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Sample records for chronic disease prevalence

  1. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    chronic diseases were chronic lung diseases/asthma (1.73%), thyroid disorders (1.50%) and anxiety and personality disorders (1.33%). Taking increasing maternal age at birth into account, the relative risk for women to have a chronic disease from 2009 to 2013 was 4.14 (95% CI 4.05-4.22), compared...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...

  2. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them wi

  3. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  4. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis (IA) in the general practice and compare this to a group of control patients without IA. Methods: In this nested-case-control study, data were used from the Netherlands Information Network of eneral Pra

  5. Prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Kratzer; Mark M Haenle; Richard A Mason; Christian von Tirpitz; Volker Kaechele

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD) specific risk factors for cholecystolithiasis,as duration and involvement pattern of the disease and prior surgery in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: A total of 222 patients with CD (135 females,87 males; average age, 35.8±11.8 years; range 17-81 years)and 88 patients with UC (39 females, 49 males; average age, 37.2±13.6 years; range 16-81 years) underwent clinical and ultrasound examinations. Besides age, sex and degree of obesity, patients' CIBD specific parameters, including duration and extent of disease and prior operations were documented and evaluated statistically using logistic regression.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of gallbladder stone disease in patients with CD was 13% (n = 30). Only age could be shown to be an independent risk factor (P = 0.014).Compared to a collective representative for the general population in the same geographic region, the prevalence of cholecystolithiasis was higher in all corresponding age groups. Patients with UC showed an overall prevalence of gallbladder stone disease of only 4.6%.CONCLUSION:Only age but not disease-specific factors such as duration and extent of disease, and prior surgery are independent risk factors for the development of cholecystolithiasis in patients with CIBD.

  6. Prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roughead Elizabeth E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of comorbidity is high, with 80% of the elderly population having three or more chronic conditions. Comorbidity is associated with a decline in many health outcomes and increases in mortality and use of health care resources. The aim of this study was to identify, review and summarise studies reporting the prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia. Methods A systematic review of Australian studies (1996 – May 2007 was conducted. The review focused specifically on the chronic diseases included as national health priorities; arthritis, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus and mental health problems. Results A total of twenty five studies met our inclusion criteria. Over half of the elderly patients with arthritis also had hypertension, 20% had CVD, 14% diabetes and 12% mental health problem. Over 60% of patients with asthma reported arthritis as a comorbidity, 20% also had CVD and 16% diabetes. Of those with CVD, 60% also had arthritis, 20% diabetes and 10% had asthma or mental health problems. Conclusion There are comparatively few Australian studies that focused on comorbidity associated with chronic disease. However, they do show high prevalence of comorbidity across national health priority areas. This suggests integration and co-ordination of the national health priority areas is critical. A greater awareness of the importance of managing a patients' overall health status within the context of comorbidity is needed together with, increased research on comorbidity to provide an appropriate scientific basis on which to build evidence based care guidelines for these multimorbid patients.

  7. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care.

  8. The prevalence of disease clusters in older adults with multiple chronic diseases: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnige, J.; Braspenning, J.; Schellevis, F.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Westert, G.; Korevaar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since most clinical guidelines address single diseases, treatment of patients with multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple (chronic) diseases within one person, can become complicated. Information on highly prevalent combinations of diseases can set the agenda for guideline develop

  9. The prevalence of disease clusters in older adults with multiple chronic diseases - a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnige, J.; Braspenning, J.C.; Schellevis, F.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Westert, G.P.; Korevaar, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since most clinical guidelines address single diseases, treatment of patients with multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple (chronic) diseases within one person, can become complicated. Information on highly prevalent combinations of diseases can set the agenda for guideline develop

  10. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Chand Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression have been reported to have an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, but there is a paucity of data from India. Aims and Objectives: Aim of our study is to study the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients and their correlation with severity of COPD, as per global initiative for obstructive lung disease guidelines. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital (King George's Medical University. A total of 74 COPD patients were included in this study and compared with 74 controls. The diagnosis and severity of COPD were assessed by spirometry. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire. Results: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.05 in COPD patients (28.4% as compared to controls (2.7%. As regards to severity, the frequency was significantly increased in severe and very severe COPD. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients increased significantly with the increase in duration of symptoms being present in 67% of patients with duration of symptoms more than 10 years and only 23% of patients with duration of symptoms ≤5 years. Conclusion: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  11. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Olivera Stojceva-Taneva

    2016-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Our study showed that chronic kidney disease is frequent in the Republic of Macedonia and is associated with older age and diabetes. Diabetes had a significantly stronger association with CKD at younger age.

  12. Discriminants of prevalent fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Cremers, Serge; Zhang, Amy; Thomas, Valeri; Stein, Emily; Cohen, Adi; Chauncey, Ryan; Nikkel, Lucas; Yin, Michael T; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Staron, Ronald B; Leonard, Mary B; McMahon, Donald J; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Shane, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher rates of fracture than the general population. Increased bone remodeling, leading to microarchitectural deterioration and increased fragility, may accompany declining kidney function, but there are no reliable methods to identify patients at increased risk for fracture. In this cross-sectional study of 82 patients with predialysis CKD, high-resolution imaging revealed that the 23 patients with current fractures had significantly lower areal density at the femoral neck; total, cortical, and trabecular volumetric bone density; cortical area and thickness; and trabecular thickness. Compared with levels in the lowest tertile, higher levels of osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were associated with higher odds of fracture, even after adjustment for femoral neck T-score. Discrimination of fracture prevalence was best with a femoral neck T-score of -2.0 or less and a value in the upper two tertiles for osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, or tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b; these values corresponded to the upper half of the normal premenopausal reference range. In summary, these cross-sectional data suggest that measurement of bone turnover markers may increase the diagnostic accuracy of densitometry to identify patients with CKD at high risk for fracture.

  13. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about the presence of chronic morbidity in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients at disease onset. Previous studies have been mainly performed in established IA patients or they focus on isolated co-morbid diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic disease

  14. Prevalence and burden of comorbidities in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlateanu, Alexandru; Covantev, Serghei; Mathioudakis, Alexander G; Botnaru, Victor; Siafakas, Nikolaos

    2016-11-01

    The classical definition of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a lung condition characterized by irreversible airway obstruction is outdated. The systemic involvement in patients with COPD, as well as the interactions between COPD and its comorbidities, justify the description of chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome. The pathogenesis of COPD is closely linked with aging, as well as with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, renal, and gastrointestinal pathologies, decreasing the quality of life of patients with COPD and, furthermore, complicating the management of the disease. The most frequently described comorbidities include skeletal muscle wasting, cachexia (loss of fat-free mass), lung cancer (small cell or non-small cell), pulmonary hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, normocytic anemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, obstructive sleep apnea, depression, and arthritis. These complex interactions are based on chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, chronic hypoxia, and multiple common predisposing factors, and are currently under intense research. This review article is an overview of the comorbidities of COPD, as well as their interaction and influence on mutual disease progression, prognosis, and quality of life.

  15. The Prevalence of Chronic Diseases by Exposure to Nitrates from Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Severin; Floarea Damaschin; Ileana Ion; Cecilia Adumitresi; Victoria Oancea; Broasca V.; Mocanu Elena; Chirila S.

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the health effects caused by chronic exposure to elevated levels of nitrates in the water in order to improve prevention of some diseases. We analyze water quality from two villages of Constanta County in the period 2006-2012 and we take data about chronic diseases from family doctors of these localities. Analyzes on water samples were made in the laboratory of the Public Health Department. We found a significant increase of prevalence for chronic diseases in localit...

  16. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Prevalence, predictors, and survival in pulmonary hypertension related to end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Iversen, Martin; Kjaergaard, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, prognostic importance, and factors that predict the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed with right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear.......The prevalence, prognostic importance, and factors that predict the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed with right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear....

  18. Epidemiology and prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Guzman, Enrique; Mannino, David M

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 3 million people in the world die as a consequence of COPD every year. Tobacco use remains the main factor associated with development of disease in the industrialized world, but other risk factors are important and preventable causes of COPD, particularly in the developing world. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature on the subject and to provide an update of the most recent advances in the field.

  19. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Howard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]. The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease. Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  20. The Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Turkey: The TURKFAB Study

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    Kultigin Turkmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fabry disease is a treatable cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD characterized by a genetic deficiency of α-galactosidase A. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP recommends screening for Fabry disease in CKD patients. However, this is based on expert opinion and there are no reports of the prevalence of Fabry disease in stage 1-5 CKD. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of Fabry disease in CKD patients not receiving renal replacement therapy. Methods: This prospective study assessed α-galactosidase activity in dried blood spots in 313 stage 1-5 CKD patients, 167 males, between ages of 18-70 years whose etiology of CKD was unknown and were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by GLA gene mutation analysis. Results: Three (all males of 313 CKD patients (0.95% were diagnosed of Fabry disease, for a prevalence in males of 1.80%. Family screening identified 8 aditional Fabry patients with CKD. Of a total of 11 Fabry patients, 7 were male and started enzyme replacement therapy and 4 were female. The most frequent manifestations in male patients were fatigue (100%, tinnitus, vertigo, acroparesthesia, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and angiokeratoma (all 85%, heat intolerance (71%, and abdominal pain (57%. The most frequent manifestations in female patients were fatigue and cornea verticillata (50%, and tinnitus, vertigo and angiokeratoma (25%. Three patients had severe episodic abdominal pain attacks and proteinuria, and were misdiagnosed as familial Mediterranean fever. Conclusions: The prevalence of Fabry disease in selected CKD patients is in the range found among renal replacement therapy patients, but the disease is diagnosed at an earlier, treatable stage. These data support the ERBP recommendation to screen for Fabry disease in patients with CKD of unknown origin.

  1. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  2. Maremar, prevalence of chronic kidney disease, how to avoid over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Broe, Marc E; Gharbi, Mohammed Benghanem; Elseviers, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered as a major public health problem. Recent studies mention a prevalence rate between 8%-12%. Several editorials, comments, short reviews described the weaknesses (lack of confirmation of proteinuria, and of chronicity of decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate) of a substantial number of studies and the irrational of using a single arbitrary set point, i.e. diagnosis of chronic kidney disease whenever the estimated glomerular filtration rate is less than 60mL/min/1.73m(2). Maremar (Maladies rénales chroniques au Maroc) is a prevalence study of chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity in a randomized, representative, high response rate (85%), sample of the adult population of Morocco, strictly applying the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Compared to the vast majority of the available studies, Maremar has a low prevalence of chronic kidney disease (2.9% adjusted to the actual adult population of Morocco). The population pyramid, and particularly the confirmation of proteinuria and "chronicity" of the decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate are the main reasons for this low prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The choice of arbitrary single threshold of estimated glomerular filtration rate for classifying stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease inevitably leads to "over-diagnosis" (false positives) of the disease in the elderly, particularly those without proteinuria, hematuria or hypertension, and to "under-diagnosed" (false negatives) in younger individuals with an estimated glomerular filtration rate above 60mL/min/1.73m(2) and below the 3rd percentile of their age/gender category. There is an urgent need for quality studies using in a correct way the recent KDIGO guidelines when investigating the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, in order to avoid a 50 to 100% overestimation of a disease state with potential dramatic consequences. The combination of the general population

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdalles, Úrsula; Goicoechea, Marian; Garcia de Vinuesa, Soledad; Quiroga, Borja; Galan, Isabel; Verde, Eduardo; Perez de Jose, Ana; Luño, José

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased albuminuria are associated with RH; however, there are few published studies about the prevalence of this entity in patients with CKD.

  4. Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prevalence, Morbidity, Mortality, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sharon R; Kalhan, Ravi; Mannino, David M

    2015-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality both in the United States and globally. The increasing trends of COPD prevalence, morbidity, and mortality seen in the later part of last century have not continued in the United States. COPD prevalence, hospitalizations, and deaths have remained stable or are decreasing over the last decade. This is likely a function of the overall decreasing prevalence of tobacco use over the past 50 years, along with improved therapies for COPD. Future trends in COPD will probably be driven by factors in addition to tobacco use, such as longer survival in the population, other occupational and environmental exposures, and the increasing prevalence of asthma. Globally, factors such as air pollution and chronic respiratory infections, such as tuberculosis, will remain important predictors of future trends.

  5. Prevalence of chronic diseases among older patients in German general practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob, Louis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic diseases (CDs among older patients in German general practices (GPs.Methods: A total of 840,319 patients older than 65 years (359,289 male and 481,030 female who consulted a GP between January and December 2014 were selected. Ten different CDs were considered: hypertension, lipid metabolism, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. The prevalence, defined as the proportion of patients diagnosed with these disorders, was estimated. Results: All CDs were very common in older subjects. Hypertension was the most common CD, affecting 65.7% of men and 66.1% of women. Stroke was the least frequent CD, with 6.6% of men and 5.1% of women displaying this condition. More than one out of two subjects had between one and three CDs (men: 57.7% and women: 59.3%. Approximately 25% of subjects had four or more CDs (men: 26.6% and women: 23.6%.Conclusions: Our study showed that the prevalence of CDs is high in the German elderly population. Hypertension was the most frequent chronic condition and around 25% of patients displayed at least four CDs.

  6. Pain in chronic kidney disease: prevalence, cause and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkia, Theodora; Chamney, Melissa; Drinkwater, Anna; Pegoraro, Marisa; Sedgewick, John

    2011-06-01

    Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience and is the most common symptom experienced by renal patients. It can be caused by primary co-morbid diseases, renal replacement therapies, medication or treatment side effects, and its intensity varies from moderate to severe. Pain management in renal patients is difficult, since the distance between pain relief and toxicity is very small. This paper will provide an algorithm for pain management proposed using paracetamol, nonsteroid anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), mild and stronger opioids as well as complementary techniques. Quality of Life (QoL) and overall enhancement of the patient experience through better pain management are also discussed. To improve pain management it is essential that nurses recognise that they have direct responsibilities related to pain assessment and tailoring of opioid analgesics and better and more detailed education.

  7. Prevalence of various comorbidities among veterans with chronic kidney disease and its comparison with other datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilang; Golzy, Mojgan; Nainani, Neha; Nader, Nader D; Carter, Randolph L; Lohr, James W; Arora, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a complicated interrelationship with various comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of various comorbidities among veterans with CKD and compare it with other datasets like Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Medicare. Patients who had at least one outpatient visit in year 2007 (1 January 2007 to 31 December 2007) were included in the study (n =  75,787). Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. CKD prevalence was calculated based on one or two serum creatinine values at least 3 months apart. Demographic data were obtained including age, gender, race, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The prevalence of various comorbidities was also collected based on ICD 9 codes from the problem list. The prevalence of CKD among veterans was 47.3%, much higher than estimated in the US population. Patients with CKD were more likely to have any vascular disease (36.89% vs. 14.87%), diabetes (34.18% vs. 17.83%), hypertension (86.65% vs. 57.56%), and cancer (18.69% vs. 9.23%). Irrespective of age, the prevalence of vascular disease was much higher among veterans with CKD. The prevalence of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancer was much higher among elderly veterans with CKD as compared to other datasets. CKD is a growing endemic associated with a high frequency of concomitant chronic illnesses. Public health resources should be applied for early recognition and risk modification of CKD.

  8. Methods for projecting the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases in aging populations: application to Alzheimer's disease.

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    Brookmeyer, R; Gray, S

    Projections of the incidence and prevalence of disease are important for public health planning. This paper describes methods for projecting the incidence and prevalence of a chronic disease in ageing populations. The approach uses age-specific disease incidence rates together with assumptions about survival to reconstruct disease prevalence. The methods can be used to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions that may prevent disease or prolong survival. We used the methods to project the future prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in the United States. We found that the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease will nearly quadruple over the next 50 years. Although projections of the absolute prevalence are sensitive to assumptions about the age-specific incidence rates of disease, the proportionate growth is relatively insensitive. The increase in prevalence results from the ageing of the U.S. population. In order to perform the calculations, we have assembled U.S. Census population projections and U.S. mortality rates into computer software that is available from the authors at www.jhsph.edu/Departments/Biostats/software.h tml.

  9. The Prevalence of Disease Clusters in Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Diseases – A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnige, Judith; Braspenning, Jozé; Schellevis, François; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Westert, Gert; Korevaar, Joke

    2013-01-01

    Background Since most clinical guidelines address single diseases, treatment of patients with multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple (chronic) diseases within one person, can become complicated. Information on highly prevalent combinations of diseases can set the agenda for guideline development on multimorbidity. With this systematic review we aim to describe the prevalence of disease combinations (i.e. disease clusters) in older patients with multimorbidity, as assessed in available studies. In addition, we intend to acquire information that can be supportive in the process of multimorbidity guideline development. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for all types of studies published between January 2000 and September 2012. We included empirical studies focused on multimorbidity or comorbidity that reported prevalence rates of combinations of two or more diseases. Results Our search yielded 3070 potentially eligible articles, of which 19 articles, representing 23 observational studies, turned out to meet all our quality and inclusion criteria after full text review. These studies provided prevalence rates of 165 combinations of two diseases (i.e. disease pairs). Twenty disease pairs, concerning 12 different diseases, were described in at least 3 studies. Depression was found to be the disease that was most commonly clustered, and was paired with 8 different diseases, in the available studies. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were found to be the second most clustered diseases, both with 6 different diseases. Prevalence rates for each disease combination varied considerably per study, but were highest for the pairs that included hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions Twenty disease pairs were assessed most frequently in patients with multimorbidity. These disease combinations could serve as a first priority setting towards the development of multimorbidity guidelines, starting with the diseases

  10. The prevalence of disease clusters in older adults with multiple chronic diseases--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Sinnige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since most clinical guidelines address single diseases, treatment of patients with multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple (chronic diseases within one person, can become complicated. Information on highly prevalent combinations of diseases can set the agenda for guideline development on multimorbidity. With this systematic review we aim to describe the prevalence of disease combinations (i.e. disease clusters in older patients with multimorbidity, as assessed in available studies. In addition, we intend to acquire information that can be supportive in the process of multimorbidity guideline development. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for all types of studies published between January 2000 and September 2012. We included empirical studies focused on multimorbidity or comorbidity that reported prevalence rates of combinations of two or more diseases. RESULTS: Our search yielded 3070 potentially eligible articles, of which 19 articles, representing 23 observational studies, turned out to meet all our quality and inclusion criteria after full text review. These studies provided prevalence rates of 165 combinations of two diseases (i.e. disease pairs. Twenty disease pairs, concerning 12 different diseases, were described in at least 3 studies. Depression was found to be the disease that was most commonly clustered, and was paired with 8 different diseases, in the available studies. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were found to be the second most clustered diseases, both with 6 different diseases. Prevalence rates for each disease combination varied considerably per study, but were highest for the pairs that included hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty disease pairs were assessed most frequently in patients with multimorbidity. These disease combinations could serve as a first priority setting towards the development of multimorbidity guidelines

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease among Patients Attending a Specialist Diabetes Clinic in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, TS; Tulloch-Reid, MK; Younger-Coleman, NO; Wright-Pascoe, RA; Boyne, MS; Soyibo, AK; Wilks, RJ

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients attending the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) Diabetes Clinic and to determine the proportion of patients at high risk for adverse outcomes. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients attending the UHWI Diabetes Clinic between 2009 and 2010. Trained nurses administered a questionnaire, reviewed dockets, and performed urinalyses. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Albuminuria was assessed using urine test strips for protein and microalbumin. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR 300 mg/g) in 62.1%. Overall prevalence of CKD was 86.3% (95% CI 80.4%, 92.2%). Based on KDIGO risk categories, 50.8% were at high risk and 17.4% at very high risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion: Most patients at the UHWI Diabetes Clinic had CKD and were at high or very high risk of adverse outcomes. Further studies to determine the burden of CKD in other clinical settings and to identify the best strategies for preventing adverse outcomes in developing countries need to be conducted. PMID:26426170

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  13. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in subjects hospitalized due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Cui; Dong-Mei Miao; Zhi-Min Wei; Jian-Fang Cai; Yi Li; Ai-Min Liu; Fan Li

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and explore the prevalence of the major CVD complications and trends in patients with COPD over a 10-year period.Methods Medical records in the PLA General Hospital,Beijing Union Medical College Hospital,and Beijing Hospital from 2000/01/01 to 2010/03/03 were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 4960 patients with COPD were reviewed in the study (3570 males,mean age,72.2 ± 10.5 years; 1390 females,mean age,72.0 ± 10.4 years).Results The prevalence of CVD in COPD patients was 51.7%.The three most prevalent CVDs were ischemic heart disease (28.9%),heart failure (19.6%),and arrhythmia (12.6%).During the 10-year study period,the prevalence of various CVDs in COPD patients showed a gradual increasing trend with increasing age.There was higher morbidity due to ischemic heart disease (P < 0.01) in male COPD patients than in the female counterparts.However,heart failure (P < 0.01)and hypertension (P < 0.01) occurred less frequently in male COPD patients than in female COPD patients.Furthermore,the prevalence of ischemic heart disease decreased year by year.In addition to heart failure,various types of CVD complications in COPD patients tended to occur in younger subjects.The prevalence of all major types of CVD in women tended to increase year by year.Conclusions The prevalence of CVD in patients hospitalized for COPD in Beijing was high.Age,sex and CVD trends,as well as life style changes,should be considered when prevention and control strategies are formulated.

  14. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  15. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Burkepile, Deron E; Fuchs, Corinne; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Zaneveld, Jesse R

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient loading is one of the strongest drivers of marine habitat degradation. Yet, the link between nutrients and disease epizootics in marine organisms is often tenuous and supported only by correlative data. Here, we present experimental evidence that chronic nutrient exposure leads to increases in both disease prevalence and severity and coral bleaching in scleractinian corals, the major habitat-forming organisms in tropical reefs. Over 3 years, from June 2009 to June 2012, we continuously exposed areas of a coral reef to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. At the termination of the enrichment, we surveyed over 1200 scleractinian corals for signs of disease or bleaching. Siderastrea siderea corals within enrichment plots had a twofold increase in both the prevalence and severity of disease compared with corals in unenriched control plots. In addition, elevated nutrient loading increased coral bleaching; Agaricia spp. of corals exposed to nutrients suffered a 3.5-fold increase in bleaching frequency relative to control corals, providing empirical support for a hypothesized link between nutrient loading and bleaching-induced coral declines. However, 1 year later, after nutrient enrichment had been terminated for 10 months, there were no differences in coral disease or coral bleaching prevalence between the previously enriched and control treatments. Given that our experimental enrichments were well within the ranges of ambient nutrient concentrations found on many degraded reefs worldwide, these data provide strong empirical support to the idea that coastal nutrient loading is one of the major factors contributing to the increasing levels of both coral disease and coral bleaching. Yet, these data also suggest that simple improvements to water quality may be an effective way to mitigate some coral disease epizootics and the corresponding loss of coral cover in the future.

  16. Changes in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in the US population and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Doney, Brent C; Hnizdo, Eva

    2015-02-01

    Chronic lower airway diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are currently the third leading cause of death in the United States. We aimed to evaluate changes in prevalence of and risk factors for COPD and asthma among the US adult population. We evaluated changes in prevalence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD (i.e. chronic bronchitis and emphysema) and asthma and self-reported respiratory symptoms comparing data from the 1988-1994 and 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. To investigate changes in the severity of each outcome over the two periods, we calculated changes in the proportions of spirometry-based airflow obstruction for each outcome. Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis and emphysema decreased significantly mainly among males, while asthma increased only among females. The self-reported disease and the respiratory symptoms were associated with increased prevalence of airflow obstruction for both periods. However, the prevalence of airflow obstruction decreased significantly in the second period among those with shortness of breath and doctor-diagnosed respiratory conditions (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma). COPD outcomes and asthma were associated with lower education, smoking, underweight and obesity, and occupational dusts and fumes exposure. Chronic lower airway diseases continue to be major public health problems. However, decreased prevalence of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis and emphysema (in males) and decreased prevalence of airflow obstruction in those with respiratory symptoms and doctor-diagnosed respiratory diseases may indicate a declining trend and decrease in disease severity between the two periods. Continued focus on prevention of these diseases through public health interventions is prudent.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of atrial fibrillation in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骄

    2013-01-01

    Objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained tachyarrhythmia in the general population.AF and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) share several common risk factors.We investigated the association between chronic kidney disease and risk of atrial fibrillation

  18. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading public health problem related to poor quality of life and premature death. As a resource for evidence-informed health policy-making, we evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease using the data of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥ 20 years (n = 15,319) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2013. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or an estimated glomerular filtration rate Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The total prevalence estimate of chronic kidney disease for adults aged ≥ 20 years in Korea was 8.2%. By disease stage, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was as follows: stage 1, 3.0%; stage 2, 2.7%; stage 3a, 1.9%; stage 3b, 0.4%; and stages 4-5, 0.2%. When grouped into three risk categories according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, the proportions for the moderately increased risk, high risk, and very high risk categories were 6.5%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Factors including older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, body mass indexes of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and chronic kidney disease. Based on this comprehensive analysis, evidence-based screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the Korean population should be developed to optimize prevention and early intervention of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors.

  19. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thai adults: a national health survey

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    Khonputsa Panrasri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD who need dialysis and/or transplantation has more than doubled in Thailand during the past two decades. It has been suggested that therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of ESRD and other complications in CKD are now available, thus the early recognition and the institution of proven therapeutic strategies are important and beneficial. We, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD in Thai adults from the National Health Examination Survey of 2004. Methods Data from a nationally representative sample of 3,117 individuals aged 15 years and older was collected using questionnaires, physical examination and blood samples. Serum creatinine was measured by Jaffé method. GFR was estimated using the Chinese modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Chronic kidney Disease (CKD stages were classified based on Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI. Results The prevalence of CKD in Thai adults weighted to the 2004 Thai population by stage was 8.1% for stage 3, 0.2% and 0.15% for stage 4 and 5 respectively. Compared to non-CKD, individuals with CKD were older, had a higher level of cholesterol, and higher blood pressure. Those with cardiovascular risk factors were more likely to have CKD (stage 3-5 than those without, including hypertension (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1, 3.4, diabetes (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.0, 3.4. CKD was more common in northeast (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.3, 3.3 compared to central region. Urinalysis was not performed, therefore, we could not have data on CKD stage 1 and 2. We have no specific GFR formula for Thai population. Conclusion The identification of CKD patients should be evaluated and monitored for appropriate intervention for progression to kidney disease from this screening.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus among Iranian patients with chronic liver disease

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    Nematizadeh Fariborz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are frequently observed in cirrhosis. We conducted this study to define the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in Iranian patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, and explore the factors associated with DM in these patients. Methods One hundred and eighty-five patients with CLD were enrolled into the study. Fasting plasma glucose and two-hour plasma glucose were measured in patients' sera. DM and IGT were diagnosed according to the latest American Diabetes Association criteria. Results The subjects included 42 inactive HBV carriers with a mean age of 42.2 ± 12.0 years, 102 patients with HBV or HCV chronic hepatitis with a mean age of 41.2 ± 10.9 years, and 41 cirrhotic patients with a mean age of 52.1 ± 11.4 years. DM and IGT were diagnosed in 40 (21.6% and 21 (11.4% patients, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age (P = 0.000, CLD status (P = 0.000, history of hypertension (P = 0.007, family history of DM (P = 0.000, and body mass index (BMI (P = 0.009 were associated with DM. Using Multivariate analysis, age (OR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.8–12.2, family history of DM (OR = 6.6, 95%CI: 2.6–17.6, chronic hepatitis (OR = 11.6, 95%CI: 2.9–45.4, and cirrhosis (OR = 6.5, 95%CI: 2.4–17.4 remained as the factors independently associated with DM. When patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were analyzed separately, higher Child-Pugh's score in cirrhotic patients (OR = 9.6, 95%CI: 1.0–88.4 and older age (OR = 7.2, 95%CI: 1.0–49.1, higher fibrosis score (OR = 59.5, 95%CI: 2.9–1211.3/ OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 1.0–132.2, and higher BMI (OR = 30.3, 95%CI: 3.0–306.7 in patients with chronic hepatitis were found to be associated with higher prevalence of DM. Conclusions Our findings indicate that patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis are at the increased risk of DM occurrence. Older age, severe liver disease, and obesity were associated

  1. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  2. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

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    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  3. Prevalence and variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Irish health system: initial findings from the National Kidney Disease Surveillance Programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable chronic disease that is associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. Passive surveillance systems are likely to improve efforts for prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inform national service planning. This study was conducted to determine the overall prevalence of CKD in the Irish health system, assess period trends and explore patterns of variation as part of a novel surveillance initiative.

  4. Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Yoshitsugu Obi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an important nutrient involved in bone mineral metabolism, and vitamin D status is reflected by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and nutritional vitamin D supplementation decreases elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations in subgroups of these patients. Furthermore, vitamin D is supposed to have pleiotropic effects on various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Indeed, there is cumulative evidence showing the associations of low vitamin D with the development and progression of CKD, cardiovascular complication, and high mortality. Recently, genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D-binding protein have received great attention because they largely affect bioavailable 25(OHD concentrations. This finding suggests that the serum total 25(OHD concentrations would not be comparable among different gene polymorphisms and thus may be inappropriate as an index of vitamin D status. This finding may refute the conventional definition of vitamin D status based solely on serum total 25(OHD concentrations.

  5. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Chun EM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun, Seo Woo Kim, So Yeon Lim Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential.Methods: Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC is <0.7 in post-bronchodilator spirometry. The non-COPD group was matched for both age and sex, and were defined as having an FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 in spirometry. Finally, 333 patients were retrospectively reviewed; of this group, 82 patients had COPD.Results: Among the subjects, 201 patients (60% were nonsmokers, while 78 (23% were current smokers. The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251 in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82 in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.8; P=0.019 were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential.Conclusion: The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking. Keywords: COPD, colorectal adenomatous polyp, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  6. Application of KDIGO classifcation of chronic kidney disease for analyzing the prevalence of kidney disease and other vascular diseases in 1645 type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence,risk factors of kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients with KDIGO classification of chronic kidney disease,and to study cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and death in these patients,so as to investigate the significance of the KDIGO classification system.Methods One thousand six hundred and forty-five type 2 diabetic patients who were in

  7. Prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement usage in Thai outpatients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Boardman, Helen; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Walker, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:\\ud There are few studies of the prevalence and patterns of herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although many researchers and health professionals worldwide have raised concern about the potential effects of HDS on patients with renal insufficiency. A survey was conducted to determine: the prevalence and patterns of HDS use in Thai patients with CKD; the demographic factors related to HDS use; the reasons why Thai patients with CKD...

  8. The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P; Holme, I; Henriksen, B M; Petersen, L J; Backer, V

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease, where the initial symptoms are often cough as a result of excessive mucus production and dyspnea. With disease progression several other symptoms may develop, and patients with moderate to severe COPD have often multiorganic disease with severely impaired respiratory dysfunction, decreased physical activity, right ventricular failure of the heart, and a decreased quality of life. In addition osteoporosis might develop possibly due to a number of factors related to the disease. We wanted to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in a population of patients with severe COPD as well as to correlate the use of glucocorticoid treatment to the occurrence of osteoporosis in this population. Outpatients from the respiratory unit with COPD, a history of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) less than 1.3 L, with FEV1% pred. ranging from 17.3% to 45.3% (mean 31.4%, standard deviation (sd) 7.3%). Patients between 50 and 70 years were included. Other causes of osteoporosis were excluded before inclusion. At study entry spirometry, X-ray of the spine (to evaluate presence of vertebral fractures), and bone mineral density of lumbar spine and hip were performed. Of 181 patients invited by mail, 62 patients were included (46 females and 16 males). All had symptoms of COPD such as exertional dyspnea, productive cough, limitations in physical activity etc. The mean FEV1 was 0.90 L (sd: 0.43 L) and the mean FEV1% pred. of 32.6% (sd: 14.1%). All had sufficient daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. In 15 patients, X-ray revealed compression fractures previously not diagnosed. Bone density measurements showed osteoporosis in 22 patients and osteopenia in 16. In total, 26 of the COPD patients were osteoporotic as evaluated from both X-ray and bone density determinations. Thus 68% of the participants had osteoporosis or osteopenia, but glucocorticoid use alone could not explain the increased prevalence of osteoporosis

  9. [Nutritional evaluation and prevalence of not transmissible chronic disease in elderly participating in an assistance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Júlia Macedo; Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte; Fernandes, Maria Fernada Scareli; Costa, Luciana Silva; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state and the prevalence of not transmissible chronic disease in elderly, who were participating in an assistance program of the Federal University of Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Socio-economical, anthropometric and biochemical variables, as well as systemic blood pressure were collected from 82 individuals between 60 and 87 years of age, 90,2 % of them female. According to the body mass index (BMI) 52,4% of the studied sample were overweight, 28,0% eutrophic and 19,5% underweight; 37,8% presented high body fat percentage (BF%). With regard to the relation BMI/BF%, 63,4% of the elderly with overweight, 12,5% of the eutrophic and 11,8% of the underweight presented high BF%. The waist-to-hip ratio revealed 40,2% at high risk and 12,2% at very high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In addition, 22,0% had high blood pressure. The biochemical tests revealed that 39,3%, 39,3% and 3,3% presented higher plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels respectively. There is a need for continuous nutritional education programs and monitoring of the nutritional and health status for improving the quality of life of the studied individuals.

