and the lungs, accompanied by a leukemoid eosinophilic response, and a fatal outcome. The histopathological findings included the infiltration of the myocardium, lung parenchyma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skeletal muscles with eosiniphils. PMID:11601516

  14. Eosinophilic cholecystitis as a rare manifestation of visceral larva migrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is an infrequent form of cholecystitis. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, and it is sometimes accompanied with several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rare. We would like to make an alternative interpretation of our recent report "Kaji K, Yoshiji H, Yoshikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ikenaka Y,Noguchi R, Sawai M, Ishikawa M, Mashitani T, Kitade M, Kawaratani H, Uemura M, Yamao J, Fujimoto M,Mitoro A,Toyohara M, Yoshida M, Fukui H. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report.World J Gastroenterol 2007;13: 3760-3762."

  15. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Moral-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  16. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  17. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activati...

  18. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  19. Sudden death due to eosinophilic endomyocardial diseases: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Karayel, Ferah; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ozdes, Taskin; Yilmaz, Eyyup; Pakis, Isil

    2008-12-01

    Eosinophils are associated with various disorders, such as allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, parasitic diseases, connective tissue diseases, certain neoplastic diseases (Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, and carcinomas), and various immune deficiency states. Eosinophils can infiltrate any tissue and can cause tissue damage. Heart, has been demonstrated to be the most extensively involved and toxicity of eosinophils is well-established on cardiac tissue. We describe 3 cases with extensive eosinophilic infiltration without endomyocardial fibrosis. All patients died after a short clinical course with rapidly progressive heart failure. Bronchial asthma, hydatid disease and drug reaction were considered as possible etiologies of eosinophilia in case 1 and case 2. Case 3 was considered to fall into the "idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome" in which no underlying causes for eosinophilia could be identified.

  20. Eosinophilic venulitis of colon presenting as ileocecal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Faripour; Rustagi, Tarun; Lamea, Leela

    2011-01-01

    Reports of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon causing obstruction are few. It is even less common to find associated extensive intestinal venulitis, which is similar to and lumped together with so called Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive Disease (MIVOD) or Self-Limited Intestinal Venulitis. Eosinophilic necrotizing lymphadenitis, such as what we report here, has never been reported in association with this disease. A 41-year-old female presented with cramping lower abdominal pain, hematochezia, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed the presence of the mass and thickening of the illeocecal wall. Endoscopy confirmed a cecal mass with surface ulceration suggestive of cecal adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy with the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Microscopic examination of the resected bowel showed an ulcerated mass in the cecum composed of markedly edematous tissue showing transmural eosinophilic infiltration and extensive eosinophilic and lymphocytic venulitis with and without thrombosis. This was associated with a necrotizing lymphadenitis.

  1. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  2. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a challenge to diagnose and treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaw, Naw April; Tsai, Her Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The patient presented with bloody diarrhoea, and crampy abdominal pains. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) after the finding of persistently high peripheral eosinophil counts and histology of endoscopic biopsies. She responded to steroids but became dependent on it and her symptoms recurred on steroid tapering. There was little improvement with alternative treatment such as budesonides, azathioprine and montelukast. Surprisingly her symptoms improved significantly after she was treated with clarithromycin for chest infection and she was continued on clarithromycin. Her eosinophil counts fell dramatically and follow-up CT (thorax, abdomen and pelvic) scan showed the mucosal thickening had improved. She became completely free of the symptoms since she was on clarithromycin and her eosinophils counts fell within the normal range during the follow-up. PMID:27613263

  3. Alcohol abuse and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of Virulence Factors and Impaired Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatty, Minny; Pruett, Stephen B.; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia world-wide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despit...

  4. Eosinophils and their Interactions with Respiratory Virus Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are implicated in the pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection, most typically in negative roles, such as promoting wheezing and bronchoconstriction in conjunction with virus-induced exacerbations of reactive airways disease and in association with aberrant hypersensitivity responses to antiviral vaccines. However, experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo suggest positive roles for eosinophils, as they have been shown to reduce virus infectivity in tissue culture and pro...

  5. Prominent Vascular and Perivascular Eosinophilic Infiltrates Heralding CNS Mycosis Fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Leppert, Michelle; Ney, Douglas; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    2015-10-01

    Brain parenchymal involvement of mycosis fungoides (MF) is very rare. This study reports a patient with known cutaneous MF (under treatment) who presented with a CNS syndrome and multiple brain lesions. Brain biopsy demonstrated massive eosinophilic infiltrates but no MF cells. Despite treatment, new lesions developed and the patient died. At autopsy, there was massive involvement MF cells, suggesting that the eosinophilic infiltrates presaged the severe involvement of the CNS by MF. PMID:26352990

  6. Eosinophil recruitment and activation: the role of lipid mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are effector cells that migrate toward several mediators released at inflammatory sites to perform their multiple functions. The mechanisms driving eosinophil selective accumulation in sites of allergic inflammation are well-established and involve several steps controlled by adhesion molecules, priming agents, chemotactic, and surviving factors. Even though the majority of studies focused on role of protein mediators like IL-5 and eotaxins, lipid mediators also participate in eos...

  7. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  8. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  9. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine to treat your child's cough because cough suppressants stop the lungs from clearing mucus, which isn't helpful in some types of pneumonia. Over-the-counter cough and cold medications are not recommended for any ...

  10. Pneumonia in adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 69. Mandell LA. Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer ...

  11. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going to the bathroom After changing a baby's diaper After coming in contact with people who are ... pneumoniae. Vaccines are even more important for older adults and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema, HIV, cancer, ...

  12. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    morphological changes in juveniles and adults ticks parasitizing animals which consumed the biotherapic. This observation suggests a negative interference of the biotherapic in the biological cycle of the tick, decreasing its population and consequently his control’s necessity. Comparing the blood cells counts of the first and the twelfth month, a raise of 23% (P> 0.05 in the eosinophils and 8% (P< 0.05 in the platelets was observed in the T1 animals. No changes in liver enzymes were observed. The increase in eosinophils and platelets found in this experiment suggests that biotherapic ingested by the animals strengthens the defense system and the clotting cascade.Key words: bovinos

  13. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  14. Does the eosinophil have a protective role in amebiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Osuna Martha

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available While normal human eosinophils are destroyed in vitro by virulent Entamoeba histolytica, notwhistanding the presence of antibodies and complement, activated eosinophils promptly destroy the parasite although dying also at the end of the process. To study the possible in vivo participation of eosinophils in invasive amebiasis, we compared the induction of experimental amebic abscess of the liver (AAL in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus previously made eosinophilic through Toxocara canis antigen injection and in normal control gerbils. After intraportal inoculation of 10(5 ameba trophozoites (6 and 24 hr, the ratio of gerbils with AAL, as well as the number and size of the microabscesses was comparable in eosinophilic and control gerbils. However, at 96 hr the number and size of the microabscesses were significanly smaller (p<0.05 in eosinophilic gerbils. On the other hand the actuarial AAL survival curve up to 45 days post-amebic inoculation was signficantly (p<0.05 shifted to the right in controls. These results suggest that antigen-induced eosinophilia may exert a protective effect against AAL in gerbils.

  15. Bronchoscopy in lipoid pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kameswaran, M.; Annobil, S H; Benjamin, B.; Salim, M.

    1992-01-01

    Forcible administration of rendered animal fat to infants is a tradition in south western Saudi Arabia. Accidental inhalation may result in a resistant form of lipoid pneumonia. A series of 24 cases of lipoid pneumonia, 22 of which were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with bronchial lavage and microscopic examination of the aspirate, are reported. The technique is described briefly and the results analysed. A high index of suspicion together with bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage of all cases of re...

  16. Study of streptococcus pneumonia capsular polysaccharide antibodies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者血清抗肺炎链球菌抗体水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏敏; 黄瑾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study streptococcus pneumonia capsular polysaccharide antibodies of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in acute exacerbation and the feasibility of vaccination for patients with COPD.Methods The COPD in acute exacerbation without respiratory failure (RF) (COPD without RF group),COPD in acute exacerbation with RF (COPD with RF group),asthma (asthma group),healthy elderly examination (elderly examination group) and healthy youth examination (youth examination group) were selected,and each group had 15 cases.The levels of streptococcus pneumonia capsular polysaccharide antibodies IgG,IgM and IgA were measured in all groups.Results There was no significant difference in IgG among the five groups (P > 0.05 ).The levels of IgM in COPD without RF group and elderly examination group were significantly lower than those in COPD with RF group,asthma group and youth examination group (0.554 ± 0.309 and 0.538 ± 0.327 vs.0.810 ± 0.387,0.887 ± 0.278 and 0.852 ± 0.305,P < 0.05 ).Although the level of IgA in COPD without RF group was significantly lower than that in youth examination group (0.532 ±0.297 vs.0.930 ±0.502,P <0.05),there was no significant difference among the five groups.Conclusion Patients with COPD should inoculate pneumococcal vaccination.%目的 研究慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)急性加重期血清抗肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖特异性抗体水平及COPD患者接种疫苗的可行性.方法 选择COPD急性加重无呼吸衰竭(无呼吸衰竭组)、COPD急性加重伴呼吸衰竭(呼吸衰竭组)、哮喘(哮喘组)、老年健康体检(老年体检组)及青年健康体检(青年体检组)各15例,采用间接ELISA法分别检测各组血清抗肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖特异性IgG、IgM、IgA抗体水平.结果 各组间IgG两两比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).无呼吸衰竭组和老年体检组IgM与呼吸衰竭组、哮喘组和青年体检组比较差异均有统计学意义(0.554±0.309

  17. Osseous eosinophilic granuloma in children; Le granulome eosinophile des os chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Marinard, L.; Galloy, M.A.; Phi, I.N.; Hoeffel, J.C. [Hopital de Brabois-Vandoeuvre, 54 - Nancy (France). Service de radiologie

    2001-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly uni-focal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. CT is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). MR is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors prognosis is more serious in case of multiple lesions. (authors)

  18. Redox thermodynamics of lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Vlasits, Jutta; Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Sola, Marco; Obinger, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are important constituents of the innate immune system of mammals. These heme enzymes belong to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate, bromide and nitrite to hypothiocyanate, hypobromous acid and nitrogen dioxide that are toxic for invading pathogens. In order to gain a better understanding of the observed differences in substrate specificity and oxidation capacity in relation to heme and protein structure, a comprehensive spectro-electrochemical investigation was performed. The reduction potential (E degrees ') of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of EPO and LPO was determined to be -126mV and -176mV, respectively (25 degrees C, pH 7.0). Variable temperature experiments show that EPO and LPO feature different reduction thermodynamics. In particular, reduction of ferric EPO is enthalpically and entropically disfavored, whereas in LPO the entropic term, which selectively stabilizes the oxidized form, prevails on the enthalpic term that favors reduction of Fe(III). The data are discussed with respect to the architecture of the heme cavity and the substrate channel. Comparison with published data for myeloperoxidase demonstrates the effect of heme to protein linkages and heme distortion on the redox chemistry of mammalian peroxidases and in consequence on the enzymatic properties of these physiologically important oxidoreductases.

  19. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented -- Vaccines Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help Language: English ... of an adult patient with pneumonia. What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that ...

  20. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病伴社区获得性肺炎60例病原菌及其耐药性分析%The clinical analysis of 60 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳雪飞

    2014-01-01

    目的 对COPD伴社区获得性肺炎病原菌和耐药情况进行分析,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 对60例COPD伴社区获得性肺炎患者的痰液标本进行病原菌检测和药敏性试验.结果 病原菌以肺炎链球菌为主24例(40%),其次为肺炎克雷伯菌10例(13.3%)、流感嗜血杆菌8例(16.7%)、肺炎支原体6例(8.3%)、甲型溶血性链球菌5例(6.7%)、金黄色葡萄球菌4例(3.3%)、嗜肺军团菌2例(3.3%)、其它1例(1.67%);药敏试验显示革兰阴性菌具有较高的耐药率.流感嗜血杆菌、肺炎链球菌、嗜肺军团菌体对青霉素具有较高的耐药率.肺炎支原体、肺炎克雷伯菌对阿奇霉素表现出一定的耐药率.金黄色葡萄球菌、甲型溶血性链球菌对头孢噻吩表现出耐药性.结论 COPD伴社区获得性肺炎患者感染病菌情况主要以革兰阴性菌抗生素耐药较为严重.在之后的临床使用抗生素选择其它类的抗生素,提高临床药物抗菌疗效.%Objective To analyze the pathogens and drug resistance of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia,in order to provide the evidence for rational drug use in the future.Methods The sputum specimens of 60 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and communityacquired pneumonia were detected for pathogens and drug sensitivity.Results 24 patients were infected with pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae(40%).8 cases were infected with Haemophilus influenza(16.7%).10 patients were infected with Klebsiella pneumonia (13.3%).6 patients were infected with Mycoplasma lung (8.3%).5 patients were infected with alpha-hemolytic streptococcus (6.7%).4 patients were infected with Staphylococcus aureus (3.3%).Two patients were infected with Legionella pneumophila (3.3%).Unknown pathogen was one case (1.67%).Drug sensitive test showed that gram-negative bacteria had high resistance rate.Haemophilus influenzae

  1. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)--to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review.