  10. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying; CAI Guang-yan; CHEN Xiang-mei; FU Ping; CHEN Jiang-hua; DING Xiao-qiang; YU Xue-qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the epidemiology of hypertension in Chinese non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are limited.The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence,awareness,treatment,and control of hypertension in the non-dialysis CKD patients through a nationwide,multicenter study in China.Methods The survey was performed in 61 tertiary hospitals in 31 provinces,municipalities,and autonomous regions in China (except Hong Kong,Macao,and Taiwan).Trained physicians collected demographic and clinical data and measured blood pressure (BP) using a standardized protocol.Hypertension was defned as systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg,and/or use of antihypertensive medications.BP <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg were used as the 2 thresholds of hypertension control.In multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for sex and age,we analyzed the association between CKD stages and uncontrolled hypertension in non-dialysis CKD patients.Results The analysis included 8927 non-dialysis CKD patients.The prevalence,awareness,and treatment of hypertension in non-dialysis CKD patients were 67.3%,85.8%,and 81.0%,respectively.Of hypertensive CKD patients,33.1% and 14.1% had controlled BP to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg,respectively.With successive CKD stages,the prevalence of hypertension in non-dialysis CKD patients increased,but the control of hypertension decreased (P<0.001).When the threshold of BP <130/80 mmHg was considered,the risk of uncontrolled hypertension in CKD 2,3a,3b,4,and 5 stages increased 1.3,1.4,1.4,2.5,and 4.0 times compared with CKD 1 stage,respectively (P<0.05).Using the threshold of <140/90 mmHg,the risk of uncontrolled hypertension increased in advanced stages (P<0.05).Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension Chinese non-dialysis CKD patients was high,and the hypertension control was suboptimal.With successive CKD stages,the risk of uncontrolled hypertension increased.

  11. A Comparison of the Prevalence of Chronic Disease among People with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Diane; Merineau-Cote, Julie; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Tasse, Marc J.; Kerr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have reported the presence of health disparities in people with intellectual disability. This study compared the prevalence of chronic health conditions between people with and without intellectual disability (ID). Health-related data for 791 people with ID were collected through a province-wide mail survey in Quebec, Canada. The…

  12. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients with systemic arterial hypertension without respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabahi MF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Fouad Rabahi,1,2 Sheila Alves Pereira,1 José Laerte Rodrigues Silva Júnior,1,2 Aline Pacheco de Rezende,1 Adeliane Castro da Costa,2 Krislainy de Sousa Corrêa,2,3 Marcus Barreto Conde4,5 1School of Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Goiania, Brazil; 2Clínica do Aparelho Respiratório (CLARE, Goiania, Brazil; 3Pontifical Catholic University of Goiás, Goiania, Brazil; 4Faculdade de Medicina de Petrópolis/FASE, Petrópolis, Brazil; 5Instituto de Doenças do Tórax da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is often delayed until later stages of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among adults on treatment for systemic arterial hypertension independently of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional study included adults aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and systemic arterial hypertension diagnosed at three Primary Health Care facilities in Goiania, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using a standardized respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. COPD prevalence was measured considering the value of forced vital capacity and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second <0.70. Results: Of a total of 570 subjects, 316 (55% met inclusion criteria and were invited to participate. Two hundred and thirty-three (73.7% patients with arterial hypertension reported at least one respiratory symptom, while 83 (26.3% reported no respiratory symptoms; 41 (17.6% patients with arterial hypertension and at least one respiratory symptom, and 10 (12% patients with arterial hypertension but no respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with COPD (P=0.24. The prevalence of COPD in people with no previous COPD diagnosis was greater among those with no respiratory symptoms (100% than among those with respiratory symptoms (56.1% (P=0.01. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that

  13. A population-based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Lai Seong; Ong, Loke Meng; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Naidu, Balkish M; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon W; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M

    2013-11-01

    In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome.

  14. Increasing Prevalence of Chronic Lung Disease in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Mary Jo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Leung, Kar-Wei; Faverio, Paola; Fleming, Nicholas; Mortensen, Eric; Amuan, Megan E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Eapen, Blessen; Restrepo, Marcos; Morris, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Research from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mental health conditions; however, it is becoming clear that other health concerns, such as respiratory illnesses, warrant further scientific inquiry. Early reports from theater and postdeployment health assessments suggested an association with deployment-related exposures (e.g., sand, burn pits, chemical, etc.) and new-onset respiratory symptoms. We used data from Veterans Affairs medical encounters between fiscal years 2003 and 2011 to identify trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and interstitial lung disease in veterans. We used data from Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense sources to identify sociodemographic (age, sex, race), military (e.g., service branch, multiple deployments) and clinical characteristics (TBI, smoking) of individuals with and without chronic lung diseases. Generalized estimating equations found significant increases over time for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Trends for interstitial lung disease were significant only in adjusted analyses. Age, smoking, and TBI were also significantly associated with chronic lung diseases; however, multiple deployments were not associated. Research is needed to identify which characteristics of deployment-related exposures are linked with chronic lung disease.

  15. Prevalence and factors affecting occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi patients with chronic liver disease

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    Singal Ashwani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 is more common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD in general and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in particular. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors affecting the occurrence of DM-2 in Saudi patients with CLD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study at the King Fahd Central Hospital (KFCH, Gizan, Saudi Arabia. A total of 277 patients with either cirrhosis (CH or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were analyzed for patient demographics, severity of liver disease, HBsAg, and anti-HCV, associated diseases including DM-2, and presence of HCC. The prevalence of DM-2 was also estimated in 400 age- and sex-matched Saudi patients admitted for various nonliver diseases (control group. Chi-square test, univariate analysis, and multivariate regression. Results: Prevalence of DM-2 in patients with CH was higher than in controls (19.2 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.001. Although those with HCC had a higher prevalence, the difference was not significant (10.9 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.5. Seventy-six percent of patients with HCC had associated CH. On multivariate analysis, age and hypertension were more common in diabetics. Although patients with HCV-related disease had a higher prevalence of DM-2 compared to HBV-related disease, the difference was not significant (26.3 vs. 15.7%; P > 0.05. Conclusions: DM-2 occurred more frequently in CLD patients, particularly in cirrhotics. Age and hypertension predicted the occurrence of DM-2. Small sample size of patients with HCV-related CH probably precluded higher prevalence of DM-2 in them.

  16. [Chagas' disease in patients in chronic hemodialysis. Prevalence and risk of transmission by blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, M; Lorca, E; Atías, A; Plubins, L

    1989-06-01

    A serologic study of Chagas disease was performed in 110 patients submitted to chronic hemodialisis and blood transfusions. Immunofluorescence antibody testing (IgG and IgM) was positive in 6 out of 62 patients receiving multiple blood transfusions (9.7%), but negative in all 48 subjects without transfusions. Thus, repeated blood transfusion is a significant risk for T cruzi infection in chronic hemodialized patients.

  17. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest.

  18. Prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Sheng-chen; YANG Yuan-hua; LI Xu-yan; LIANG Xiao-ning; GUO Rui-jun; XIE Wan-mu; KUANG Tu-guang; DAI Hua-ping; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is always associated with a high incidence and mortality. Because of the presence of some concomitant risk factors such as immobilization, bronchial superinfection, patients who are admitted for acute exacerbations of COPD are generally considered to be at moderate risk for the development of venous thromboembolism. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and the clinical manifestations of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.Methods From March 2007 to March 2009, 520 consecutive patients were included in this study. On admission, color Doppler ultrasound of lower extremities in all cases was performed for diagnosing DVT. Patients with DVT were compared with those without DVT from such aspects as demographics, symptoms, physical signs and risk factors.Results Among the 520 patients, DVT was found in 46 cases (9.7%). In patients with DVT, the duration of hospitalization was longer (P=0.01), and the mechanical ventilation requirement increased (P <0.001). Other indicators for patients with more possibility of DVT were immobility exceeding 3 days (P <0.001); pneumonia as concomitance (P=0.01); respiratory failure type Ⅱ (P=0.013); current smoking (P=0.001). Lower extremity pain was more common in DVT cases in comparison to those without DVT (34.8% vs. 15.2%, P=0.01 ).Conclusions The acute exacerbation of COPD patients, who were immobilized for over 3 days, complicated by pneumonia and had respiratory failure type Ⅱ, had a higher risk of DVT. In addition, DVT detection awareness should be increased in cases that had a lower extremity pain.

  19. Increased prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Knudsen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    % confidence interval [CI] 0.9-2.7) and smoked more (53% versus 38%, PR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.1). The two groups had similar body mass index (mean 25.0 versus 25.7 kg/m(2)), whereas those with chronic hepatitis C had less dyslipidemia (including significantly lower low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol...... of several coronary artery disease risk markers. These results may be important when evaluating the appropriateness of screening for coronary artery disease and its risk factors in chronic hepatitis C....

  20. High prevalence of and potential mechanisms for chronic kidney disease in patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet, Nicolas; Mami, Iadh; Schmitt, Caroline; Karim, Zoubida; François, Arnaud; Rabant, Marion; Nochy, Dominique; Gouya, Laurent; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Xu-Dubois, Yichum; Thervet, Eric; Puy, Hervé; Karras, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic disorder of the synthesis of heme caused by a deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), leading to the overproduction of the porphyrin precursors δ-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biological characteristics, the renal pathology, and the cellular mechanisms of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP. A total of 415 patients with HMBS deficiency followed up in the French Porphyria Center were enrolled in 2003 in a population-based study. A follow-up study was conducted in 2013, assessing patients for clinical, biological, and histological parameters. In vitro models were used to determine whether porphyrin precursors promote tubular and endothelial cytotoxicity. Chronic kidney disease occurred in up to 59% of the symptomatic AIP patients, with a decline in the glomerular filtration rate of ~1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) annually. Proteinuria was absent in the vast majority of the cases. The renal pathology was a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, associated with a fibrous intimal hyperplasia and focal cortical atrophy. Our experimental data provide evidence that porphyrin precursors promote endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and epithelial phenotypic changes in proximal tubular cells. In conclusion, the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP should be considered in cases of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy and/or focal cortical atrophy with severe proliferative arteriosclerosis.

  1. Prevalence and risk of viral infection in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Chen, Du; Gu, Xiaoling; Su, Xin; Song, Yong; Shi, Yi

    2014-07-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. Viral infections could be an important cause of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and only a few studies report the prevalence of respiratory viruses on this disease. We aimed to update the review on the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in patients with AECOPD with a meta-analysis. We reviewed the prevalence of respiratory viruses on this disease by searching PubMed systematically to identify primary studies published from Jan 1990 to March 2012. Studies met with seven criteria were extracted for meta-analysis. A total of 17 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Weighted overall prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with AECOPD was 39.3% (95% CI 36.9-41.6) with a high degree of a heterogeneity (I (2) > 75%). In contrast, the rate in stable COPD patients from four studies was 13.6% (95% CI 9.0-18.2) without any apparent heterogeneity. Pooled risk ratio for respiratory viral infection was 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.5) for AECOPD as compared with stable COPD. Rhinovirus was the most common virus and with a weighted prevalence of 14.8% (95% CI 13.3-16.5). Respiratory viruses probably are important etiological agents in patients with AECOPD as compared with the stable COPD patients. This result would help to provide better strategies for management of AECOPD and health-care planning.

  2. Prevalence of Apparent Therapy-Resistant Hypertension and Its Effect on Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beus, Esther; Bots, Michiel L; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    New options recently became available for treatment of uncontrolled blood pressure. Information on the prevalence of therapy-resistant hypertension (TRH) in patients with chronic kidney disease and its consequences is relevant to balance risks and benefits of potential new therapies. Data of 788 patients with chronic kidney disease came from a multicenter study investigating the effect on outcome of an integrated multifactorial approach delivered by nurse practitioners added to usual care versus usual care alone. Blood pressure was measured at the office and during 30 minutes using an automated oscillometric device. Apparent TRH (aTRH) was defined as a blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic or treatment with ≥4 antihypertensive drugs. Participants were followed up for the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality (composite cardiovascular end point) and end-stage renal disease. aTRH was present in 34% (office blood pressure) and in 32% (automated measurements). During 5.3 years of follow-up, 17% of patients with aTRH reached a cardiovascular end point and 27% reached end-stage renal disease. aTRH lead to a 1.5-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval, 0.8-3.0) of a cardiovascular end point compared with controlled hypertensives in multivariable-adjusted analysis. aTRH increased end-stage renal disease risk 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.4-3.7). During 4 years of follow-up, the prevalence of aTRH did not decline in either treatment group. The prevalence of aTRH is high in patients with chronic kidney disease even after optimization of nephrologist care. The presence of TRH is related to a substantially increased risk of renal and cardiovascular outcomes.

  3. Chronic disease prevalence and associations in a cohort of Australian men: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS

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    Middleton Sue M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005 from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis. A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes, separation/divorce (asthma, unemployment (cancer, high waist circumference (diabetes, elevated cholesterol (angina and a family history of obesity (angina. Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives.

  4. Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda : FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda: FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, in many low and middle-income co

  5. Increased prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roed T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsten Roed,1 Ulrik Sloth Kristoffersen,2 Andreas Knudsen,1,2 Niels Wiinberg,3 Anne-Mette Lebech,1 Thomas Almdal,4 Reimar W Thomsen,5 Andreas Kjær,2 Nina Weis1,61Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 2Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET and Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Physiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design.Methods: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers.Results: Patients with chronic hepatitis C had more hypertension (40% versus 25%, prevalence ratio [PR] 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9–2.7 and smoked more (53% versus 38%, PR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.1. The two groups had similar body mass index (mean 25.0 versus 25.7 kg/m2, whereas those with chronic hepatitis C had less dyslipidemia (including significantly lower low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, higher glycosylated hemoglobin level (mean 6.2 versus 5

  6. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Omari M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mousa Al Omari,1 Basheer Y Khassawneh,2 Yousef Khader,1 Ali Shakir Dauod,1 George Bergus3 1Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (≥10 pack-year aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70% was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2% had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3% had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19% with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1% had moderate disease, eight (19% had severe disease, and two (4.8% had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9% and wheezing 28/42 (66.7% than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely

  7. Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Bodana, Shirisha; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Drawz, Paul; Flack, John M; Miller, Edgar R; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-02-01

    The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease. We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with blood pressure at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male sex, black race, diabetes mellitus, and higher body mass index were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events than participants without ATRH-composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.22-1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11-1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38-2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06-1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and blood pressure at goal on ≥4 medications also had higher risk for composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, CHF, and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], (1.30 [1.12-1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28-1.99]) than those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and chronic kidney disease.

  8. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  9. Prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis in a population of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnhorst, Idar; Jawad, Samir; Lange, Bibi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased coexistence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been reported in epidemiologic and register studies, and reflux has been shown more frequently in patients with CRS in studies using esophagus pH manometry compared to participants....... The results were compared with those of a randomly assigned control group from the general Danish population. METHOD: In this case-control study, 82 patients with GERD were examined for CRS using the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps criteria, which combine patient history...

  10. The Prevalence of Oral Inflammation Among Denture Wearing Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowska, D; Rubinsztajn, R; Chazan, R; Swoboda-Kopeć, E; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2015-01-01

    Oral inflammation is an important contributor to the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can impact patient's health status. Previous studies indicate that people with poor oral health are at higher risk for nosocomial pneumonia. Denture wearing is one promoting factor in the development of mucosal infections. Colonization of the denture plaque by Gram-negative bacteria, Candida spp., or other respiratory pathogens, occurring locally, may be aspirated to the lungs. The studies showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients treated with combinations of medicines with corticosteroids more frequently suffer from Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Treatment of oral candidiasis in patients with COPD constitutes a therapeutic problem. Therefore, it is essential to pay attention to the condition of oral mucosal membrane and denture hygiene habits. The guidelines for care and maintenance of dentures for COPD patients are presented in this paper. The majority of patients required improvement of their prosthetic and oral hygiene. Standard oral hygiene procedures in relation to dentures, conducted for prophylaxis of stomatitis complicated by mucosal infection among immunocompromised patients, are essential to maintain healthy oral tissues. The elimination of traumatic denture action in dental office, compliance with oral and denture hygiene, proper use and storage of prosthetic appliances in a dry environment outside the oral cavity can reduce susceptibility to infection. Proper attention to hygiene, including brushing and rinsing the mouth, may also help prevent denture stomatitis in these patients.

  11. Ethnic and Regional Differences in Prevalence and Correlates of Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors in Northern Canada

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    Joykrishna Sarkar, MSc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe investigated ethnic and geographic variations in major chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada, an area that is undergoing rapid changes in its social, cultural, and physical environments.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents from the 3 regions of northern Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Crude prevalence estimates, adjusted odds ratios (AORs, and confidence intervals were calculated for multiple chronic diseases and risk factors.ResultsThe percentage of Aboriginal respondents who reported having any chronic health condition increased between the 2 cycles of data collection, but did not change for non-Aboriginal respondents. AORs for heart disease, arthritis, and asthma varied by ethnicity or region. AORs for overweight, obesity, daily smoking, regular and binge drinking, and infrequent physical/leisure activity were also substantially different for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents or among respondents from the 3 northern regions.ConclusionThe changing profile of health in northern Canada suggests a need for action on health policy about the delivery of community-based primary prevention interventions and further research about the determinants of health and health care use.

  12. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonci Brkovic,1 Eliana Burilovic,2 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, 3Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Objectives: Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods: We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.Results: We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain.Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain

  13. Diabetes mellitus increases the prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: A nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutradis, Charalampos; Skodra, Alexandra; Georgianos, Panagiotis; Tolika, Panagiota; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Avdelidou, Afroditi; Sarafidis, Pantelis A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare anemia prevalence between matched chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and to assess factors associated with anemia development. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study of 184 type-2 diabetic and 184 non-diabetic CKD patients from a prospectively assembled database of a Nephrology outpatient clinic, matched for gender, age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin: Men: recombinant erythropoietin) was examined in comparison, in the total population and by CKD Stage. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with anemia. RESULTS: The total prevalence of anemia was higher in diabetics (47.8% vs 33.2%, P = 0.004). Accordingly, prevalence was higher in diabetics in CKD Stage 3 (53.5% vs 33.1%, P < 0.001) and particularly in Stage 3a (60.4% vs 26.4%, P < 0.001), whereas it was non-significantly higher in Stage 4 (61.3% vs 48.4%; P = 0.307). Serum ferritin was higher in diabetics in total and in CKD stages, while serum iron was similar between groups. In multivariate analyses, DM (OR = 2.206, 95%CI: 1.196-4.069), CKD Stages 3a, 3b, 4 (Stage 4: OR = 12.169, 95%CI: 3.783-39.147) and serum iron (OR = 0.976, 95%CI: 0.968-0.985 per mg/dL increase) were independently associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of anemia progressively increases with advancing stages of CKD and is higher in diabetic than matched non-diabetic CKD patients and diabetes is independently associated with anemia occurrence. Detection and treatment of anemia in diabetic CKD patients should be performed earlier than non-diabetic counterparts. PMID:27458564

  14. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and prediabetes and associated risk factors: a community-based screening in Zhuhai, Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Dong-feng; SHI Yan-lin; CHEN You-ming; LIU Hong-mei; DING Ya-nan; LIU Xin-yu; LI Yong-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and prediabetes has increased in China,and at different rates in different locations.Therefore a community-based screening research was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of CKD and prediabetes,and to analyze associated risk factors of CKD and prediabetes in a city of Southern China.Methods A total of 7801 community residents aged 18 year and older from 6 communities were screened by a stratified random cluster sampling method.An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),albuminuria,fasting plasma glucose (FPG),and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured.Age-standardized prevalence was calculated by the direct method with the use of data on the population distribution in China in 2006.Multivariate logistic analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of CKD and prediabetes,and association of insulin resistance (IR) with CKD and prediabetes was analyzed.Results The age-standardized prevalence of CKD was 12.5%,eGFR <60 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 was 2.7% and ACR (albumin to creatinine ratio) >30 mg/g was 10.3%.The age-standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 12.1%.Logistic regression suggests that IR was a common independent risk factor of CKD and prediabetes.Further analysis show that HOMA-IR was increased with the aggravation of kidney injury and FPG.Conclusion CKD and prediabetes have become a major public health problem in Zhuhai,Southern China; insulin resistance may be an important risk factor.

  15. Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagioti M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panagioti,1 Charlotte Scott,1 Amy Blakemore,1,2 Peter A Coventry31National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, 2Department of Psychiatry, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, 3National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – Greater Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in

  16. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  17. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in patients on hemodialysis in southwest Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Timothy S; Barnoya, Joaquin; Cipriano, Ever; Herrera, Erick; Lopez, Noemi; Polo, Vicente Sanchez; Rothstein, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of patients on hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional causes (CKDnt). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study interviewed patients on hemodialysis at the Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social on their health and occupational history. Laboratory serum, urine and vital sign data at the initiation of hemodialysis were obtained from chart reviews. Patients were classified according to whether they had hypertension or obesity or neither. The proportion of patients with and without these traditional CKD risk factors was recorded and the association between demographic and occupational factors and a lack of traditional CKD risk factors analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 242 total patients (including 171 non-diabetics) enrolled in hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala, 45 (18.6% of total patients and 26.3% of non-diabetics) lacked traditional CKD risk factors. While agricultural work history was common, only travel time greater than 30 minutes and age less than 50 years old were significantly associated with CKD in the absence of traditional risk factors. Individuals without such risk factors lived throughout southwestern Guatemala's five departments. Conclusions The prevalence of CKDnT appears to be much lower in this sample of patients receiving hemodialysis in Southwestern Guatemala than in hospitalized patients in El Salvador. It has yet to be determined whether the prevalence is higher in the general population and in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  18. The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, Peter; Holme, I

    2007-01-01

    with severely impaired respiratory dysfunction, decreased physical activity, right ventricular failure of the heart, and a decreased quality of life. In addition osteoporosis might develop possibly due to a number of factors related to the disease. We wanted to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis...... were performed. Of 181 patients invited by mail, 62 patients were included (46 females and 16 males). All had symptoms of COPD such as exertional dyspnea, productive cough, limitations in physical activity etc. The mean FEV1 was 0.90 L (sd: 0.43 L) and the mean FEV1% pred. of 32.6% (sd: 14.1%). All had...... in a population of patients with severe COPD as well as to correlate the use of glucocorticoid treatment to the occurrence of osteoporosis in this population. Outpatients from the respiratory unit with COPD, a history of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) less than 1.3 L, with FEV1% pred. ranging from 17...

  19. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

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    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  20. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India. PMID:25161966

  1. Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease on and without dialysis

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    Magdy M. Emara

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension among patients with CKD on and without dialysis. The prevalence was highest among patients with ESRD receiving long-term hemodialysis (41.53% especially in patients with older age, longer duration of dialysis treatment, higher AV fistula flow, cardiac output.

  2. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......: the study showed a high prevalence of detrimental life style factors including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity in elderly Danish men. Except for diabetes and respiratory disease, chronic diseases were underreported and in particular erectile dysfunction and osteoporosis were...

  3. Meta-analysis approach to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among current, former and non-smokers

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    Ritul Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative risk assessment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD among current, former and non-smokers categories remains controversial and not studied in detail. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all the relevant published studies on this topic and to update the association between smoking and prevalence of COPD in current, former and non-smokers. Identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion of articles for the study were conducted as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines. Quality assessment of included studies was undertaken using a scoring sheet. Meta-analysis after the final synthesis of the selected studies was performed using the STATA and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA software. Estimates from forty two independent studies reporting 547,391 individuals were identified. Twenty two studies were conducted in Europe, nine in America and ten in Asia and one from New Zealand. The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of COPD was significantly higher in current smokers compared with former and non-smokers. However, owing to large heterogeneity among the estimates obtained from the studies, stratification was done with respect to continent, diagnostic criteria of COPD and study design which also showed similar results. The stratified analysis also revealed similar trend of results with prevalence of COPD being higher in current smokers as compared to former and non-smokers. The present meta-analysis highlights the positive association between smoking and COPD prevalence. There is an urgent need to implement more effective policies towards the restriction of tobacco use, to reduce the burden of COPD.

  4. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Andrzej Kokoszka

    2016-05-01

    A very high rate of prevalence of depressive disorders in dialysis patients was confirmed in the Polish population when a clinical structured interview was applied. It indicates that routine screening for depressive disorders in these patients is necessary.

  5. Concurrent physician-diagnosed asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A population study of prevalence, incidence and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Aaron, Shawn D.; To, Teresa M.; Lougheed, M. Diane; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Gershon, Andrea S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective We conducted a population-based cohort study to estimate trends in prevalence, incidence, and mortality of concurrent physician-diagnosed asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study design and setting Two validated health administrative case definitions were used to identify asthma and COPD among all individuals aged 35 years and older living in Ontario, Canada. Annual asthma, COPD, and concurrent asthma and COPD prevalence, incidence, and mortality, standardized for age and sex, were estimated, and compared from 2002 to 2012, using generalized linear models. Results Standardized prevalence of concurrent asthma and COPD increased by 10.5%, from 2.9% in 2002 to 3.2% in 2012 overall, but more prominently in women compared to men. Overall, standardized incidence decreased by16%, from 2.5 to 2.1 per 1000 individuals, but increased significantly in young adults. All-cause mortality among patients with concurrent asthma and COPD decreased by 11.2%, from 2.6% to 2.2%. Being diagnosed with both diseases was significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality compared to asthma (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.50–1.58), but not compared to COPD (OR = 0.97, 0.96–0.98), except in young adults aged 35 to 49 years where people with asthma and COPD had higher mortality (OR = 1.21, 1.15–1.27). Conclusions In a large North American population, the burden of concurrent physician-diagnosed asthma and COPD is increasing, particularly in women and young adults. PMID:28301574

  6. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  7. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated risk factors in Uganda (FRESH AIR Uganda) : a prospective cross-sectional observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik; Kirenga, Bruce; Chavannes, Niels; Kamya, Moses; Luzige, Simon; Musinguzi, Patrick; Turyagaruka, John; Jones, Rupert; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Williams, Sian; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the damage to respiratory health caused by biomass smoke and tobacco smoke. We assessed the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related risk factors in a rural region of Uganda. METHODS: We did this prospective obser

  8. The Platino project: methodology of a multicenter prevalence survey of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in major Latin American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Padilla Rogelio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in many developed countries appears to be increasing. There is some evidence from Latin America that COPD is a growing cause of death, but information on prevalence is scant. It is possible that, due to the high frequency of smoking in these countries, this disease may represent a major public health problem that has not yet been recognized as such. The PLATINO study is aimed at measuring COPD prevalence in major cities in Latin America. Methods/Design A multi-country survey is being carried out in major cities in Latin America. In each metropolitan area, a population-based sample of approximately 1,000 individuals aged 40 years or older is being interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Eligible subjects are submitted to pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, and classified according to several criteria for COPD. Anthropometric examinations are also performed. Several risk factors are being studied, including smoking, socioeconomic factors, exposure to domestic biomass pollution, occupational exposure to dust and hospital admissions due to respiratory conditions during childhood. Whether or not subjects affected by COPD are aware of their disease, and if so how it is being managed by health services, is also being investigated, as are the consequences of this condition on quality of life and work performance. Results At the present time, the study is completed in São Paulo, Mexico City and Montevideo; Chile has started the study in March 2004 and it will be followed by Venezuela; two other metropolitan areas could still join the PLATINO project. Similar sampling procedures, with stratification for socio-economic status, are being used in all sites. Strict coordination, training and standardization procedures have been used to ensure comparability of results across sites. Overall 92% of the pre-bronchodilator spirometry tests fulfilled ATS criteria of

  9. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PREVALENT IN SMALL VILLAGES OF NORTH COASTAL , ANDHRA PRADESH , INDIA , UDDANAM NEPHROPATHY

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    Valluri Satya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hamlets in and around Uddanam , Gunupalli , Kaviti of Srikakulam District , a North Coastal Andhra P radesh region with high prevalence of CKD presenting clinically or sub clinically ultimately leading to high mortality and morbidity with RRT and other types of conservative management , we were detected some facts during our survey in these villages. The many of them who are living in that belt eat Dry salted fish , less water intake , hardworking people , these peo ple approach quacks , using illicit drugs etc.

  10. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural women of Tamilnadu: implications for refining disease burden assessments attributable to household biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Johnson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive1 1This paper was orally presented in the Annual conference International Society of Environmental Epidemiology held in Pasadena in 2008. pulmonary disease (COPD is the 13th leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and is expected to become 5th by 2020. Biomass fuel combustion significantly contributes to COPD, although smoking is recognized as the most important risk factor. Rural women in developing countries bear the largest share of this burden resulting from chronic exposures to biomass fuel smoke. Although there is considerable strength of evidence for the association between COPD and biomass smoke exposure, limited information is available on the background prevalence of COPD in these populations.This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD and its associated factors among non-smoking rural women in Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 900 non-smoking women aged above 30 years, from 45 rural villages of Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India in the period between January and May 2007. COPD assessments were done using a combination of clinical examination and spirometry. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between COPD and use of biomass for cooking. R software was used for statistical analysis.The overall prevalence of COPD in this study was found to be 2.44% (95% CI: 1.43–3.45. COPD prevalence was higher in biomass fuel users than the clean fuel users 2.5 vs. 2%, (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.36–6.64 and it was two times higher (3% in women who spend >2 hours/day in the kitchen involved in cooking. Use of solid fuel was associated with higher risk for COPD, although no statistically significant results were obtained in this study.The estimates generated in this study will contribute significantly to the growing database of available information on COPD prevalence in rural women. Moreover, with

  11. Prevalence and predictors for compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease (c-ACLD) in patients with chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Ingrid; Victoria, Marilu; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Rodrigues, Lorena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Lacerda, Marcus; Victoria, Flamir; Perazzo, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD) in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. Methods This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM) or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) were excluded. Blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, SSM and LSM by transient elastography (FibroScan®) were performed at the same day. Alcohol consumption was quantified using the AUDIT score and c-ACLD was defined by LSM ≥ 15 kPa performed by an experimented operator blinded for clinical and laboratory data. Results 101 patients were eligible and few patients were excluded due to negative anti-HDV (n = 7), hepatitis C coinfection (n = 2), liver transplantation (n = 10) and limitation for LSM or SSM (n = 5). Therefore, 77 patients [61% male, age = 43 (IQR,36–52) years] were included. The prevalence of c-ACLD was 57% (n = 44/77). Patients with c-ACLD had a higher rate of detectable HBV viral load (p = 0.039), higher levels of transaminases, GGT, alkaline phosphatases, total bilirubin and INR (p0.001 for both) compared to those without c-ACLD. Patients with c-ACLD had higher SSM [65.2 (IQR,33.8–75.0) vs 21.8 (16.5–32.0) kPa; p10 UI/ml), alkaline phosphatase (per IU/L) and GGT levels (per IU/L) were independently associated with c-ACLD in all multivariate models. Splenic volume [per cm3,OR = 1.01 (95%CI,1.01–1.02);p = 0.002], SSM [per kPa, OR = 1.04 (1.01–1.07);p = 0.012] and splenomegaly [yes vs no,OR = 28.45 (4.42–182.95);p<0.001] were independently associated with c-ACLD. Conclusions The prevalence of c-ACLD was high in patients with chronic HDV infection in western Amazon basin. HBV viral load, liver enzymes and splenic features can be used to predict severe liver disease in HDV-infected patients. PMID:28329027

  12. Prevalence of hepatobiliary dysfunction in a regional group of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Gluud, C; Schlichting, P

    1991-01-01

    primary sclerosing cholangitis, of whom two were primarily diagnosed; one patient had cholangiocarcinoma also primarily diagnosed; and two patients were found to have alcoholic hepatic damage. Among the 125 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 (30%; 95% confidence limits, 23-38%) had at least 1 abnormal...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  14. Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Rastelli, Andrea; Schembri, Valentina; Filippo, Massimo de [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Chetta, Alfredo [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Respiratory Diseases, Parma (Italy); Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria [Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Unita Operativa di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria, Bologna (Italy); Di Scioscio, Valerio; Bartalena, Tommaso; Zompatori, Maurizio [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Cardiothoracic Institute, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airway malacia and its relationship with ancillary morphologic features in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of patients with COPD who were imaged with inspiratory and dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Airway malacia was defined as {>=}50% expiratory reduction of the airway lumen. Both distribution and morphology of airway malacia were assessed. The extent of emphysema, extent of bronchiectasis and severity of bronchial wall thickness were quantified. The final study cohort was comprised of 71 patients. Airway malacia was seen in 38 of 71 patients (53%), and such proportion was roughly maintained in each stage of COPD severity. Almost all tracheomalacia cases (23/25, 92%) were characterised by an expiratory anterior bowing of the posterior membranous wall. Both emphysema and bronchiectasis extent did not differ between patients with and without airway malacia (p > 0.05). Bronchial wall thickness severity was significantly higher in patients with airway malacia and correlated with the degree of maximal bronchial collapse (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated a strong association between airway malacia and COPD, disclosing a significant relationship with bronchial wall thickening. (orig.)