  2. ASSOCIATION OF MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE WITH RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Mohammed Saed Abdul-Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of four most common species of organisms that are responsible for most clinically significant infections in humans. It is a frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in both children and adults. The organism can cause pharyngitis, otitis, tracheobronchitis, or community-acquired pneumonia, but patients may also remain totally asymptomatic. Aim of this prospective study for children, was to investigate the association of M. pneumoniae with respiratory tract infections in a Saudi population. This study was designed as a case-control study in which 90 patients (Mean age of the patients in case group was 5.94±2.73 and in control group was 6.51±2.26 of either sexes were included. These patients were classified into two groups: first group (case group, included 45 patients who had been admitted in hospital with diagnosis of respiratory tract infections and the second group (control group, included 45 healthy patients who had no history of respiratory tract infections. Both the groups were age and sex matched. Presence of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was assessed by ELISA technique in both groups. In the case group, 4 (9% cases out of 45 children were positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody whereas in the control group, all children were negative. All positive case group patients had symptoms of acute pneumonia. 18 (40% of the patients were diagnosed with bronchial asthma (40% inclusive of all the four cases diagnosed with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The relative risk for the occurrence of mycoplasma infection was estimated to be 9 (95%C.I = 0.49-162.43. However, on comparing the case and control groups, the result was not found to be statistically significant. (Fischer Exact Test p = 0.0583. Children in Saudi Arabia are at a relatively higher risk of developing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection especially those predisposed with underlying chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma. This is a first

  3. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J H; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-12-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Streptoccocus pneumoniae. In adults, pneumonia can be broadly classified, on the basis of chest radiographic appearance, into lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and pneumonia producing an interstitial pattern. Lobar pneumonia is most commonly associated with community acquired pneumonia, bronchopneumonia with hospital acquired infection and an interstitial pattern with the so called atypical pneumonias, which can be caused by viruses or organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Most cases of pneumonia can be managed with chest radiographs as the only form of imaging, but CT can detect pneumonia not visible on the chest radiograph and may be of value, particularly in the hospital setting. Complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion, empyema and lung abscess. The chest radiograph may initially indicate an effusion but ultrasound is more sensitive, allows characterisation in some cases and can guide catheter placement for drainage. CT can also be used to characterise and estimate the extent of pleural disease. Most lung abscesses respond to medical therapy, with surgery and image guided catheter drainage serving as options for those cases who do not respond. PMID:21088086

  4. STAT3 activation and infiltration of eosinophil granulocytes in mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Simon; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette R; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes have been implicated in anticancer immunity but recent data indicate that eosinophils can also promote cancer. Herein, we studied eosinophils in skin lesions from 43 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). The presence of eosinophils correlated with disease stage: 78......% of patients with advanced disease displayed eosinophil infiltration, whereas this was only seen in 11% of patients with patches (p...) in malignant T-cells also stained positively for eosinophils, whereas this was only observed in 28% of pY-STAT3-negative patients (peosinophilic activation and trafficking factors: High-mobility group BOX-1 protein (HMGB1) and interleukin 5 (IL5). STAT3 si...

  5. Eosinophils and filarial parasites. Factors affecting eosinophils in animal models and the detection of filarial antigens by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of drugs, such as diethylcarbamazine (DEC), hydrocortisone and an immunologically stimulated state of the host on the sites of localization and behaviour of 113Insup(m)-eosinophils, were studied in guinea pigs. The sites of localization of 113Insup(m)-eosinophils were in the lungs, liver, spleen, bone and muscle. Administration of hydrocortisone did not change the normal distribution. After administration of DEC higher levels of 113Insup(m)-eosinophils were seen in the circulation, bone and muscle. When animals were actively immunized there was an avid concentration of cells in the liver and spleen. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the existence of an eosinophilopoetic factor in tropical eosinophilia (TE), using a rat model. Human gammaglobulin (HGG)-coated latex particles when injected intravenously induced a rise of eosinophils in the bone marrow on the fourth post-injection day, followed by a rise in peripheral eosinophils on the sixth day. When sera of stimulated rats were re-injected into normal rats there was again an eosinophilic response, suggesting the presence of a humoral transferable factor. Sera of two patients of TE also induced a rise of eosinophils in the bone marrow of rats injected with the sera, suggesting the presence of some circulating factor in TE which can stimulate eosinophilopoesis in rats. Serological diagnosis of filariasis by testing for antibodies does not necessarily detect active infection. However, determination of circulating antigens may prove to be more useful. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining W. bancrofti antigens, heteroantigens of Settaria cervii, which is cross-active with W. bancrofti, are used in the development of a radioimmunoassay for filarial antigens. (author)

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  7. Disruption of Fas Receptor Signaling by Nitric Oxide in Eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebestreit, Holger; Dibbert, Birgit; Balatti, Ivo; Braun, Doris; Schapowal, Andreas; Blaser, Kurt; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that Fas ligand–Fas receptor interactions are involved in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis and that dysfunctions in this system could contribute to the accumulation of these cells in allergic and asthmatic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) specifically prevents Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis in freshly isolated human eosinophils. In contrast, rapid acceleration of eosinophil apoptosis by activation of the Fas receptor occurs in the presence of eosinophil hematopoietins. Analysis of the intracellular mechanisms revealed that NO disrupts Fas receptor–mediated signaling events at the level of, or proximal to, Jun kinase (JNK), but distal to sphingomyelinase (SMase) activation and ceramide generation. In addition, activation of SMase occurs downstream of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme–like (ICE-like) protease(s) that is not blocked by NO. However, NO prevents activation of a protease that targets lamin B1. These findings suggest a role for an additional NO-sensitive apoptotic signaling pathway that amplifies the proteolytic cascade initialized by activation of the Fas receptor. Therefore, NO concentrations within allergic inflammatory sites may be important in determining whether an eosinophil survives or undergoes apoptosis upon Fas ligand stimulation. PMID:9449721

  8. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  9. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian M Yan; Eldon A Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment,and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/105 in children and 2.5/105 in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline"or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimai contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors,or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign,albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition,this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  11. The risk and outcomes of pneumonia in patients on inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibila, Oriol; Soto-Gomez, Natalia; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2015-06-01

    Corticosteroids are frequently prescribed anti-inflammatory medications. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are indicated for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma. ICS are associated with a decrease in exacerbations and improved quality of life in COPD, however multiple studies have linked the chronic use of ICSs with an increased risk of developing pneumonia, though the effect on mortality is unclear. We review the association of ICS with the risk of pneumonia and the implications on clinical outcomes.

  12. Biochemical characterization of reactive nitrogen species by eosinophil peroxidase in tyrosine nitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi,Yoshiaki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophils are involved in tyrosine nitration. In this study, we evaluated tyrosine nitration by rat eosinophils isolated from peritoneal fl uid and constituent eosinophils in the stomach. Rat peritoneal eosinophils activated with 1 μM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and 50 μM NO2 ン showed immunostaining for nitrotyrosine only in smaller cells, despite the fact that eosinophils are capable of producing superoxide (O2·ン. Free tyrosine nitrating capacity after incubation with PMA and NO2 ン was 4-fold higher in eosinophils than in neutrophils. Catalase and ク- and コ -tocopherol inhibited free tyrosine nitration by reactive nitrogen species from eosinophils but not that by peroxynitrite. Superoxide dismutase augmented free tyrosine nitration by activated eosinophils and peroxynitrite. The concentration of nitric oxide released from eosinophils was relatively low (0.32 μM/106 cells/h and did not contribute to the formation of nitrotyrosine. On the other hand, most constituent eosinophils constituent in the rat stomach stimulated by PMA and NO2 ン showed tyrosine nitration capacity. These results suggest that intact cells other than apoptotic-like eosinophils eluted in the intraperitoneal cavity could not generate reactive species responsible for nitration by a peroxidase-dependent mechanism. In contrast, normal eosinophils in the stomach were capable of nitration, suggesting that the characteristics of eosinophils in gastric mucosa are diff erent from those eluted in the peritoneal cavity.

  13. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify and classify the basic CT appearance of interstitial pneumonia, radiologic-pathologic correlative study was performed using inflated and fixed lungs from autopsy and surgery. The patterns of the abnormalities on the CT images of interstitial pneumonia were classified into 7 categories. Important pathological changes which affected the CT images were alveolar collapse and airway dilatation. Based on the result of above study, we analyzed CT of 22 patients with IIP. The lesions which were classified into a hazy density, micronodular densities, confluence of various sized ring like shadows and subpleural bullous changes were frequently recognized together mostly in the periphery of the lung. (author)

  14. Eosinophilic granuloma of bone in children; Le granulome eosinophile des os chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblan, I.; Gaucher, H.; Hoeffel, J.C.; Arnould, V.; Galloy, M.A.; Mainard, L. [Hopital d`Enfants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1995-12-31

    Eosinophilic granuloma of bone or Langerhans cell histiocytosis is mostly unifocal. It appears on plain X Ray as a solitary destructive lesion of long bones or flat bones. Computerized tomography (CT) is useful to define the extension to the cortical bone and also to precisely localize the lesion when the anatomy is complex (hip, spine, base of the skull). Magnetic resonance (MR) is very useful in case of more aggressive lesions when there is extension to soft tissues. Differential diagnosis includes circumscribed osteitis and tumors in the case of extensive destruction. The natural course of solitary lesions is favorable, spontaneously or with therapy. The prognosis is more serious in the case of multiple lesions. (authors).

  15. Emerging roles of eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke eIsobe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programs that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest, and research in recent years has uncovered new endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (i.e. lipoxins, resolvins, protectin, and maresin generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. This review presents new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammatory resolution, especially the roles of eosinophils, and a series of omega-3 PUFA derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that they generate.

  16. Recent Progress in the Research of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Jiao, Di Jin; Ishihara, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroenteritis are allergic gastrointestinal diseases mainly caused by food allergens. The number of patients with EoE is rapidly increasing in both Western and Asian countries. Basic knowledge of these diseases has mainly come from studies of EoE and Th2 type allergic reactions, including IL-5, IL-13, and IL-15, thymic stromal protein, and eotaxin 3, which are considered to have important roles. For a diagnosis of EoE, endoscopic abnormalities and histological confirmation of dense eosinophile infiltration in the esophageal epithelial layer are important, in addition to identifying dysphagia symptoms. As for eosinophilic gastroenteritis, blood test findings are more useful and the role of an endoscopic examination is reduced. For both diseases, the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori is lower than in healthy controls. Glucocorticoid administration is standard treatment for these diseases, while proton pump inhibitors are frequently effective for EoE. PMID:26789117

  17. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  18. Heparin reduces nonspecific eosinophil staining artifacts in mass cytometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Adeeb H; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of heterogeneous cell samples by mass cytometry (CyTOF) relies on the assumption that metal labeled antibodies accurately bind to their target antigens. We report a previously unappreciated experimental artifact of non-specific antibody binding by eosinophils during intracellular CyTOF analysis of human whole blood samples. We hypothesized that this non-specific binding results from a charge-based interaction between the metal-labeled antibodies and highly cationic proteins found in eosinophillic granules and found that this non-specific staining artifact could be reduced to background levels with a simple blocking protocol using heparin as a competing anionic protein. This protocol eliminates a potential source of erroneous data interpretation in all experiments involving intracellular staining of human whole blood samples, and allows accurate assessment of dynamic changes in intracellular proteins in eosinophils by CyTOF. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27061608

  19. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Mendes, Diego da [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Melo, Christianne Bandeira [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Martins, Marco Aurélio [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Dias, Celidarque da [Laboratório de Fitoquímica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Piuvezam, Márcia Regina, E-mail: mrpiuvezam@ltf.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  20. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca++ influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  1. When is pneumonia not pneumonia: a clinicopathologic study of the utility of lung tissue biopsies in determining the suitability of cadaveric tissue for donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilay, Zeynep; Layon, A Joseph; Baer, Herman; Archibald, Lennox K

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) represents a major diagnostic challenge because of the relatively low sensitivity and specificity of clinical criteria, radiological findings, and microbiologic culture results. It is often difficult to distinguish between pneumonia, underlying pulmonary disease, or conditions with pulmonary complications; this is compounded by the often-subjective clinical diagnosis of pneumonia. We conducted this study to determine the utility of post-mortem lung biopsies for diagnosing pneumonia in tissue donors diagnosed with pneumonia prior to death. Subjects were deceased patients who had been hospitalized at death and diagnosed with pneumonia. Post-mortem lung biopsies were obtained from the anatomic portion of the cadaveric lung corresponding to chest radiograph abnormalities. Specimens were fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and read by a single board-certified pathologist. Histological criteria for acute pneumonia included intense neutrophilic infiltration, fibrinous exudates, cellular debris, necrosis, or bacteria in the interstitium and intra-alveolar spaces. Of 143 subjects with a diagnosis of pneumonia at time of death, 14 (9.8 %) had histological evidence consistent with acute pneumonia. The most common histological diagnoses were emphysema (53 %), interstitial fibrosis (40 %), chronic atelectasis (36 %), acute and chronic passive congestion consistent with underlying cardiomyopathy (25 %), fibro-bullous disease (12 %), and acute bronchitis (11 %). HCAP represents a major diagnostic challenge because of the relatively low sensitivity and specificity of clinical criteria, radiological findings, and microbiologic testing. We found that attending physician-diagnosed pneumonia did not correlate with post-mortem pathological diagnosis. We conclude that histological examination of cadaveric lung tissue biopsies enables ascertainment or rule out of underlying pneumonia and prevents erroneous donor deferrals. PMID

  2. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, H; Jit, M.; Heymann, DL; Zodpey, S.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution ...

  3. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derek K; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E; Barra, Nicole G; Bassett, Jennifer D; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D; Bowdish, Dawn M; Erjefält, Jonas S; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan; Jordana, Manel

    2014-07-28

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  4. Recombinant human interleukin 5 is a selective activator of human eosinophil function

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Human rIL-5 was found to selectively stimulate morphological changes and the function of human eosinophils. This molecule is thus a prime candidate for the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in disease.

  5. Targeted anti-inflammatory therapeutics in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Andrew L.; Caramori, Gaetano; Chung, Kian F; Adcock, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway, although the drivers and site of the inflammation differ between diseases. Asthmatics with a neutrophilic airway inflammation are associated with a poor response to corticosteroids, whereas asthmatics with eosinophilic inflammation respond better to corticosteroids. Biologicals targeting the Th2-eosinophil nexus such as anti–interleukin (IL)-4, anti–IL-5, and anti–IL-13 are ineffective in ...

  6. A Case Report of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahreema Jawairia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow with persistent peripheral eosinophilia, associated with organ damage by the release of eosinophilic mediators. Although HES can involve multiple organ systems, GI tract involvement is very rare. Few cases of HES presenting with gastritis or enteritis have been reported worldwide. To date, HES presenting with esophagus involvement has only been reported once. Here, we present a 39-year-old Hispanic female patient with history of HES presenting with complaints of dysphagia and generalized pruritus.

  7. A Diagnostic Algorithm for Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Initially Diagnosed as Lumbar Disc Hernia or Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Personal Experience and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Kosei; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Kota; Sato, Masaki; Arino, Yusuke; Mikami, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a rare systemic vasculitis and is difficult to diagnose. EGPA has a number of symptoms including peripheral dysesthesia caused by mononeuropathy multiplex, which is similar to radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis. Therefore, EGPA patients with mononeuropathy multiplex often visit orthopedic clinics, but orthopedic doctors and spine neurosurgeons have limited experience in diagnosing EGPA because of its rarity. We report a consecutive series of patients who were initially diagnosed as having lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis by at least 2 medical institutions from March 2006 to April 2013 but whose final diagnosis was EGPA. All patients had past histories of asthma or eosinophilic pneumonia, and four out of five had peripheral edema. Laboratory data showed abnormally increased eosinophil counts, and nerve conduction studies of all patients revealed axonal damage patterns. All patients recovered from paralysis to a functional level after high-dose steroid treatment. We shortened the duration of diagnosis from 49 days to one day by adopting a diagnostic algorithm after experiencing the first case. PMID:27549670

  8. 522 Association between Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Persistent Airflow Limitation in Asthmatic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hyun Hee; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2012-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation contributes to persistent airflow limitation in adults with severe asthma. We aimed to evaluate the association between eosinophilic inflammation in induced sputum and pulmonary function, and persistent airflow limitation in children. Methods A total of 92 asthmatic children and 72 control children were enrolled in this study. Eosinophil count (%) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were measured in induced sputum. We performed spirometry a...

  9. Functional Analysis of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 in Human Eosinophils: Implications in Metabolic Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunori Konno; Shigeharu Ueki; Masahide Takeda; Yoshiki Kobayashi; Mami Tamaki; Yuki Moritoki; Hajime Oyamada; Masamichi Itoga; Hiroyuki Kayaba; Ayumi Omokawa; Makoto Hirokawa

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR1...

  10. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  11. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Payal K.; Russo, Thomas A.; Karchmer, Adolf W.

    2014-01-01

    Hypervirulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are associated with abscess formation, commonly hepatic, and metastatic spread, even in healthy patients. We describe a case of this clinical syndrome, genotypic and phenotypic features of the isolate, and briefly review epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathogenesis of this underappreciated syndrome.

  12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age ≥18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  13. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age {>=}18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  14. Lipoid pneumonia--a case of refractory pneumonia in a child treated with ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Piotr; Wieteska-Klimczak, Anna; Własienko, Anna; Mazur, Agnieszka; Ziołkowski, Jerzy; Jaworska, Joanna; Kościesza, Andrzej; Dunin-Wąsowicz, Dorota; Książyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is a chronic inflammation of the lung parenchyma with interstitial involvement due to the accumulation of endogenous or exogenous lipids. Exogenous LP (ELP) is associated with the aspiration or inhalation of oil present in food, oil-based medications or radiographic contrast media. The clinical manifestations of LP range from asymptomatic cases to severe pulmonary involvement, with respiratory failure and death, according to the quantity and duration of the aspiration. The diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia is based on a history of exposure to oil and the presence of lipid-laden macrophages on sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the imaging technique of choice for evaluation of patients with suspected LP. The best therapeutic strategy is to remove the oil as early as possible through bronchoscopy with multiple BALs and interruption in the use of mineral oil. Steroid therapy remains controversial, and should be reserved for severe cases. We describe a case of LP due to oil aspiration in 3-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy on ketogenic diet. Diagnostic problems were due to non-specific symptoms that were mimicking serious infectious pneumonia. A high index of suspicion and precise medical history is required in cases of refractory pneumonia and fever unresponsive to conventional therapy. Gastroesophageal reflux and a risk of aspiration may be regarded as relative contraindications to the ketogenic diet. Conservative treatment, based on the use of oral steroids, proved to be an efficient therapeutic approach in this case. PMID:23996884

  15. The role of proton pump inhibitor therapy in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Prados-Manzano, Raul; Gonzalez-Cordero, Pedro Luis

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic esophageal disease characterized by a Th2 inflammatory response triggered by food/environmental allergens. Solid data confirm that up to half of patients with suspected EoE achieve complete remission on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) therapy. This disease phenotype is currently labelled as PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). Albeit initially believed to represent gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), evolving evidence has underscored that PPI-REE and EoE show a significant overlap regarding clinic, endoscopic, histologic, Th2 immune-mediated inflammation and gene expression features. Moreover, PPI therapy can effectively reverse Th2 inflammation and the EoE transcriptome expression in PPI-REE patients. Therefore, EoE and PPI-REE likely represent a common allergic disorder, where PPI therapy should be considered a short- and long-term therapeutic asset, along with diet and topical steroids. PMID:27097787

  16. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Koike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp sometimes causes immunological complications in children. We present a rare case of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS caused by Mp in a previously healthy 7-year-old Japanese girl. A chest radiograph obtained to evaluate the source of her fever showed infiltration in the lower right lung with mild splenomegaly. We could diagnose the patient with HPS on the basis of the hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis- (HLH 2004 criteria. She met the criteria for fever, splenomegaly, neutrophil count (265 mg/dL, and ferritin level (>500 ng/mL. Furthermore, a peripheral blood smear showed an increased number of monocytes/macrophages with erythrophagocytosis. Treatment with clarithromycin and prednisolone, which was initiated soon after the diagnosis, was successful. Mp infection might partly progress to HPS in certain conditions. Clinicians should be aware of HPS caused by Mp and start appropriate treatment as soon as possible if the disease is suspected.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae as an agent of nosocomial infection: treatment in the era of penicillin-resistant strains

    OpenAIRE

    F. Paradisi; Corti, G.; R. Cinelli

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well-known agent of community-acquired infections such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. However, the role of S.pneumoniae as a cause of nosocomial infections of respiratory tract, bloodstream, and central nervous system is more and more recognised, primarily in high-risk patients with depression of their immune function. Therapy of pneumococcal infections is made diff...

  18. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  19. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayo Clinic, Division of Pediatric Radiology, E-2, Rochester, MN (United States); Lorenz, Emily A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Di Lorenzo, Carlo [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Columbus, OH (United States); Kahwash, Samir [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  20. Unraveling the complexity of lipid body organelles in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rossana C N; Weller, Peter F

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-rich organelles are common in many cell types. In cells, such as adipocytes, these organelles are termed LDs, whereas in other cells, such as leukocytes, they are called LBs. The study of leukocyte LBs has attracted attention as a result of their association with human diseases. In leukocytes, such as eosinophils, LB accumulation has been documented extensively during inflammatory conditions. In these cells, LBs are linked to the regulation of immune responses by compartmentalization of several proteins and lipids involved in the control and biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). However, it has been unclear how diverse proteins, including membrane-associated enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs, especially if the internal content of LBs is assumed to consist solely of stores of neutral lipids, as present within adipocyte LDs. Studies of the formation, function, and ultrastructure of LBs in eosinophils have been providing insights pertinent to LBs in other leukocytes. Here, we review current knowledge of the composition and function of leukocyte LBs as provided by studies of human eosinophil LBs, including recognitions of the internal architecture of eosinophil LBs based on 3D electron tomographic analyses.

  1. Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T Cadman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1, during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL, we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis in Saudi children: Symptoms, histology and endoscopy results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y Hasosah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by esophageal symptoms in association with a dense eosinophilic infiltrate currently defined as >15 eosinophils per high power field in the appropriate clinical context. This is the first pediatric study in Saudi Arabia to give the experience with EE and examine its symptom, histology and endoscopy results. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with EE at National Guard Hospital, Jeddah Between 2007 and 2009. The authors identified EE on histologic criteria (≥15 eosinophils per high-power field together with their clinical context. The authors reviewed medical records for details of clinical presentation, laboratory data, radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic findings, and the results of treatment. Results: We identified 15 patients in our database in the last three years. 100% of the patients were males. The median age at presentation was 10 years (range, 3-17 years. The commonly reported symptoms were failure to thrive (86%, epigastric abdominal pain (53%, poor eating (40%, dysphagia with solid food (26%, food impaction (13%, and vomiting (20%. Asthma was reported in 46% and allergic rhinitis in 40%. Peripheral eosinophilia (>0.7 Χ 10/l was found in 66%. High serum IgE Level (>60 IU/ml was found in 60%. Upper endoscopic analysis revealed esophageal trachealization in 46%, esophageal erythema in 46%, white specks on the esophageal mucosa in 33%, esophageal narrowing in 13%, and normal endoscopy in 13%. The mean eosinophils per high-power field was 30.4 (range, 20-71. Histologic characteristics included degranulated eosinophils (86%, basal cell hyperplasia (93% and eosinophils clusters (micro-abscess in 73%. The treatment of EE revealed that they used swallowed corticosteroid in 50%, proton pump inhibitors in 66%, elemental diet/ food elimination in 13% and systemic corticosteroid in 13%. Conclusions: Failure to

  3. Detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Venge, P; Kharazmi, A;

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a highly basic and potent cytotoxic single-chain zinc-containing protein present in the granules of the eosinophilic granulocytes. ECP appears to be involved in defence against parasites and in the tissue damage seen in subjects with allergic and inflammatory...... disease. To investigate ECP release from in vitro activated human eosinophils and to study the involvement of eosinophils in health and disease, we have developed a sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay. ECP was purified from normal human peripheral blood eosinophils and polyclonal antibodies to ECP...