  15. Estimating and comparing incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases by combining GP registry data: The role of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. van Baal (Pieter); P.M. Engelfriet (Peter); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.J. Poos (Marinus J.); C. van den Dungen (Catharina); H.C. Boshuizen (Hendriek)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Estimates of disease incidence and prevalence are core indicators of public health. The manner in which these indicators stand out against each other provide guidance as to which diseases are most common and what health problems deserve priority. Our aim was to investigate ho

  16. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and coexistence of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk in the population of the republic of moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Igor; Sali, Vera; Gaibu, Sergiu; Suveica, Luminita; Popa, Sergiu; Perico, Norberto; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Carminati, Sergio; Feehally, John; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) established the Global Outreach Program (GO) aimed at building a capacity for detecting and managing chronic kidney disease and its complications in low- and middle-income countries. Here we report data from the 2006-2007 screening program (1025 subjects from the general population) in the Republic of Moldova aimed to determine the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and their coexistence with microalbuminuria. The likelihood of a serious cardiovascular (CV) event was also estimated. Hypertension and diabetes were very common among screened subjects. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 16.9% and that of estimated GFR Moldova patients with hypertension and diabetes should be screened for the coexistence of renal abnormalities, with the intention of developing disease-specific health-care interventions with the primary goal to reduce CV morbidity and mortality and prevent renal disease progression to end stage renal disease.

  17. PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: A SINGLE CENTERED STUDY FROM A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Accumulating evidence indicates the associations of vitamin D deficiency with morbidities and mortality in patients with CKD. The recent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Mineral Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease had recommended the measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. Little is known about the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency in patients with CKD living in rural South India. AIM To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODOLOGY The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD deficiency (defined as a level <20 ng/ml were examined in 100 patients with CKD. Patients on dialysis and those receiving medication known to influence vitamin D, were excluded. CKD was diagnosed based on history, clinical features, USG abdomen and renal function test and eGFR. We examined the levels of 25OHD in 100 patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Patients were investigated for hemogram, renal function tests, serum vitamin D level, fasting blood sugar and ECG. RESULTS The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the CRF patients in our study was 69% and the insufficiency was present in 17% of the CRF patients and only 14% of the study subjects had normal vitamin D levels. Among the various factor influencing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in CRF patients, diabetes and hypertension are the most important factors. In our study the mean levels of vitamin D was much lower in patients with diabetes and hypertension when compared to patients without diabetes and hypertension and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.003. CONCLUSION Our study concluded that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among CKD patients. Diabetes and hypertension are the most important

  18. Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes and Coexistence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in the Population of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Codreanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the International Society of Nephrology (ISN established the Global Outreach Program (GO aimed at building a capacity for detecting and managing chronic kidney disease and its complications in low- and middle-income countries. Here we report data from the 2006-2007 screening program (1025 subjects from the general population in the Republic of Moldova aimed to determine the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and their coexistence with microalbuminuria. The likelihood of a serious cardiovascular (CV event was also estimated. Hypertension and diabetes were very common among screened subjects. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 16.9% and that of estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (decreased renal function was 9.4%. Male gender was associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension and microalbuminuria. Hypertension and diabetes clustered in subjects with microalbuminuria and renal dysfunction. Risk factors such as preobesity/obesity, physical inactivity and smoking were relatively common, even in younger participants. The prevalence of subjects with predicted 10-year CV risk ≥10% was 10.0%. In conclusion, in the Republic of Moldova patients with hypertension and diabetes should be screened for the coexistence of renal abnormalities, with the intention of developing disease-specific health-care interventions with the primary goal to reduce CV morbidity and mortality and prevent renal disease progression to end stage renal disease.

  19. Pregnancy and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, John M; Lindheimer, Marshall D

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the association of chronic renal disease and pregnancy. Included are discussions of guidelines for counseling pregnant women with underlying chronic renal disease who are considering conceiving as well as management of those already pregnant. Specifically highlighted are recent studies that question the validity of using estimated glomerular filtration rate and other formulae and questions of whether we should strive to replace the classic counseling approaches based primarily on serum creatinine levels with guidelines based on chronic kidney disease classification. The article concludes with a review as well as a critique of recent research on the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with underlying chronic renal disease, as well as if women with preeclampsia and underlying kidney disease have accelerated courses toward end-stage renal disease.

  20. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  1. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  2. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and ...

  3. Helicobacter Infection and Chronic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recentHelicobacter infection associated with chronic liver disease. The bacteriology, prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis were reviewed. Future work should be conducted on the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease.

  4. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and risk factors for its progression: A cross-sectional comparison of Indians living in Indian versus U.S. cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Shuchi; Kondal, Dimple; Montez-Rath, Maria; Zheng, Yuanchao; Shivashankar, Roopa; Singh, Kalpana; Gupta, Priti; Gupta, Ruby; Ajay, Vamadevan S.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Tandon, Nikhil; Ali, Mohammed K.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kandula, Namratha; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2017-01-01

    Background While data from the latter part of the twentieth century consistently showed that immigrants to high-income countries faced higher cardio-metabolic risk than their counterparts in low- and middle-income countries, urbanization and associated lifestyle changes may be changing these patterns, even for conditions considered to be advanced manifestations of cardio-metabolic disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease [CKD]). Methods and findings Using cross-sectional data from the Center for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS, n = 5294) and Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n = 748) studies, we investigated whether prevalence of CKD is similar among Indians living in Indian and U.S. cities. We compared crude, age-, waist-to-height ratio-, and diabetes- adjusted CKD prevalence difference. Among participants identified to have CKD, we compared management of risk factors for its progression. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was similar in MASALA (14.0% [95% CI 11.8–16.3]) compared with CARRS (10.8% [95% CI 10.0–11.6]). Among men the prevalence difference was low (prevalence difference 1.8 [95% CI -1.6,5.3]) and remained low after adjustment for age, waist-to-height ratio, and diabetes status (-0.4 [-3.2,2.5]). Adjusted prevalence difference was higher among women (prevalence difference 8.9 [4.8,12.9]), but driven entirely by a higher prevalence of albuminuria among women in MASALA. Severity of CKD—-i.e., degree of albuminuria and proportion of participants with reduced glomerular filtration fraction-—was higher in CARRS for both men and women. Fewer participants with CKD in CARRS were effectively treated. 4% of CARRS versus 51% of MASALA participants with CKD had A1c < 7%; and 7% of CARRS versus 59% of MASALA participants blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg. Our analysis applies only to urban populations. Demographic—-particularly educational attainment—-differences among participants in the two

  5. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad

    2015-01-01

    , with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1...... the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated...

  6. The coexistence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The joint distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has not been well described. This study aims at determining the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnoses of asthma, COPD and of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and to assess whether these conditions share a common set of risk factors. METHODS: A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, diagnoses and risk factors was administered by mail or phone to random samples of the general Italian population aged 20-44 (n = 5163 45-64 (n = 2167 and 65-84 (n = 1030 in the frame of the multicentre Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study. RESULTS: A physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD (emphysema/chronic bronchitis/COPD was reported by 13% and 21% of subjects aged <65 and 65-84 years respectively. Aging was associated with a marked decrease in the prevalence of diagnosed asthma (from 8.2% to 1.6% and with a marked increase in the prevalence of diagnosed COPD (from 3.3% to 13.3%. The prevalence of the overlap of asthma and COPD was 1.6% (1.3%-2.0%, 2.1% (1.5%-2.8% and 4.5% (3.2%-5.9% in the 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 age groups. Subjects with both asthma and COPD diagnoses were more likely to have respiratory symptoms, physical impairment, and to report hospital admissions compared to asthma or COPD alone (p<0.01. Age, sex, education and smoking showed different and sometimes opposite associations with the three conditions. CONCLUSION: Asthma and COPD are common in the general population, and they coexist in a substantial proportion of subjects. The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome represents an important clinical phenotype that deserves more medical attention and further research.

  7. Is Chronic Low Back Pain Associated with the Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease when Genetic Susceptibility Is Considered? A Co-Twin Control Study of Spanish Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Matt; Ordoñana, Juan R.; Hartvigsen, Jan; Ferreira, Manuela L.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Pinheiro, Marina B.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Hopper, John L.; Ferreira, Paulo H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chronic low back pain and coronary heart disease relationship, after adjusting for relevant confounders, including genetics. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 2148 twins were recruited from the Murcia Twin Registry, Spain. The exposure was chronic LBP and the outcomes were myocardial infarction and other coronary heart diseases—lifetime and in the last 2 years–based on standardized health-related questionnaires. First, logistic regression analysis investigated associations of the total sample followed by a matched co-twin control analyses, with all complete twin pairs discordant for chronic LBP utilised, separated for zygosity—dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) pairs, which adjusted for shared familial factors, including genetics. Results Chronic LBP pain is associated with lifetime myocardial infarction [odds ratio (OR) = 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.35–5.36], other coronary heart diseases over a lifetime (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.69–3.93) and in the last two years (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.33–3.60), while there was a borderline association with myocardial infarction in the last 2 years (OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 0.98–7.12). Although the magnitude of the association remained or increased in the co-twin control analyses, none reached statistical significance. Conclusion Chronic LBP is associated with a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. It is possible that this association remains even when controlling for genetics and early shared environment, although this should be investigated with larger samples of twins discordant for LBP. PMID:27171210

  8. Prevalence of anemia and its impact on mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a developing country setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad Hossein; Sadighi, Tannaz; Rabieepour, Masomeh; Dinparast, Reza; RahimiRad, Shagayegh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is going to be the third most common cause of death worldwide. The natural course of COPD is interrupted by acute exacerbations (AECOPD) with an overall mortality rate of 10%. Anemia is a well-known independent predictor of mortality in several chronic diseases. Little is known about the impact of anemia on mortality in AECOPD. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia in AECOPD patients and its impact on mortality in a developing country setting. We retrospectively studied 200 hospitalized patients with AECOPD (100 died in hospital and 100 survived) in Imam Khomeini teaching hospital, Urmia, Iran. Prevalence of anemia between deceased and surviving patients compared by using x-square test. Mean admission day Hb and Hct level were compared between the two groups by using Student t-test. Anemia was defined according to WHO criteria: Hbanemia was significantly higher in patients who died in hospital compared to those who survived (72% vs. 49%, p=0.001 and OR=2.68). The mean ±SD Hb level was 11.5±2.7 g/dl among deceased patients vs. 13.0±2.0 g/dl among survivors (p valueAnemia was common in AECOPD patients in this developing country setting and was significantly associated with in hospital mortality.

  9. Prevalência de doenças crônicas em pacientes geriátricos =Prevalence of sistemic chronic disease in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira et al.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O conhecimento do paciente geriátrico como um todo e não somente de sua boca é de extrema importância. Noções de patofisiologia, das condições crônicas que acometem esses pacientes e da farmacologia das drogas utilizadas serão úteis ao profissional do futuro, isso porque o número de idosos vem crescendo em todo o mundo, mostrando um aumento na demanda odontológica dessa parcela da população. Objetivo: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as doenças crônicas que mais acometem os idosos atendidos na Disciplina de Clínica Integrada – FOAr-UNESP, bem como os medicamentos utilizados. Materiais e método: realizou-se a análise de prontuários de 70 pacientes com 60 anos ou mais. Foi elaborado um formulário com dados referentes ao ano de atendimento, idade, sexo, história médica das doenças atuais e passadas e os medicamentos utilizados pelos pacientes. Os dados foram transcritos para o software epiinfo que permitiu realizar uma análise estatística descritiva. Resultados: observou- se que dos 70 pacientes analisados, 40 (57,0% eram do sexo feminino e 30 (43,0% do sexo masculino; 74,3% tinham de 60 a 69 anos, 22,8% de 70 a 79 anos e 2,9% 80 anos ou mais. 66,0% dos pacientes possuíam ao menos uma doença crônica, sendo a hipertensão (38,0% a patologia mais freqüente. Dos medicamentos utilizados os destinados a problemas do coração (48,0% foram os mais usados. Conclusão: pode-se concluir que as doenças sistêmicas que mais acometeram os idosos analisados foram as cardiocirculatórias e que os medicamentos mais utilizados foram os destinados às alterações cardíacas. Introduction: the knowledge of the geriatric patient as a whole is of extreme importance and not only his mouth, the knowledge of the pathophysiology, the chronic diseases and the pharmacology of the used drugs will be useful to the professional of the future, that is because the elderly patient population is growing all over the world

  10. Prevalence of oesophageal varices in newly diagnosed chronic liver disease patients at The Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G Achinge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variceal bleeding is an important complication of portal hypertension and a major cause of death in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD world wide. This study was carried out to document the occurrence of oesophageal varices and its clinical correlates among 80 Nigerian patients with CLD. Patients and Methods: Eighty patients with CLD were stratified into three groups based on Child- Turcotte- pugh′s classification for severity of CLD in a one year study. They had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to detect and characterize varices. Results: Sixty (75% of the patients had oesophageal varices at endoscopy with 88.3% having grade 2 or 3 varices while 73.3% had moderate/large varices. Thirty five percent of the varices had "red signs" with "red whale" markings as the predominant red sign. Gastric varices were seen in 12.5%. Variceal size was significantly associated with severity of liver disease (P<0.05 as 90% of the patients with varices presented with Child′s class B or C. A multiple logistic regression analysis identified advancing age, ascites, shrunken liver span and low platelet count as independent predictors of oesophageal varices. Conclusion: A large proportion of Nigerian CLD patients have advanced at-risk-for-bleeding oesophageal varices at diagnosis. Early diagnosis of CLD in Nigerians is warranted.

  11. 慢性肾脏病患者贫血发病情况分析%The Prevalence of Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    保红云; 荣冬靖; 邱敏; 李欣樾

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨CKD 患者贫血的发病情况及其相关因素.方法 收集2007年1月至2010年1月在云南省第三人民医院肾脏血液风湿免疫科住院的CKD患者465例,对其临床和实验室资料进行回顾性分析.结果 465例CKD患者中,贫血的发病率为72.04%,其中年龄<30岁、30~50岁、50~70岁、>70岁的患者贫血的发病率依次为47.06%、60.94%、74.42%、86.26%;CKDⅠ~Ⅴ期的患者贫血的发病率依次为24.19%、43.84%、63.22%、88.61%和99.39%;经eGFR 矫正后,不同肾脏基础疾病患者贫血的发病率由高到低依次为糖尿病肾病(78.78%)、高血压肾病(66.00%)、慢性肾小球肾炎(65.61%)和多囊肾(60.00%);透析组与非透析组患者贫血的发病率分别为99.00%和51.75%(P<0.001).单因素分析表明,年龄、肾功能情况及透析与否均与贫血的发病率相关.结论 慢性肾脏病患者贫血的发病率较高,肾功能减退、年龄等是其发生的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of anemia in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the related factors.Method The data of 465 in-patients with CKD in our hospital from January 2007 to January 2010 were collected and retrospectively analyzed.Results In the 465 patients with CKD, the prevalence of anemia was 72.04%, the prevalence of anemia in patients <30 years, 30 ~ 50 years, 50 ~ 70 years, and > 70 years was 47.06%, 60.94%, 74.45% and 86.26%, respectively.The prevalence of anemia in patients with CKD in stage Ⅰ ~ Ⅴ was 24.19%, 43.84%, 63.22%, 88.61% and 99.39%, respectively.The prevalence of anemia in patients with CKD corrected by GFR was associated with varied underling diseases, and the sequence from high to low was diabetic nephropathy (78.78%) , hypertensive nephropathy (66.00%) ,chronic glomeruionephritis (65.61%) and ploycystic renal disease (60.00%).The prevalence of anemia in dialysis patients and non-dialysis patients was 97

  12. Comorbidity of chronic diseases in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Velden, J. van der; Lisdonk, E. van de; Eijk, J.T.M. van; Weel, C. van

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing number of elderly people in The Netherlands the prevalence of chronic diseases will rise in the next decades. It is recognized in general practice that many older patients suffer from more than one chronic disease (comorbidity). The aim of this study is to describe the extent of

  13. PREVALENCE OF ANATOMIC VARIATIONS IN CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikrishna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of anatomic variations in patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS and to compare them with normal population. DESIGN: This is a case control study. A prospective s tudy of anatomic variations was done on 100 computed tomography (CT scans of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Prevalence of anatomic variations in control group was assessed by studying 100 CT scans of non- CRS patients. RESULTS: Even though proportion of concha bullosa was more among chronic rhinosinusitis patients compared to normal individual s, it was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of pa radoxical middle turbinate, retroverted uncinate process, overpneumatized ethmoid bulla and s eptal deviation in chronic rhinosinusitis patients compared to normal individuals. There was s ignificantly lesser proportion of individuals having haller cells and agger nasi cell s in chronic rhinosinusitis compared to normal individuals. CONCLUSION: There is no significant prevalence of anatomic vari ations in osteomeatal unit in patients with chronic rhinosinus itis. The anatomic variations may predispose to pathological changes only if they are bi gger in size. More detailed studies are recommended in this regard as a good knowledge of c omplex anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is essential to understand chronic rhinosinusitis a nd to plan its treatment

  14. Prevalence of parkinsonism estimated using the drug prescription archive: a possible method to estimate the prevalence of a chronic neurological disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Anteo; Scalmana, Silvia; Franco, Francesco; Di Lallo, Domenico; Lacorte, Eleonora; Vanacore, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Many surveys estimated prevalence of parkinsonism, with results varying largely. We used prescription records of medications for parkinsonism to estimate the prevalence of this condition. Retrospective survey based on Lazio (Italy) regional drugs' prescriptions registry. Cases of parkinsonism were defined as those who received a medication for parkinsonism (Dopa and dopa derivatives or Monoamine oxidase B-inhibitors) for at least 6 months in a 5-year period (2005-2009). Crude and standardized prevalence rates at June 2009 were calculated. Crude and standardized prevalence rates of parkinsonism in Lazio were, respectively, 283 per 100,000 (95 % CI 278-287), and 294 per 100,000 (95 % CI 289-298), higher in men than in women (292 per 100,000 vs. 274 per 100,000). The highest overall prevalence rate was observed among people aged 85-89 years (246 per 100,000), while the lowest in subjects aged Prevalence rates in people older than 65 and older 75 were, respectively, 1275 per 100,000 and 1912 per 100,000. Using a regional drug registry, based on currently available health information systems, may be a suitable method to estimate prevalence of parkinsonism, which is essential for public health programming, the more in presence of a demographic shift as the current one.

  15. Prevalence of HFE mutations and relation to serum iron status in patients with chronic hepatitis C and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Jung Lin; Chih-Lin Lin; Chaur-Shine Wang; Shu-O Liu; Li-Ying Liao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of the two mutations, C282Y and H63D of HFE gene, in healthy subjects, patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Taiwan and to explore the contribution of the HFE mutation on serum iron stores in CHC and NAFLD groups.METHODS: We examined C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE gene in 125 healthy subjects, 29 patients with CHC,and 33 patients with NAFLD. The serum iron markers,including ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC),were assessed in all patients.RESULTS: All of the healthy subjects and patients were free from C282Y mutation. The prevalence of H63D heterozygosity was 4/125 (3.20%) in healthy subjects, 2/29(6.90%) in CHC group, and 1/33 (3.03%) in NAFLD group.The healthy subjects showed no significant difference in the prevalence of H63D mutation as compared with the CHC or NAFLD group. Increased serum iron store was found in 34.48% of CHC patients and 36.36% of NAFLD patients.In three patients of H63D heterozygosity, only one CHC patient had increased serum iron store. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of HFE mutations between patients with increased serum iron store and those without in CHC or NAFLD group.CONCLUSION: The HFE mutations may not contribute to iron accumulation in the CHC or NAFLD group even when serum iron overload is observed in more than one-third of these patients in Taiwan.

  16. The Association Between Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors and the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD in Middle-Aged and Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma Michishita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in middle-aged and older men. Methods: The subjects included 445 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or dialysis treatment, who were not taking medications. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized selfadministered questionnaire and were defined as follows: 1 lack of habitual moderate exercise, 2 lack of daily physical activity, 3 slow walking speed, 4 fast eating speed, 5 late-night dinner, 6 bedtime snacking, and 7 skipping breakfast. The participants were divided into four categories, which were classified into quartile distributions based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (0–1, 2, 3, and ≥4 unhealthy behaviors. Results: According to a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR for CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria was found to be significantly higher in the ≥4 group than in the 0–1 group (OR 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51–14.40. Moreover, subjects’ lack of habitual moderate exercise (OR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.13–8.32 and presence of late-night dinner (OR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.40–5.75 and bedtime snacking behaviors (OR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.27–6.45 were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD. Conclusions: These results suggest that an accumulation of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, especially those related to lack of habitual moderate exercise and presence of late-night dinner and bedtime snacking may be associated with the prevalence of CKD.

  17. Prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, David A; James, Wai Yee; Hooper, Richard L; Barnes, Neil C; Greiller, Claire L; Islam, Kamrul; Bhowmik, Angshu; Timms, Peter M; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Choudhury, Aklak B; Simcock, David E; Hyppönen, Elina; Walton, Robert T; Corrigan, Christopher J; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet a comprehensive analysis of environmental and genetic determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in patients with this condition is lacking. We conducted a multi-centre cross-sectional study in 278 COPD patients aged 41-92 years in London, UK. Details of potential environmental determinants of vitamin D status and COPD symptom control and severity were collected by questionnaire, and blood samples were taken for analysis of serum 25(OH)D concentration and DNA extraction. All participants performed spirometry and underwent measurement of weight and height. Quadriceps muscle strength (QS) was measured in 134 participants, and sputum induction with enumeration of lower airway eosinophil and neutrophil counts was performed for 44 participants. Thirty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 genes in the vitamin D pathway (DBP, DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, CYP3A4, LRP2, CUBN, RXRA, and VDR) were typed using Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Linear regression was used to identify environmental and genetic factors independently associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration and to determine whether vitamin D status or genetic factors independently associated with % predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), % predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1:FVC), daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose, respiratory quality of life (QoL), QS, and the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils in induced sputum. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 45.4nmol/L (SD 25.3); 171/278 (61.5%) participants were vitamin D deficient (serum 25[OH]D concentration D status was independently associated with higher body mass index (P=0.001), lower socio-economic position (P=0.037), lack of vitamin D supplement consumption (PD deficiency associated with reduced % predicted FEV1 (P for trend=0.060) and % predicted

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and oxygen therapy Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 44. Read More Cor pulmonale Dilated cardiomyopathy Heart failure - overview Lung disease Patient ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CKD treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ... and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, ...

  1. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008430 Effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WANG Haoyan(王浩彦), et al. Dept Respir Dis, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Capital Med Sci Univ, Beijing 100050. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):414-416. Objective To investigate the effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  3. The prevalence and management of angina among patients with chronic coronary artery disease across US outpatient cardiology practices: insights from the Angina Prevalence and Provider Evaluation of Angina Relief (APPEAR) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureshi, Faraz; Shafiq, Ali; Arnold, Suzanne V; Gosch, Kensey; Breeding, Tracie; Kumar, Ashwath S; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A

    2017-01-01

    Although eliminating angina is a primary goal in treating patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), few contemporary data quantify prevalence and severity of angina across US cardiology practices. The authors hypothesized that angina among outpatients with CAD managed by US cardiologists is low and its prevalence varies by site. Among 25 US outpatient cardiology clinics enrolled in the American College of Cardiology Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence (PINNACLE) registry, we prospectively recruited a consecutive sample of patients with chronic CAD over a 1- to 2-week period at each site between April 2013 and July 2015, irrespective of the reason for their appointment. Eligible patients had documented history of CAD (prior acute coronary syndrome, prior coronary revascularization procedure, or diagnosis of stable angina) and ≥1 prior office visit at the practice site. Angina was assessed directly from patients using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire Angina Frequency score. Among 1257 patients from 25 sites, 7.6% (n = 96) reported daily/weekly, 25.1% (n = 315) monthly, and 67.3% (n = 846) no angina. The proportion of patients with daily/weekly angina at each site ranged from 2.0% to 24.0%, but just over half (56.3%) were on ≥2 antianginal medications, with wide variability across sites (0%-100%). One-third of outpatients with chronic CAD managed by cardiologists report having angina in the prior month, and 7.6% have frequent symptoms. Among those with frequent angina, just over half were on ≥2 antianginal medications, with wide variability across sites. These findings suggest an opportunity to improve symptom control.

  4. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There is growing evidence of increased prevalence of hypothyroidism in dialysis-independent CKD patients. A number of findings such as lower serum albumin, serum calcium, and hemoglobin levels and higher intact parathyroid hormone levels are seen in this group. Specific treatment can help improve these. Hence, there is a need to formulate guidelines to screen this population for hypothyroidism.

  5. Somatotype and disease prevalence in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, M; Nacheva, A; Boev, M

    2002-01-01

    We examined the association between the somatotype and its main components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy), and the prevalence of several chronic diseases. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey designed to assess somatotype and morbidity with special reference to most often diagnosed diseases. The study population comprised 524 men and 250 women. The subjects underwent laboratory tests and clinical and anthropometric examinations. Of all examined workers, 94.8% fell into the five somatotype categories; of these, 394 were endomorphic mesomorphs. The most common somatotype was endomorphic mesomorph for men and mesomorph-endomorph for women. In five disease groups, prevalence was significantly related to a somatotype. Mesomorphic endomorphs most frequently suffered from digestive system diseases (40.6%, p somatotype having a dominant mesomorphy and marked endomorphy constitutes a risk factor as a particular predisposition toward certain diseases and requires body weight control.

  6. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  7. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Other Chronic Pain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Yunus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS. CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild.

  8. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in other chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2012-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild.

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the feet and ankles Causes & Risk FactorsWhat causes CKD?The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. ... caused by CKD.How else is CKD treated?Chronic kidney disease can cause other problems. Talk with your doctor about how ...

  10. Prevalência da doença renal crônica nos estágios 3, 4 e 5 em adultos Prevalence of chronic kidney disease, stages 3, 4 and 5 in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Rodrigues Bastos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Medidas que otimizem a detecção precoce da doença renal crônica (DRC são fundamentais para o retardo na evolução da doença e diminuição do aporte de indivíduos às terapias renais de substituição. OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência da DRC em seus estágios 3, 4 e 5, utilizando registros laboratoriais de indivíduos submetidos a dosagem de creatinina sérica por causas diversas em laboratório da rede particular do município de Juiz de Fora, no período de 2004 e 2005. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi consubstanciado pelo cálculo estimado da filtração glomerular, utilizando a equação do estudo MDRD (Modification of diet in renal disease, e seguiu os critérios propostos pelo K/DOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative para o diagnóstico e classificação da DRC. RESULTADOS: A prevalência encontrada foi de 9,6%, sendo 12,2% no sexo feminino, 5,8% no sexo masculino, 3,7% em indivíduos abaixo de 60 anos e 25,2% acima de 60 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados evidenciam a prevalência da DRC não apenas como um indicador epidemiológico, mas demonstram um aspecto operacional alternativo para otimizar a capacidade de detecção dos casos e permitem sugerir a inclusão do cálculo da filtração glomerular como um dado complementar aos resultados das dosagens de creatinina sérica fornecidos pelos laboratórios.INTRODUCTION: Strategies that optimize early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD are paramount to decrease progression of the disease and the burden of patients needing renal replacement therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CKD stage 3, 4 and 5 in people submitted to dosage of serum creatinine due to different causes, employing a dataset from a private laboratory of the city of Juiz de Fora comprising the years 2004 and 2005. METHODS: Diagnosis and staging of CKD were based upon glomerular filtration rate (GFR estimated from serum creatinine as recommended by the KDOQI of

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated to chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients on HAART and undetectable viral load in Brazil.

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    Andréia M Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and associated factors with chronic kidney disease (CKD in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals with undetectable viral load on HAART. METHODS: From March, 2009 to September 2009, 213 individuals between 18-70 years, period on HAART ≥12 months, viral load < 50 copies/mm(3, and CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm(3, were consecutively enrolled at the outpatient clinic of Hospital de Clínicas, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were obesity, malnourishment, amputee, paraplegic, previous history of renal disease, pregnancy and hepatic insufficiency. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR assessed by the modification of diet in renal disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less or equal than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2, for a period of at least 3 months. Poisson regression was used to determine factors associated with CKD. RESULTS: CKD was diagnosed in 8.4% of the population, and after adjustment, the risk factors were hypertension (RR = 3.88, 95%CI, 1.84-8.16, time on HAART (RR = 1.15, 95%CI,1.03-1.27 and tenofovir exposure (RR = 2.25, 95%CI, 1.04-4.95. Higher weight (RR = 0.88 95%CI, 0.82-0.96 was associated to normal function. CONCLUSIONS: CKD was a common finding in this cohort of patients and was related to hypertension, time on HAART and tenofovir exposure. We suggest a more frequent monitoring of renal function, especially for those with risk factors to early identify renal impairment.

  12. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Are Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Responsible for Cognitive Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle, Pilar; Talavera, Juan O.; Reynoso, Nancy; González, Marissa; Gómez-Díaz, Rita A.; Cruz, Miguel; Vázquez, Felipe; Wacher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) among patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (RDD) and to identify any relationships between CI and RDD comorbidities. Methods: One thousand seven hundred twelve patients with RDD participated in a cross-sectional study. The patients’ sociodemographic and clinical data were registered. Results The sample population had an average age of 51 ± 11 years, and 63.26% of the patients were female. CI was diagnosed in 38 patients (2.2%) and was more common among both females (2.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.063) and the elderly (0% at an age ≤ 30 years vs. 10.4% at an age > 70 years, p = 0.0001). Rheumatoid arthritis (present in 15.8% vs. absent in 2.1%) and asthma (13% vs. 2.1%) correlated significantly with CI based on the results of our logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Age, female gender, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma are risk factors for CI in the setting of RDD. PMID:26517541

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : a proteomics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Bruno Miguel Coelho, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Molecular), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation that is not fully reversible even under bronchodilators effect, caused by a mixture of small airway disease – obstructive bronchiolitis – and parenchymal destruction – emphysema. At the present time, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death and its prevalence and mortality are expected to contin...

  14. Chronic Diseases Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/exercise.htm . Accessed December 20, 2013. Fryar CD, Chen T, Li X. Prevalence of uncontrolled risk factors for cardiovascular disease: United States, 1999–2010. NCHS Data Brief, No. ...

  15. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: A study from a tertiary care hospital in India

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    Sanjay Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered mineral metabolism is common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, there are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in Indian CKD population. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD over a period of 3 years. The biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, namely, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and 25-hydoxyvitamin Vitamin D3 (25OHD, were measured in newly diagnosed CKD Stage 3–5 and prevalent CKD Stage 5D adult patients. Results: A total of 462 patients of CKD Stage 3–5D were studied. The frequency of various biochemical abnormalities was hypocalcemia (23.8%, hypercalcemia (5.4%, hypophosphatemia (2.8%, hyperphosphatemia (55.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase (56.9%, secondary hyperparathyroidism (82.7%, and hypoparathyroidism (1.5%. 25OHD was done in 335 (72.5% patients and 90.4% were found to have Vitamin D deficiency. About 70.6% of the patients had iPTH levels were above kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI target range. Nondiabetic CKD as compared to diabetic CKD had a higher alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.016, a higher iPTH (P = 0.001 a higher proportion of patients with iPTH above KDOQI target range (P = 0.09, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004. The 25OHD levels were suggestive of severe Vitamin D deficiency in 33.7%, Vitamin D deficiency in 45.4%, and Vitamin D insufficiency in 11.3% patients. There was a significant positive correlation between iPTH with alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.572, P = 0.001, creatinine (r = 0.424, P = 0.001, and phosphorus (r = 0.241, P = 0.001 and a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin (r = −0.325, 0.001, age (r = −0.169, P = 0.002, and 25OHD (r = −0.126, P = 0.021. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an elevated alkaline phosphatase was a significant predictor of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 9.7, 95

  16. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  17. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. Methods A multilevel prevalence model for ca...