  4. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi;

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid...... that eosinophils in human bone marrow specimens expressed DP and CRTH2 receptors at similar levels. Eosinophils isolated from human peripheral blood likewise expressed DP receptor protein but at lower levels than CRTH2. In agreement with this, the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils was inhibited both...

  5. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 years (range 15-60 years. Main symptomatologies were fever, severe headache, body pain, abdominal pain and arthralgia. One patient was in akinetic rigid state with coma. All patients had peripheral eosinophilia. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of all patients showed eosinophilic pleocytosis. The mean CSF white cell count was 588 cells. CSF differential count showed 50-70% eosinophils. CSF glucose levels were normal but proteins were markedly raised (mean CSF protein was 180 mg/dl. MRI brain showed T2 hyperintensities diffusely in periventricular white matter in the comatose patient. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain was normal in others. All eight male patients gave history of eating "raw flesh of Monitor Lizard" (Iguana some three to fourteen days prior to the onset of symptoms. There was no such history for the female patients. Considering the history of exposure and eosinophilic meningitis we suspected a meningoencephalitis with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and treated them with albendazole, steroid and other supportive measures. All of them recovered. Conclusion: Eosinophilic meningitis (EM is a rare condition and in this locality, a CNS infection with Agiostrongylus cantonensis is highly likely. AC is a parasite in monitor lizard. Human infection occurs from consumption of uncooked flesh or blood of infected lizards. Physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion and enquire for any exposure to uncooked meat or blood of monitor lizard when faced with EM

  6. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP): when radiologist makes the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, G; Perna, F; Calabrese, G; Molino, A; Valente, T; Vatrella, A

    2016-05-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon disorder characterized by accumulation of lipid components into the interstitial and alveolar compartment. The usual classification distinguishes endogenous and exogenous and acute or chronic forms, related to the type of fats, the amount of damage and the time of exposure. We describe a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia by inhalation of vaseline used for cleaning of the tracheostoma in a 63-year-old female, presenting as cough, worsening dyspnea in few weeks. The diagnosis was finally established with a re-evaluation of BAL with specific staining for lipids, revealing the presence of foamy macrophages lipids rich, according to HRCT findings. PMID:27326397

  7. Catalase Enhances Growth and Biofilm Production of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Warren L; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes chronic respiratory disease in humans. Factors thought to be important for colonization include the ability of the mycoplasma to form a biofilm on epithelial surfaces and the production of hydrogen peroxide to damage host tissue. Almost all of the mycoplasmas, including M. pneumoniae, lack superoxide dismutase and catalase and a balance should exist between peroxide production and growth. We show here that the addition of catalase to cultures enhanced the formation of biofilms and altered the structure. The incorporation of catalase in agar increased the number of colony-forming units detected and hence could improve the clinical diagnosis of mycoplasmal diseases.

  8. [Features of morbidity community-acquired pneumonia among young recruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdukov, D U; Gordienko, A V; Kozlov, M S; Mikhailov, A A; Davydov, P A

    2015-10-01

    Were examined 3338 military personnel of the combined training center. 183 of them diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia, in 3155 focal and infiltrative changes in lung tissue were not identified. The analisys of prevalence been made among young recruits of the acute respiratory illness before arriving in part and at the assembly point, foci of chronic infection, smoking, low body weight. 511 military personnel arrived at the training center in the disease state with symptoms of acute respiratory illness. Examined the relationship these risk factor to the development of community-acquired pneumonia in this category of servicemen. PMID:26827502

  9. 慢性肾脏疾病并发肺孢子菌肺炎21例分析%Analysis of 21 patients of chronic kidney disease complicated with pneumocystis pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文玲; 王辉; 李雪梅; 李学旺; 于阳; 李航; 陈丽萌; 高瑞通; 李明喜; 刘冬妍; 曾学军; 王京岚

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods Clinial data of 21 cases of the primary and secondary kidney diseases complicated with PCP,excluding renal transplantation,were analyzed retrospectively. Results Twenty-one cases consisted of 6 cases of primary renal diseases and 15 eases of secondary renal diseases.Twenty patients (95.2%) were receiving immunesuppressive therapy at the PCP onset.Main manifestations were fever,progressive dyspnea,cough with no or seldom sputum.Twenty patients presented obvious hypoxemia and 12 of them were type I respiratory failure.X-ray and CT imaging of 20 patients revealed diffuse pulmonary interstitial shadows or ground glass opacities in both lungs.All the patients were treaed with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.Eleven patients died accounting for 52.3%.Compared with the survivors,elder age (60.91±15.08 vs 44.50±14.83,P<0.05),lower blood oxygen pressure at onset [(48.11±19.05)mm Hg vs (65.91±13.13)mm Hg,P<0.01],higher percentage of respirator application and other secondary lung infection were found in dead patients.No PCP relapsed after average 16-month follow-up in the survival patients. Conclusions PCP is a severe complication with high mortality during immunosuppressive therapy in patients with chronic renal disease.Early diagnosis and proper treatment are important to improve prognosis.%目的 探讨慢性肾脏疾病并发肺孢子菌肺炎(PCP)的临床特点及预后.方法 回顾性分析北京协和医院经病原学确诊的原发和继发性肾脏疾病(除外肾移植)并发PCP 21例的临床资料.结果 原发性肾脏疾病6例,继发性肾脏疾病15例.在合并PCP时,20例(95.2%)正在接受糖皮质激素和(或)免疫抑制剂治疗.PCP起病急骤,以发热、不同程度的胸闷憋气、呼吸困难、干咳少痰为主要临床表现.20例患者以发热起病,病程中17例患者出现高热.20例入院时即

  10. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  11. Impact of Preceding Flu-Like Illness on the Serotype Distribution of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joon Young; Nahm, Moon H.; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background Even though the pathogenicity and invasiveness of pneumococcus largely depend on capsular types, the impact of serotypes on post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia is unknown. Methods and Findings This study was performed to evaluate the impact of capsular serotypes on the development of pneumococcal pneumonia after preceding respiratory viral infections. Patients with a diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia were identified. Pneumonia patients were divided into two groups (post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia versus primary pneumococcal pneumonia), and then their pneumococcal serotypes were compared. Nine hundred and nineteen patients with pneumococcal pneumonia were identified during the study period, including 327 (35.6%) cases with post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia and 592 (64.4%) cases with primary pneumococcal pneumonia. Overall, serotypes 3 and 19A were the most prevalent, followed by serotypes 19F, 6A, and 11A/11E. Although relatively uncommon (33 cases, 3.6%), infrequently colonizing invasive serotypes (4, 5, 7F/7A, 8, 9V/9A, 12F, and 18C) were significantly associated with preceding respiratory viral infections (69.7%, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed several statistically significant risk factors for post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia: immunodeficiency (OR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10–2.53), chronic lung diseases (OR 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09–1.93) and ICI serotypes (OR 4.66; 95% CI, 2.07–10.47). Conclusions Infrequently colonizing invasive serotypes would be more likely to cause pneumococcal pneumonia after preceding respiratory viral illness, particularly in patients with immunodeficiency or chronic lung diseases. PMID:24691515

  12. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  13. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E;

    1998-01-01

    To assess the eosinophil response to Plasmodium falciparum infection a cohort of initially parasite-free Ghanaian children was followed for 3 months. Seven of nine children who acquired an asymptomatic P. falciparum infection showed increase in eosinophil counts, while a decrease was found in seven...... of nine children with symptomatic malaria, and no change was observed in 14 children who remained parasite-free. In a hospital-based study, paediatric patients with cerebral malaria (CM), severe anaemia (SA), or uncomplicated malaria (UM) had uniformly low eosinophil counts during the acute illness...... followed by eosinophilia 30 days after cure. Plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) were measured as indicators of eosinophil activation. In spite of the low eosinophil counts, ECP levels were increased on day 0 and significantly higher in patients with CM...

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current knowledge on nucleic acid amplification techniques and serological diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eLoens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0% to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies.Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice.

  15. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3-3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31-0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49-0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92-119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India's pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our results

  16. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Rimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle.

  17. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Guillermo M; Moeller, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle. PMID:26464912

  18. X-linked agammaglobulinemia combined with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae polyarticular septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zaihua; Kang, Yuli; Lin, Zhenlang; Huang, Yanjing; Lv, Huoyang; Li, Yasong

    2015-02-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. XLA can also present in combination with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the major chronic rheumatologic disease in children. We report herein the first known case of a juvenile patient diagnosed with XLA combined with JIA that later developed into invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae polyarticular septic polyarthritis. An additional comprehensive review of XLA combined with JIA and invasive K. pneumoniae septic arthritis is also presented. XLA was identified by the detection of BTK mutations while the diagnosis of JIA was established by clinical and laboratory assessments. Septic arthritis caused by invasive K. pneumoniae was confirmed by culturing of the synovia and gene detection of the isolates. Invasive K. pneumoniae infections can not only result in liver abscesses but also septic arthritis, although this is rare. XLA combined with JIA may contribute to invasive K. pneumoniae infection.

  19. Lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells and airway vascularization is only partially dependant on eosinophils in a house dust mite-exposed mouse model of allergic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirooya Sivapalan

    Full Text Available Asthmatic responses involve a systemic component where activation of the bone marrow leads to mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. This traffic may be driven by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, a potent progenitor chemoattractant. We have previously shown that airway angiogenesis, an early remodeling event, can be inhibited by preventing the migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC to the lungs. Given intranasally, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that inhibits SDF-1 mediated effects, attenuated allergen-induced lung-homing of EPC, vascularization of pulmonary tissue, airway eosinophilia and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Since SDF-1 is also an eosinophil chemoattractant, we investigated, using a transgenic eosinophil deficient mouse strain (PHIL whether EPC lung accumulation and lung vascularization in allergic airway responses is dependent on eosinophilic inflammation.Wild-type (WT BALB/c and eosinophil deficient (PHIL mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM using a chronic exposure protocol and treated with AMD3100 to modulate SDF-1 stimulated progenitor traffic. Following HDM challenge, lung-extracted EPCs were enumerated along with airway inflammation, microvessel density (MVD and airway methacholine responsiveness (AHR.Following Ag sensitization, both WT and PHIL mice exhibited HDM-induced increase in airway inflammation, EPC lung-accumulation, lung angiogenesis and AHR. Treatment with AMD3100 significantly attenuated outcome measures in both groups of mice. Significantly lower levels of EPC and a trend for lower vascularization were detected in PHIL versus WT mice.This study shows that while allergen-induced lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells, increased tissue vascularization and development lung dysfunction can occur in the absence of eosinophils, the presence of these cells worsens the pathology of the allergic response.

  20. Induction of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Sublingual Pollen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Miehlke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  1. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Aslanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  2. Emphysematous Eosinophilic Lymphangitis in the Ruminal Submucosa of Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, S

    2015-11-01

    Twenty cattle (14 Holstein-Friesian, 3 Japanese Black, 3 Aberdeen Angus) ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years exhibited, at slaughter, emphysematous thickening of the ruminal submucosa owing to the appearance of numerous, contiguous, small gas bubbles. Microscopic changes in the ruminal submucosa consisted of (1) multiple cystic (emphysematous) lymphangiectasis that was frequently lined or occluded by granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, and eosinophils; (2) intralymphatic phagocytosis by macrophages and giant cells of eosinophils that showed positive labeling with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay; and (3) an inflammatory infiltrate extending from the area of lymphangitis into surrounding tissue, as well as edema, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibroplasia, or capillary proliferation throughout the lesional submucosa. In addition, 15 (75%) of the cattle had globular leukocyte infiltrates in the mucosal epithelia of the rumen.

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these

  4. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Enns, Robert; Kazemi, Pooya; Chung, Wiley; Lee, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women) with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Fu...

  5. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik; Mehmet Ata Akıl; Halit Acet; Murat Yüksel; Mustafa Oylumlu; Nihat Polat; Adem Aktan; Sait Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Stent restenosis (SR) is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR) and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to car...

  6. Comment on "Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Clinical experience with 15 patients"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter J Kerr

    2004-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: I recently read the paper by Chen et al.[1] published in your Journal. The paper shows that there have been a few cases where medications have caused eosinophilia. Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication that can cause eosinophilia. It is pointed out in your paper "The diagnostic criteria included... 5), exclusion of intestinal lymphoma, Crohn's disease or other tumors." Table 2 shows symptoms associated with eosinophilic gastroenteritis,which are very like those in Crohn's disease.

  7. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  8. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  9. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  10. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison J. Pollock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background - Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case - Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology - Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1 myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2 myocyte necrosis and eventually (3 fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion - The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM.

  11. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allison J; Hitt, Stacy L; Stier, Michael A; Houser, Laura M

    2015-10-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  12. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment Esofagitis eosinofílica: clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Lucendo Villarín

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a chronic inflammatory, immunoallergic disease of the esophagus that represents the most common eosinophilic gut disease. Understanding and diagnosis regarding this condition have greatly increased in recent years, particularly in Europe and North America, in parallel with other allergic disorders. It consists of dense esophageal infiltration with eosinophils in the absence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER. It involves individuals at all ages, and is particularly common in males during childhood and up to the 5th decade of life. It manifests with chronic, intermittent esophageal symptoms that predominantly include dysphagia, food impaction episodes, and GER-attributable complaints that do not respond to antisecretory therapy. Endoscopically, EE is a polymorphous disease that presents with various changes in esophageal caliber, and subtle changes in mucosal appearance, which lead to biopsy collection as a key procedure for diagnosis. Management must be multidisciplinary, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, allergologists, and also nutrition specialists in pediatric cases. Regarding therapy, dietary food restrictions are especially useful in the management of pediatric EE, but effectiveness is lower in the adult, maybe because of a greater involvement of air allergens. Drug use is standard, particularly involving topical steroids, which may revert manifestations and histological lesions, even though recurrence following discontinuation is common.

  14. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  15. Serum markers in interstitial pneumonia with and without Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu Yasuo; Sunaga Noriaki; Dobashi Kunio; Fueki Makoto; Fueki Naoto; Makino Sohei; Mori Masatomo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In patients with chronic respiratory disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) colonization is observed, and may influence disease progression and systemic inflammation. Pneumocystis pneumonia causes interstitial changes, so making a diagnosis of PCP in patients who have interstitial pneumonia (IP) with P. jirovecii colonization is sometimes difficult based on radiography. Methods This study investigated the prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in IP patients and a...

  16. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi, E-mail: johkoht@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Itami (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromotsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Toyama (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Shiga Medical University, Otsu (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Respiratory and Allergic Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  17. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia – a case report of a fire-eater

    OpenAIRE

    Pielaszkiewicz-Wydra, Magdalena; Homola-Piekarska, Bożena; Szcześniak, Ewa; Ciołek-Zdun, Monika; Fall, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by inhalation or aspiration of a fatty substance. It usually presents as chronic respiratory illness mimicking interstitial lung diseases. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is uncommon and typically is caused by an episode of aspiration of a large quantity of a petroleum-based product. Radiological findings vary and may imitate many other diseases. Case Report: We present a rare case of acute exogenous lipoid pneumo...

  18. Recurrent pneumonia caused by genetic immunodeficiency: a prophylactic and rehabilitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Cristina de Angelo Calsaverini Leal; Érika Cristina Pavarino Bertelli; Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes Soler

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent infections are a consequence of a series of genetic diseases characterized by deficiency in the immunological response. One of these diseases is the agammaglobulinemia, which is characterized by the basic defect in the maturation of lymphocytes B. The carrier of this kind of immunodeficiency, which is linked to the X (XLA) chromosome, has had primary pneumonias that have evolved into secondary pneumonias (chronic lungs with sequelae) after the third or fourth year of life. The clini...

  19. A study by upper digestive tract scintigraphy of cases with recurrent pneumonia after gastrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five patients with recurrent pneumonia after gastrectomy were studied by upper digestive tract scintigraphy. Severe gastroesophageal reflux was noted in three of the five patients in the supine position. In the other two patients, the same kind of reflux was easily induced by changing position. Esophageal dysfunction was suspected in four patients. The frequency of pneumonia decreased after we instructed the patients how to avoid reflux. We therefore diagnosed it as the chronic aspiration pneumonia. We concluded that upper digestive tract scintigraphy is useful for evaluating gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal function in patients after gastrectomy. (author)

  20. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells. PMID:27343190

  1. Modulatory role of eosinophils in allergic inflammation: new evidence for a rather outdated concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Bandeira-Melo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The eosinophilic response has been identified as a key alteration in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. A close-correlation between disease severity and eosinophilia, and the eosinophil ability to provide toxic and pro-inflammatory agents are the major elements supporting the interpretation that there is indeed a causal relationship between these phenomena. Nevertheless, controversy still persists since some studies have clearly demonstrated that eosinophil infiltration is not necessarily accompanied by tissue damage or hyperresponsiveness. In addition, there are some examples in the literature in which such alterations are not modified following abrogation of eosinophil influx. In this review it will be argued, based on a model of IgE-dependent pleurisy, that eosinophil infiltration can be associated with down-regulation of allergic inflammatory response. The potential mechanism by which eosinophils could be acting as a immunomodulatory cells in this particular system will also be assessed.

  2. Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans K;

    2015-01-01

    Blood eosinophilia (≥0.5 × 109/l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. From...... to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16 × 109/l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above the median eosinophil...... count. At the 99th percentile, corresponding to an eosinophil count of 0.75 × 109/l, risks of hematological malignancies were increased more than twofold with OR (95% C.I.) of 2.39 (1.91–2.99). Interestingly, risks reached a plateau around an eosinophil count of 1.0 × 109/l. Risks also increased when...

  3. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double...... and sputum analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data were pooled and demonstrated that 10 subjects had baseline sputum eosinophilia >or= 5%. Only high-dose ICS therapy (ie, 160 and 320 microg) significantly attenuated the sputum eosinophil percentage. Sputum eosinophil percentage significantly correlated...... eosinophil counts. In contrast, high-dose ICS therapy provided a significantly greater improvement in EIB in subjects with sputum eosinophilia compared to those with an eosinophil count of eosinophilic groups in the magnitude of improvement in EIB was evident after the first...

  4. Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epplen Jörg T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis (AD is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein (MBP. Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ECP, EDN, EPO and MBP genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls. Results Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. Conclusion We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort.

  5. /sup 111/In-labeled eosinophils: localization of inflammatory lesions and parasitic infections in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon recent development of practical isolation techniques for eosinophils, labeling and in vivo imaging of eosinophils has been achieved. Isolation of cells was performed utilizing a Percoll density gradient. The eosinophils were subsequently labeled by a modified /sup 111/In-oxine method. Migration of eosinophils in response to intradermal ear-pinna injections of SEA (soluble schistosoma egg antigen), S. mansoni eggs, E. coli, and turpentine was followed with gamma-ray camera imaging from 4 to 48 h. Maximal localization, determined by Gamma 11 data processing, occurred by 4-h post-injection of radiolabel. SEA and S. mansoni eggs provided a greater stimulus for localization than E. coli or turpentine. Neutrophils did not preferentially accumulate. Tissue distribution of labeled eosinophils was greatest in the spleen, followed by liver and bone. /sup 111/In-labeled-eosinophil scans are sensitive to parasitic infections, although somewhat nonspecific.

  6. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Barnig, Cindy; Alsaleh, Ghada; Jung, Nicolas; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; De Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils h...

  7. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...... showed only slight eosinophilia. Perforation of the small intestine is a rare but serious complication in eosinophilic gastroenteritis....

  8. Comparison of histochemical methods for murine eosinophil detection in a RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Castilow, Elaine M.; Varga, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of histochemical detection of eosinophils in fixed murine tissue is lacking. Five histochemical methods previously reported for eosinophil detection were quantitatively and qualitatively compared in an established murine RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model. Nonspecific neutrophil staining was evaluated in tissue sections of neutrophilic soft tissue lesions and bone marrow from respective animals. Eosinophils had granular red to orange-red cytoplasmic staining, dependin...

  9. Radiographic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: differential diagnosis and performance timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines propose a differential diagnosis for atypical pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia using a scoring system for the selection of appropriate antibiotic. In order to improve this scoring system, the guidelines are seeking new specific parameter. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pattern of abnormalities with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia on chest computed tomography (CT) and whether the radiographic findings could distinguish M. pneumoniae pneumonia from Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. A retrospective review was performed of the CT findings of 64 cases and 68 cases where M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae, respectively, were the only pathogen identified by the panel of diagnostic tests used. Of the 64 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, bronchial wall thickening was observed most frequently (81%), followed by centrilobular nodules (78%), ground-glass attenuation (78%), and consolidation (61%). Bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules were observed more often in M. pneumoniae patients than in S. pneumoniae patients (p < 0.0001). The presence of bilateral bronchial wall thickening or centrilobular nodules was only seen in patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Using the scoring system of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines and chest CT findings, 97% of M. pneumoniae patients were suspected to be M. pneumoniae pneumonia without serology. When comparing the CT findings between early stage and progressed stage in the same patients with severe pneumonia, the radiographic features of early stage M. pneumoniae pneumonia were not observed clearly in the progressed stage. The present results indicate that the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia would appear to be reliable when found with a combination of bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules in the CT findings. However, these CT findings are not observed in progressed severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients

  10. No asthma, no parasites is a rare type of leukemia: chronic myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia and abnormality of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Casiano, Mónica; Alemán, Jesse R; Matos-Fernández, Nelson A; Cáceres-Perkins, Wlliam; De La Paz, Maryknoll

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia and abnormality of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), referred as chronic eosinophilic leukemia, is an extremely rare neoplasm where long-term prognosis is uncertain though a high grade of responsiveness to Imatinib has been reported. The mortality and morbidity associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia is associated with the degree of tissue involvement, damage, or both at diagnosis. We discuss a case of a young male patient with past medical history of hypoglycemia that presented to the emergency room with a complaints of a sharp abdominal pain localized in the upper quadrants. Laboratories were remarkable for elevated white blood cells with eosinophils predominance, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy dislocated a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion of this rare entity since not all eosinophilias can be interpreted as asthma or parasitis infections. PMID:23156891

  11. [Lipoid pneumonia - an underestimated syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiblmair, M; Berghaus, T; Haeckel, T; Wagner, T; Scheidt, W von

    2010-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia, first described by Laughlen 1925 may be classified as endogenous or exogenous. The endogenous form is seen when fat is deposited into the lung tissue. It is usually associated with proximal obstructive lesions, necrotic tissue after radio- or chemotherapy, with lipid storage disease or hyperlipidemia . Exogenous lipoid pneumonia results from inhaling or aspirating animal, vegetable or mineral oil. There are usually some underlying neurological defects or esophageal abnormalities. Patients may present with cough, sputum, hemoptysis and chest pain or may be asymptomatic. There is no classic chest film appearance: it may appear as diffuse airspace infiltration or localized consolidation simulating tumour. Computed tomography is diagnostically helpful and shows hypodense areas measuring from -100 to - 30 Hounsfield units. Bronchoscopic biopsies are mandatory for histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Treatment of exogenous lipoid pneumonia has always been conservative by discontinuing the use of oil, correction of underlying defects that may favor aspiration and treatment of intercurrent pneumonia. Other measures, for example corticosteroid therapy, are of uncertain benefit. Complications of lipoid pneumonia that worsen prognosis are recurrent bacterial pneumonias including nontuberculous mycobacteria or aspergillus, or lung cancer that has developed in areas of pre-existing exogenous lipoid pneumonia. PMID:20024881

  12. PECULIARITIES OF THE FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF BLOOD EOSINOPHIL GRANULOCYTES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kolobovnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are polyfunctional leukocytes detected in excess in blood and in the focus of granulomatous inflammation in pulmonary TB.The research objective was to evaluate the adhesive properties as well as cytokine-secretory and antibacterial activity of blood eosinophils in pulmonary TB.The research has been conducted on eosinophils isolated from peripheral blood of 43 patients with freshly identified progressive destructive TB with and without eosinophilia. Using flow cytometry and ELISA, expression of CD9 and CD18 adhesion molecules on blood eosinophils has been studied along with the phagocyte and cytokine-secretory functions and activity of eosinophil granulocyte peroxidase.As a result of the research it has been established that in TB patients with eosinophilia the number of CD18-expressing eosinophils rises, whereas the amount of CD9+ remains within norm. Activation of the phagocyte function of blood eosinophil granulocytes is associated with the decrease in eosinophil peroxidase activity, while the increase in IL-5 and TNFα secretory reactivity is connected with oppositely directed changes in  IL-2 basal secretion by eosinophils in vitro (a fall in infiltrative TB and a rise in disseminated TB.

  13. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Barnig

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach-in a limited number of patients and controls-to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology.