  18. Specific mutations of basal core promoter are associated with chronic liver disease in hepatitis B virus subgenotype D1 prevalent in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Mustafa; Sugiyama, Masaya; Kurbanov, Fuat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Khan, Anis; Elkady, Abeer; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi

    2013-02-01

    The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genetics in the clinical manifestations of infection is being increasingly recognized. Genotype D is one of eight currently recognized major HBV genotypes. The virus is ubiquitous worldwide, but shows different features in different regions. One hundred and ninety-eight patients with chronic HBV infection were enrolled in this study, 38 of whom had been diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV DNA was isolated from the patients' blood samples and the entire genome and/or the basal core promoter/core promoter region sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes revealed that subgenotype D1 is the most prevalent subgenotype in Turkey, but there was no definite phylogenetic grouping according to geography for isolates from different regions within Turkey, or for isolates in Turkey relative to other parts of the world. Turkish isolates tended to be genetically similar to European and central Asian isolates. Overall, HBV-infection in Turkey appears to be characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion, a high incidence of the A1896 core promoter mutation and a small viral load. Genotype D characteristic mutations A1757 and T1764/G1766 were found in the BCP region. T1773 was associated with T1764/G1766 and a larger viral load. In conclusion, infection with HBV genotype D in Turkey has a similar clinical outcome to that of Europe and central Asia. Genotypic mutations in genotype D may be linked with disease prognosis in Turkey, but further studies with higher sample numbers and balanced clinical groups are needed to confirm this.

  19. "The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey"

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Aquiles; de Rodriguez Juan; Pichardo Guillermina; Liu Zhaorui; Hernandez Milagros; Jacob KS; AT, Jotheeswaran; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Acosta Daisy; Ferri Cleusa P; Sousa Renata M; Sosa Ana; Williams Joseph; Zuniga Tirso

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey was ...

  20. Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Lower Prevalence and Subsequent Incidence of Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Lars E; Jepsen, Peter; Christensen, Lisbet A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori infection may protect against some chronic inflammatory diseases. This study examined H. pylori infection and its association with the prevalence of the gastrointestinal diseases Crohn's disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and coeliac disease [Ce...

  1. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  2. Efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of captive and free ranging cervid ruminants. Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are a free-ranging species of large cervid with a habitat that includes large US national parks. Minimally ...

  3. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  5. Prevalence of autoantibodies and the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated with interferon-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Gehring; Ulrike Kullmer; Sabine Koeppelmann; Patrick Gerner; Philip Wintermeyer; Stefan Wirth

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected children focusing on thyroid autoimmunity.METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of autoantibodies in 123 chronic HCV-infected children before,during and after monotherapy with interferon-alpha (TFN-α) or combined treatment with interferon-α or peginterferon-α and ribavirin. Besides antibodies against smooth muscle (SMA), nuclei (ANA), and liver/kidney microsomes (LKM), the incidence of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies as well as thyroid function parameters (TSH, FT3 and FT4) were determined.RESULTS: We found that 8% of children had autoantibodies before treatment. During treatment,18% of children were found positive for at least one autoantibody; 15.5% of children developed pathologic thyroid values during IFN-α treatment compared to only one child before therapy. Six children had to be substituted while developing laboratory signs of hypothyroidism.CONCLUSION: Our data indicate a strong correlation between interferon-α treatment and autoimmune phenomena, notably the emergence of thyroid antibodies. The fact that some children required hormone replacement underlines the need of close monitoring in particularly those who respond to therapy and have to be treated for more than 6 mo.

  6. An observational, cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in India (START -India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prasannakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular complications and macrovascular complications was present in 657 (43.8%, 655 (43.7%, 268 (17.9% and 104 (6.93%, respectively. This interim analysis revealed that about 46% of the T2DM patients had CKD (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR ≥30 mg/g and/or estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The renal dysfunction as per e

  7. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  8. HIV and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmanian, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 - 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV

  9. Autoimmune thyroid disease and chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Cecilia; Demarco, Paul; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    We report six cases of autoimmune thyroid disease associated with chronic urticaria and briefly review the literature, including the histopathological nature of such lesions, and their aetiology and pathogenesis. In view of the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with chronic urticaria, screening measurements of thyrotropin and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies are recommended, although negative antibodies do not exclude a relationship between urticaria and thyroid autoimmunity. After failure of conventional therapy for urticaria, patients who are apparently clinically euthyroid may be considered for a trial with levothyroxine. Improvement of urticaria was seen with levothyroxine treatment in three of four patients with only marginal abnormalities in thyroid function.

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption and chronic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Clowry, Catherine M; Murray, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Drinking within recommended limits is highly prevalent in much of the world, and strong epidemiological associations exist between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of several major chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and breast cancer. In many cases, plausible...... biological mediators for these associations have been identified in randomized trials, but gold standard evidence that moderate drinking causes or prevents any chronic disease remains elusive and important concerns about available evidence have been raised. Although long-term randomized trials to test...... suggests that objections to the execution of a full-scale, long-term clinical trial of moderate drinking on chronic disease are increasingly untenable. We present potential lessons learned for such a trial and discuss key features to maximize its feasibility and value....

  11. Investigation on prevalence of chronic diseases among urban and rural residents aged 30-79 years in Tangshan%唐山市30~79岁城乡居民慢性病患病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志坤; 刘丹; 张晓慧; 项东; 何金奎; 张绍文; 高庆华; 李芳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic diseases in Tangshan city and to establish scientific basis for the establishment of public health and diseases prevention and policies of Tangshan. METHODS A total of 257 614 residents aged 30-79 years from 14 districts of Tangshan were selected by cluster randomly sampling. The investigation with questionnaire was conducted in-home, face-to-face, and chronic diseases were self-reported. RESULTS The total prevalence rates of chronic diseases was 40.4%. The first five of the most prevalent chronic diseases were hypertension, chronic gastric ulcer/gastritis, heart disease, diabetes, cerebral thrombosis, and their prevalence rates was 12.1%, 10.2%, 8.6%, 3.1% and 2.6%, respectively. They occupied 90.6% of all the cases of chronic diseases, The prevalence rates of hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes were all higher for women than for men, and were also higher for urban than for rural, and the rates of chronic gastric ulcer/gastritis, cerebral thrombosis were all higher for rural than for urban, were also higher for men than for women. There were 69, 725 (27.7%) of subjects had one or more than one chronic diseases, which was higher among urban than rural (31.3% vs 26.5%), higher among women than men (28.2% vs 27.2%), and incidence rate of 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, 70-years-old was 14.1%, 22.4%, 32.6%, 44.2%, 51.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of chronic diseases has increased with age, and it was higher among urban than rural. Hypertension, chronic gastric ulcer/gastritis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are the first four kinds of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Tangshan, which would be the main diseases need to control and prevent.%目的 调查河北省唐山市城乡居民主要慢性病患病率及分布特征,为制定防病政策提供依据.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,选取14个县区257 614名30~79岁

  12. Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coll-de-Tuero Gabriel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is associated with an increased total mortality and cardiovascular morbimortality in the general population and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of kidney disease and different types of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2,642 T2DM patients cared for in primary care during 2007. Studied variables: demographic and clinical characteristics, pharmacological treatments and T2DM complications (diabetic foot, retinopathy, coronary heart disease and stroke. Variables of renal function were defined as follows: 1 Microalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 30 mg/g or 3.5 mg/mmol, 2 Macroalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 300 mg/g or 35 mg/mmol, 3 Kidney disease (KD: glomerular filtration rate according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 2 and/or the presence of albuminuria, 4 Renal impairment (RI: glomerular filtration rate 2, 5 Nonalbuminuric RI: glomerular filtration rate 2 without albuminuria and, 5 Diabetic nephropathy (DN: macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria plus diabetic retinopathy. Results The prevalence of different types of renal disease in patients was: 34.1% KD, 22.9% RI, 19.5% albuminuria and 16.4% diabetic nephropathy (DN. The prevalence of albuminuria without RI (13.5% and nonalbuminuric RI (14.7% was similar. After adjusting per age, BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure and macrovascular disease, RI was significantly associated with the female gender (OR 2.20; CI 95% 1.86–2.59, microvascular disease (OR 2.14; CI 95% 1.8–2.54 and insulin treatment (OR 1.82; CI 95% 1.39–2.38, and inversely associated with HbA1c (OR 0.85 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 0.80–0.91. Albuminuria without RI was inversely associated with the female gender (OR 0.27; CI 95% 0.21–0.35, duration of diabetes (OR 0.94 per year; CI 95% 0.91–0.97 and directly associated with HbA1c (OR 1.19 for every

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease and Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Rebić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial cell layer is responsible for molecular traffic between the blood and surrounding tissue, and endothelial integrity plays a pivotal role in many aspects of vascular function. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and its incidence and severity increase in direct proportion with kidney function decline. Non-traditional risk factors for CVDs, including endothelial dysfunction (ED, are highly prevalent in this population and play an important role in cardiovascular (CV events. ED is the first step in the development of atherosclerosis and its severity has prognostic value for CV events. Several risk markers have been associated with ED. Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide plays a central role, linking kidney disease to ED, atherosclerosis, and CV events. Inflammation, loss of residual renal function, and insulin resistance are closely related to ED in CKD. ED may be followed by structural damage and remodelling that can precipitate both bleeding and thrombotic events. The endothelium plays a main role in vascular tone and metabolic pathways. ED is the first, yet potentially reversible step in the development of atherosclerosis and its severity has prognostic value for CV events.

  14. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

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    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  17. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...... from which he eventually died. The glomerulonephritis was of unknown origin, and a possible relationship between CGD and glomerulonephritis is discussed....

  18. Equally high prevalences of infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori in Chinese patients with peptic ulcer disease and those with chronic gastritis-associated dyspepsia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Z J; Hulst, R.W. van der; Feller, M.; Xiao, S D; Tytgat, G N; Dankert, J.; Ende, A. van der

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 60% of Helicobacter pylori isolates in the Western world possess the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA). cagA-positive H. pylori is found to be associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastric adenocarcinoma. To investigate the cagA status of H. pylori isolates from Chinese patients with PUD and chronic gastritis (CG), H. pylori populations from 83 patients, 48 with PUD and 35 with CG, were assessed by two different cagA-specific PCRs, Southern blotting, and colony hybridi...

  19. Prevalence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in South Indian population with hypertension and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shanmuganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is associated with a high risk of developing further severe complications such as, cardiovascular disease and eventually End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD leading to death. Hypertension plays a key role in the progression of renal failure and is also a chief risk factor for the occurrence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Aim: This study investigates the possible association of insertion (I and deletion (D polymorphism of ACE gene in patients of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD with and without hypertension (HT. Settings and Design: Total 120 participants with 30 members in each group (Control, HT, CKD and CKD-HT were chosen followed by informed consent. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical analyses and nested PCR amplification was performed to genotype the DNA, for ACE I/D using specific primers. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 13. Allele and genotypic frequency was calculated by direct gene counting method. Comparison of the different genotypes was done by using Chi square test. Odd′s ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval limit. Results: The ACE genotype were distributed as II, 27 (90%; DD, 2 (6.67% and ID, 1 (3.33% in control, II, 1 (3.33%; DD, 5 (16.67% and ID, 24 (80% in HT, II, 4 (13.33%; DD, 24 (80% and ID, 2 (6.67% in CKD and II, 0 (0%; DD, 2 (6.67% and ID, 28 (93.33% in CKD-HT group. Conclusions: D allele of ACE gene confers a greater role in genetic variations underlying CKD and hypertension. This result suggest that CKD patients should be offered analysis for defects in ACE I/D polymorphisms, especially if they are hypertensive.

  20. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A; Silva-Vidal, Karen V; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arrese, Marco; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an alarming public health problem. The disease is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and is directly linked to the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the general population. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated at 20-30%, but the prevalence is unknown in the Americas because of a lack of epidemiological studies. However, given the trends in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD and its consequences are expected to increase in the near future. The aim of the present study is to present the current data on the prevalence of NAFLD in the Americas. We performed an electronic search of the main databases from January 2000 to September 2013 and identified 356 reports that were reviewed. We focused on the epidemiology and prevalence of known NAFLD risk factors including obesity, T2DM, and the metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of the MS was highest in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Chile, and Venezuela. In addition, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and Mexico have the highest prevalence of T2DM in the Americas, while USA has the most people with T2DM. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of NAFLD and obesity were highest in the United States, Belize, Barbados, and Mexico.

  1. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Rates of Oral Antidiabetic Prescribing in Accordance with Guidelines and Manufacturer Recommendations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients within a Long-Term Care Setting

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    Ning Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD among nursing home (NH residents with type 2 diabetes. The pattern of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD use and their concordance with the National Kidney Foundation (NKF guideline and prescribing information (PI was also assessed. About half (47% of diabetic residents had moderate to severe CKD. A little over a quarter of the 186 residents using OADs received at least one NKF-discordant OAD prescription. Metformin was the most commonly misused OAD. PI nonconcordance was observed in 58.6% of residents and was highest in glipizide and metformin users. With the high prevalence of moderate to severe CKD in NH residents with diabetes, physicians should consider residents’ renal function when choosing treatment plans and review treatments regularly to check compliance with the NKF guidelines or PIs.

  2. Increased prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in Korean patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

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    Chang-Mo Oh

    Full Text Available In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients.We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20-79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year.The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender.Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  4. "The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Aquiles

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey was carried out at 11 sites in seven countries (urban sites in Cuba, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and India. All those aged 65 years and over living in geographically defined catchment areas were eligible. In all, 15,022 interviews were completed with an informant interview for each participant. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, dementia, physical impairments and self-reported diagnoses. Dependence was interviewer-rated based on a key informant's responses to a set of open-ended questions on the participant's needs for care. We estimated the prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions. Site-specific prevalence ratios were meta-analysed, and population attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF calculated. Results The prevalence of dependence increased with age at all sites, with a tendency for the prevalence to be lower in men than in women. Age-standardised prevalence was lower in all sites than in the USA. Other than in rural China, dementia made the largest independent contribution to dependence, with a median PAPF of 34% (range 23%-59%. Other substantial contributors were limb impairment (9%, 1%-46%, stroke (8%, 2%-17%, and depression (8%, 1%-27%. Conclusion The demographic and health transitions will lead to large and rapid increases in the numbers of dependent older people particularly in

  5. Tendências das desigualdades sociais e demográficas na prevalência de doenças crônicas no Brasil, PNAD: 2003- 2008 Trends in social and demographic inequalities in the prevalence of chronic diseases in Brazil. PNAD: 2003- 2008

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    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram: estimar as prevalências de doenças crônicas na população brasileira em 2008, comparando-as com as de 2003; avaliar o impacto da doença crônica no uso de serviços e nas restrições das atividades; e, analisar os diferenciais nas prevalências de doenças crônicas específicas, segundo nível de escolaridade e filiação a plano privado de saúde. Os dados foram obtidos do suplemento saúde das PNAD-2008 e 2003. As análises (prevalências e razões de prevalências brutas e ajustadas foram feitas com o aplicativo Stata 11. A prevalência de ter ao menos uma doença crônica foi mais elevada em: idosos, mulheres, cor/raça preta ou indígena, menor escolaridade, migrantes, moradores em áreas urbanas e na região Sul do país. As condições crônicas mais prevalentes foram: hipertensão, doença de coluna, artrite e depressão. Houve, entre 2003 e 2008, aumento da prevalência de diabetes, hipertensão, câncer e cirrose, e redução de insuficiência renal crônica e tuberculose. A maioria das doenças estudadas foram mais prevalentes nos segmentos de menor escolaridade e sem plano de saúde. As maiores diferenças entre os segmentos sociais foram observadas nas prevalências de cirrose, insuficiência renal crônica, tuberculose e artrite/reumatismo.The aims of this study are: to evaluate the prevalence of chronic diseases in the Brazilian population comparing data of 2008 with those of 2003; to estimate the impact of chronic conditions on the use of health services and on the restriction of daily activities and to measure the differentials in the prevalence of specific diseases according to educational strata and the affiliation to a private health plan. Data were obtained from PNAD 2008 and 2003. The analysis included estimations of crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, using svy commands from Stata 11 software. The prevalence of at least one disease was higher in: the elderly, women, low schooling

  6. The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

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    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a multifactorial disease. Allergies are considered a predisposing factor to CRS; however, this remains controversial. The objective of this research was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities and allergic reaction, and to specify the most common allergens in patients with confirmed CRS.   Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with signs and symptoms of CRS who met the diagnostic endoscopic and radiologic criteria of chronic rhinosinusitis were selected. They filled out a questionnaire and underwent a skin prick test for the common inhalant allergens. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed according to the history and positive skin prick tests.   Results: The mean age of patients was 34. Males were slightly more involved (54%. The prevalence of polypoid and none-polypoid rhinosinusitis was 54% and 46% respectively. The patients’ most common symptoms were nasal discharge (95%, blockage (94%, smell disorders (63%, cough (45%, halitosis (41%, lethargy (37%, and aural fullness (36%. Allergy to at least one allergen was noted in 64% of the CRS patients which is higher than general population in Mashhad, Iran with allergic rhinitis (22.4%. Salsola was the most common allergen. There was no significant difference in allergic reactions between polypoid and non-polypoid CRS patients.   Conclusion:  Allergic reactions was found in Iranian CRS patients with or without polyposis to be much higher than general population in Mashhad with allergic rhinitis alone.

  7. Prevalence and impact of disabling chronic conditions in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newacheck, P W; Halfon, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study provides a current national profile of the prevalence and impact of chronic conditions causing childhood disability. Disability is defined as a long-term reduction in ability to conduct social role activities, such as school or play, because of a chronic physical or mental condition. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed on data from 99513 children younger than 18 years who were included in the 1992-1994 National Health Interview Survey. The response rate exceeded 93% during each year. RESULTS: A significant proportion of children, estimated at 6.5% of all US children, experienced some degree of disability. The most common causes of childhood disability were respiratory diseases and mental impairments. Prevalence of disability was higher for older children, boys, and children from low-income and single-parent families. Childhood disability is estimated to result in 66 million restricted activity days annually, including 24 million days lost from school. Furthermore, disability in childhood results in an added 26 million physician contacts and 5 million hospital days annually. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood disability has profound impacts on children, the education system, and the health care system. PMID:9551003

  8. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max; Dræbel, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low...... and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related NCDs in Zanzibar. Methods We used mixed methods research. The quantitative part of the study is a secondary analysis of data for obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and fruit and vegetable consumption previously collected in the Zanzibar NCD STEPS survey (n......=2800, age 25–65 years, done from June to July, 2011). We calculated frequency, percentage, and 95% CIs for age, sex, marital status, level of education, income, tobacco use, alcohol use, obesity (body mass index), hypertension (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and diabetes (fasting blood glucose...

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C%慢性丙型肝炎患者心血管疾病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兆霞; 王玉珍(综述); 苏少慧(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is hepatotropic and pantropic,which also shows a lot of extrahepatic manifestation except liver damage. In recent years,studies show a close relationship between cardiovascular diseases and chronic hepatitis C. HCV infection can cause atherosclerosis,myocardial disease,myocarditis,pulmonary high-pressure and so on,making it a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases.%丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)具有嗜肝性和泛嗜性,除造成肝脏损伤外,也表现出大量的肝外表现。近年来研究表明,慢性丙型肝炎患者心血管疾病发生率较高。HCV感染可造成动脉粥样硬化、心肌病、心肌炎、肺动脉高压等,成为心血管疾病的危险因素。

  10. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term that is used to include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or a combination of both conditions. Asthma is also a disease where it is difficult ... with COPD to also have some degree of asthma. What is chronic ... back to their original size. In emphysema, the walls of some of the alveoli have ...

  12. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Biryukov, Stan; Bolliger, Ian; Charlson, Fiona; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dicker, Daniel; Duan, Leilei; Erskine, Holly; Feigin, Valery L.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Heuton, Kyle R.; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kyu, Hmwe; Laurie, Evan; Liang, Xiofeng; Lofgren, Katherine; Lozano, Rafael; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Odell, Shaun; Ortblad, Katrina; Roberts, David Allen; Roth, Gregory A.; Sandar, Logan; Serina, Peter T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Thomas, Bernadette; Vollset, Stein Emil; Whiteford, Harvey; Wolock, Timothy M.; Ye, Pengpeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Avila, Marco A.; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Josef C.; Arnlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J.; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Anderson, H. Ross; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Arsenijevic, Valentain S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Basu, Arindam; Baxter, Amanda; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfi Qar; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brooks, Peter M.; Brown, Jonathan; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Burch, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Cardenas, Rosario; Cabral, Norberto L.; Nonato, Ismael R. Campos; Campuzano, Julio C.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coggeshall, Megan; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Contreras, Alejandra G.; Cooper, Leslie T.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Coresh, Josef; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Dansereau, Emily; Dantes, Hector G.; Dargan, Paul I.; Davey, Gail; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; de Veber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. R.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duber, Herbert; Durrani, Adnan M.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fahimi, Saman; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferri, Cluesa P.; Flaxman, Abraham; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Furst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim A.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Gugnani, Harish C.; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Howard; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huang, Cheng; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Katz, Ronit; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A. H.; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kissela, Brett M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Kramer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Lim, Stephen; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lind, Margaret; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lopez-Olmedo, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Low, Nicola; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Mackay, Mark T.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mapoma, Christopher C.; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn M.; Margono, Chris; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin B.; Masci, Joseph R.; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard G.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGill, Neil W.; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abby; McMahon, Brian J.; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mensah, George; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Moore, Ami R.; Moran, Andrew E.; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Moyer, Madeline; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Paria; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newman, Lori M.; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Nhung, Nguyen T.; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Ortiz, Alberto; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S.; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phillips, David; Phillips, Bryan; Piel, Frederic B.; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, C. A.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qato, Dima; Quistberg, D. A.; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Refaat, Amany; Rehm, Jurgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Riederer, Anne M.; Robinson, Margot; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Ksoreide, Kjetil; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E.; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I.; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Speyer, Peter; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stoeckl, Heidi; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Murray B.; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stewart, Andrea; Stork, Eden; Stovner, Lars J.; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Tan, Feng; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Theadom, Alice M.; Thomas, Elissa; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uzun, Selen B.; van Brakel, Wim H.; de Vijver, Steven van; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Veerman, Lennert J.; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Waller, Stephen; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Linhong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Thomas N.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wong, John Q.; Wong, Haidong; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yentur, Gokalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Kim, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhao, Yong; Zhu, Jun; Zonies, David; Zunt, Joseph R.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities f

  13. Anemia of chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Long-term infections, such as bacterial endocarditis, osteomyelitis (bone infection), HIV/AIDS , hepatitis B or hepatitis ... disease Crohn disease Erythropoietin test Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Osteomyelitis Rheumatic fever Ulcerative colitis Review Date 2/1/ ...

  14. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.......Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  15. Comparação das informações sobre as prevalências de doenças crônicas obtidas pelo suplemento saúde da PNAD/98 e as estimadas pelo estudo Carga de Doença no Brasil Comparison of the information on prevalences of chronic diseases obtained by the health suplement of PNAD/98 and the estimated ones by the study Burden of Disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iúri da Costa Leite

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, estimativas de prevalência de cinco doenças crônicas ­ cirrose, depressão, diabetes, insuficiência renal crônica e tuberculose ­ obtidas pelo Suplemento Saúde da PNAD/98 foram comparadas com as obtidas no Projeto Carga Global de Doença no Brasil. Essas estimativas foram baseadas em análise sistemática de literatura e banco de dados de morbidade disponíveis. Os resultados mostram que a PNAD apresentou número de casos mais elevados para depressão e insuficiência renal crônica, enquanto as estimativas do Projeto Carga de Doença no Brasil apresentou maiores prevalências para cirrose, diabetes e tuberculose.In this study, prevalence estimates of five chronic disease cirrhosis, depression, diabetes, chronic rhenal insufficiency and tuberculosis based on the 1998 PNAD Health Supplement were compared to those obtained by the Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Project. These estimates were based on systematic literature review as well as on available data set of morbidities. The results show that PNAD presented higher number of cases for depression and Chronic rhenal insufficiency while the prevalence rates estimated by Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Project were higher for cirrhosis, diabetes and tuberculosis.

  16. Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Related Symptoms among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Kadanali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A growing pile of evidence supports the notion that pulmonary involvement is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and vice versa.Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed: 1. A prevalence study of HCV infection among patients with COPD; 2. A prevalence study of COPD among patients with chronic HCV infection. COPD was diagnosed according to ATS/ERS guidelines. The prevalence of HCV infection in COPD group was compared with the result of a previous study which determined the prevalence of HCV infection in general population. Prevalence of COPD in patients with chronic HCV infection was also compared to those with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection.Results: The study included 108 patients with COPD, 68 patients with chronic HCV infection, and 60 patients with chronic HBV infection. HCV infection was observed in 8.3% of patients with COPD, and 1.2% of the control subjects (P= 0.000. The prevalence of COPD among patients with chronic HCV and HBV infection was 17.6%, and 5%, respectively (P=0.03. Comparing COPD-positive and -negative chronic HCV patients for risk factors for COPD revealed that only the mean age was higher in COPD-positive patients (60.8±9.1 years vs. 46.5±11.5 years, P=0.000. In multivariate analysis, age was found to be the only independent predictor of COPD in HCV group.Conclusions: Patients with COPD have increased prevalence of HCV infection, and patients with HCV infection, have increased prevalence of COPD. COPD may be an extrahepatic disease associated with HCV infection.

  18. Exercise for older patients with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, R J

    1999-10-01

    Coronary artery disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and cognitive disorders become more prevalent as people age. Besides delaying the onset of many of these conditions, regular exercise may improve function and delay disability and morbidity in those who have them. Further, exercise may work synergistically with medication to combat the effects of some chronic diseases. Special adaptations for older patients include lower-intensity exercise (eg, fewer repetitions), low-impact exercise (cycling, exercise while sitting), and modified equipment (smaller weights, special shoes, loose clothing). Unresolved issues include development of optimal strategies for motivating older patients to begin and maintain exercise programs.

  19. Ivabradine, heart failure and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Di Lullo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure are actually increasing worldwide, especially in Western countries. In Europe and the United States, congestive heart failure represents a disabling clinical disease, accountable for increased hospitalization and health care costs. European guidelines have underlined the importance of pharmacological treatment to improve both patients’ outcomes and quality of life. The latest clinical trials to evaluate ivabradine’s efficacy have underlined its usefulness as a stand-alone medication and in combination with conventional congestive heart failure therapy, including in chronic kidney disease patients.

  20. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  1. Living With Chronic Lower Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Pooler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I present a phenomenological study of individuals’ experiences of living with moderate to very severe chronic lower pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or both. Phenomenology is a philosophy, distinct from descriptive or thematic research, which is useful as a foundation for scientific inquiry. In this study, I used the lens of Merleau-Ponty to understand and interpret participants’ experiences of living with pulmonary disease, and the approach of van Manen for analysis. I conclude that in chronic pulmonary disease, awareness of breathing and the body is experienced in the sounds, sensations, and signals of breathing and the body, and in the experiences of the body-in-the-world. Central themes of being-in-the-world from the study describe the disruption of the embodied phenomenological self: Participants experienced slowing down, doing less, and having to stop due to shortness of breath. Both chronic and acute dyspnea were prevalent and the taken-for-granted aspects of daily activities were disrupted. Findings of this study have implications for public and patient education, and opportunities for integration of experiential aspects within nursing education and practice.

  2. Chronic urticaria and celiac disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Diego G; Paiola, Giulia; Tenero, Laura; Fornaro, Martina; Bodini, Alessandro; Pollini, Federica; Piacentini, Giorgio L

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of a 9-year-old girl who presented chronic urticaria associated with celiac disease. The prevalence of the manifestation of chronic urticaria in celiac disease is unknown but increase in atopic immunologic disorders has been reported in the setting of gluten enteropathy. Relationship between the clinical manifestations is not clear. The present case of subclinical celiac disease diagnosis in an otherwise asymptomatic child with chronic urticaria further reinforces the evidence that differential for celiac disease warrants to be always considered in children with refractory urticaria.

  3. Prevalence of Dupuytren Disease in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Rosanne; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Westerink, Bram; Werker, Paul M N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dupuytren disease is a fibroproliferative disease of palmar fascias of the hand. The prevalence of Dupuytren disease and the association with potential risk factors have been the subject of several studies, although there is a paucity of such data from The Netherlands. Methods: To study

  4. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  5. Sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Stephanie C; El Sara, Ammar; Chapman, Cherylle; Cohen, Danielle; Cukor, Daniel

    2016-05-06

    Sleep disorders have a profound and well-documented impact on overall health and quality of life in the general population. In patients with chronic disease, sleep disorders are more prevalent, with an additional morbidity and mortality burden. The complex and dynamic relationship between sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain relatively little investigated. This article presents an overview of sleep disorders in patients with CKD, with emphasis on relevant pathophysiologic underpinnings and clinical presentations. Evidence-based interventions will be discussed, in the context of individual sleep disorders, namely sleep apnea, insomnia, restless leg syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness. Limitations of the current knowledge as well as future research directions will be highlighted, with a final discussion of different conceptual frameworks of the relationship between sleep disorders and CKD.

  6. Endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzberg, E C; Casaburi, R

    2003-11-01

    In this overview, the available literature on endocrinological disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed, with stress on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), thyroid hormone and the anabolic steroids. In COPD, little is known about circulating growth hormone or IGF-I concentrations. Some authors find a decrease in growth hormone or IGF-I, others an increase. An increase of growth hormone might reflect a nonspecific response of the body to stress (for instance, hypoxaemia). Until now, only one controlled study on growth hormone supplementation has been published, which however did not reveal any functional benefits. Before growth hormone supplementation can be advised as part of the treatment in COPD, further controlled studies must be performed to investigate its functional efficacy. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in COPD and its role in pulmonary cachexia has not been extensively studied. So far, there is no evidence that thyroid function is consistently altered in COPD, except perhaps in a subgroup of patients with severe hypoxaemia. Further research is required to more extensively study the underlying mechanisms and consequences of disturbed thyroid function in this subgroup of COPD patients. A few studies have reported the results of anabolic steroid supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although some studies have discerned that low circulating levels of testosterone are common in males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, little is known about the prevalence, the underlying causes or functional consequences of hypogonadism in these patients. The use of systemic glucocorticosteroids and an influence of the systemic inflammatory response have been suggested as contributing to low testosterone levels. It can be hypothesised that low anabolic hormones will reduce muscle mass and eventually result in a diminished muscle function. Further evidence is required before testosterone

  7. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  8. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010;362(1):56-65. PMID: 20054047 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20054047 . Fogarty DG, Tall ... 5 Suppl 1):S1-S290. PMID: 15114537 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15114537 . Kidney Disease: Improving ...

  9. Social inequality in chronic disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Helene

    2014-11-01

    methodology, the additive hazards models, in which the potential role of behavioural risk factors can be regarded not only as mediation but also as interaction with the effect of socioeconomic position on chronic disease outcomes. The results support that two central mechanisms, differential exposure and differential vulnerability to behavioural risk factors, particularly smoking; have contributed substantially to the social inequality in chronic disease outcomes in Denmark. These mechanism are not mutually exclusive and should be regarded simultaneously. However, the findings could be non-causal associations due to, for instance, psychosocial or environmental factors. Nevertheless, research on social inequality in chronic disease outcomes should regard not only that the smoking prevalence is higher in lower socioeconomic groups (differential exposure), but also that health consequences of being a smoker seem to be worse in these subgroups (differential vulnerability).