  14. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnig, Cindy; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach–in a limited number of patients and controls—to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology. PMID:26524763

  15. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  16. Specific regulator of eosinophil apoptosis: Siglec-8-new hope for bronchial asthma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yin-he; MAO Hui

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is known that Siglec-8 is selectively expressed on human eosinophils at a high level and mediates eosinophil apoptosis when crosslinked with its antibody.The aim of our review is to elucidate the molecular and biological characteristic of Siglec-8 and then discuss the function and possible mechanisms of Siglec-8 in eosinophils.Thereby,we will expand our understanding to the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis,and provide important clues to the treatment of asthma and other hyper-eosinophilic diseases.Data sources Most articles were identified by searching of PubMed online resources using the key term Siglecs.Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected.Results Siglec-8 is selectively expressed on human eosinophil and can specifically induce eosinophil apoptosis.Conclusion The restricted expression of Siglec-8 on human eosinophil and the rapid progress in understanding its role as cell signaling and activation of death receptors have made it an attractive target for treatment of asthma and other hyper-eosinophilic diseases.

  17. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease.

  18. Oral Fluoroquinolones in the Treatment of Pneumonia, Bronchitis and Sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mittmann, Nicole; Jivraj, Farah; Wong, Angelina; Yoon, Alice

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a relatively large number of clinical studies comparing oral fluoroquinolones to one antibiotic class comparator, there is limited information on the relative efficacy of different fluoroquinolones.OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and tolerability of oral fluoroquinolones in the treatment of mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and sinusitis.METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken with a MEDLINE search for antibioti...

  19. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai upregulates eosinophils and suppresses Th1 and Th17 cells in the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Lee

    Full Text Available The bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (Ulmaceae has been used in traditional Korean medicine for chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the frequency and cytokine profile of the major immune cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI LP, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of mice treated orally with Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai bark water extract (UDE to address the immunomodulatory role of this herb in intestinal homeostasis. B6 mice were given 5g/kg UDE once daily for 14 days. They were then sacrificed, and cells were isolated from the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP. The proportion of B versus T lymphocytes, CD4(+ versus CD8(+ T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 cells, and Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells in the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP were analyzed. The frequency of antigen-presenting cells (APCs, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in the SI LP and the expression of costimulatory molecules on APCs were also evaluated. The numbers and frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the SI LP were significantly reduced in the UDE-treated mice compared with PBS controls. In addition, the proportion of IL-4-producing eosinophils in the SI LP was significantly elevated in the UDE-treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UDE up-regulates the number and frequency of SI LP eosinophils, which can down-regulate the Th1 and Th17 responses via IL-4 secretion and contribute to intestinal homeostasis.

  20. Successful early diagnosis and treatment in a case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic myocarditis with eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangen, Hideto; Tanabe, Jun; Takano, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Fulminant myocarditis can become fatal if left untreated. Treatments for most types of myocarditis, including mechanical support, are limited. However, immediate systemic corticosteroids are known to be effective against eosinophilic myocarditis; therefore, prompt diagnosis of this disease is crucial. Unfortunately, the standard diagnostic tool for myocarditis, endomyocardial biopsy, does not provide immediate histopathological findings. Thus, a rapid diagnostic tool for identifying types of myocarditis is urgently required. We report here the first case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic fulminant myocarditis which was diagnosed based on eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion where the patient recovered with early corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26338242

  1. Age influence on mice lung tissue response to [i]Aspergillus fumigatus[/i] chronic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kinga Lemieszek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Exposure to conidia of [i]Aspergillus fumigatus[/i] was described as a causative factor of a number of the respiratory system diseases, including asthma, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The study investigates the effects of the repeated exposure to [i]A. fumigatus[/i] in mice pulmonary compartment. Our work tackles two, so far insufficiently addressed, important aspects of interaction between affected organism and[i] A. fumigatus[/i]: 1 recurrent character of exposure (characteristic for pathomechanism of the abovementioned disease states and 2 impact of aging, potentially important for the differentiation response to an antigen. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In order to dissect alterations of the immune system involved with both aging and chronic exposure to [i]A. fumigatus[/i], we used 3- and 18-month-old C57BL/6J mice exposed to repeated[i] A. fumigatus[/i] inhalations for 7 and 28 days. Changes in lung tissue were monitored by histological and biochemical evaluation. Concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lung homogenates was assessed by ELISA tests. [b]Results and conclusions. [/b]Our study demonstrated that chronic inflammation in pulmonary compartment, characterized by the significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL1, IL6, IL10 levels, was the dominant feature of mice response to repeated [i]A. fumigatus[/i] inhalations. The pattern of cytokines’ profile in the course of exposure was similar in both age groups, however in old mice the growth of the cytokines’ levels was more pronounced (especially in case of IL1.

  2. GM-CSF Differentially Regulates Eosinophil and Neutrophil Adhesive Interactions with Vascular Endothelium in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Sheikh Bahaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic airway inflammation is characterized by elaboration of cytokines and chemokines leading to recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes, predominantly eosinophils, to the airways. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF is generated in the lungs of human subjects with asthma in response to allergen challenge and is necessary for the development of allergen-induced bronchial eosinophilia in mice. The effect of GM-CSF on human eosinophil and neutrophil interactions with the vascular endothelium under conditions of blood flow was investigated in post-capillary venules of the rabbit mesentery by intravital microscopy.While GM-CSF significantly reduced the rolling fraction of neutrophils in vivo and induced consistent shedding of neutrophil L-selectin in vitro, its effect on eosinophil rolling was variable. Eosinophils from 57% of the donors demonstrated inhibition of rolling, while eosinophils from the remaining 43% of donors demonstrated no inhibition or increased rolling. The variable effect of GM-CSF on inhibition of eosinophil rolling was associated with variable shedding of L-selectin in vitro. In contrast to the differential effect of GM-CSF on neutrophils versus eosinophils, stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate demonstrated a similar degree of inhibition of rolling and L-selectin shedding by neutrophils and eosinophils suggesting that there was no defect in L-selectin shedding in the eosinophil donors who did not respond to GM-CSF. Overall, these studies demonstrate that GM-CSF consistently inhibits interaction of neutrophils with endothelium in vivo, whereas its effect on eosinophil-endothelial interactions is variable. GM-CSF may thus be one factor accounting for the varying percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils recruited to sites of allergic inflammation in different individuals.

  3. CNS Complications of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute central nervous system disease occurring subsequent to infection with M pneumoniae are reported from University College, Institute of Child Health, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  4. Reversible Severe Eosinophilic Endomyocardial Fibrosis During Pregnancy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Charron, Philippe; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Cluzel, Philippe; Haroche, Julien; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Amoura, Zahir; Aubart, Fleur Cohen

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a condition of unknown origin characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. Cardiac involvement is rare and threatening accounting for 33% to 43% of death in HES. Management of pregnant patients with HES is challenging and have rarely been reported, particularly in the setting of heart failure.We here report on the case of a 29-year-old woman with HES who developed severe endomyocardial fibrosis with heart failure during pregnancy. Outcome was favorable under treatment with prednisone and azathioprine.This case illustrates a favorable outcome of endomyocardial fibrosis during pregnancy. PMID:26266372

  5. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junji Takeyama; Daiki Abukawa; Katsushi Miura

    2007-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy developed transient protein-losing gastroenteropathy associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Both IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV were positive in a serologic blood test. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed multiple erosions throughout the body of the stomach, without enlarged gastric folds. Histological examination of the biopsy specimens indicated eosinophilic gastroenteritis and CMV infection. The patient had complete resolution without specific therapy for CMV in four weeks. An allergic reaction as well as CMV infection played important roles in the pathogenesis of this case.

  6. Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Andõn, F. T.; Kapralov, A A; Yanamala, N.; Feng, W.; Baygan, Arjang; Chambers, B.J.; Hultenby, K.; Ye, Fei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Brandner, B. D.; Fornara, Andrea; Klein-Seetharaman, J.; Kotchey, G. P.; Star, A.; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O 2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site)...

  7. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  8. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J. H.; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Strepto...

  9. Organizing Pneumonia Preceding Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiaki Kinoshita; Atsuhiko Sakamoto; Kouko Hidaka

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients are susceptible to interstitial lung disease, and joint manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis usually precede lung involvements by several years. Organizing pneumonia, as the first manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis, is extremely rare, and its clinical features remain currently unknown. We present a case and a literature review of patients who were pathologically diagnosed with organizing pneumonia first and met the diagnostic criteria of rheumatoid arthritis...

  10. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  11. Russell Body Gastroenteritis: An Aberrant Manifestation of Chronic Inflammation in Gastrointestinal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Feriyl Bhaijee; Brown, Keith A.; Long, Billy W.; Brown, Alexandra S.

    2013-01-01

    First described in 1998, Russell body gastritis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition characterized by abundant intramucosal polyclonal plasma cells, which contain intracytoplasmic eosinophilic globules of immunoglobulins (Russell bodies) that displace the nucleus, with an accompanying chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Russell bodies represent a cellular response to overstimulation of plasma cells, leading to the accumulation of abundant, nondegradable, condensed immunoglobulin in dilated r...

  12. Difference of clinical features in childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jin-Han

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MP has been reported in 10-40% of community-acquired pneumonia cases. We aimed to evaluate the difference of clinical features in children with MP, according to their age and chest radiographic patterns. Methods The diagnosis of MP was made by examinations at both admission and discharge and by two serologic tests: the indirect microparticle agglutinin assay (≥1:40 and the cold agglutinins titer (≥1:32. A total of 191 children with MP were grouped by age: ≤2 years of age (29 patients, 3-5 years of age (81 patients, and ≥6 years of age (81 patients. They were also grouped by pneumonia pattern: bronchopneumonia group (96 patients and segmental/lobar pneumonia group (95 patients. Results Eighty-six patients (45% were seroconverters, and the others showed increased antibody titers during hospitalization. Among the three age groups, the oldest children showed the longest duration of fever, highest C-reactive protein (CRP values, and the most severe pneumonia pattern. The patients with segmental/lobar pneumonia were older and had longer fever duration and lower white blood cell (WBC and lymphocyte counts, compared with those with bronchopneumonia. The patient group with the most severe pulmonary lesions had the most prolonged fever, highest CRP, highest rate of seroconverters, and lowest lymphocyte counts. Thrombocytosis was observed in 8% of patients at admission, but in 33% of patients at discharge. Conclusions In MP, older children had more prolonged fever and more severe pulmonary lesions. The severity of pulmonary lesions was associated with the absence of diagnostic IgM antibodies at presentation and lymphocyte count. Short-term paired IgM serologic test may be mandatory for early and definitive diagnosis of MP.

  13. Eosinophils are not required for the induction and maintenance of an alloantibody response

    OpenAIRE

    Cravedi, P.; Lessman, D. A.; Heeger, P S

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil-produced cytokines have been shown to participate in the maintenance of antigen-specific plasma cells (PC) in bone marrow (BM), suggesting that eosinophils are required in the development and/or maintenance of alloantibody responses post-transplant.

  14. Eosinophils count and periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Barbieri, L.; Sinigaglia, F.; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophils have been involved in a wide spectrum of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic conditions, with the development of cardiovascular complications in a significant proportion of hypereosinophilic patients. However, no study has so far evaluated the impact of eosinophils levels on

  15. An ultrastructural study of the interaction of human eosinophils with respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimpen, JLL; Garofalo, R; Welliver, RC; Fujihara, K; Ogra, PL

    1996-01-01

    It was shown previously that eosinophils are activated in vivo and in vitro by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (Garofalo et al., J Pediatr 1992: 120: 28-32; Kimpen et al., Pediatr Res 1992: 32: 160-4). For study of the interaction of eosinophils and RSV on the ultrastructural level, normodense eos

  16. Genetic factors explain half of all variance in serum eosinophil cationic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Camilla; Sverrild, Asger; van der Sluis, Sophie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is one of four basic proteins of the secretory granules of eosinophils. It has a variety of functions associated with inflammatory responses. Little is known about the causes for variation in serum ECP levels. AIM: To identify factors associated...

  17. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a traveler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; HOI Chupeng; CUI Liying; CHEN Lin

    2013-01-01

    A 55 - year - old female traveler returning from South China with acute onset of meningitis, presenting with eosinophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was reported. The etiological diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis was confirmed by detection of specific serum antibody against Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Angiostrongyliasis should be considered as a major differential diagnosis for eosinophilic meningitis in the travelers to endemic regions.

  18. Functional analysis of free fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human eosinophils: implications in metabolic homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Konno

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system.

  19. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth. PMID:26720604

  20. Eosinophillic myocarditis and coronary arteritis in a fatal case of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupani Asha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortality is very unusual in the case of asthma. We recently came across a fatal case of asthma which showed a rare combination of unusual complications like eosinophilic myocarditis, coronary arteritis, biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, eosinophilic pneumonitis and pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases. PMID:27165445

  2. CT-pathologic correlation study of interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct CT-pathologic correlative study of interstitial pneumonia was performed using inflated and fixed lungs. The specimens, which were obtained from 26 patients at the time of autopsy or during surgery, had pathologic findings of interstitial pneumonia (UIP and/or DAD). The specimens were fixed in distension and air dried. They were then scanned with a GE CT/T9800. HRCT images of the specimens could be correlated with two different types of pathologic processes. One was the chronic fibrotic change which was seen in the subpleural area of the specimens both from the autopsied and surgical cases, and the other was the acute alveolar change which was seen in the diffuse area of the specimens only from autopsied cases. HRCT images of the chronic fibrotic change showed nodular opacities, ring like opacities, increased density (high density), and air-bronchiologram in the subpleural area. These findings were correlated with patchy fibrotic lesions, honeycombing, mucus stasis in cysts of the honeycomb, and dilatation of the airways. HRCT images of the acute alveolar change showed mainly diffuse increased densities (hazy appearance and high density) and diffuse nodular opacities. These findings were correlated with a diffuse thickening of the alveolar walls, hyaline membranes in the alveoli and alveolar ducts, and their organization. Understanding of the difference between HRCT images of these chronic and acute pathologic processes is helpful for the evaluation of disease processes of interstitial pneumonia by HRCT. The abnormal patterns on HRCT images of the specimens were influenced by several technical factors of CT scanning, such as reconstruction algorithm, thickness of the slice, window level, and window width. It is, therefore, necessary to know the influence on HRCT images by these technical factors for a better understanding of HRCT images in interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  3. Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, BAMC 07-18, Isolated from a Combat Injury Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Tricia A; Chen, Tsute; Childers, Brandon M; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; Leung, Kai P

    2014-11-26

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important infectious agent of surgical sites and combat wounds. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance are common impediments to the healing of chronic infections. Here, we report the genome sequence of a highly multidrug-resistant strain of K. pneumoniae, BAMC 07-18, isolated from a combat wound of a soldier.

  4. [Some modern views of the role of the eosinophils in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma and a new method of detecting eosinophils in the bronchial secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denchev, K; Lipcheva, N; Kis'ova, K

    1976-01-01

    A review of certain contemporary opinions of eosinophil function in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma is presented in this report. Phagocytosis and processing of the complexes antigenantibody, histamine inhibition and a histamine elimination elimination by a specific inhibitor, isolated from eosinophilis (EDI), stimulation of prostaglandines E release, which also inhibit histamine and have a bronchial dilataion effect. The new method is recommended for eosinophil detection in sputa based on the fluorescent principle as faster and more efficient.

  5. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-β, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy.

  6. Eosinophilic ulcer of the lateral tongue: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Myriam Costa de Medeiros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa (EUOM is a lesion manifesting as ulcer with elevated margins. The lesion is self-limiting and develops rapidly usually disappearing after several weeks. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms implicated in its development are poorly understood, however, the possibility that trauma may play a role has been often postulated. Case report: A 63 year-old male patient had presented whit a chief complaint of painful ulcerated nodule on the tongue. Oral examination revealed a firm, raised and indurated erythematous nodule with a central ulcer that had a yellow fibrinous base. Clinical diagnosis hypothesis was either traumatic ulcer or oral squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathologic analysis revealed an ulcerated lesion with a dense mixed infiltrate of eosinophils, variably sized lymphocytes and epithelioid cells extending into submucosa. These cells exhibited pleomorphism, voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with prominent nucleolus and were identified by immunohistochemical method as CD68+ cells. The histological diagnosis was EUOM. At 1-year follow-up there was no recurrence. Conclusion: Our case provides useful information on clinical and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of EUOM, as suggesting the possible etiology of this uncommon lesion because it is poorly described in the literature.

  7. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Two Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M. Frech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT is the most common extracutaneous organ system damaged in systemic sclerosis (SSc and is the presenting feature in 10% of patients. The esophagus as the portion of the GIT is the most commonly affected and there is an association of gastroesophageal reflux (GER with SSc interstitial lung disease (ILD. Thus, an aggressive treatment for GER is recommended in all SSc patients with ILD; however, it is recognized that a long-term benefit to this treatment is needed to understand its impact. In this case report we discuss the presence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE in two SSc patients and discuss the role for early EGD in SSc patients with moderate-severe GER symptoms for tissue study. Assessment of esophageal biopsy specimens for the presence of eosinophils and possibly ANA can help elucidate disease pathogenesis and direct therapy, as the presence of EoE in SSc has important management considerations, particularly with regards to dietary modification strategies.

  8. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  9. Treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räßler, F; Lukács, J; Elsner, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) is a rare inflammatory skin disease defined by erythematous, tender, sometimes urticarial plaques, possibly with vesicles and bullae, and granulomatous eosinophilic infiltrates in the dermis. Usually the disease has a benign course with spontaneous remission within a few weeks. Nevertheless, recurrences are quite frequent and may occur for several years. The objective of this study was to review the so far reported treatment options for Wells syndrome in a systematic manner. This systematic review is based on a search on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register for English and German articles from 1970 to 2015. Advices on the treatment of Wells syndrome are limited predominately to case reports or to small case series. There are no randomized controlled trials, and control groups are missing. A variety of treatment options for Wells syndrome were reported including topical and systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, cyclosporine, dapsone, azathioprine, griseofulvin, doxycycline, minocycline, antimalarial medications, oral tacrolimus/topical tacrolimus, sulfasalazine, interferon alpha and gamma, TNF alpha inhibitors, colchicine and PUVA therapy. As well-designed, randomized controlled trials are missing, no guidelines for the treatment of this disease can be given. Due to the small number of patients and the frequent misdiagnosis of this clinical entity, the aim of this systematic overview is to call attention to this rare condition and to help clinicians to diagnose and treat Wells syndrome effectively. Due to the good prognosis and tendency to resolve, systemic treatment should be limited to cases resistant to local therapy or with widespread lesions. PMID:27357601

  10. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen

  11. Eosinophils Modulate CD4+ T Cell Responses via High Mobility Group Box-1 in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Eun-Jin; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Bang, Bo-Ram; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils have been reported to modulate T cell responses. Previously, we reported that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) played a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. This study was conducted to test our hypothesis that eosinophils could modulate T cell responses via HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of asthma characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation. We performed in vitro experiments using eosinophils, dendritic cells (DCs), and CD4+ T cells obtained from a murine model of ast...

  12. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Chuangyu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in a previously healthy 16-year-old male adolescent with 2-month history of frequent micturition and dysuria with no significant apparent causative factors. The tumor regressed after a 6-week course of glucocorticosteroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our case is a rare case of inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder treated with complete conservative management. Due to its glucocorticosteroid-sensitive nature, we postulate that this disease belongs to a subgroup of eosinophilic disorders.

  13. A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Matsumoto; Masahiko Sugitani; Kiyoshi Yokoyama; Kazuhiko Nakai; Toshiki Yamamoto; Takeshi Otani; Masahiro Ogawa; Naohide Tanaka; Ariyoshi Iwasaki; Yasuyuki Arakawa

    2007-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils.Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily.The patient's biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile dud. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient's eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified.

  14. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Young Yun; Young Up Cho; In Suh Park; Sun Keun Choi; Sei Joong Kim; Seok Hwan Shin; Kyung Rae Kim

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and symptoms associated with gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the authors experienced a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as small bowel obstruction. A 51-year old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Computed tomography confirmed a dilatation of the small intestine with ascites. An emergency laparotomy was performed for a diagnosis of peritonitis due to intestinal obstruction. Segmental resection of the ileum and end to end anastomosis were performed. Histologically, there was a dense infiltration of eosinophils throughout the entire thickness of ileal wall and eosinophilic enteritis was diagnosed. The patient recovered well, and was free from gastrointestinal symptoms at the time when we reported her disease.

  15. THE EOSINOPHILIC MATERIAL IN ADENOMATOID ODONTOGENIC TUMOR ASSOCIATED WITH AMYLOID PROTEIN COMPONENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Bao-ping; LI Yong-mei; Haruo Okabe

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation between eosinophilic materials and amyloid P (AP) component in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT). Methods: The expression of amyloid proteins and basement membrane proteins, including type Ⅳ collagen, laminin and heparin sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), in AOT were analyzed by immunohistochemical method. Results:Most eosinophilic droplets among tumor cells and some epithelial cells showed positive stain for AP component.The immunoreactions of type Ⅳ collagen and laminin were only found in blood vessels of this tumor. The tumor cells and eosinophilic materials in duct-like structures were constantly unstained for both amyloid and basement membrane proteins. Present results suggest that the nature and composition of eosinophilic droplets may differ from the eosinophilic layer in ductlike structures. This study first demonstrated that the amyloid-like deposition in AOT is associated with AP component by immunohistochemical method. It supported that AP component may be epithelial origin since the AP immunolocalization was found in tumor cells.

  16. Failure of levofloxacin treatment in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi Paolo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. High global incidence of macrolide and penicillin resistance has been reported, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance is uncommon. Current guidelines for suspected CAP in patients with co-morbidity factors and recent antibiotic therapy recommend initial empiric therapy using one fluoroquinolone or one macrolide associated to other drugs (amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is determined by efflux mechanisms and/or mutations in the parC and parE genes coding for topoisomerase IV and/or gyrA and gyrB genes coding for DNA gyrase. No clinical cases due to fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae strains have been yet reported from Italy. Case presentation A 72-year-old patient with long history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and multiple fluoroquinolone treatments for recurrent lower respiratory tract infections developed fever, increased sputum production, and dyspnea. He was treated with oral levofloxacin (500 mg bid. Three days later, because of acute respiratory insufficiency, the patient was hospitalized. Levofloxacin treatment was supplemented with piperacillin/tazobactam. Microbiological tests detected a S. pneumoniae strain intermediate to penicillin (MIC, 1 mg/L and resistant to macrolides (MIC >256 mg/L and fluoroquinolones (MIC >32 mg/L. Point mutations were detected in gyrA (Ser81-Phe, parE (Ile460-Val, and parC gene (Ser79-Phe; Lys137-Asn. Complete clinical response followed treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion This is the first Italian case of community-acquired pneumonia due to a fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae isolate where treatment failure of levofloxacin was documented. Molecular analysis showed a group of mutations that have not yet been reported from Italy and has been detected only twice in Europe. Treatment with piperacillin

  17. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia? The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from ... have sudden changes in mental awareness. Complications of Pneumonia Often, people who have pneumonia can be successfully ...