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  11. Study on prevalence and related factors of chronic diseases among adults in rural area of Zhongshan city%中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志宏; 梁佩韶; 邝周平

    2010-01-01

    Objective Study on prevalence and related factors of chronic diseases among adults in rural area of Zhongshan city and provide evidences for health care policy making. Methods 15550 adults in rural area of Zhongshan city were investigated about status of chronic diseases and its related factors. Results 46.23% adults suffered from chronic diseases, in which the top five were overweight (30. 8%), hypertension ( 11.9% ), high blood cholesterol level ( 8.5 % ), diabetes ( 8.1% ), and Arthropathy ( 6. 5 % ). The main incorrect life manner were High-fat diet (58.9%), smoking( 25.6% % )and drinking( 15.3 % ). Multi-variable logistic regression analysis showed that time of sitting, salt diet, fat diet, smoking, drinking, quality of sleeping, sport were primary influencing factors of the chronic disease of rural adults. Conclusion The rural adults had high prevalence of chronic disease. Effective health education, active and efficient community service should be Provided, good living habits should be Advocated to promote the health of rural adults.%目的 探讨中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况及相关因素的现状,为农村慢性病综合防治的实施提供依据.方法 对中山市某两镇15550名居民健康调查和健康体检资料进行回顾性研究,分析中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况、行为习惯、就医意向等相关情况.结果 中山市农村居民主要慢性病的总患病率为46.23%,排在前5位的是:超重和肥胖、高血压、高脂血症、糖尿病和关节病,其患病率分别是30.8%、11.9%、8.5%、8.1%和6.5%;不良行为习惯排在前3位的是高脂饮食(58.9%)、吸烟(25.6%)和饮酒(15.3%);就医意向方面;有66.0%的居民表示患病时首选社区卫生服务机构就医,有81.3%的居民曾经到社区卫生服务机构就诊.多因素logistic回归分析显示:长期坐着工作(OR=1.704),高盐饮食(OR=2.752),高脂饮食(OR=2.497),吸烟(OR=1.932),饮酒(OR=1.354),经常熬夜(OR=1.213)是农

  12. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  13. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  14. Prevalence of chronic conditions – Musculoskeletal Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland and Northern Ireland Population Health Observatory (INIsPHO)

    2012-01-01

    IPH has estimated and forecast the number of adults with MSCs for the years 2010, 2015 and 2020. In the Republic of Ireland, the data are based on the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) 2007 . The data describe the number of people who report that they have experienced doctor-diagnosed MSC in the previous 12 months:     Lower back pain or any other chronic back condition     Rheumatoid arthritis (inflammation of the joints)     Ost...

  15. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levey, Andrew S.; Coresh, Josef; Bolton, Kline; Culleton, Bruce; Harvey, Kathy Schiro; Ikizler, T. Alp; Johnson, Cynda Ann; Kausz, Annamaria; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kusek, John; Levin, Adeera; Minaker, Kenneth L.; Nelson, Robert; Rennke, Helmut; Steffes, Michael; Witten, Beth; Hogg, Ronald J.; Furth, Susan; Lemley, Kevin V.; Portman, Ronald J.; Schwartz, George; Lau, Joseph; Balk, Ethan; Perrone, Ronald D.; Karim, Tauqeer; Rayan, Lara; Al-Massry, Inas; Chew, Priscilla; Astor, Brad C.; De Vine, Deirdre; Eknoyan, Garabed; Levin, Nathan; Burrows-Hudson, Sally; Keane, William; Kliger, Alan; Latos, Derrick; Mapes, Donna; Oberley, Edith; Willis, Kerry; Bailie, George; Becker, Gavin; Burrowes, Jerrilynn; Churchill, David; Collins, Allan; Couser, William; de Zeeuw, Dick; Garber, Alan; Golper, Thomas; Gotch, Frank; Gotto, Antonio; Greer, Joel W.; Grimm Jr., Richard; Hannah, Ramon G.; Acosta, Jaime Herrera; Hogg, Ronald; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Klag, Michael; Klahr, Saulo; Lewis, Caya; Lowrie, Edmund; Matas, Arthur; McCulloch, Sally; Michael, Maureen; Nally, Joseph V.; Newmann, John M.; Nissenson, Allen; Norris, Keith; Owen Jr., William; Patel, Thakor G.; Payne, Glenda; Rivera-Mizzoni, Rosa A.; Smith, David; Star, Robert; Steinman, Theodore; Valderrabano, Fernando; Walls, John; Wauters, Jean-Pierre; Wenger, Nanette; Briggs, Josephine

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease as a public health problem. Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of

  16. 兰州地区军队离退休老干部慢性疾病患病现况调查%A SURVEY ON PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC DISEASES AMONG THE RETIRED CADRES IN ARMY OF LANZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东; 杨丹; 张岩红; 王梅艳; 王朝端; 鹿琼; 尹榕

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To survey the situation of chronic non-communicable diseases among the retired cadres in army of Lanzhou, and trake some prevention tactics. [Methods] Using cluster sampling method, 550 veteran retired in Lanzhou were given physical examinations and questionaire. [Results] In this study, the mean age of interviewees, aged 56-98 years, was 78.90 year. 78.5% were more than 76 years (P< 0.01). The sex ratio (M/F) was 3.3∶1 (P< 0.05). All the interviewees had chronic disease, and compared with suffering from one kind of disease (15.33%) , the prevalence with four kinds was 47.38% (P<0.01). Compared with Xi'an and Anhui, Lanzhou had higher incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (P < 0.01), however, the prevalence rates of diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were low (P < 0.01). The top 5 chronic diseases in men were prostatic hyperplasia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cataract, diabetes, and the top 5 chronic diseases in women were hypertension, coronary heart disease, cataract, diabetes, and bone and joint diseases. [Conclusion] Nearly 2/3 of Lanzhou retired veterans have more than two chronic diseases. Men suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia are significantly more than the same age groups in other regions. Women suffering from bone and joint diseases are more than the men. Therefore, it is high time that the early intervention should be carried out for chronic disease risk factors to improve health care of Lanzhou retired veteran cadres. In addition to treatment for the diseases, the low-fat, low-salt, low-calorie diet and high calcium diet intervention and outdoor activities should be carried out for women.%[目的]调查兰州地区军队离退休老干部慢性非传染性疾病的患病情况,并提出相应的预防策略.[方法]采用整群抽样的方法.对兰州地区某3个干休所550名离退休老干部进行问卷调查和体格检查相结合的方法进行流调分析.[结果]调查对象年龄56~98

  17. Chronic kidney disease: considerations for nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, Alison L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent and has major health consequences for patients. Caring for patients with CKD requires knowledge of the food supply, renal pathophysiology, and nutrition-related medications used to work synergistically with diet to control the signs and symptoms of the disease. The nutrition care process and International Dietetic and Nutrition Terminology allow for systematic, holistic, quality care of patients with this complex, progressive disease. Nutrition interventions must be designed with the individual patients needs in mind while prioritizing factors with the largest negative impact on health outcomes and mortality risk. New areas of nutrition treatment are emerging that involve a greater focus on micronutrient needs, the microbiome, and vegetarian-style diets. These interventions may improve outcomes by decreasing inflammation, improving energy and protein delivery, and lowering phosphorus, electrolytes, and fluid retention.

  18. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation...... and neurohumoral dysregulation found in cirrhosis. Recent studies have shown that the ET system is highly activated in most cirrhotic patients. Circulating ET-1 and ET-3 levels have a positive relation to the severity of the disease and fluid retention, with the highest values recorded in patients with functional....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...

  19. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...... and neurohumoral dysregulation found in cirrhosis. Recent studies have shown that the ET system is highly activated in most cirrhotic patients. Circulating ET-1 and ET-3 levels have a positive relation to the severity of the disease and fluid retention, with the highest values recorded in patients with functional...

  20. Chronic Lyme disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Studies have shown that most patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease either have no objective evidence of previous or current infection with Borrelia burgdorferi or are patients who should be classified as having post-Lyme disease syndrome, which is defined as continuing or relapsing nonspecific symptoms (such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints) in a patient previously treated for Lyme disease. Despite extensive study, there is currently no clear evidence that post-Lyme disease syndrome is caused by persistent infection with B burgdorferi. Four randomized placebo-controlled studies have shown that antibiotic therapy offers no sustained benefit to patients who have post-Lyme disease syndrome. These studies also showed a substantial placebo effect and a significant risk of treatment-related adverse events. Further research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying persistent symptoms after Lyme disease and controlled trials of new approaches to the treatment and management of these patients are needed.

  1. [Chronic prostatitis and Bechterew's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlicek, J; Svec, V

    1977-11-01

    A group of patients between 35 and 65 years old with chronic prostatitis were examined for the presence of Becherew's disease. In this connection the New York and Roman criterions for morbus Bechterew were applied. There were found one ankyosing spondylarthritis, one ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, and 11 times a tentative sacroileitis were stated. Altogether the proved and tentative findings were only 3.68 per cent of all examinations. In our countries the morbus Bechterew is found in 0,21 per cent of the normal population. So the protion of the Bechterew's disease in patients with chronic prostatitis is indeed a little higher than average, but not so frequent as often pretended in recent times. After a second series 58 patients being treated because of Bechterew's disease of different stages and different terms were examined for the possibility of a simultaneously elapsing chronic prostatitis. A chronic prostatitis was found in 38 per cent of these patients which correspondents to the incidence published in literature for the medium-age manhood. Nobody of the test persons had complaints on the part of the urologenital tract.

  2. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessolossky M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mireya Wessolossky,1 Verna L Welch,2 Ajanta Sen,1 Tara M Babu,1 David R Luke21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USABackground: Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients.Methods: The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis.Results: Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61% and asthma (18%, and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27% and bone marrow transplants (14%. A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03. The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14; 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75.Conclusion: Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the

  3. Perspectives on "chronic Lyme disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip J

    2008-07-01

    There is much controversy about the treatment of Lyme disease with respect to 2 poorly defined entities: "chronic Lyme disease" and "posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome." In the absence of direct evidence that these conditions are the result of a persistent infection, some mistakenly advocate extended antibiotic therapy (>/=6 months), which can do great harm and has resulted in at least 1 death. The purpose of this brief report is to review what is known from clinical research about these conditions to assist both practicing physicians and lawmakers in making sound and safe decisions with respect to treatment.

  4. Chronic Diseases among Older Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Deckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the occurrence of pre-existing and subsequent comorbidity among older cancer patients (≥60 years with older non-cancer patients. Material and Methods. Each cancer patient (n=3835, mean age 72 was matched with four non-cancer patients in terms of age, sex, and practice. The occurrence of chronic diseases was assessed cross-sectionally (lifetime prevalence at time of diagnosis and longitudinally (incidence after diagnosis for all cancer patients and for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients separately. Cancer and non-cancer patients were compared using logistic and Cox regression analysis. Results. The occurrence of the most common pre-existing and incident chronic diseases was largely similar in cancer and non-cancer patients, except for pre-existing COPD (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.37 and subsequent venous thrombosis in the first two years after cancer diagnosis (HR 4.20, 95% CI 2.74–6.44, which were significantly more frequent (P<0.01 among older cancer compared to non-cancer patients. Conclusion. The frequency of multimorbidity in older cancer patients is high. However, apart from COPD and venous thrombosis, the incidence of chronic diseases in older cancer patients is similar compared to non-cancer patients of the same age, sex, and practice.

  5. Chronic Diseases among Older Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckx, Laura; van den Akker, Marjan; Metsemakers, Job; Knottnerus, André; Schellevis, François; Buntinx, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare the occurrence of pre-existing and subsequent comorbidity among older cancer patients (≥60 years) with older non-cancer patients. Material and Methods. Each cancer patient (n = 3835, mean age 72) was matched with four non-cancer patients in terms of age, sex, and practice. The occurrence of chronic diseases was assessed cross-sectionally (lifetime prevalence at time of diagnosis) and longitudinally (incidence after diagnosis) for all cancer patients and for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients separately. Cancer and non-cancer patients were compared using logistic and Cox regression analysis. Results. The occurrence of the most common pre-existing and incident chronic diseases was largely similar in cancer and non-cancer patients, except for pre-existing COPD (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.37) and subsequent venous thrombosis in the first two years after cancer diagnosis (HR 4.20, 95% CI 2.74–6.44), which were significantly more frequent (P < 0.01) among older cancer compared to non-cancer patients. Conclusion. The frequency of multimorbidity in older cancer patients is high. However, apart from COPD and venous thrombosis, the incidence of chronic diseases in older cancer patients is similar compared to non-cancer patients of the same age, sex, and practice. PMID:22956953

  6. High prevalence of microalbuminuria in chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Wal, RMA; Asselbergs, FW; Plokker, HWT; Smilde, TDJ; Lok, D; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Van Gilst, WH; Voors, AA

    2005-01-01

    Background: Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relation between microalbuminuria and chronic heart failure has not been well described yet. In this cross-sectional study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria an

  7.  Association between hepatitis B virus and chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Donato, Francesca M; Messa, Piergiorgio

     Background. Hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease are prevalent and remain a major public health problem worldwide. It remains unclear how infection with hepatitis B virus impacts on the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  9. PREVALENCE OF HEART DISEASE IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi Natarajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previously, the high maternal mortality in cardiac patients who became pregnant prompted the assertion: Women with an abnormal heart should not become pregnant. This long-standing notion needs to be revised today. AIM To study the prevalence of heart disease in antenatal admissions at Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. METHODOLOGY An observational study of 3669 antenatal patients being admitted in GRH, Madurai, from March 2016 to April 2016. Both primigravida and multi-gravida with no age restrictions were included in the study. Screening ECHOs were done. Among 3669 admissions, 46 patients were diagnosed to have heart disease. The cardiac diseases include multivalvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, peripartum cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. RESULTS The study showed that the prevalence of heart disease in Government Rajaji Hospital is 1.25% and it is more common in 20-30 years of age (p value <0.001, which is significant. DISCUSSION Pregnancy and puerperium are important risk factors for heart disease. Heart disease also significantly affects the course of pregnancy. So it is important to diagnose heart disease early in pregnancy. This study emphasizes that heart disease complicating pregnancy forms an important proportion of antenatal mother and needs early diagnosis and management. CONCLUSION Though considered rare previously, heart disease contributes to a significant proportion of antenatal mothers (1.25% and early referral to proper tertiary care centre helps in reducing the mortality and morbidity

  10. Prevention Of Chronic Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it. This postulate is a foundation stone of the contemporary medicine, furthermore its mission. The Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD, amongst them the Chronic Pyelonephrites (CP and the mass kidney reduction  take an important  place in human pathologies in general, and in particular in renal ones. The Chronic Pyelonephrites  are chronic renal pathologies, which on one side are of various causes and on the other side are multi systemic. At the same time they tend, earlier or later, depending on their course, to bring the patient towards the Chronic Kidney Insufficiency  in stage of uremia, consequently in need of substitution therapies e.g. dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant. It is worthy to emphasize that from the prevention and correct cure of CP make profit the patients, the family, the state and in the last analyses  the entire society, because in that way the budget expense destined for the fore going substitution cures, dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant, is considerably  reduced. The same should be mentioned  in relation to the CP and the mass kidney reduction, speaking about our country, which are still at the first place as the very cause of Chronic Kidney  Insufficiencies (CRI, later on advancing toward uremia and terminal uremia along with its grave consequences. In general  the very foundation of the CP is on  the  infections of urinary roads, in particular on the complicated ones, among them it should be mentioned-congenital kidney anomalies, renal calculosis  so much present in our country, and pathologies of segment or vesical-ureteral reflux, and rarely the pathologies of prostate.

  11. 乳糜泻在中国慢性腹泻患儿中的发病情况%Prevalence of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王歆琼; 刘伟; 徐俊杰; 梅红; 彭罕鸣; 高原; 袁岚; 许春娣

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China.Methods Inpatients of the pediatric hospitals in Shanghai,Jinan,Wuhan and Chengdu who were diagnosed as chronic diarrhea were recruited from Jan.2005 to Dec.2008.Their clihical history,physical examination and laboratory data were collected.The SPSS version 11.5 statistical package for Microsoft Windows was used for statistical analysis.Results Data of 199 patients and finally enrolled 118 hospitalized chronic diarrhea inpatients during the observation period were collected and 14(12%)of the chronic diarrhea Patients were suspected as having celiac disea8e and in one the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed.Gluten-free diet(CFD)treatment was effective.M/F:12/2,the age ranged from 6 months to 12 years;43%(6/14)had malnutrition,29%(4/14)had anemia,villous atrophy was found in 4 patients by endoscopy.Duodenal biopsies revealed stage Ⅰ in 1,stage Ⅱ in 2,stage Ⅲa in 7,stage Ⅲb in 3 and stage Ⅲc in 1 patient according to the modified Marsh classification.Conclusion This study was the first time to report the research of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China.The percentage of suspicious celiac disease patients was 12%(14/118)in children and one was confirmed.CD exists in China.Chinese pediatricians should pay attention to the disease.%目的 研究乳糜泻在中国慢性腹泻患儿中的发病情况.方法 收集2005年1月至2008年12月上海、济南、武汉、成都等地的慢性腹泻住院患儿进行临床多中心研究.详细记录所有患儿的病史、营养发育情况及相关辅助检查.数据处理采用SPSS11.5统计软件统计.结果共收集慢性腹泻患儿199例,纳入研究者118例,疑似乳糜泻的患儿14例(12%),其中1例确诊.去麸质饮食治疗有效.疑似病例男女比为12∶2.年龄6个月~12岁.14例疑似患儿中6例伴随营养不良,4例伴有贫血.内镜诊断

  12. Vouchers for chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer J; Segal, Leonie

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of vouchers for chronic disease management with respect to achieving objectives of equity and efficiency. Vouchers as a payment policy instrument for health care services have a set of properties that suggest they may address both demand-side and supply-side issues, and contribute to equity and efficiency. They provide a means whereby health care services can be targeted at selected groups, enabling consumer choice of provider, and encouraging competition in the supply of health services. This analysis suggests that, when structured appropriately, vouchers can support consumers to choose services that will meet their health care needs and encourage competition among providers. Although they may not be appropriate across the entire health care system, there are features of vouchers that make them a potentially attractive option, especially for the management of chronic disease.

  13. Myeloperoxidase in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhana Rao, A.; Anand, Usha; Anand, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence implicate a role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a well accepted fact that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for CVD. MPO is a pro-oxidant enzyme which could be involved in the increased susceptibility of these patients to CVD. Hence, the levels of plasma MPO was determined in healthy controls as well as in patients with CKD [stratified with the level of their kidney failure as CKD...

  14. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with regard to non-healing and recurrence rates. Annually 6% of the total healthcare costs are spent on the treatment of venous diseases. CVD results from ambulatory venous hypertension and is the conse...

  15. Chronic periodontitis and smoking Prevalence and dose-response relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahrukh; Khalid, Taimur; Awan, Kamran H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 (±6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (>5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. Results: Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p<0.007), male gender (p<0.001), and lower education level (p<0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p<0.001) and severity (p<0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis. PMID:27464867

  16. Skin diseases : prevalence and predictors of itch and disease severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Elisabeth Wilhelmina Maria

    2009-01-01

    Chronic skin diseases are known to be common among the general population. Nevertheless, little research attention has been paid to patients with skin diseases in the general population, and consequently, little is known about the impact of skin diseases on daily life within this population. General

  17. Analysis on prevalence of major chronic diseases and its influencing factors in Luoping county of Yunnan province%云南省罗平县主要慢性病患病率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡乐; 舒占坤; 叶亚怀; 董峻; 何建辉; 冯锐; 赵科颖; 李虹道

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析云南省罗平县农村居民主要慢性病的患病率及社会经济影响因素.方法 对罗平县12个乡镇随机抽取的4 801名≥18岁农村常住居民进行问卷调查和现场体检,并应用多水平Logistic模型分析影响慢性病患病的乡镇和个体社会经济因素.结果 罗平县村民高血压、脑卒中、缺血性心脏病、糖尿病、慢性阻塞性肺病、哮喘、风湿性关节炎和胃溃疡的患病率分别为17.06%、0.65%、0.27%、6.83%、1.81%、0.67%、10.39%和3.08%,且患病率随年龄的增加呈上升趋势(P<0.01).高血压、糖尿病和风湿性关节炎的患病率女性高于男性(P<0.05);而慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)的患病率则是男性高于女性(P<0.05).家庭收入越低者患COPD的可能性越大(OR=0.46; 95% CI:0.26~0.83);少数民族比例越高的乡镇其村民患胃溃疡的可能性越大(OR=1.02; 95% CI:1.01~1.04),而患糖尿病(OR=0.98; 95% CI:0.96~0.99)和风湿性关节炎(OR=0.98; 95% CI:0.95~0.99)的可能性越小.结论 对慢性病的预防和干预措施应同时在个体和乡级水平上进行.%OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of major chronic diseases and simultaneously examine county and individual level of socioeconomic determinants in Luoping county of Yunnan province. METHODS A representative sample of 4, 801 residents aged 18 years and over was selected from 12 townships of Luoping County. Information was obtained from a cross-sectional health examination survey. The data was analyzed by using multilevel Logistic modeling. RESULTS The prevalence of hypertension, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD) , diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) , asthma, rheumatic arthritis and peptic ulcer was 17.06%, 0.65%, 0.27%, 6.83%, 1.81%, 0.67%, 10.39% and 3.08%, respectively, and increased with age (P< 0.01). Females had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and rheumatic arthritis than males' (P < 0

  18. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorded, respectively. Other diseases and conditions recorded sporadically included coccidiosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, actinomyces, urolithiasis, aflatoxicosis, meningitis, pasteurella, and other miscellaneous conditions caused by microbial infestation from stomach or colic raptures. Mange and ascariasis were the main parasitic diseases recorded. The high prevalence of diseases suggests inadequacy of biosecurity measures. In order to reduce disease outbreaks and spread, strict biosecurity measures should be put in place on pig operations.

  19. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed-methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low consumption of...

  20. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

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    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  1. 北京市崇文区职业人群慢性病患病情况及其危险因素%Prevalence and risk factors of chronic diseases among occupational population in Chongwen District of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红梅

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the prevalence and risk factors of common chronic diseases among occupational population in Chongwen District of Beijing City,to identify the focus of health education,and provide evidence for formulating reasonable health education and health promotion strategies.[Methods] A total of 350 adults aged 18-60 years were selected by multi-stage cluster samphng method for questionnaire survey,physical examination and laboratory tests.[Results] The prevalence rates of hypertension,diabetes and dyslipidemia were 32.6%,12.6% and 20.8% respectively.An upward trend could be seen in the prevalence of these diseases with age rising.And no statistic differences were seen in different occupation.Logistic analysis showed that the risk factors of hypertension were age,waist circumference,BMI,alcohol drinking and diabetes.The analysis also showed that men,sitting more than 4 hours per day,having a family history of chronic disease,diabetes and longer waist circumference were at high risk for dyslipidemia.[Conclusion] The male workers overweight or obesity,with longer waist circumference should be taken as the focus of intervention.Meanwhile health education and intervention should be enhanced to against risk factors.%目的 了解北京市崇文区职业人群常见慢性病患病率及相关危险因素现状,以确定职业健康教育重点,为制定合理的健康促进策略提供依据.方法 应用多阶段整群抽样方法,从4类职业人群中抽取350人进行问卷调查、体格测量和血生化检查.结果 调查人群中高血压、糖尿病、血脂异常患病率分别为32.6%、12.6%和20.8%.呈现出随着年龄增长患病率升高的趋势,不同职业慢性病患病情况没有差别.logistic回归分析结果显示,年龄、腰围、饮酒、体重指数(BMI)、糖尿病是高血压患病的危险因素;男性、腰围超标、业余静态时间≥4 h、有慢性病家族史和糖尿病的人患血脂异

  2. Characterization of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

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    Niovis Sosa Barberena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cienfuegos has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease, which is a health problem of great social and economic impact. Objective: to characterize patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 80 patients treated at the Specialized Outpatient Center of Cienfuegos in 2013. General variables such as age, sex, and place of origin were analyzed, in addition to the causes of the disease, length of time on hemodialysis, type of vascular access, and prevalence of hepatitis C. Absolute frequencies, percentages, and rates were calculated. Results: the 45 to 54 age group was the most affected by the condition. Males accounted for 63.7%. Cienfuegos municipality showed the highest prevalence with 27.6 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most common cause of chronic kidney disease was nephroangiosclerosis (33.3%. Seventy three percent of patients started hemodialysis as an emergency therapy. The time on hemodialysis was less than one year and one to two years in more than half of patients. An arteriovenous fistula was used in 81.3% of cases. Hepatitis C showed a high prevalence. Conclusion: renal disease is more common in men of working age in Cienfuegos municipality. The major causes of this disease are associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy Abdellatif; ElMakhzangy, Hesham Ibrahim; Gamal, Amira; Mekky, Fatma; El Kassas, Mohammed; Mohammed, Nabil; Abdel Hamid, Mohammed; Esmat, Gamal

    2010-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia has been known to provoke a plethora of autoimmune syndromes referred to as extrahepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection. Aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations among Egyptians with hepatitis C infection and its' association with cryoglobulin profile. The current research represents a cross-sectional study where patients with chronic HCV infection attending the outpatient clinic of the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute over a period of 1 year were interviewed. Patients with decompensated liver disease, on interferon therapy, having end-stage renal disease or coexisting viral infection like hepatitis B surface antibody positive patients were all excluded from the research. Laboratory investigations as well as serological assay including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Three hundred and six patients having chronic HCV infection were interviewed in this research. The overall estimated prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations in the current research was 16.39%, chronic fatigue syndrome 9.5%, sicca symptoms 8.8%, arthralgia 6.5%, fibromyalgia 1.9%, myalgia 1.3%, arthritis 0.7%, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis 0.7%, autoimmune hemolytic anemia 0.7%, thrombocytopenia 0.7%. Xerophthalmia was significantly present in male population (p = 0.04), whereas fibromyalgia, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, arthritis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were significantly present in female population under study (p chronic HCV genotype 4 infection, the prevalence of rheumatologic manifestations was 16.3% with chronic fatigue syndrome and sicca symptoms being the most common with no significant correlation to the degree of elevation of liver disease or viral load.

  4. Prevalence and management of Gaucher disease

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    Burrow TA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available T Andrew Burrow, Sonya Barnes, Gregory A GrabowskiThe Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Gaucher disease is a phenotypically heterogeneous autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease, resulting from deficient activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase, acid ß-glucosidase due to mutations in GBA1. Gaucher disease is the prototype for which disease-specific pharmacological therapy was successfully employed. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive review and critical examination of the prevalence, pathophysiology, natural history, and management of Gaucher disease.Keywords: lysosomal storage disease, pathophysiology, treatment, inborn errors of metabolism

  5. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  6. Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions in the United States' Medicare population

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    Dean Debbie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which administers the Medicare program in the United States, launched the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW. The CCW contains all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS institutional and non-institutional claims, nursing home and home health assessment data, and enrollment/eligibility information from January 1, 1999 forward for a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (and 100% of the Medicare population from 2000 forward. Twenty-one predefined chronic condition indicator variables are coded within the CCW, to facilitate research on chronic conditions. The current article describes this new data source, and the authors demonstrate the utility of the CCW in describing the extent of chronic disease among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare claims were analyzed to determine the prevalence, utilization, and Medicare program costs for some common and high cost chronic conditions in the Medicare FFS population in 2005. Chronic conditions explored include diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, heart failure, cancer, chronic kidney disease (CKD, and depression. Fifty percent of Medicare FFS beneficiaries were receiving care for one or more of these chronic conditions. The highest prevalence is observed for diabetes, with nearly one-fourth of the Medicare FFS study cohort receiving treatment for this condition (24.3 percent. The annual number of inpatient days during 2005 is highest for CKD (9.51 days and COPD (8.18 days. As the number of chronic conditions increases, the average per beneficiary Medicare payment amount increases dramatically. The annual Medicare payment amounts for a beneficiary with only one of the chronic conditions is $7,172. For those with two conditions, payment jumps to $14,931, and for those with three or more conditions, the annual Medicare payments per beneficiary is $32,498. The CCW data files have tremendous value for health services research. The

  7. The many faces of airway inflammation - Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Byrne, PM; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Airway diseases, predominantly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are among the world's most prevalent diseases. The prevalence of asthma has been incasing over the past 20 yr in most countries where this has been studied, and it affects up to 10% of the populations of most dev

  8. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  9. Prevalence of celiac disease in multiple sclerosis

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    López-Vázquez Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD is a common systemic disease related to a permanent intolerance to gluten and is often associated with different autoimmune and neurological diseases. Its mean prevalence in the general population is 1-2% worldwide. Our aim was to study the prevalence of celiac disease in a prospective series of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients and their first-degree relatives. Methods We analyzed the prevalence of serological, histological and genetic CD markers in a series of 72 MS patients and in their 126 first-degree relatives, compared to 123 healthy controls. Results Tissue IgA-anti-transglutaminase-2 antibodies were positive in 7 MS patients (10%, compared to 3 healthy controls (2.4% (p We detected mild or moderate villous atrophy (Marsh III type in duodenal biopsies, in 8 MS patients (11.1%. We also found a high proportion of CD among first-degree relatives: 23/126 (32%. Several associated diseases were detected, mainly dermatitis 41 (57% and iron deficiency anemia in 28 (39% MS patients. We also found in them, an increased frequency of circulating auto-antibodies such as anti-TPO in 19 (26%, ANA in 11 (15% and AMA in 2 (3%. Conclusions We have found an increased prevalence of CD in 8 of the 72 MS patients (11.1% and also in their first-degree relatives (23/126 [32%]. Therefore, increased efforts aimed at the early detection and dietary treatment of CD, among antibody-positive MS patients, are advisable.

  10. Future options for the management of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chidi; Kankam, Charity

    2012-02-01

    The lack of health care infrastructure and prevalence of infectious disease in Nigeria exacerbate the growing problem of diagnosing and treating chronic kidney disease. Nigeria should place more emphasis on chronic kidney disease education, screening, and prevention; propagation of acceptance of peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis; subsidization of renal replacement costs; and advancement of the national renal transplantation program.

  11. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin White-tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Ribic, Christine A; Langenberg, Julie A; Beheler, Kerry; Batha, Carl A; Dhuey, Brian J; Rolley, Robert E; Bartelt, Gerald; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Samuel, Michael D

    2003-05-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  12. New Directions in Chronic Disease Management

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    Hun-Sung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide epidemic of chronic disease, and complications thereof, is underway, with no sign of abatement. Healthcare costs have increased tremendously, principally because of the need to treat chronic complications of non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, blindness, end-stage renal disease, and amputation of extremities. Current healthcare systems fail to provide an appropriate quality of care to prevent the development of chronic complications without additional healthcare costs. A new paradigm for prevention and treatment of chronic disease and the complications thereof is urgently required. Several clinical studies have clearly shown that frequent communication between physicians and patients, based on electronic data transmission from medical devices, greatly assists in the management of chronic disease. However, for various reasons, these advantages have not translated effectively into real clinical practice. In the present review, we describe current relevant studies, and trends in the use of information technology for chronic disease management. We also discuss limitations and future directions.

  13. Frailty in elderly people with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Franco, Maria Eugenia; Tornero Molina, Fernando; Gil Gregorio, Pedro

    In recent years, the concept of frailty as a "state of pre-disability" has been widely accepted by those involved in the care of the elderly. Its importance lies not only in its high prevalence - more than 25% in people over 85 years of age - but it is also considered an independent risk factor of disability, institutionalisation and mortality amongst the elderly. The study of renal function is relevant in patients with major comorbidities. Studies have shown a significant association between chronic kidney disease and the development of adverse clinical outcomes such as heart disease, heart failure, end-stage renal disease, increased susceptibility to infections and greater functional impairment. Frailty can be reversed, which is why a study of frailty in patients with chronic kidney disease is of particular interest. This article aims to describe the association between ageing, frailty and chronic kidney disease in light of the most recent and relevant scientific publications.

  14. Metformin in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James

    2014-01-01

    reduction, including weight loss, which are beneficial to patients. The risk of death and cardiovascular disease is reduced by about a third in non-CKD patients. Since metformin intoxication undoubtedly causes LA, and metformin is renally excreted, inappropriate dosage of metformin will increase the risk......Metformin has traditionally been regarded as contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), though guidelines in recent years have been relaxed to permit therapy if the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is > 30 mL/min. The main problem is the perceived risk of lactic acidosis (LA). Epidemiological...... of LA. It is suggested that introduction of metformin therapy to more advanced stages of CKD may bring therapeutic benefits that outweigh the possible risks....

  15. PREVALENCE OF HEART DISEASE IN PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathi Natarajan; Mallika Selvaraj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previously, the high maternal mortality in cardiac patients who became pregnant prompted the assertion: Women with an abnormal heart should not become pregnant. This long-standing notion needs to be revised today. AIM To study the prevalence of heart disease in antenatal admissions at Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. METHODOLOGY An observational study of 3669 antenatal patients being admitted in GRH, Madurai, from March 2016 to April 2016. Both primigravida ...

  16. Anemia of Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Chung; Lee, Jhung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The pathogenetic mechanisms of anemia in patients with chronic liver disease were observed. Seventeen patients with moderate to advanced hepatic diseases were studied by various methods. Only patients without previous blood loss were included : 14 had cirrhosis, 2 had active chronic hepatitis, and one had inferior vena cava obstruction with associated liver cirrhosis. The followings were the results: 1. The anemia based on red blood cell count, Hb., and Ht. was found in 76.5-78.6% of the patients. 2. Red cell indices indicated that normo-macrocytic and normochromic anemia was present is the majority of the patients. 3. No evidence of megaloblastic anemia was found on the basis of the morphological examinations. 4. Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation and iron content in the bone marrow indicated that iron deficiency anemia was present in about half of the patients. 5. In the view of the erythrocyte dynamics, primary increase in the red cell destruction was ascribed to the cause of the anemia. 6. Decrease in the red cell survival time was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and S.L. ratio. Also, hemoglobin level was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and T{sub 50} Cr. Therefore, multiple causes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia. 7. Anemia as determined by the red cell volume was found in only 60% of the patients. It may be possible that hemodilutional anemia is present.

  17. Disparities in Confidence to Manage Chronic Diseases in Men

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    Keith Elder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic diseases are highly prevalent among men in the United States and chronic disease management is problematic for men, particularly for racial and ethnic minority men. Objectives: This study examined the association between health information seeking and confidence to manage chronic diseases among men. Methods: Study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Tracking Household Survey and analyzed using multiple binary logistic regressions. The analytical sample included 2,653 men, 18 years and older with a chronic illness. Results: Health information seeking was not associated with confidence to manage chronic illnesses. African-American men had lower odds than White men to agree to take actions to prevent symptoms with their health. Hispanic men had lower odds than White men to agree to tell a doctor concerns they have, even when not asked. Conclusions: Racial and ethnic minority men with a chronic condition appear to be less confident to manage their health compared to white men. Chronic disease management needs greater exploration to understand the best ways to help racial and ethnic minority men successfully manage their chronic condition.

  18. Prevalence of cervical facet joint pain in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Rivera, Jose; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2002-07-01

    Neck pain is considered to be one of the most common chronic pain conditions in modern society. Various structures identified as capable of transmitting pain in the cervical spine include facet joints, intervertebral discs, nerve root dura, ligaments, fascia, and muscles. The prevalence of cervical facet joint pain in patients with chronic pain after whiplash has been determined as 54% to 60%. However, the prevalence of chronic cervical facet joint pain has not yet been determined in a heterogenous population or in patients with cervical spine pain of idiopathic origin in a controlled environment. This study evaluated 160 patients seen in one interventional pain management practice in a non-university setting. Cervical facet joints were investigated with diagnostic blocks using lidocaine 1% preservative free initially, followed by bupivacaine 0.25%, usually 2 to 4 weeks apart. The study population consisted of 76 women and 30 men aged 43 +/- 13 years of age (mean +/- SD). Mode of onset of neck pain was determined as following a traumatic incident in 48% of the patients, whereas it was with gradual onset without an identifiable specific incident in the remaining 55 patients (52%). Eighty-one or 70% of the patients (70%) reported a definite response to lidocaine blocks. Confirmatory blocks with bupivacaine were performed in 81 patients with 64 patients with 60% of the total sample, or 79%, of the lidocaine-positive group reporting definite response with improvement in their pain. Thus, a prevalence rate of facet joint pain in chronic neck pain was determined to be 60% (95% CI, 50%-70%), with a false positive rate of controlled diagnostic blocks of 40% (95% CI, 34%-46%).

  19. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  20. Tobacco and the pediatric chronic kidney disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoloja, Abiodun; Tyc, Vida L

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use and exposure are preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Whereas the impact of this public health issue is well described in adults with kidney disease, its role in the pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is largely unknown. This review discusses the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure in children with CKD, updates the reader on how tobacco affects the kidney, and presents intervention strategies relevant to this patient population.

  1. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.

  2. Prevalência e distribuição dos fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis entre adultos da cidade de Lages (SC, sul do Brasil, 2007 Prevalence and distribution of risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases among adults from Lages city, south of Brazil, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Zarbato Longo

    2011-12-01

    diseases among adults from Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: Probabilistic sample of adult urban population, of both genders and aged from 20 to 59 years old was interviewed (n=2022. The sample process was made through conglomerates. It was applied a structured questionnaire with questions related to demographical, socio-economical, and behavior and self-referred diseases. In this study the following informations, related to the risk/protection factors for non-communicable chronic diseases, were used: gender, age, school background, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, physical activity, pressure levels, self-referred mellitus diabetes and feeding characteristics. Prevalence for risk/protection factors for non-communicable chronic diseases, in the total population and according to gender and school background, was calculated. RESULTS: The studied population is prone to non-communicable chronic diseases, presenting substantial proportions of hypertension (33.78%, overweight individuals (33.46%, obesity (23.46% and abdominal obesity (43.81%. In relation to feeding characteristics, women presented higher prevalence of behaviors considered as protection factors, relative to men. It was found less than 30.0% of physically inactive individuals and 45.9% of smokers or ex-smokers. CONCLUSION: Descriptive studies such as this could be the basis for the development of public policies specific to the adult population of Lages, in order to guide the organization, planning and quality improvement of health assistance services, aiming the reduction in the occurrence and in the impact of non-communicable chronic diseases.

  3. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  4. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levey, Andrew S.; Rocco, Michael V.; Anderson, Sharon; Andreoli, Sharon P.; Bailie, George R.; Bakris, George L.; Callahan, Mary Beth; Greene, Jane H.; Johnson, Cynda Ann; Lash, James P.; McCullough, Peter A.; Miller III, Edgar R.; Nally, Joseph V.; Pirsch, John D.; Portman, Ronald J.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Sica, Domenic; Wesson, Donald E.; Agodoa, Lawrence; Bolton, Kline; Cutler, Jeffrey A.; Hostetter, Tom; Lau, Joseph; Uhlig, Katrin; Chew, Priscilla; Kausz, Annamaria; Kupelnick, Bruce; Raman, Gowri; Sarnak, Mark; Wang, Chenchen; Astor, Brad C.; Eknoyan, Garabed; Levin, Adeera; Levin, Nathan; Bailie, George; Becker, Bryan; Becker, Gavin; Burrowes, Jerrilynn; Carrera, Fernando; Churchill, David; Collins, Allan; Crooks, Peter W.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Golper, Thomas; Gotch, Frank; Gotto, Antonio; Greenwood, Roger; Greer, Joel W.; Grimm Jr., Richard; Haley, William E.; Hogg, Ronald; Hull, Alan R.; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Klag, Michael; Klahr, Saulo; Lameire, Norbert; Locatelli, Francesco; McCulloch, Sally; Michael, Maureen; Newmann, John M.; Nissenson, Allen; Norris, Keith; Obrador, Gregorio; Owen Jr., William; Patel, Thakor G.; Payne, Glenda; Ronco, Claudio; Rivera-Mizzoni, Rosa A.; Schoolwerth, Anton C.; Star, Robert; Steffes, Michael; Steinman, Theodore; Wauters, John-Pierre; Wenger, Nanette; Briggs, Josephine; Burrows-Hudson, Sally; Latos, Derrick; Mapes, Donna; Oberley, Edith; Pereira, Brian J.G.; Willis, Kerry; Gucciardo, Anthony; Fingerhut, Donna; Klette, Margaret; Schachne, Elicia

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: CHRONIC KIDNEY disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure (Fig 1), with poor outcomes and high cost. The prevalence of earlier stages of CKD is approximately 100 times greater than the prevalence

  5. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  6. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in children with chronic disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaber Soad

    2006-01-01

    Background : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important pathogen in gastrointestinal disorders. Seroprevalence among asymptomatic and chronically diseased children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was determined to gain insight into its prevalence. Methods : Serum samples obtained from 1432 children; 543 asymptomatic and 889 chronically diseased children (diabetes, chronic asthma, chronic hemolytic anemia, neurological impairment and Down′s syndrome); were tested by ELIZA for H. pylori IgG...

  7. 小学生午餐在外就餐与肥胖及代谢异常的关系%Association of lunch dining place with the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases among chlldren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小琪; 刘爱玲; 张倩; 潘慧; 尚现文; 杜琳; 马军; 马冠生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of lunch dining place with the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases among children. Methods 7 083 children grade second to fifth, aged 6-13 years were selected to complete the questionnaires from 6 cities such as Harbin Beijing, Jinan, Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou and so on, using multistage random sampling in 2009. And they were tested for physique and blood biochemistry according to the same standards. Resolta The prevalence ( OR, 95% CI) of obesity among children regularly lunching at school, home, and "other" place, was 10. 1% ( ref) , 11.2% (1.01, 0. 84 -1.2), 11.3% (1.06, 0.89 -1.34), respectively; And the prevalence of abdominal obesity in different group, was orderly 13. 5% (ref) , 16.1% (1.05, 0.89-1.23),17.2% (1.24, 1.03-1.51), respectively; The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in different groups wan 0.8% (ref), 1.4% (1.34, 0. 79 -2.26), 1.6% (1.71, 1.01-3.26), respectively. There was significant difference in the prevalence of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome among children lunching at different places after adjustment for age, gender, birth weight, feeding types after birth within 4 months, parents' weight status and educational level, and family income. Conclusion Regularly lunching at restaurants or M other" place elevated the risk of obesity and related chronic diseases among children. Lunching at school provided children not only appropriate nutrition intakes but also low likelihood of diseases risk. Advocating and spreading of school nutritional lunch is very meaningful.%目的 了解午餐在外就餐与儿童肥胖等代谢疾病发生率之间的关系,为制定相应的干预措施提供依据.方法 采用随机整群抽样法,从哈尔滨、北京、济南、上海、重庆、广州6个城市抽取6~13岁小学生7 083名,使用问卷调查收集年龄、性别及家庭经济情况等信息.按照标准程序进行体格检查和血压测量以及空腹血糖、总胆固醇

  8. 老年体检人群主要慢性病患病现状及营养状况评价%Prevalence of Major Chronic Diseases and Assessment of Nutritional Status in Elderly Health Examination ;Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红艳; 林晓洁; 文燕; 梁兆凤; 陈伟银

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of major chronic diseases and nutritional status of elderly health examination population in order to provide scientific basis for improving the health status of the elderly. Method:Elderly health examination people in our hospital from September 2011 to December 2014 were selected as the research objects.Self designed questionnaire and Mini Nutritional Assessment(MNA)were used to survey the research objects.Result:In the 877 examination people,there were 114(13.0%)people without any diseases,405(46.2%) people suffering from one kind of disease,221(25.2%)people suffering from two kinds of diseases and 137(15.6%) people suffering from three or more kinds of diseases.There were 481(54.8%)people with hypertension,203(23.1%) people with coronary heart disease and 153(17.4%)people with diabetes mellitus,the diseases above were the first three diseases according to their morbidity rates.The first three diseases according to the medication compliance were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(81.8%),hypertension(81.7%)and pneumonia(81.0%).The average MNA total score was(23.1±3.9).In the research objects,there were 416(47.4%)people with potential malnutrition and 48(5.5%)people with malnutrition.Comparing the MNA scores of the elderly in different financial situation and different teeth situation respectively,the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Most of the elderly population are associated with one or more chronic diseases and there are also a certain number of undernourished people. The relevant departments should attach importance to the nutrition and health education of the elderly and actively improve the nutritional status of the old.%目的:了解老年体检人群主要慢性病患病现状及营养状况,为改善老人健康状况提供科学依据。方法:选择2011年9月-2014年12月在本院体检中心进行健康体检的老人作为研究对象,采用自行设计的主要慢

  9. Chronic liver disease in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, M V; Zawawi, M M

    1990-08-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse the clinical spectrum of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis, and others with portal hypertension) in Kuala Lumpur. Eighty patients were diagnosed over a 6-year period. Twenty-two had biopsy proven cirrhosis while 58 others had portal hypertension with clinical and biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. The commonest aetiology was alcohol (36%), followed by the idiopathic variety and hepatitis B. The male to female ratio was 4.4:1. Indians had a high prevalence of alcohol-associated chronic liver disease. Overall, ascites was the commonest presentation. Eight patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was diagnosed in 13% of patients undergoing abdominal paracentesis. Gallstones were detected in 37% of patients who underwent ultrasonography. Diabetes mellitus and peptic ulcer disease were noted in 22% and 31% of patients respectively.

  10. Monitoring the prevalence of chronic conditions: which data should we use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orueta Juan F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are an increasing threat to people’s health and to the sustainability of health organisations. Despite the need for routine monitoring systems to assess the impact of chronicity in the population and its evolution over time, currently no single source of information has been identified as suitable for this purpose. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of various chronic conditions estimated using routine data recorded by health professionals: diagnoses on hospital discharge abstracts, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses. Methods The ICD-9-CM codes for diagnoses and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC codes for prescriptions were collected for all patients in the Basque Country over 14 years of age (n=1,964,337 for a 12-month period. We employed a range of different inputs: hospital diagnoses, primary care diagnoses, primary care prescriptions and combinations thereof. Data were collapsed into the morbidity groups specified by the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs Case-Mix System. We estimated the prevalence of 12 chronic conditions, comparing the results obtained using the different data sources with each other and also with those of the Basque Health Interview Survey (ESCAV. Using the different combinations of inputs, Standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMRs for the considered diseases were calculated for the list of patients of each general practitioner. The variances of the SMRs were used as a measure of the dispersion of the data and were compared using the Brown-Forsythe test. Results The prevalences calculated using prescription data were higher than those obtained from diagnoses and those from the ESCAV, with two exceptions: malignant neoplasm and migraine. The variances of the SMRs obtained from the combination of all the data sources (hospital diagnoses, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses were significantly lower than those using only diagnoses. Conclusions The

  11. Myeloperoxidase in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhana Rao, A; Anand, Usha; Anand, C V

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence implicate a role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a well accepted fact that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for CVD. MPO is a pro-oxidant enzyme which could be involved in the increased susceptibility of these patients to CVD. Hence, the levels of plasma MPO was determined in healthy controls as well as in patients with CKD [stratified with the level of their kidney failure as CKD stages II-V (end stage renal disease)]. Plasma MPO was assayed by a spectrophotometric method. Serum urea and creatinine were estimated on a clinical chemistry analyzer using standard laboratory procedures. The mean plasma MPO levels were significantly lower with advancing stages of renal failure (P < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between MPO and GFR (r = +0.89, P < 0.001) and a negative correlation with urea (r = -0.85, P < 0.001) and creatinine (r = -0.82, P < 0.001). While an inverse association was observed between plasma MPO and urea in CKD patients, such an association was not observed in control subjects (P = 0.43). In conclusion, the decline in plasma MPO levels may be due to the inhibitory effect of uraemic toxins on the enzyme.

  12. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in community residents of urban Chongqing%重庆城市社区慢性阻塞性肺疾病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁航爱; 李夏渝; 王忠; 胡忆; 陈清荣; 程秀; 赖富华; 何治军; 勾琼; 徐新献; 谭光根; 杨明清; 尹晓燕; 刘大鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)in the residents of urban Chongqing and to propose measures of early prevention and therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study on COPD was carried out from December 2007 to January 2008. Urban populations were randomly selected from Nanhu and Yuhua community in Nan'an district of Chongqing with cluster sampling. A total of 2 133 residents aged 40 years or older were interviewed with a questionnaire revised from the international Burden of Obstructive Lung Diseases (BOLD) study. Spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Results Among the interviewees,2 024 completed the questionnaire and spirometry. The overall prevalence in COPD was 7. 9% (160/2 024) ;the prevalence in the males was 15. 5% ( 123/792 ) and that in the the females was 3. 0% (37/1 232 ). The COPD prevalence in the smokers was 15. 9% ( 118/743 ) and 73. 8% of the (118/160) COPD patients had smoking history. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male, elderly age, lower body mass index, smoking, with higher smoking index, frequent cough before 14 years old, and poor ventilation in the kitchen when coal and/or biomass feuls were used in the house for cooking were important risk factors of COPD, with the odds ratios of > 1 (P <0. 01 for all). Only 58. 8% of COPD patients were diagnosed with emphysema,asthma, and chronic bronchitis or COPD and 24. 4% of the COPD patients were examined by spirometry and 23. 1% of COPD patients had no symptoms. Conclusion COPD was high prevalent in urban Chongqing and there were missed diagnosis for COPD patients with a low spirometry examination rate. Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for COPD.%目的 获得重庆市城市地区慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患病率及其影响因素,为COPD早期防治提供依据.方法 2007年12月- 2008年1月,采用多级整群随机抽样方法,对重庆市南岸区城区

  13. Kidneys in chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Hartleb; Krzysztof Gutkowski

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI),defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL,occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis.Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state,reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones.The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia,hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis.Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development,natriuresis,urine osmolality,response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion,and rarely on renal biopsy.Chronic glomeruIonephritis and obstructive uropathy are rare causes of azotemia in cirrhotic patients.AKI is one of the last events in the natural history of chronic liver disease,therefore,such patients should have an expedited referral for liver transplantation.Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is initiated by progressive portal hypertension,and may be prematurely triggered by bacterial infections,nonbacterial systemic inflammatory reactions,excessive diuresis,gastrointestinal hemorrhage,diarrhea or nephrotoxic agents.Each type of renal disease has a specific treatment approach ranging from repletion of the vascular system to renal replacement therapy.The treatment of choice in type 1 hepatorenal syndrome is a combination of vasoconstrictor with albumin infusion,which is effective in about 50% of patients.The second-line treatment of HRS involves a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt,renal vasoprotection or systems of artificial liver support.

  14. The prevalence of type 2 cardio-renal syndrome in inpatients with chronic heart disease%慢性心脏病住院患者2型心肾综合征的发生情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 倪兆慧; 牟珊; 张敏芳; 王琴; 车霞静; 钱家麒

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解慢性心脏病(Chronic kidney disease,CHD)患者2型心肾综合征(Cardiorenal syndrome,CRS)的发生情况并探讨其相关因素.方法 本研究对自2008年7月至2009年7月于上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院心脏内科住院的1275名患者的病历资料进行了回顾性调查.由MDRD公式估算肾小球滤过率(estimated glomerular filtration rate,eGFR),并对患者的基础资料包括年龄、性别、慢性病病史、相关实验室指标以及生活方式等进行了收集和分析.结果 1275名CHD住院患者的2型CRS患病率为18.4%(235/1275).2型CRS患者年龄较非CRS人群偏高,且更多存在糖尿病(28.9% 比 21.8%,P<0.05=和脑血管事件(9.8% 比 5.7%,P<0.001=.单变量分析结果显示血红蛋白( r=-0.148,P<0.001=、白蛋白(r= -0.147,P<0.001=、C反应蛋白(r=-0.330,P<0.001=、纤维蛋白原(r=0.098 P<0.05=、乳酸脱氢酶(r=0.127,P =0.042)、B型脑钠素(brain natriuretic peptide,BNP)(r= 0.182,P<0.001=、尿酸(r= 0.142,P<0.001=以及NYHA分级(r = 0.189,P<0.001=与2型CRS发生相关.进一步分析发现 2型CRS的发生与年龄[OR=1.039(1.013-1.065),P= 0.003]、白蛋白[OR=0.912(0.852~0.976),P=0.008]和尿酸[OR=1.005(1.003-1.007),P<0.001=水平有着密切联系.结论 本研究结果表明在CHD患者中2型CRS患病率高.某些心肾传统危险因素及患者心功能等情况与2型CRS的发生相关.对于高龄、高尿酸血症及营养状况较差的CHD患者,2型CRS的早期诊断和早期治疗尤为重要.%Objective In this study, we aim to investigate the prevalence of type 2 cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) in chronic heart disease (CHD) patients and to find out the factors relating to type 2 CRS. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 1275 CHD inpatients in the Cardiology Department from July 2008 to July 2009 was conducted. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the simplified Modification of

  15. 不同类型小型机动车驾驶人员慢性疾病患病率调查%Investigation on Prevalence of Chronic Diseases among Drivers of Different Types of Small Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘川; 冯鸿义; 郎燕梅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the health status of small vehicle drivers. [Methods] According to the Management method for occupational health surveillance and the Physical qualifications for automobile driver and their protocol (GB18463 -2001) , the occupational health examination results of 568 taxi drivers (the occupational driver group) and 482 private car drivers (the non-occupational driver group) were analyzed statistically, and were compared with 396 control workers. [Results]The incidence of chronic gastritis, fatty liver,hypertension,benign prostatic hyperplasia, gynecologic diseases, dermatosis and spinal joint diseases of the oc-cupational driver group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The most common diseases were chronic gastritis, fatty liver and hypertension, which the prevalence reached 32.0% , 29.0% and 18.0% respectively, and the prevalence increased with working years. In the non-occupational driver group, the most common diseases were fatty liver and hypertension, which the prevalence reached 24.7% and 16.2% respectively. Most of non-occupational drivers had the history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascu-lar diseases. Nearly a quarter of them often drunk alcohol and smoked. The abnormal rate of blood pressure, distance vision, color discrimination and ECG of the non-occupational driver group was significantly higher than that of control group. [ Conclusion] The health status of small vehicle drivers is not optimistic, and the health education among occupational drivers needs to be strengthened.%目的 了解小型机动车驾驶员的健康状况。方法 按照《职业健康监护管理办法》、GB18463-2001《机动车驾驶员身体条件及其评价要求》的规定,对2010年度进行的职业性小型机动车驾驶员即出租车司机568名(职业司机组)及非职业性小型机动车驾驶员(私家车司机)482名(非职业司机组)的职业健康检查结果进行分析统计,并与396名对

  16. Landscape genetics and the spatial distribution of chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A; Samuel, Michael D; Scribner, Kim T; Weckworth, Byron V; Langenberg, Julia A; Filcek, Kristine B

    2008-02-23

    Predicting the spread of wildlife disease is critical for identifying populations at risk, targeting surveillance and designing proactive management programmes. We used a landscape genetics approach to identify landscape features that influenced gene flow and the distribution of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Wisconsin white-tailed deer. CWD prevalence was negatively correlated with genetic differentiation of study area deer from deer in the area of disease origin (core-area). Genetic differentiation was greatest, and CWD prevalence lowest, in areas separated from the core-area by the Wisconsin River, indicating that this river reduced deer gene flow and probably disease spread. Features of the landscape that influence host dispersal and spatial patterns of disease can be identified based on host spatial genetic structure. Landscape genetics may be used to predict high-risk populations based on their genetic connection to infected populations and to target disease surveillance, control and preventative activities.

  17. Chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients: Prevalence of coccidian parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV patients with or without diarrhoea and to see an association between diarrhoea and the coccidian parasites in our setting. Stool samples from 113 HIV patients, 34 chronic diarrhoea and 79 without any history of diarrhoea were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy. One hundred and thirteen control samples from HIV negative patients complaining of prolonged diarrhoea were also collected and analysed. Prevalence of coccidian parasites in HIV and non-HIV patients; with and without diarrhoea was compared using chi-square tests. Enteric parasites were detected in 55.8% HIV patients with diarrhoea compared to 16.4% in patients without diarrhoea ( P < 0.001. Isospora belli was found in 41.1% (14/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 6.3% (5/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.001. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.6% (7/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 2.5% (2/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.01. Cyclospora cayetanensis associated diarrhoea was detected in only one case of chronic diarrhoea (2.9%. CD4+ T-cell count was lower (180 cells/μl0 in diarrhoeal HIV patients as compared to non-diarrhoeal patients. Coccidian parasites were seen at a mean CD4+ T-cell count of 186.3 cells/μL. This study concluded that Isospora belli was the predominant parasite followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and both were strongly associated with diarrhoea among HIV patients.

  18. Palliative care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Evan J; Senderovich, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the only major worldwide cause of mortality that is currently increasing in prevalence. Furthermore, COPD is incurable, and the only therapy that has been shown to increase survival is oxygen therapy in selected patients. Compared to patients with cancer, patients with COPD experience similar levels of pain, breathlessness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety and have a worse quality of life but have comparatively little access to palliative care. When these patients do receive palliative care, they tend to be referred later than patients with cancer. Many disease, patient-, and provider-related factors contribute to this phenomenon, including COPD's unpredictable course, misperceptions of palliative care among patients and physicians, and lack of advance care planning discussions outside of crisis situations. A new paradigm for palliative care would introduce palliative treatments alongside, rather than at the exclusion of disease-modifying interventions. This integrated approach would circumvent the issue of difficult prognostication in COPD, as any patient would receive individualized palliative interventions from the time of diagnosis. These points will be covered in this review, which discusses the challenges in providing palliative care to COPD patients, the strategies to mitigate the challenges, management of common symptoms, and the evidence for integrated palliative care models as well as some suggestions for future development.

  19. Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Borgermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review.

  20. Relevance of chronic lyme disease to family medicine as a complex multidimensional chronic disease construct: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Vandevoorde, Jan; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review.

  1. 急性卒中患者的慢性肾脏病患病率和危险因素评价%Evaluation of the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the risk factors in patients with acute stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟根龙; 李焰生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with acute stroke and the risk factors and prognostic characteristics in these patients.Methods A total of 270 consecutive hospitalized patients with acute stroke was recruited, and their CKD was evaluated transversally. Various risk factors and short-term prognosis of 53 patients with CKD whose National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were similar at admission among the 270 patients with stroke were compared to those of 106 patients without CKD. CKD was defined as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 ml/(min·1.73 m2) and (or) random urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACR) > 30 mg/g, and continued for more than 3 months. GFR was estimated according to the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to evaluate the shortterm prognosis. Results The prevalence of CKD in these patients was 19.6%, and most of them were early-and middle-stage CKD. The proportions of the histories of hypertension (81.13%), diabetes mellitus (33.96%), and stroke (45.28%) in patients with CKD were significantly higher than those in patients without CKD (64.15%, 18.86% and 27.36%,respectively, all P<0.05). The mean levels of systolic pressure (151.74±20.98 mm Hg) and low density lipoprotein (3.03±0.96 mmol/L) in patients with CKD were significantly higher than those in patients without CKD (systolic pressure was 144.44±21.13 mm Hg, and low density lipoprotein was 2.75±0.76 mmol/L, all P<0.05). In addition, the levels of erythrocytes sedimentation rate(median, 39 mm/h), high sensitive C-reactive protein (median,5.12 mg/L) and parathyroid hormone (81.01±26.78 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in patients without CKD (they were 20 mm/h, 3.36 mg/L, and 46.95±24.63 pg/ml,respectively, all P<0.05). There was a changing trend in low serum calcium and high serum phosphorus in patients with CKD. The

  2. Probiotics and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Laetitia; Mafra, Denise; Fouque, Denis

    2015-11-01

    Probiotics are the focus of a thorough investigation as a natural biotreatment due to their various health-promoting effects and inherent ability to fight specific diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, intestinal microbiota has recently emerged as an important player in the progression and complications of CKD. Because many of the multifactorial physiological functions of probiotics are highly strain specific, preselection of appropriate probiotic strains based on their expression of functional biomarkers is critical. The interest in developing new research initiatives on probiotics in CKD have increased over the last decade with the goal of fully exploring their therapeutic potentials. The efficacy of probiotics to decrease uremic toxin production and to improve renal function has been investigated in in vitro models and in various animal and human CKD studies. However to date, the quality of intervention trials investigating this novel CKD therapy is still lacking. This review outlines potential mechanisms of action and efficacy of probiotics as a new CKD management tool, with a particular emphasis on uremic toxin production and inflammation.

  3. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  4. Chronic diseases among older cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckx, L.D.; Akker, M.A. van der; Metsemakers, J.M.; Knottnerus, A.K.; Schellevis, F.G.; Buntinx, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: With the growing number of older cancer patients, the burden of chronic diseases among older cancer patients will become increasingly important. Chronic diseases often interfere with treatment decisions and prognosis for cancer patients. However, little is known about the occurrence of

  5. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Schwarz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence.......The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence....

  6. Obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutritional abnormalities have one of the most important systematic effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A relationship between COPD and obesity has been observed and recognized. In COPD patients, beside changes in the total body weight, changes in body composition are also possible with the loss of fat-free mass (FFM. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of obesity and the change of body composition on the pulmonary function, dyspnoea level and the quality of life in COPD patients. Methods. Seventy-nine patients in the stable state of COPD were evaluated. Pulmonary function and arterial blood gas analysis were assessed. Nutritional status was analyzed according to Body Mass Index (BMI. Body composition was evaluated by using anthropometric measurement by fat free mass index (FFMI. Quality of life was assessed using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to evaluate dyspnoea. Results. The highest prevalence of obesity (50.0% was found in patients with mild COPD, while the lowest prevalence was detected in very severe COPD patients (10.0%. The loss of FFM occurred in 22.2% patients with normal body weight and in 9.0% of overweight COPD patients. The quality of life was lower in obese patients compared to other COPD patients. A higher dyspnoea level was also present in obese patients. The lowest airflow obstruction was in obese patients (p=0.023. We found a significant positive correlation between forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1% and BMI (r=0.326, p=0.003, FEV1% and FFMI (r=0.321, p=0.004. Conclusion. The highest prevalence of obesity was in patients with mild COPD. Obese patients with COPD had the lowest level of airflow obstruction, higher dyspnoea level and lower quality of life in comparison to other COPD patients.

  7. Micro Data: Wearable Devices Contribute to Improved Chronic Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Andria; Parke, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Issues involving chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) are prevalent in today's aging society, and suggestions for improvement are essential to treat this patient demographic effectively. This article addresses the use of wearable devices for the medical community to improve CDPM by relying on the accumulation of micro data. For the patient, we recognize that these devices can be an effective tool to facilitate real-time monitoring of their vital signs and activity levels. With real-time monitoring and earlier responses, individuals can benefit by preventing, delaying or reducing exacerbations of chronic diseases. Use of these devices also has great benefit to the person and has the potential to decrease the individual's emergency room visits, hospital admissions and re-admissions. As patients and their healthcare providers work together to identify cumulative trends in their micro data, transitions in care planning will be enhanced, further contributing to improved chronic disease management.

  8. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation.

  9. Prevalence of Depression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Risk Factors Analysis%慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并抑郁的发生率及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 万毅新; 王晓平; 王虹; 魏海东; 陶红艳; 黄晖蓉; 赵艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者合并抑郁的发生率,探讨COPD患者合并抑郁的危险因素.方法 选择2011年1月至2013年1月兰州大学第二医院门诊和住院治疗的215例COPD稳定期患者,采用病人健康问卷抑郁量表(PHQ-9)对患者抑郁状况进行评价,同时完成CAT量表、肺功能检查及相关病史(性别、年龄、身高、体重、吸烟史、教育程度)的采集.根据患者的临床症状(mMRC或CAT量表)、未来急性加重的风险、肺功能的异常程度(FEV1%pred)以及并发症的情况进行综合评估而分成A、B、C、D组.采用x2检验及多因素Logistic回归分析COPD患者合并抑郁的发生率及危险因素.结果 COPD患者合并抑郁的发生率为37.7%,COPD的A、B、C、D各组间的抑郁发生率分别为18.5%、35.8%、46.5%和62.5%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).COPD合并抑郁的发生与患者的性别、年龄、教育程度、FEV1% pred、CAT、BMI有关,与年龄、FEV1%pred、BMI呈负相关,与教育程度、CAT评分呈正相关.而吸烟和FEV1/FVC与COPD合并抑郁无显著相关性(P>0.05).结论 COPD患者容易合并抑郁,A、B、C、D各亚组之间抑郁的发生率有明显差异.COPD合并抑郁与性别、年龄、教育程度、FEV1% pred、BMI和CAT评分有关.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and risk factors.Methods 215 patients with stable COPD were recruited in the study.The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) standardized scale were performed for the depression survey.Meanwhile CAT,pulmonary function test and the history taking (sex,age,height,weigh,smoking status,education level) were applied to evaluate all the COPD patients.The COPD patients were classified into A,B,C,and D groups according to 2011 GOLD new COPD classification system.Pearson chi-square test and multivariate logistic modeling were used to estimate the

  10. Understanding asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurst, Keele E; Kelly-Reif, Kaitlin; Bushnell, Greta A; Pascoe, Steven; Barnes, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a loosely-defined clinical entity referring to patients who exhibit characteristics of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical definitions and classifications for ACOS vary widely, which impacts our understanding of prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of the condition. This literature review was therefore conducted to characterize the prevalence of ACOS and the effect of different disease definitions on these estimates, as this has not previously been explored. From an analysis of English language literature published from 2000 to 2014, the estimated prevalence of ACOS ranges from 12.1% to 55.2% among patients with COPD and 13.3%-61.0% among patients with asthma alone. This variability is linked to differences in COPD and asthma diagnostic criteria, disease ascertainment methods (spirometry-based versus clinical or symptom-based diagnoses and claims data), and population characteristics including age, gender and smoking. Understanding the reasons for differences in prevalence estimates of ACOS across the literature may help guide decision making on the most appropriate criteria for defining ACOS and aid investigators in designing future ACOS clinical studies aimed at effective treatment.