  18. Changes in CD11b and L-selectin expression on eosinophils are mediated by human lung fibroblasts in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, FM; Hovenga, H; Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Kauffman, HF

    1998-01-01

    Eosinophilic airway infiltration is a central feature in asthma. Eosinophils recovered from bronchoalveolar fluid show an activated phenotype, e.g., increased CD11b and decreased L-selectin expression. We investigated whether lung fibroblasts are able to activate eosinophils in vitro, and if so, whi

  19. Airway eosinophils accumulate in the mediastinal lymph nodes but lack antigen-presenting potential for naive T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S. van Rijt (Leonie); N. Vos (Nanda); D. Hijdra; V.C. de Vries (Victor); H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAsthma is characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with eosinophils. Although eosinophils are considered to be effector cells, recent studies have reported their ability to activate primed Th2 cells. In this study, we investigated whether eosinophils are capable

  20. Pulmonary besnoitiasis in captive maras (Dolichotis patagonum) associated with interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Hernández, G; Juan-Sallés, C; Garner, M M; Barr, B C

    2004-07-01

    Six captive maras (Dolichotis patagonum) were found to have cysts consistent with Besnoitia in the lungs by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Three were juveniles that died with no premonitory signs during a 17-month period. The most prominent finding consisted of severe, subacute, diffuse interstitial pneumonia with syncytia and Besnoitia cysts. The severity of pneumonia correlated with the number of cysts and the presence of lytic cysts, often surrounded by chronic granulomatous inflammation. Disseminated infection was observed in one of these maras. The three other maras died of unrelated conditions and had a few Besnoitia cysts in their lungs with mild or no inflammation associated. This is the first report of besnoitiasis in maras and of its association with fatal interstitial pneumonia in any species. Although other agents may have caused the interstitial pneumonia described here, it is possible that zoites released from lytic cysts were involved in the development of this lesion. PMID:15232142

  1. Distinct Tlr4-expressing cell compartments control neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlees, J W; Whitehead, G S; Harley, I T W; Cappelletti, M; Rewerts, C L; Holdcroft, A M; Divanovic, S; Wills-Karp, M; Finkelman, F D; Karp, C L; Cook, D N

    2015-07-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease. Some forms of allergic asthma are characterized by T helper type 2 (Th2)-driven eosinophilia, whereas others are distinguished by Th17-driven neutrophilia. Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on hematopoietic and airway epithelial cells (AECs) contributes to the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and allergens, but the specific contribution of TLR4 in these cell compartments to airway inflammatory responses remains poorly understood. We used novel, conditionally mutant Tlr4(fl/fl) mice to define the relative contributions of AEC and hematopoietic cell Tlr4 expression to LPS- and allergen-induced airway inflammation. We found that Tlr4 expression by hematopoietic cells is critical for neutrophilic airway inflammation following LPS exposure and for Th17-driven neutrophilic responses to the house dust mite (HDM) lysates and ovalbumin (OVA). Conversely, Tlr4 expression by AECs was found to be important for robust eosinophilic airway inflammation following sensitization and challenge with these same allergens. Thus, Tlr4 expression by hematopoietic and airway epithelial cells controls distinct arms of the immune response to inhaled allergens. PMID:25465099

  2. 嗜酸粒细胞在气道激活机制中的研究进展%Progress of studies on mechanism of eosinophils activation in airways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵婧昕; 汪慧英

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammation characterized with the eosinophils and mast cells infiltration in airway and airway hyperresponsiveness. Activated eosinophils play a key role in the initiation and development of asthma. Most of the eosinophils in the airway directly from peripheral blood, while a small portion are from primitive eosinophil progenitor cells. When the former ones are in peripheral blood the activation of esinophils begins under the interaction of endothelial cells. Then airway epithelial cells express cytokines such as IL-3, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and eotaxin which is the important chemokine of eosinophils, recruiting eosinophils to the airways. Activation of the airway eosinophils of the above two sources are the result of the interaction of different inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines. For one thing, airway T cells, including Th2 and Thl cells, Th17 cells, mast cells, promote the activation of eosinophils through the release of different cytokines. And these cytokines such as IL-4,IL-5,IL-17 all activate eosinophils. On the other hand, various cytokines such as PAF, IL-33, IL-7 all involve in the activation of eosinophils and keep their viability. This article summarizes the scientific research of activate mechanism of eosinophils in the airways in recent years.%支气管哮喘是一种以嗜酸粒细胞(eosinophils,EOS)和肥大细胞浸润、气道高反应性为主要病理生理特征的慢性气道炎症,其中EOS在气道的激活对疾病的发生发展起着关键作用.气道中的EOS主要来源于外周血,极小部分来源于气道内的嗜酸粒细胞前体祖细胞,前者早在外周血中便在内皮细胞的作用下开始启动激活,之后气道上皮细胞通过表达细胞因子IL-3、IL-6、IL-8、RANTES及EOS重要的趋化因子eotaxin等趋化其向气道迁移.两种来源的EOS在气道的激活都是各种炎症细胞、细胞因子、趋化因子相互作用的结果:一方面,气道内的Th2

  3. Clinical and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia amongst adults in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity amongst adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Literature published between 1990 and May 2010 on the clinical and economic burden of CAP amongst adults in this region was reviewed. CAP is a significant health burden with significant economic impact in this region. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and advanced age were risk factors for CAP. Aetiological agents included Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Staphylococcus aureus and atypical pathogens (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella spp.), with important differences in the prevalence of these pathogens within the region. Antibiotic resistance was significant but was not linked to excess mortality. Aetiological pathogens remained susceptible to newer antimicrobial agents. Rational antibiotic use is essential for preventing resistance, and increased surveillance is required to identify future trends in incidence and aetiology and to drive treatment and prevention strategies.

  4. The clinical characteristics,treatment and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drug resistance of My-coplasma pneumoniae among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ,and to explore the clinical and radiological characteristics of and the role of azithromycin in the treatment of of macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.Methods Cases of CAP in children (n=179) were prospectively enrolled in

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Myophage Miro

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalis, Eleni M.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen frequently associated with antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections. Bacteriophage therapy against K. pneumoniae may be possible to combat these infections. The following describes the complete genome sequence and key features of the pseudo-T-even K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae myophage Miro.

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced hydrocephalus in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, D F; Chinookoswong, N; Wang, J

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocephalus was induced in neonatal hamsters after intracerebral inoculation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Examination of the ependyma from affected animals by electron microscopy did not reveal mycoplasma. However, in an ependymal organ culture system, M. pneumoniae cytadsorbed to ependymal cells.

  7. High-resolution CT findings of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: based on the updated concept of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome by the American Thoracic Society in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Kunihiro, Y; Kobayashi, T; Yujiri, T; Kido, S; Ueda, K; Matsunaga, N

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is an acute lung dysfunction of non-infectious aetiology and a severe complication following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recently, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) updated the concept of IPS and extended the concept to a wider range; it defined IPS as "an idiopathic syndrome of pneumopathy after HSCT, with evidence of widespread alveolar injury and in which infectious aetiologies and cardiac dysfunction, acute renal failure, or iatrogenic fluid overload have been excluded." The ATS also categorised the presumed site of primary tissue injury into three patterns (pulmonary parenchyma, vascular endothelium, and airway epithelium), each of which has several entities. Since the therapeutic strategies for IPS are clearly different from those of infectious diseases, and therapeutic delay causes a poor prognosis, radiologists should be aware of some characteristic HRCT findings of IPS, which includes a wide spectrum of entities. In this article, the characteristic HRCT findings of these entities, including acute interstitial pneumonia/acute respiratory distress syndrome, eosinophilic pneumonia, non-cardiogenic capillary leak syndrome, diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, transfusion-related acute lung injury, organising pneumonia, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, are shown. PMID:27421574

  8. Influenza and bacterial pneumonia - constant companions

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderink, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential or concomitant influenza and bacterial pneumonia are two common syndromes seen in community-acquired pneumonia. Inadequacies of diagnostic testing make separating simple pneumonia with either bacteria or influenza from concomitant or sequential influenza with both microorganisms difficult, although the novel 2009 H1N1 epidemic may improve the availability of molecular testing for viruses. Given the frequency of viral pneumonia and diagnostic limitations, empirical antivirals may be...

  9. Organising pneumonia due to dronedarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D; Avery, S; Edey, A J; Medford, A R L

    2015-01-01

    Organising pneumonia is one of the responses of the lung to injury and can mimic bacterial pneumonia but importantly it does not respond to antibiotic therapy. We present the case of a 67-year-old male who was diagnosed with organising pneumonia secondary to dronedarone. Drug reactions are a common cause and early identification of the culprit is mandatory to prevent further morbidity and ensure a favourable outcome. On chest radiography there may be fleeting peripheral consolidation, while computed tomography can show a range of stereotyped patterns including perilobular consolidation. Bronchoscopic biopsy may not always be possible but response to steroids is often rapid following removal of the culprit drug. Dronedarone should be included in the list of possible drugs and the Pneumotox database remains a useful resource for the clinician when acute drug-related pneumotoxicity is suspected. PMID:26517101

  10. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  11. Lymphoma and broncho-pneumonia in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one and a half month old Holstein calf was presented with a chronic respiratory condition. Clinical examination revealed cachexia and lymphadenopathy and wheezes and crepitations on auscultation. Blood cell count indicated a non-regenerative microcytic anaemia and marked lymphopenia. Broncho-pneumonia due to Mycoplasma bovis was diagnosed after radiography and cytobacteriology of transtracheal lavage. A large cell lymphoma was suspected after finding a high proportion of large lymphocytes in a lymph node puncture aspirate. Serology for bovine leukosis was negative. A diagnosis of juvenile lymphoma associated with M. bovis broncho-pneumonia was established. The diagnosis was confirmed on post-mortem. Juvenile lymphoma is rare. Affected animals are aged between two and six months and systematically present generalised lymphadenopathy. This disease is always fatal. When an animal is presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, this condition should be eliminated by lymph node puncture of a moderately hypertrophied lymph node before other tests are performed

  12. Associations between peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with systemic sclerosis and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Motojima, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of serum pro-fibrotic cytokines have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Some of these cytokines also play an important role in the differentiation and migration of eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether eosinophilic inflammation is caused in SSc. We retrospectively reviewed the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in 70 untreated patients with SSc and compared them with those in patients with other major collagen diseases. We additionally evaluated a possible association with disease severity. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher levels in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases, whereas total leukocyte counts were not. Eosinophil counts correlated positively with both severe interstitial lung disease (ILD; r = 0.255, p = 0.033) and modified Rodnan total skin thickness score (m-Rodnan TSS) in SSc (r = 0.347, p = 0.003), but did not correlate with ILD severity in other collagen diseases. In conclusion, peripheral eosinophil counts were higher in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases and were correlated with increased disease severity. Our data suggest that eosinophilic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of SSc. PMID:27610320

  13. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis.

  14. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Another Atopy-Related Alopecia Areata Trigger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Piliang, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is associated with atopy in 10-22% of patients, twice the prevalence in the general population. Patients can present with concomitant atopic dermatitis, hay fever, asthma, and even allergies to dust mites. In many cases, severity and flares of these atopic diatheses correlate with severity of AA. Herein we present a patient with AA affected by contemporaneous eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). EoE is a recently recognized allergic disorder, mediated by eosiniphils and histamine. It is characterized by esophageal dysfunction and intraepithelial microabscesses. We propose that EoE be considered as a condition falling within the realm of atopic diseases, and a potential trigger of AA in affected patients.

  15. Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoram Elitsur

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children.The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011.In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease,there are many areas where scientific data are missing,especially in regard to the disease's pathophysiology.Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinicalphenotypic presentation.Those factors may include place of living,air pollution,race,genetic factors and other.In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors,the new developments,and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

  16. Cervical spine cord compression by eosinophilic granuloma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Silva, E B; Noujaim J el-K; Carnevale, F

    1999-06-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a term reserved for the most often and benign form of disorder known as Langerhans cells histiocytosis. It is a disease of children and adolescents that very rarely affects adults, representing the localized form of a pathological proliferation of histiocytes in bones, like skull and long bones. Vertebral involvement is uncommon, approximately 8% of the cases, being the cervical localization the least affected. Moreover, the involvement of the spinal cord and roots remains a rare occurrence. Only five cases characterized by signs of cervical spinal cord compression have been reported. We report the sixth case in a 42-year-old-man who evolved with resolution of symptoms, and has remained asymptomatic after treatment. The clinical, radiological and histological features and, also, the value, in selected cases, of surgical treatment followed by low-dose radiation therapy is discussed. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. PMID:10450361

  17. Cervical spine cord compression by eosinophilic granuloma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUARTE-SILVA ELIZABETH BATISTA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma is a term reserved for the most often and benign form of disorder known as Langerhans cells histiocytosis. It is a disease of children and adolescents that very rarely affects adults, representing the localized form of a pathological proliferation of histiocytes in bones, like skull and long bones. Vertebral involvement is uncommon, approximately 8% of the cases, being the cervical localization the least affected. Moreover, the involvement of the spinal cord and roots remains a rare occurrence. Only five cases characterized by signs of cervical spinal cord compression have been reported. We report the sixth case in a 42-year-old-man who evolved with resolution of symptoms, and has remained asymptomatic after treatment. The clinical, radiological and histological features and, also, the value, in selected cases, of surgical treatment followed by low-dose radiation therapy is discussed. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented.

  18. Imaging of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. Methods: Five AIDS patients who had chest abnormalities were analyzed. Results: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia appeared as diffuse infiltrative and interstitial fine nodules. Conclusion: If the diffuse and infiltrative interstitial fine nodule are the appearances in patients with AIDS, the pneumocystic carinii pneumonia should be considered

  19. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  20. Pneumonia acquired in the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Fragoso Marchante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision of the main aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of the patients suffering from pneumonia acquired in the community is carried out. Microorganisms responsible for this type of pneumonia are mention in this paper as well as the available diagnostic methods for germs isolation. Different guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of this disease published by several medical societies and scientific institutions are analyzed by means of a review of the stratification index of the patients used in each of them. Aspects related to the duration of the treatment and the possible causes associated with the unfavorable evolution are stated.