  11. Major affective disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Sangnual Pisalthanapuna, Nonglak Chetsadaphan, Juthamas InchaiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailanBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs have significant impacts on quality of life including psychomotor domain.Purpose: To evaluate three major affective disorders in subjects with COPD compared with other CRDs and nonill population.Materials and methods: The Thai version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used as a diagnostic instrument for three major affective disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and panic disorder by face-to-face interview in assessing patients with CRDs [COPD, asthma, rhinasthma, all asthma (asthma and rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis], and nonill subjects. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relation between major affective disorders and CRDs adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity.Results: Major affective disorders were more prevalent in CRDs than nonill groups (adjusted OR =2.6 [95% CI, 1.8-3.9], P<0.001. COPD patients had significantly more generalized anxiety and panic disorder (adjusted OR =4.0 [95% CI, 1.4-11.9], P=0.011, and 4.4 [95% CI, 1.1-18.1], P=0.038, respectively but not major depressive disorder (adjusted OR =2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.0, P=0.105] than nonill group. Comparing with all asthma, COPD patients had lower occurrence of major depressive and panic disorders (adjusted OR =0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.4], P=0.002, and 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.9], P=0.043, respectively. There was no difference in major mood disorders in COPD, rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis patients. Major affective disorders were not increased by disease severity in COPD.Conclusion: Major affective disorders were significantly higher in CRDs than nonill

  12. Etiologies of chronic liver disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahmand F

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Liver diseases in children is the result of many different diseases including: metabolic, genetic, infectious, toxic and idiopathic causes. This was a case series study on 133 infants and children with age range 6 month to 12 years old, who presented clinically with manifestation of chronic liver disease and were admitted to Children Hospital Medical Center from year 1999 to 2000. In this study, 32 (24.5 percent patients had autoimmune chronic hepatitis, 15 (11.3 percent Glycogen storage diseases, 12 (9 percent extrahepatic biliary atresia, 11 (8.2 percent willson disease, 10 (7.5 percent cryptogenic cirrhosis, 6 (4.5 percent chronic hepatitis C, 5 (3.8 percen chronic hepatitic B, 5 (3.8 percent galactosemia 3 (2.25 percent congenital hepatic fibrosis, 3 (3.8 percent histiocytosis X, 3 (2.25 percent sclerosing cholangitis, 2 (1.5 percent byler’s disease 2 (1.5 percent primary tuberculosis, 1 (0.75 percent choledocalcyst, 1 (0.75 percent Alagyle syndrome. According to our data, chronic liver disease should be considered in infants and children. In our study, the most common causes are found to be: metabolic and genetic diseases (37.5 percent, chronic autoimmune hepatitis (24 percent and biliary disorders (14 percent, that encompass 86 percent of the patients.

  13. Disturbed skin barrier in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited data on skin lesions in children with end-stage renal failure. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the skin barrier in children with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of xerosis, its severity, as well as its link selected demographic factors, were examined. Methods The study included 103 children: 72 with CKD stages 3–5 (38 on conservative treatment and 34 on dialysis) and 31 patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enur...

  14. Increasing awareness of recognition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The medical community should, by now, be well aware of the importance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an increasingly common condition with high morbidity and mortality. In modern terms, COPD has come to signify concurrent chronic bronchitis, asthmatic bronchitis and emphysema. Cigarette smoking has long been recognized as the predominant aetiological agent. Arterial hypoxaemia, a frequent complication of COPD, can lead to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. COPD affects over 5% of the adult population and is the only major cause of death whose morbidity and mortality are increasing in several countries.1 In China, it is difficult to quantify how many people are affected with COPD. However, a recent epidemiological survey indicated that COPD prevalence was 8.2% in China. COPD prevalence in men was significantly higher than in women (12.4% cf 5.1%). The prevalence in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (8.8% cf 7.8%). Of patients with COPD, 61.5% were smokers. The report also stated that COPD is the major cause of death in rural areas in China and the fourth leading cause of death in urban areas, rising to the third leading cause of death by 2020.2 The prevalence of the disease increases with age with highest rates seen in people over the age of 70 years. COPD is the only major cause of mortality with a rising incidence and prevalence worldwide, rendering it an increasingly worrisome

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with behavioral disorders in children with chronic health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso Adji

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions Prevalence of behavioral disorders in children with chronic health condition is 37.5%. The duration of illness contributes to the manifestation of behavioral disorders in children with chronic health conditions. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:1-5].

  16. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Hawkins, Clare; Barbandi, Farouk

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by heterogeneous chronic airway inflammation and airway obstruction. In both conditions, chronic inflammation affects the whole respiratory tract, from central to peripheral airways, with different inflammatory cells recruited, different mediators produced, and thus differing responses to therapy. Airway obstruction is typically intermittent and reversible in asthma but is progressive and largely irreversible in COPD. However, there is a considerable pathologic and functional overlap between these 2 heterogeneous disorders, particularly among the elderly, who may have components of both diseases (asthma-COPD overlap syndrome). The definitions for asthma and COPD recommended by current guidelines are useful but limited because they do not illustrate the full spectrum of obstructive airway diseases that is encountered in clinical practice. Defining asthma and COPD as separate entities neglects a considerable proportion of patients with overlapping features and is largely based on expert opinion rather than on the best current evidence. The presence of different phenotypes or components of obstructive airway diseases, therefore, needs to be addressed to individualize and optimize treatment to achieve the best effect with the fewest side effects for the patient. Although specific interventions vary by disease, the treatment goals of obstructive airway diseases are similar and driven primarily by the need to control symptoms, optimize health status, and prevent exacerbations.

  17. Electrocardiographic characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; Numans, Mattijs E;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiography (ECG) carries information about cardiac disease and prognosis, but studies comparing ECG characteristics between patients with and without COPD are lacking. We related ECG...... the most common ECG abnormality in COPD patients (28%) being significantly more prevalent than in patients without COPD (11%, p heart rate was higher in COPD patients (72 bpm (SD 14)) compared to controls (65 bpm (SD 13), p ... the importance of an integrated-care approach for COPD patients, paying attention to early detection of unrecognized coexisting cardiac disorders....

  18. The changing trend of chronic disease prevalence and its related risk factors in Nanning community residents%南宁市某社区居民慢性病及其危险因素变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳华; 周吉; 叶琳; 江珊; 杨建敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市某社区居民慢性病及其危险因素的变化趋势。方法使用同一个心血管危险因素调查表分别在2007年、2012年调查南宁市某社区居民主要慢性病及其危险因素情况,并进行体格检查及统计学分析。结果2007年高血压、高脂血症、糖尿病和脑卒中患病率分别为22.8%、14.4%、4.2%和2.7%;现在吸烟率、过去12个月饮酒率、中心性肥胖率、肥胖率分别为23.1%、22.0%、60.8%和9.8%。2012年高血压、高脂血症、糖尿病和脑卒中患病率分别为23.2%、19.4%、8.3%和2.8%。现在吸烟率、过去12个月饮酒率、中心性肥胖率、肥胖率分别为17.5%、19.4%、68.1%和16.8%。与2007年相比,2012年高脂血症患病率和糖尿病患病率呈上升趋势(χ2=4.536,P=0.033和χ2=7.280,P=0.007)。中心性肥胖率、肥胖率呈上升趋势(χ2=5.655,P=0.017和χ2=10.858,P =0.001)。现在吸烟率呈下降趋势(χ2=4.779,P=0.029)。高血压和脑卒中患病率、过去12个月饮酒率变化不大(χ2=0.018、0.017、0.989,P=0.892、0.898、0.320)。结论5年间,南宁市某社区居民高脂血症、糖尿病患病率、肥胖率及中心性肥胖率显著上升,现在吸烟率稍有下降,应采取控制合理膳食和加强体育锻炼等针对性的“吃动两平衡”行为干预措施,重点控制高脂血症、糖尿病和肥胖的发生;继续加大控烟、限酒等宣传力度,减缓慢性病危险因素的上升速度。%[ Abstratc] Obje ctive To study the changing trend of chronic disease and its related risk factors in Nanning community residents.Methods The certain community residents in Nanning were investigated using the same ques-tionnaire in 2007 and 2012, respectively.The survey items included smoking, drinking risk factors, and physical ex-amination.The comparative analysis was done statistically.Results In 2007

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease: What Does It Mean for Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online catalog. Alternate Language URL Españ​ol Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Basics Page Content Chronic Kidney Disease: ... My Lifestyle CKD: Tracking My Test Results Chronic Kidney Disease: The Basics You've been told that ...

  20. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/ ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times ...

  1. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive and interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte U; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    , and is considered one of the most frequent types of PH. However, the prevalence of PH among patients with COPD and ILD is not clear. The diagnosis of PH in chronic lung disease is often established by echocardiographic screening, but definitive diagnosis requires right heart catheterization, which...... is not systematically performed in clinical practice. Given the large number of patients with chronic lung disease, biomarkers to preclude or increase suspicion of PH are needed. NT-proBNP may be used as a rule-out test, but biomarkers with a high specificity for PH are still required. It is not known whether specific...... treatment with existent drugs effective in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is beneficial in lung disease related PH. Studies investigating existing PAH drugs in animal models of lung disease related PH have indicated a positive effect, and so have case reports and open label studies. However...

  2. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  3. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2011-08-26

    HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.

  4. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Mariani; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreaUtis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis.There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane con ductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation,hereditary and obstructive pancreatitis seem an acute disease that progress to chronic pancreatitis,likely as a consequence of the activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells that produce and activate collagen and therefore fibrosis.From the diagnostic point of view,in patients with acute recurrent pancreatitis Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) seems the more reliable technique for an accurate evaluation and follow-up of some ductal and parenchymal abnormalities suspected for early chronic pancreatitis.

  5. Chronic kidney Disease and the Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Riellae, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Youth, which is forgiven everything, forgives itself nothing: age, which forgives itself everything, is forgiven nothing. George Bernard Shaw The proportion of older people in the general population is steadily increasing worldwide, with the most rapid growth in low-and middle-income countries [1]. This demographic change is to be celebrated, because it is the consequence of socioeconomic development and better life expectancy. However, population aging also has important implications for society - in diverse areas including health systems, labor markets, public policy, social programs, and family dynamics [2]. A successful response to the aging population will require capitalizing on the opportunities that this transition offers, as well as effectively addressing its challenges. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important public health problem that is characterized by poor health outcomes and very high health care costs. CKD is a major risk multiplier in patients with diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke - all of which are key causes of death and disability in older people [3]. Since the prevalence of CKD is higher in older people, the health impact of population aging will depend in part on how the kidney community responds. March 13, 2014 will mark the celebration of the 9th World Kidney Day (WKD), an annual event jointly sponsored by the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations. Since its inception in 2006, WKD has become the most successful effort to raise awareness among policymakers and the general public about the importance of kidney disease. The topic for WKD 2014 is "CKD in older people". This article reviews the key links between kidney function, age, health and illness - and discusses the implications of the aging population for the care of people with CKD.

  6. [Female sexual function and chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Gila

    2006-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease.

  7. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  8. Application of KDIGO classifcation of chronic kidney disease for analyzing the prevalence of kidney disease and other vascular diseases in 1645 type 2 diabetic patients%KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统在1645例2型糖尿病患者伴发肾脏疾病及相关血管性疾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 陈慧卿; 赵文波; 刘迅; 司美君; 唐骅; 娄探奇

    2013-01-01

    目的 采用KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统,研究2型糖尿病患者肾脏疾病的发病情况、危险因素及并发心脑血管性疾病、死亡情况,探讨KDIGO分级系统的意义.方法 选取2008年6月至2012年12月于本院住院的1645例资料完整的2型糖尿病患者为研究对象,采用KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统进行分组,明确KDIGO分期下糖尿病患者的血管疾病发病情况,并对合并及不合并肾脏疾病两组间进行比较,分析肾脏疾病的危险因素,另分析其死亡的危险因素.结果 1645例2型糖尿病患者中男915例,女730例,平均年龄(57.86±12.54)岁,糖尿病病程(6.35±6.30)年.37.2%(612/1645)患者合并肾脏疾病,G3a、G3b期及G4+G5期分别占5.7%、3.5%、7.6%,蛋白尿患者占33.4%,其中微量白蛋白尿患者19.5%,大量白蛋白尿患者13.5%.49.5%患者合并高血压,67.7%合并高脂血症,27.4%合并糖尿病视网膜病变(DR),18.5%合并心脑血管疾病(其中16.5%合并冠状动脉性疾病(CAD),8.8%患者合并脑血管疾病),G3a和G3b组在DR、CAD、脑血管疾病的比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).糖尿病病程、合并高血压尤其是收缩压升高、糖尿病视网膜病变、高尿酸血症是2型糖尿病患者合并肾脏疾病的独立危险因素.而年龄、Scr、合并心脑血管疾病、高CKD分期是2型糖尿病合并肾脏疾病患者死亡的独立危险因素.结论 KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统可以更准确划分糖尿病患者肾脏疾病的分期以指导临床和判断预后,糖尿病患者肾脏疾病和心脑血管疾病的患病率较普通人群更高,早期控制血压、血尿酸等因素可延缓肾脏疾病的进展,需重视糖尿病视网膜病变的预测作用.%Objective To analyze the prevalence,risk factors of kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients with KDIGO classification of chronic kidney disease,also to study cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and death in these

  9. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention website. www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/overview/index.htm . Updated August 13, 2012. Accessed July 24, 2013. [3] Besarab A, Coyne DW. Iron supplementation to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nature Reviews ...

  10. Genetic influences on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon F; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted....

  11. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairam, Krish; Scoffone, Cesare M; Alken, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    by glomerular filtration rate, including chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II-greater than 60, stage III-30 to 59 and stages IV/V-less than 30 ml/minute/1.73 m(2). Patient characteristics, operative characteristics, outcomes and morbidity were assessed. RESULTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate data were...... available on 5,644 patients, including 4,436 with chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II, 994 with stage III and 214 with stages IV/V. A clinically significant minority of patients with nephrolithiasis presented with severe chronic kidney disease. A greater number of patients with stages IV/V previously...... underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy or nephrostomy and had positive urine cultures than less severely affected patients, consistent with the higher incidence of staghorn stones in these patients. Patients with chronic kidney disease stages IV/V had statistically significantly worse...

  12. Thiazide diuretics in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Sinha, Arjun D

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in 3%-4% of the adult population in the United States, and the vast majority of these people are hypertensive. Compared with those with essential hypertension, hypertension in CKD remains poorly controlled despite the use of multiple antihypertensive drugs. Hypervolemia is thought to be a major cause of hypertension, and diuretics are useful to improve blood pressure control in CKD. Non-osmotic storage of sodium in the skin and muscle may be a novel mechanism by which sodium may modulate hypertension; further work is need to study this novel phenomenon with diuretics. Among people with stage 4 CKD, loop diuretics are recommended over thiazides. Thiazide diuretics are deemed ineffective in people with stage 4 CKD. Review of the literature suggests that thiazides may be useful even among people with advanced CKD. They cause a negative sodium balance, increasing sodium excretion by 10%-15% and weight loss by 1-2 kg in observational studies. Observational data show improvement in seated clinic blood pressure of about 10-15 mm Hg systolic and 5-10 mm Hg diastolic, whereas randomized trials show about 15 mm Hg improvement in mean arterial pressure. Volume depletion, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, and acute kidney injury are adverse effects that should be closely monitored. Our review suggests that adequately powered randomized trials are needed before the use of thiazide diuretics can be firmly recommended in those with advanced CKD.

  13. Thiazide Diuretics in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arjun D; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2015-03-01

    Widely prevalent in the general population, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently complicated with hypertension. Control of hypertension in this high-risk population is a major modifiable cardiovascular and renal risk factor but often requires multiple medications. Although thiazides are an attractive agent, guidelines have previously recommended against thiazide use in stage 4 CKD. We review the updated guidelines on thiazide use in advanced CKD, the antihypertensive mechanism of thiazides, and the clinical studies of thiazides in CKD. Older uncontrolled studies have shown that metolazone reduces blood pressure in CKD, but more recently small randomized controlled trials of hydrochlorothiazide in CKD have shown significant improvement in mean arterial pressure of 15 mmHg. Two recent uncontrolled studies of chlorthalidone including one that used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring found significant improvements in blood pressure. These findings all suggest that thiazides may be efficacious even in advanced CKD; however, electrolyte abnormalities were common in the studies reviewed so close monitoring is necessary during use. Adequately powered randomized trials are now needed before the routine use of thiazide diuretics in advanced CKD can be recommended.

  14. Dispelling the chronic Lyme disease myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemperman, Melissa M; Bakken, Johan S; Kravitz, Gary R

    2008-07-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness endemic to Minnesota that can have potentially severe complications. As the incidence of Lyme disease continues to increase, it is important for physicians in Minnesota to become familiar with its clinical aspects, including the concept of "chronic Lyme disease." Chronic Lyme disease is a misnomer that is often applied to patients with nonspecific presentations who may or may not have a history of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent that causes Lyme disease. When a patient does present with persistent nonspecific symptoms attributed to chronic Lyme disease, clinicians should ascertain the presence of objective manifestations, obtain laboratory results, and get a history of tick exposure. If active infection with B. burgdorferi is unlikely, they should avoid prescribing empiric antibiotic therapy and instead thoroughly evaluate the patient for other possible causes of the complaints and recommend appropriate care.

  15. Prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of Iranian patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Chomeili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Celiac disease, one of the best-known autoimmune human leukocyte antigen-dependent disorders, has a relatively increased prevalence in first-degree relatives. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease. METHODS: Siblings of confirmed celiac disease patients in our center were identified and enrolled in this study. Their serum immunoglobulin A and tissue transglutaminase antibody-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (anti-tissue transglutaminase, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin G were measured and multiple endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained with parental consensus. Celiac disease was confirmed by observation of characteristic histological changes. RESULTS: A total of 49 children (male, 29; female, 20; age, 2-16 years with confirmed celiac disease in a pediatric gastroenterology ward were studied from 1999 to 2006. We found 30 siblings (female, 16 all shared in both parents. The only measurement available was for immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase antibody. A duodenal biopsy was performed in all 30 siblings. Clinical findings such as abdominal pain, fatigue, growth retardation and diarrhea were found in 53.3% of the completely studied siblings, and positive serology without histological changes was identified in four cases. Both serology and biopsy (confirmed new cases were positive in 2 of the 30 siblings. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of celiac disease among siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease necessitates serologic screening (and confirmatory biopsy if indicated in families having celiac disease. It is advantageous to diagnose the disease as soon as possible because early diagnosis and diet intervention may prevent serious complications such as growth retardation, short stature, chronic diarrhea, and malignancy.

  16. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided...... with rhinoconjunctivitis only, rhinoconjunctivitis with concomitant asthma or atopic dermatitis or both 62.5%, 81.5%, 70%, and 100%, respectively, were sensitized, whereas it was 7.7% and 33.3% of children with only asthma or atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was high in adolescence...

  17. Prevalence of Hepatitis G Virus in Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Takagi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV in liver disease of non-A, -B, -C viral hepatitis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C was determined. Two of 44 patients (4.5% with liver injury without any hepatitis A, B or C marker were positive for HGV. One of five cases of hepatocellular carcinoma was positive for HGV. One of three cases with fulminant hepatitis was positive for HGV. This case was negative at the onset of fulminant hepatitis and became positive after plasmapheresis. No patient with acute (n=8 or chronic (n=5 hepatitis or liver cirrhosis (n=8 was positive for HGV in non-A, -B, -C liver disease. One of 30 patients with various HBV-positive liver diseases and nine (17.3 of 52 patients with type C liver disease were positive for HGV. In patients with hepatitis C, four (28.6% of 14 HGV-co-infected patients were complicated with diabetes mellitus compared with four (10.5% of 38 single hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients (not significant. In 12 HGV-positive patients, eight of 10 (80% had a history of blood transfusion. In HCV-positive patients, co-infection with HGV was not a risk factor in patients with diabetes mellitus as a complication. HGV appeared to cause non-A, -B, -C hepatitis rarely, and its main route of infection was blood transfusion.

  18. Lung Compliance and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papandrinopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a chronic inflammatory response of the airways to noxious particles or gases, with resulting pathological and pathophysiological changes in the lung. The main pathophysiological aspects of the disease are airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The mechanical properties of the respiratory system and its component parts are studied by determining the corresponding volume-pressure (P-V relationships. The consequences of the inflammatory response on the lung structure and function are depicted on the volume-pressure relationships.

  19. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    -20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter......Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema...... in causing airway narrowing, the latter most likely due to loss of elastic recoil of surrounding tissue....

  20. Comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in family practice: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Olmos Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is frequent and often coexists with other diseases. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of COPD and related chronic comorbidity among patients aged over 40 years visiting family practices in an area of Madrid. Methods An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a health area of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. The practice population totalled 198,670 persons attended by 129 Family Physicians (FPs, and the study population was made up of persons over the age of 40 years drawn from this practice population. Patients were deemed to have COPD if this diagnosis appeared on their clinical histories. Prevalence of COPD; prevalence of a further 25 chronic diseases in patients with COPD; and standardised prevalence ratios, were calculated. Results Prevalence of COPD in family medicine was 3.2% (95% CI 3.0–3.3 overall, 5.3% among men and 1.4% among women; 90% of patients presented with comorbidity, with a mean of 4 ± 2.04 chronic diseases per patient, with the most prevalent related diseases being arterial hypertension (52%, disorders of lipid metabolism (34%, obesity (25%, diabetes (20% and arrhythmia (15%. After controlling for age and sex, the observed prevalence of the following ten chronic diseases was higher than expected: heart failure; chronic liver disease; asthma; generalised artherosclerosis; osteoporosis; ischaemic heart disease; thyroid disease; anxiety/depression; arrhythmia; and obesity. Conclusions Patients with COPD, who are frequent in family practice, have a complex profile and pose a clinical and organisational challenge to FPs.

  1. CHRONIC THROMBOEMBOLIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION AND PROBLEMS OF RARE AND INTERDISCIPLINARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare life-threatening disease with a prevalence of 2 cases per 100000 population. CTEPH is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by high disability and mortality rates in young and middle-aged people, often with underlying genetic and autoimmune thrombophilic disorders. The need for pathogenetic therapy with orphan drugs that can slow the progression of the disease is supported.

  2. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyana Gujral; Hugh J Freeman; Alan BR Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases,resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and nonHLA genes].The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world.However,the population with diabetes,autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD,at least in part,because of shared HLA typing.Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium,and interact directly with the immune system,via both bans-and para-cellular routes.From a diagnostic perspective,symptoms may be viewed as either "typical" or "atypical'; In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD,should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis.Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or antiendomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy.Currently,the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD.A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide,prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption,blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue,restore immune tolerance towards gluten,modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin,and restoration of intestinal architecture.

  3. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  4. Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases is high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.J. Picavet (Susan); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To present the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. METHODS: Twelve layman descriptions of com

  5. Barrett's esophagus: Prevalence and risk factors in patients with chronic GERD in Upper Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser M Fouad; Madiha M Makhlouf; Heba M Tawfik; Hussein El Amin; Wael Abdel Ghany; Hisham R El-khayat

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in El Minya and Assuit, Upper Egypt. METHODS: One thousand consecutive patients with chronic GERD symptoms were included in the study over 2 years. They were subjected to history taking including a questionnaire for GERD symptoms, clinical examination and upper digestive tract endoscopy. Endoscopic signs suggestive of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were defined as mucosal tongues or an upward shift of the squamocolumnar junction. BE was diagnosed by pathological examination when specialized intestinal metaplasia was detected histologically in suspected CLE. pH was monitored in 40 patients. RESULTS: BE was present in 7.3% of patients with chronic GERD symptoms, with a mean age of 48.3 ± 8.2 years, which was significantly higher than patients with GERD without BE (37.4 ± 13.6 years). Adenocarcinoma was detected in eight cases (0.8%), six of them in BE patients. There was no significant difference between patients with BE and GERD regarding sex, smoking, alcohol consumption or symptoms of GERD. Patients with BE had significantly longer esophageal acid exposure time in the supine position, measured by pH monitoring. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BE in patients with GERD who were referred for endoscopy was 7.3%. BE seems to be associated with older age and more in patients with nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux.

  6. A systematic review of barriers to optimal outpatient specialist services for individuals with prevalent chronic diseases: what are the unique and common barriers experienced by patients in high income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie

    2015-06-09

    Health utilization and need assessment data suggest there is considerable variation in access to outpatient specialist care. However, it is unclear if the types of barriers experienced are specific to chronic disease groups or experienced universally. This systematic review provides a detailed summary of common and unique barriers experienced by chronic disease groups when accessing and receiving care, and a synthesized list of possible health service initiatives to improve equitable delivery of optimal care in high-income countries. Quantitative articles describing barriers to specialist outpatient services were retrieved from CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PyscINFO. To be eligible for review, studies: were published from 2002 to May 2014; included samples with cancer, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arthritis, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic pulmonary disorder (COPD) or depression; and, were conducted in high-income countries. Using a previously validated model of access (Penchansky and Thomas' model of fit), barriers were grouped according to five overarching domains and defined in more detail using 33 medical subject headings. Results from reviewed articles, including the scope and frequency of reported barriers, are conceptualized using thematic analysis and framed as possible health service initiatives. A total of 3181 unique records were screened for eligibility, of which 74 studies were included in final analysis. The largest proportion of studies reported acceptability barriers (75.7 %), of which demographic disparities (44.6 %) were reported across all diseases. Other frequently reported barriers included inadequate need assessment (25.7 %), information provision (32.4 %), or health communication (20 %). Unique barriers were identified for oncology, mental health, and COPD samples. Based on the scope, frequency and measurement of reported barriers, eight key themes with associated implications for health services are presented. Examples

  7. Association between Complement C3 and Prevalence of Fatty Liver Disease in an Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wu, Yuntang; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system plays a key role in the development of fatty liver disease (FLD). The complement system is a major humoral component of the innate immune response and complement C3 plays a central role, implying that C3 may be a powerful predictor or therapeutic target for FLD. However, few studies have assessed the association between C3 and FLD in a large population. Here we use a cross-sectional study to investigate the link between serum C3 levels and FLD. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University’s General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Serum C3 was measured using immunoturbidimetry method and FLD was diagnosed by liver ultrasonography. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of C3 and FLD prevalence. The overall prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) were 37.3% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of having NAFLD or AFLD (only in males) in the fourth quartile of C3 compared with the first quartile was 4.13 times greater (95% confidence interval, 2.97-5.77) (trend P values < 0.0001) and 2.09 times greater (95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.18) (trend P values = 0.02). This is the first study to demonstrate that serum C3 levels are independently associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD and AFLD (only in males) in an adult population. Further studies are needed to establish a causal link and determine the precise role of C3 in FLD. PMID:25856141

  8. Association between complement C3 and prevalence of fatty liver disease in an adult population: a cross-sectional study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyu Jia

    Full Text Available Activation of the innate immune system plays a key role in the development of fatty liver disease (FLD. The complement system is a major humoral component of the innate immune response and complement C3 plays a central role, implying that C3 may be a powerful predictor or therapeutic target for FLD. However, few studies have assessed the association between C3 and FLD in a large population. Here we use a cross-sectional study to investigate the link between serum C3 levels and FLD. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University's General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Serum C3 was measured using immunoturbidimetry method and FLD was diagnosed by liver ultrasonography. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of C3 and FLD prevalence. The overall prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD were 37.3% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of having NAFLD or AFLD (only in males in the fourth quartile of C3 compared with the first quartile was 4.13 times greater (95% confidence interval, 2.97-5.77 (trend P values < 0.0001 and 2.09 times greater (95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.18 (trend P values = 0.02. This is the first study to demonstrate that serum C3 levels are independently associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD and AFLD (only in males in an adult population. Further studies are needed to establish a causal link and determine the precise role of C3 in FLD.

  9. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  10. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  11. Prevalence and clinical picture of celiac disease in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamico, Margherita; Pasquino, Anna M; Mariani, Paolo; Danesi, Helene M; Culasso, Franco; Mazzanti, Laura; Petri, Antonella; Bona, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    A multicenter study of Turner syndrome (TS) patients was carried out to estimate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and to detect clinical characteristics and laboratory data of affected patients. Three hundred eighty-nine girls with TS were screened by IgA antigliadin antibodies and/or antiendomysial antibodies. Intestinal biopsy was offered to positive cases. CD was diagnosed in 25 patients. In celiac subjects, anemia, anorexia, and delayed growth (with respect to Italian TS curves) were frequently present; whereas distended abdomen, chronic diarrhea, constipation, and vomiting occurred more rarely. In addition, low serum iron levels, hemoglobinemia, and high values of aminotransferases were observed. Ten patients showed classic CD, 8 showed atypical symptoms, and 7 showed a silent CD. In 11 symptomatic patients, the diagnosis of CD was made at the onset of symptoms, whereas 7 of them showed a median delay of 79 months in diagnosis. Other autoimmune disorders were observed in 40% of the patients. Our study confirms the high prevalence (6.4%) of CD in a large series of TS patients. Moreover, the subclinical picture in 60% of the cases, the diagnostic delay, and the incidence of other autoimmune disorders suggest that routine screening of CD in TS is indicated.

  12. The Economic Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Virginia; Vilme, Helene; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-07-01

    The growing prevalence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) raises concerns about our capacity to manage its economic burden to patients, caregivers, and society. The societal direct and indirect costs of CKD and end-stage renal disease are substantial and increase throughout disease progression. There is significant variability in the evidence about direct and indirect costs attributable to CKD and end-stage renal disease, with the most complete evidence concentrated on direct health care costs of patients with advanced to end-stage CKD. There are substantial gaps in evidence that need to be filled to inform clinical practice and policy.

  13. Mobile phone technology in chronic disease management

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Holly

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones are being used to improve nurse-patient communication and monitor health outcomes in chronic disease. Innovative applications of mobile technology are expected to increase over time in community management of cancer, heart disease, asthma and diabetes. This article focuses on mobile phone technology and its contribution to health care.

  14. Current concepts in chronic inflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garn, Holger; Bahn, Sabine; Baune, Bernhard T

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that chronic inflammatory diseases, including allergies and autoimmune and neuropsychiatric diseases, share common pathways of cellular and molecular dysregulation. It was the aim of the International von-Behring-Röntgen Symposium (October 16-18, 2014, in Marburg, Germany...

  15. Arterial hypertension and chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, S

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the alterations in the systemic haemodynamics of patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of renal origin. Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic...... the development of chronic liver disease, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in those with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial...

  16. Trace elements and chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loguercio, C.; De Girolamo, V.; Federico A., A.; Del Vecchio Blanco, C. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy). Cattedra di Gastroenterologia; Feng, S.L.; Gialanella, G. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche; Cataldi, V. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Prima Medicina Ospedale Ascalesi

    1997-12-31

    The relationships between chronic liver diseases and trace element (TE) contents are debated. Particularly, no defined data are available about the TE levels in viral liver disease patients with or without malnutrition. In this study we evaluated blood and plasma levels of various trace elements in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease, at different stages of liver damage (8 patients with chronic hepatitis and 32 with liver cirrhosis) with or without malnutrition. We also studied 10 healthy volunteers as control group. We found that cirrhotic subjects had a significant decrease of blood levels of Zn and Se, independently on the nutritional status, whereas plasma levels of Fe were significantly reduced only in malnourished cirrhotic patients. Our data indicate that liver impairment is the main cause of the blood decrease of Se and Zn levels in patients with non alcoholic liver disease, whereas the malnutrition affects Fe levels only. (orig.)

  17. Chronic gingivitis: the prevalence of periodontopathogens and therapy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, M; Kesic, L; Lekovic, V; Apostolovic, M; Mihailovic, D; Kostadinovic, L; Milasin, J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of gingival inflammation and the prevalence of periodontopathogenic microorganisms in adolescents with chronic gingivitis, as well as to compare the effectiveness of two approaches in gingivitis treatment-basic therapy alone and basic therapy + adjunctive low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After periodontal evaluation, the content of gingival pockets of 140 adolescents with gingivitis was analyzed by multiplex PCR for the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythensis and P. intermedia. Subsequent to bacteria detection, the examinees were divided into two groups with homogenous clinical and microbiological characteristics. Group A was subjected to basic gingivitis therapy, and group B underwent basic therapy along with adjunctive LLLT. A statistically significant difference between the values of plaque-index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) before and after therapy was confirmed in both groups (pgingivitis should be regarded as a sign for dentists to foster more effective oral health programs. LLLT appears to be beneficial as adjuvant to basic therapy.

  18. Prevalence, correlative and statistical relationships of renal dysfunction in patients with chronic ischemic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lashkul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is one of the most common complications of cardiovascular disease. According multicenter studies conducted during recent years, coronary heart disease was the leading cause of heart failure and has been on average 64% of patients with chronic heart failure. The tight functional relationship of cardiovascular and urinary system causes a lot of interest to the functional state of kidneys in various cardiovascular diseases. Most risk factors for cardiovascular disease are common risk factors of renal failure. Causes significant differences in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in patients with chronic heart failure, defined as coronary artery disease and hypertension remain unclear. Need clarification prevalence of CKD among patients with CHF in general and in specific groups of patients. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence, correlation and statistical relationships of renal dysfunction with functional class, age and gender of patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure, were hospitalized. Materials and methods. Analyzed the medical cards 344 patients (286 men and 58 women with ischemic chronic heart failure, mean age 59.2±9.4 years. The etiology of heart failure in 298 (86.6% patients had a combination of coronary artery disease and essential hypertension in 46 (13.4% - CHD. Chronic heart failure 1 functional class (FC was diagnosed in 10 (2.9% patients, 2 FC - in 106 (31%, 3 FC - 207 (60.5% and 4 FC - 19 (5, 6% patients. Diabetes was 62 (18% patients. Myocardial infarction had a history of 245 (71.2% patients. Glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the formula MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease. Descriptive statistics are presented as mean±standard deviation for continuous variables and as percentages for categorical variables. Depending on the distribution of the analyzed parameters used unpaired Student's t-test or U-Mann-Whitney test. Comparisons among all

  19. Diagnosis and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Roy O; Bangalore, Sripal; Lavelle, Michael P; Pellikka, Patricia A; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Boden, William E; Asif, Arif

    2016-12-28

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, likely reflecting the presence of traditional risk factors. A greater distinguishing feature of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in CKD is the severity of the disease, which is reflective of an increase in inflammatory mediators and vascular calcification secondary to hyperparathyroidism of renal origin that are unique to patients with CKD. Additional components of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that are prominent in patients with CKD include microvascular disease and myocardial fibrosis. Therapeutic interventions that minimize cardiovascular events related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD, as determined by well-designed clinical trials, are limited to statins. Data are lacking regarding other available therapeutic measures primarily due to exclusion of patients with CKD from major trials studying cardiovascular disease. Data from well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to guide clinicians who care for this high-risk population in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to improve clinical outcomes.

  20. The Prevalence of Symptoms of Asthma and Allergic Diseases through ISSAC Method in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is the most important chronic disease in children and one of the causes of school absenteeism, which is getting more prevalent by the increase of environmental pollutants and industrial life. This study was planned and performed to estimate the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 on 3000 female and male students of first grade of guidance school, who were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected by standard questionnaire and after data collection and entering ISSAC SPSS software the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 statistical test at significance level of 0.05.Results: Prevalence of asthma, hives, eczema and atopic disease was respectively 3.8 percent, 10.4%, 18.3% and 42%. Prevalence of hives, eczema, atopic disease, watery eyes and wheezing after exercise in both genders showed a statistically significant difference (p 0.05Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that although the prevalence of asthma in Shirazi children is less than some other cities, the increased development of disease in recent years will be a threatening risk and this phenomenon requires serious attention and planning by authorities as well as health policymakers.

  1. The increasing financial impact of chronic kidney disease in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Kingsley, Michael I; Morton, R Hugh; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal replacement therapy (RRT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at P Dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation prior to analysis. Between 2012 and 2020, prevalence, per-patient expenditure, and total disease expenditure associated with CKD and RRT are estimated to increase significantly more rapidly than CVD. RRT prevalence is estimated to increase by 29%, compared to 7% in CVD. Average annual RRT per-patient expenditure is estimated to increase by 16%, compared to 8% in CVD. Total CKD- and RRT-related expenditure had been estimated to increase by 37%, compared to 14% in CVD. Per-patient, CKD produces a considerably greater financial impact on Australia's healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted.

  2. The Increasing Financial Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD, renal replacement therapy (RRT, and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation prior to analysis. Between 2012 and 2020, prevalence, per-patient expenditure, and total disease expenditure associated with CKD and RRT are estimated to increase significantly more rapidly than CVD. RRT prevalence is estimated to increase by 29%, compared to 7% in CVD. Average annual RRT per-patient expenditure is estimated to increase by 16%, compared to 8% in CVD. Total CKD- and RRT-related expenditure had been estimated to increase by 37%, compared to 14% in CVD. Per-patient, CKD produces a considerably greater financial impact on Australia’s healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted.

  3. EFFECTIVNESS OF TARGET ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY OF SEVERE CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS PART II: PREVALENCE OF RESIDUAL POCKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive treatment of periodontitis is very different from the treatment of most bacterial infections. While periodontitis is traditionally considered a bacterial infection, many variables influence treatment outcomes. The reduction of the probing depth of the periodontal pockets is one of the main criteria for the success of the periodontal treatment. The prevalence of the residual pockets with probing depth greater than 4 mm determines the risk of disease progression. The reduction of the periodontal sites with PD above 7mm with non-surgical periodontal treatment could limit the necessity of periodontal surgery. Aim: Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment of severe chronic periodontitis with additional target antibiotic administration in comparison with the therapy with adjunctive antimicrobial combination amoxicillin+metronidazole and conventional mechanical periodontal treatment regarding the prevalence and the achieved mean reduction of PD of periodontal pockets with initial PPD below 3mm, from 3 to 5mm, from 5-7mm and above 7mm.Results: In all study groups a reduction of the mean PD has been achieved. The prevalence of periodontal sites with PD above 7mm after therapy is the lowest in the group with target antibiotic administration. These results advocate the effectiveness of the target adjunctive antimicrobial treatment in order to limit the extent of the surgical procedures in the therapy of the periodontal disease.

  4. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  5. Prevalence of menopause, chronic illnesses and life style of middle aged women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Saleem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : Objectives: To determine the prevalence of menopause, chronic illnesses and lifestyle of middle aged women in Karachi, Pakistan. Design: A Cross Sectional survey was conducted among women of 40-60 years living in socio-economically different areas of Karachi. Information was gathered on their current menstrual status, age at menopause, body mass index, exercise habits, weekly recall of food consumed and chronic illnesses. These variables were also examined according to the socio economic status of the area where women reside. Results: A total of 1764 women in age group 40-60 years were interviewed. The prevalence of menopausal women in this age group was 39.3 percent (%. The mean age at menopause was 45.2 (±3.8 years. Only seven percent of women were doing some kind of exercise and approximately eighty percent had their Body Mass Index ≥ 23 kg/m2 according to Asian Standard. Approximately 31 percent (% of women reported eating any type of meat at least four times a week, of these most were from higher income area. Majority consumed meat less than three times a week. Similar pattern was observed for consumption of fruits and milk. Approximately 36 percent (% of women reported diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardio vascular heart disease and arthritis. Conclusion: The sedentary life style, obesity and chronic illnesses are highly prevalent and are serious emerging public health problem for 40-60 years old women of Karachi. We recommend that awareness about balanced diet, exercise and healthy eating habits should be inculcated in women early in life, where possible through schools and media. Health policies and public health messages should be formulated according to the various stages of life cycle of women, so that women can prepare themselves for the next stage of life.

  6. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness......Concepts of disease severity, activity, control and responsiveness to treatment are linked but different. Severity refers to the loss of function of the organs induced by the disease process or to the occurrence of severe acute exacerbations. Severity may vary over time and needs regular follow......-up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic...

  7. Transcending chronic liver disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-01-01

    This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.

  8. Management of Pruritus in Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There continues to be uncertainty on the ideal treatment of pruritus in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to gather the latest information on the evidence-based management of pruritus in chronic liver disease. Methodology. A literature search for pruritus in chronic liver disease was conducted using Pubmed and Embase database systems using the MeSH terms “pruritus,” “chronic liver disease,” “cholestatic liver disease,” and “treatment.” Results. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus is described in addition to detailing research into contemporary treatment options of the condition. These medical treatments range from bile salts, rifampicin, and opioid receptor antagonists to antihistamines. Conclusion. The burden of pruritus in liver disease patients persists and, although it is a common symptom, it can be difficult to manage. In recent years there has been greater study into the etiology and treatment of the condition. Nonetheless, pruritus remains poorly understood and many patients continue to suffer, reiterating the need for further research to improve our understanding of the etiology and treatment for the condition.

  9. Chronic Disease Cost not Transferable: Colombian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gallardo Solarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to reflect on the social and economic costs of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD in Colombia to display a charging indicator of these pathologies. Material and methods: In a review of 50 studies, 27 were selected since these met the inclusion criteria, like chronical disease, studies conducted between 2002 and 2011 related to costs, chronic disease, and being Colombian. Results: This is a review study of chronic diseases vs. their costs, being here cardiovascular diseases part of the group of high cost and higher incidence diseases, thus repre­senting a great risk to the financial stability of healthcare companies. There are few studies that address the costs generated by the treatment of ncds patients that show the economic impact experienced by public and private institutions providing and promoting health services. Most of them forget the economic, family and social costs the affected population must suffer. Conclu­sions: ncds represent a burden to the health service system for their very high costs, untimely intervention and reduced significant benefit for this population and their families.

  10. Quality of life in chronic disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Megari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades there was an increasing predominance of chronic disorders, with a large number of people living with chronic diseases that can adversely affect their quality of life. The aim of the present paper is to study quality of life and especially Health-related quality of life (HRQoL in chronic diseases. HRQOL is a multidimensional construct that consists of at least three broad domains − physical, psychological, and social functioning − that are affected by one’s disease and/or treatment. HRQoL is usually measured in chronic conditions and is frequently impaired to a great extent. In addition, factors that are associated with good and poor HRQoL, as well as HRQoL assessment will be discussed. The estimation of the relative impact of chronic diseases on HRQoL is necessary in order to better plan and distribute health care resources aiming at a better HRQoL.[«All the people perceive the concept of living good or being well, that is the same as being happy». (Aristotle. 384-322 BC. Ethica Nichomachea

  11. Brain MRI changes in chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skehan, S. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Norris, S. [Liver Unit, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Hegarty, J. [Liver Unit, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Owens, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); MacErlaine, D. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Vincent`s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    1997-08-01

    Cirrhotic patients are known to have abnormally high signal principally in the globus pallidus on non-contrast T1-weighted MRI. The purpose of this study was to relate MR changes to clinical and pathological features of chronic liver disease. We confirmed abnormally high signal in the globus pallidus on T1-weighted images in 25 of 28 patients with chronic liver disease, showing that it also occurs in patients who have not yet progressed to cirrhosis. Changes were seen in patients both with and without clinical portosystemic shunting. This abnormality is not responsible for hepatic encephalopathy. Cholestatic disease was more likely to produce marked changes than non-cholestatic disease. No statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between the severity of liver disease and the degree of MR abnormality. However, marked improvement in MR appearances was seen after successful liver transplantation. (orig.). With 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Migraine in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Prevalence, potential mechanisms, and evaluation

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    Rakib eRayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of headache subtypes in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome compared to controls. Background: Migraines are reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Approximately, 25% of the military personnel who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI. Symptoms in GWI share considerable overlap with CFS, including headache complaints. The type and prevalence of headaches in GWI have not been adequately assessed.Methods: 50 GWI, 39 CFS and 45 controls were examined. Participants had structured headache evaluations based on the 2004 International Headache Society criteria. All subjects had history and physical examinations, measurements of systemic hyperalgesia (dolorimetry, assessments for exclusionary indicators, fatigue and symptom related questionnaires. Results: Migraines were detected in 64% of GWI (odds ratio, 11.6, [±95% CI, 4.1 to 32.5] and 82% of CFS subjects (odds ratio, 22.5, [±95% CI, 7.8 to 64.8] compared to only 13% of controls. There was a predominance of females in the CFS compared to GWI and controls. However, gender did not influence migraine status (x2= 2.7; P = 0.101. Measures of fatigue, pain, and other ancillary criteria were comparable between GWI and CFS subjects with and without headache. Conclusion: Results validate previous findings of migraine in CFS and confirms similar increased prevalence in GWI compared to controls. This suggests GWI and CFS subjects share pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie migraine attacks and contribute to the extensive overlap of symptom constructs and disease pathophysiology. The high migraine prevalence warrants the inclusion of a structured headache evaluation that coincides with clinical assessments of GWI and CFS diagnosis.

  13. Chronic parotitis: a challenging disease entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, John M; Liess, Benjamin D; Templer, Jerry W; Zitsch, Robert P; Wieberg, Jessica A

    2011-03-01

    Chronic parotitis is a troubling clinical condition characterized by repeated infection and inflammation of the parotid gland caused by decreased salivary flow or obstruction. Unilateral swelling, pain, and other associated symptoms occur during acute exacerbations of the disease. A variety of laboratory and radiographic tools are available to aid in the diagnosis. Multiple treatment options have been proposed, ranging from conservative medical management to surgical interventions. We present 2 patients with bilateral chronic parotitis who attempted prolonged medical management and ultimately required surgical parotidectomy for control of their disease.

  14. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  15. Prevalence of leukotoxic genotypes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Brazilians with chronic periodontitis Prevalência do genotipo leucotóxico de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans em indivíduos brasileiros com periodontite crônica

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Rosalem Junior; Arnaldo Feitosa Braga de Andrade; Ana Paula Vieira Colombo

    2006-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is considered a major etiologic agent of aggressive periodontitis but this species has also been associated with other forms of periodontal disease. Further, highly leukotoxic strains are related to severity of disease. This investigation determined the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and the occurrence of the leukotoxin gene 530-bp deletion in Brazilian subjects with chronic periodontitis. Twenty periodontally healthy and 20 chronic periodontitis s...

  16. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  17. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Dynamic and Life-Threatening Triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MS and chronic kidney disease (CKD have both become global public health problems, with increasing social and economic impact due to their high prevalence and remarkable impact on morbidity and mortality. The causality between MS and CKD, and its clinical implications, still does remain not completely understood. Moreover, prophylactic and therapeutic interventions do need to be properly investigated in this field. Herein, we critically review the existing clinical evidence that associates MS with renal disease and cardiovascular disease, as well as the associated pathophysiologic mechanisms and actual treatment options.

  18. Prevalence of immune disease in patients with wounds presenting to a tertiary wound healing centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Victoria K; Schilling, Amber; Germinario, Anthony; Mete, Mihriye; Kim, Paul; Steinberg, John; Attinger, Christopher E

    2012-08-01

    Chronic leg ulcers are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and account for considerable healthcare and socioeconomic costs. Leg ulcers are a recognised complication of immune disease, and the purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of immune disease in a cohort of patients with chronic wounds, and to compare wound outcomes in the subjects with and without immune disease. Retrospective chart review was completed on consecutive patients scheduled with the plastic surgeon in the Georgetown University Center for Wound Healing between 1 January 2009 and 31 March 2009. Of the 520 patients scheduled for appointments, 340 were eligible for inclusion. The prevalence of immune disease was higher than expected with 78 of 340 patients (23%) having associated immune disease. At presentation, wounds in patients with immune disease had a significantly larger mean surface area [33·4 cm(2) (69·05) compared to 22·5 cm(2) (63·65), P = 0·02]. Split thickness skin graft (STSG) and bioengineered alternative tissue (BAT) graft data was available on 177 grafts from 55 subjects. There was a significantly lower response rate to STSG in subjects with immune disease (50% compared to 97%, P = 0·0002), but response rates to BAT were not different. The association between immune diseases and chronic wounds may provide unique insights into pathways of wound healing, and warrants further study.

  19. Recent developments in epigenetics of acute and chronic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Marpadga A; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-08-01

    The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, the aging population as well as prevalence of drug abuse has led to significant increases in the rates of the closely associated acute and chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, evidence shows that parental behavior and diet can affect the phenotype of subsequent generations via epigenetic transmission mechanisms. These data suggest a strong influence of the environment on disease susceptibility and that, apart from genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms need to be evaluated to gain critical new information about kidney diseases. Epigenetics is the study of processes that control gene expression and phenotype without alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including cytosine DNA methylation and covalent post-translational modifications of histones in chromatin, are part of the epigenome, the interface between the stable genome and the variable environment. This dynamic epigenetic layer responds to external environmental cues to influence the expression of genes associated with disease states. The field of epigenetics has seen remarkable growth in the past few years with significant advances in basic biology, contributions to human disease, as well as epigenomics technologies. Further understanding of how the renal cell epigenome is altered by metabolic and other stimuli can yield novel new insights into the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In this review, we have discussed the current knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms (primarily DNAme and histone modifications) in acute and chronic kidney diseases, and their translational potential to identify much needed new therapies.

  20. Chronic disease in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Durán, Adriana; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Valderrama, Laura; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Uribe, Ana Fernanda; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; González, Angélica; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Máximo Molina, Juan; Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias de Andalucía (AETSA)

    2016-01-01

    Methodology: A sample of 500 older adults was selected, between 60 and 96 years of age. A questionnaire of psychosocial factors in older adults designed by Baca, Gonzalez, and Uribe was used. Results: Hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis were the most frequent diseases in older adults, although the greater percentage of this population did not refer any pathology. Married and widowers individuals presented more diseases as compared to unmarried, separated and people who live together.Concl...

  1. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) – Differences and Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Dragisic, Dejan; Ustamujic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are obstructive pulmonary diseases that affected millions of people all over the world. Asthma is a serious global health problem with an estimated 300 million affected individuals. COPD is one of the major causes of chronic morbidity and mortality and one of the major public health problems worldwide. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the world and further increases in its prevalence and mortality can be predicted. ...

  2. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Almdal, T; Mikkelsen, K L

    2002-01-01

    An association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been found in a number of studies. The prevalence and prognostic importance of weight change in unselected subjects with COPD was examined. Subjects with COPD...... the two examinations was significantly associated with level of COPD, reaching approximately 30% in subjects with severe COPD. After adjusting for age, smoking habits, baseline BMI and lung function, weight loss was associated with higher mortality in both persons with and without COPD (rate ratio (RR...

  3. Nutritional management and growth in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Lesley; Jones, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Despite continuing improvements in our understanding of the causes of poor growth in chronic kidney disease, many unanswered questions remain: why do some patients maintain a good appetite whereas others have profound anorexia at a similar level of renal function? Why do some, but not all, patients respond to increased nutritional intake? Is feed delivery by gastrostomy superior to oral and nasogastric routes? Do children who are no longer in the 'infancy' stage of growth benefit from enteral feeding? Do patients with protein energy wasting benefit from increased nutritional input? How do we prevent obesity, which is becoming so prevalent in the developed world? This review will address these issues.

  4. Chronic rhinosinusitis in Europe - an underestimated disease. A GA(2) LEN study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastan, D; Fokkens, W J; Bachert, C

    2011-01-01

    , Zuberbier T, Jarvis D, Burney P. Chronic rhinosinusitis in Europe - an underestimated disease. A GA(2) LEN study. Allergy 2011; 66: 1216-1223. ABSTRACT: Background:  Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common health problem, with significant medical costs and impact on general health. Even so, prevalence...... figures for Europe are unavailable. In this study, conducted by the GA(2) LEN network of excellence, the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and nasal Polyps (EP(3) OS) diagnostic criteria are applied to estimate variation in the prevalence of Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) for Europe. Method...

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youl Rhee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP cohort study is performing an ongoing large-scale prospective multicenter investigation to discover the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in Korean patients. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes among those registered in the KNDP cohort within the past 4 years.MethodsThis study was performed between June 2006 and September 2009 at 13 university hospitals and included 4,265 KNDP cohort participants. Among the participants, the crude prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular diseases of those checked for diabetes-related complications was determined, and the adjusted standard prevalence and standardization of the general population prevalence ratio (SPR was estimated based on the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES population demographics.ResultsAmong the KNDP registrants, 43.2% had hypertension, 34.8% had dyslipidemia, 10.8% had macrovascular disease, and 16.7% had microvascular disease. The SPR of the KNDP registrants was significantly higher than that of the KNHANES subjects after adjusting for demographics in the KNHANES 2005 population. However, with the exception of cardiovascular disease in females, the standardized prevalence for the most complicated items in the survey was significantly higher than that in the KNHANES subjects.ConclusionThe prevalence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease were significantly higher in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes than in the normal population. However, no significant difference was noted in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in females.

  6. Anemia in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Koshy, Susan M.; Geary, Denis F.

    2007-01-01

    Anemia is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, but the management of anemia in children is complex. Erythropoietin and supplemental iron are used to maintain hemoglobin levels. The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) clinical practice guidelines for the management of anemia specifically in children were recently published. Pediatric nephrologists are encouraged to use current clinical practice guidelines and best evidence in conjunction wit...

  7. Interleukin-10 and chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Juan Zhang; Xiao-Zhong Wang

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine produced by many cell populations. Numerous investigations suggest that IL-10 plays a major role in chronic liver diseases. IL-10 gene polymorphisms are possibly associated with liver disease susceptibility or severity. Recombinant human IL-10 has been produced and is currently tested in clinical trials. These trials may give new insights into the immunobiology of IL-10 and suggest that the IL-10/IL-10 receptor system may become a new therapeutic target.

  8. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Kharitonov, Sergei A.; Magnussen, Helgo; Page, Clive P.; Postma, Dirkje; Saetta, Marina

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using pulmonary biomarkers to understand and monitor the inflammation in the respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this Pulmonary Perspective we discuss the merits of the various approaches by reviewing the current l

  9. Bronchoscopic interventions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, several non-surgical and minimally invasive bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques have been developed to treat patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BLVR can be significantly efficacious, suitable for a broad cohort of patients, and

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  11. Biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Don D; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, with exception of lung function tests, there are no well validated biomarkers or surrogate endpoints that can be used to establish efficacy of novel drugs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the lung function test is not an ideal surrogate for short-term drug...

  12. Screening of Elderly for Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezaic, Visnja; Bajcetic, Sanja; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Bukvic, Danica; Dimkovic, Nada; Djukanovic, Ljubica

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: The frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) markers was assessed in two groups of patients over 60 years - one without and the other with hypertension. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 585 asymptomatic elderly patients (227 males), 93 without and 492 with hypertensi

  13. Historical perspective: surgery for chronic thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Stuart W

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective for our current understanding of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and surgery for this disease. It chronicles the developments in surgical techniques that have made pulmonary endarterectomy the procedure of choice for obstruction of pulmonary vessels by organized thromboemboli and secondary vessel wall thickening.

  14. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  15. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis M. Steyers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α, reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein, autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population.

  16. Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Hairong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p  Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.

  17. Hirschsprung's disease prevalence in Europe. A register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital gut motility disorder, characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglion cells along the distal gut. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Hirschsprung's disease, including additional congenital anomalies, total prevalence......, trends, and association with maternal age. METHODS: Cases of Hirschsprung's disease delivered during 1980 to 2009 notified to 31 European Surveillance of Congenital Anomaly registers formed the population-based case-series. Prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as the number...... of cases per 10,000 births. Multilevel Poisson regression was performed to investigate trends in prevalence, geographical variation and the association with maternal age. RESULTS: There were 1,322 cases of Hirschsprung's disease among 12,146,210 births. The total prevalence was 1.09 (95% confidence...

  18. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  19. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  20. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in The Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Bech, Sara Brynhild Winther; Petersen, Maria Skaalum;

    2008-01-01

    A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively.......A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively....

  1. Simultaneidade dos fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adolescentes: prevalência e fatores associados Simultaneidad de los factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en adolescentes: prevalencia y factores asociados Clustering of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases among adolescents: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara da Silva

    2012-09-01

    adolescentes de Caxias do Sul, en Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de base escolar, involucrando a 1.675 estudiantes (53,2% del sexo femenino, con edades entre 11 y 17 años, de escuelas públicas y privadas. El consumo de tabaco y alcohol, el alto consumo de grasa en la dieta y el bajo nivel de actividad física constituyeron las variables comportamentales. Circunferencia de la cintura y presión arterial elevada y baja aptitud cardiorrespiratoria compusieron las variables biológicas. Se realizó regresión logística multinominal para identificar variables asociadas a la simultaneidad de los factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. RESULTADOS: De los adolescentes, el 61,6 y el 31,2% presentaron baja aptitud cardiorrespiratoria y elevado consumo de grasas, respectivamente. Dos en cada diez adolescentes tenían dos o más comportamientos de riesgo y un tercio de ellos tenía al menos dos factores de riesgo biológico para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. En total, el 62,0% de los adolescentes tenían al menos dos factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, con mayor frecuencia en los estudiantes mayores. En el análisis simultáneo de todas las variables, se observó que el aumento de la edad estuvo asociado a la acumulación de dos o más factores de riesgo (sexo masculino con OR 2,10 y femenino con OR 5,74. CONCLUSIONES: Seis en cada diez adolescentes tenían al menos dos factores de riesgo, mientras que la proporción del agrupamiento de esos factores aumentó con la edad. Por lo tanto, cuanto más temprano tienen lugar las intervenciones, probablemente menos adolescentes serán acometidos por problemas de la salud en edades más avanzadas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clustering patterns of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases, according to the socioeconomic level and age of adolescents. METHODS: School-based cross-sectional study with 1,675 adolescents (females - 53

  2. Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deter Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of patients with chronic diseases will be one of the main challenges of medicine in the future. This paper presents an overview of different origins, mechanism, and symptoms necessary for understanding new and different interventions that include a psychosomatic view. In a psychosomatic therapeutic intervention there are very different targets, such as psychological symptoms, personality traits, attitudes toward disease and life, risk behaviour, and social isolation and as biological targets the change of autonomic imbalance and of the effects of the psycho-endocrinological or psycho-immunological stress responses. And there are also different psychosomatic measures that influence the individual biological, psychological and sociological targets. There is a need to give different answer to different questions in the field of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine. Comparative effectiveness research is an important strategy for solving some methodological issues. What is the target of treatment for different diseases: Symptom reduction, healing, or limiting progression to the worst case - the death of patients. We know that, the patient-physician relationship is important for every medical/therapeutic action for patients with chronic diseases. This volume of BioPsychoSocial Medicine will present four different psychosomatic treatment studies from the clinical field in the sense of phase 2 studies: Reports of patients with obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic somatoform pain and coronary artery disease were presented

  3. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  4. [Triple therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloira, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important respiratory diseases, characterized by its multicomponent complexity, with chronic inflammation, increased airway resistance and exacerbations. Several drugs are currently available for its treatment, which act on distinct targets. Bronchodilators, especially prolonged-action bronchodilators, are the most potent and there are two groups: beta-2 mimetics and anticholinergics. Inhaled corticosteroids are the main anti-inflammatory drugs but have modest efficacy and their use is reserved for patients with severe disease and frequent exacerbations and/or asthma traits. Associating these three drugs can improve symptom control, improve quality of life and reduce the number of exacerbations. The present article reviews the evidence supporting this triple combination, as well as published studies.

  5. Gingerol and Its Role in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, ginger or Zingiber officinale, has been used by humans for medicinal purposes and as spice condiments to enhance flavor in cooking. Ginger contains many phenolic compounds such as gingerol, shogaol and paradol that exhibit antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. The role of ginger and its constituents in ameliorating diseases has been the focus of study in the past two decades by many researchers who provide strong scientific evidence of its health benefit. This review discusses research findings and works devoted to gingerols, the major pungent constituent of ginger, in modulating and targeting signaling pathways with subsequent changes that ameliorate, reverse or prevent chronic diseases in human studies and animal models. The physical, chemical and biological properties of gingerols are also described. The use of ginger and especially gingerols as medicinal food derivative appears to be safe in treating or preventing chronic diseases which will benefit the common population, clinicians, patients, researchers, students and industrialists.

  6. Neurohumoral fluid regulation in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Impaired homeostasis of the blood volume, with increased fluid and sodium retention, is a prevailing element in the deranged systemic and splanchnic haemodynamics in patients with liver disease. In this review, some basic elements of the circulatory changes that take place and of neurohumoral fluid...... regulation are outlined in order to provide an update of recent investigations on the neuroendocrine compensation of circulatory and volume dysfunction in chronic liver disease. The underlying pathophysiology is a systemic vasodilatation in which newly described potent vasoactive substances such as nitric...... and lungs. It is still an enigma why patients with chronic liver disease are at the same time overloaded and functional hypovolaemic with a hyperdynamic, hyporeactive circulation. Further research is needed to find the solution to this apparent haemodynamic conflict concerning the abnormal neurohumoral...

  7. Contribution of Inflammation to Vascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by an exceptionally high mortality rate, much of which results from cardiovascular disease (CVD. Chronic low-grade inflammation, as evidenced by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP, is a common feature of CKD and may cause atherosclerotic CVD through various pathogenetic mechanisms. Evidence suggests that persistent inflammation may also be a risk factor for progression of CKD, which may result in a vicious inflammation-driven circle. The causes of inflammation in CKD are multifactorial. The influence of various comorbidities may contribute to inflammation in the setting of progressive loss of renal function. Available data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines also play a central role in the genesis of the metabolic syndrome. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and consequences of inflammation in relation to protein-energy wasting (PEW and CVD in CKD patients from developing countries. The ′westernization′ of nutritional intakes and changes of life style besides the high prevalence of chronic infections in developing countries are possible additive contributors to a high prevalence of inflammation, PEW and CVD among CKD patients. Also, genetic differences may affect inflammatory responses and nutritional status and, thus, the susceptibility to CVD in different regions.

  8. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…

  9. Male Sexual Dysfunction and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edey, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in end-stage renal disease. Historically, this cause of considerable morbidity has been under-reported and under-recognized. The ideal approach to diagnosis and management remains unclear due to a paucity of good quality data, but an understanding of the pathophysiology is necessary in order to address the burden of this important complication of CKD. This paper will review the endocrine dysfunction that occurs in renal disease, particularly the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, discuss the causes of erectile dysfunction, infertility, and altered body image and libido in these patients and suggest appropriate treatment interventions. PMID:28382300

  10. Hemorheological Alteration in Patients Clinically Diagnosed with Chronic Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bohyun; Han, Ji Won; Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Cho, Young I; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-12-01

    Since liver function is changed by chronic liver diseases, chronic liver disease can lead to different hemorheological alterations during the course of the progression. This study aims to compare alterations in whole blood viscosity in patients with chronic liver disease, focusing on the gender effect. Chronic liver diseases were classified into three categories by patient's history, serologic markers, and radiologic findings: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 63), chronic viral hepatitis B and C (n = 50), and liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 35). Whole blood viscosity was measured by automated scanning capillary tube viscometer, while liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography using FibroScan®. Both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosities were significantly lower in patients with LC than NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis (P chronic viral hepatitis. Our data suggest that whole blood viscosity test can become a useful tool for classifying chronic liver disease and determining the prognosis for different types of chronic liver diseases.

  11. [CERTAIN PROBLEMS OF DIAGNOSTICS OF CHRONIC CARDIAC INSUFFICIENCY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoli, N A; Borodkin, A V; Rebrov, A P

    2015-01-01

    Apnea is a commonest complaint in aged patients. It may be due to chronic cardiac insufficiency (CCI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prevalence of CCI in the general populations and among 65 year old subjects is 1.8 and 6-10% respectively, decompensation being the most frequent cause of hospitalization of elderly patients. Different authors report CCI in 30-62% of the elderly patients with COPD. Combination of CCI and COPD create difficulties for diagnostics and treatment due to late detection of CCI, common risk factors and pathogenetic features of the two conditions their similar clinical picture. This paper is designed to consider methods of CCI diagnostics in patients with COPD. Special emphasis is laid on the thorough analysis of medical histories, specific laboratory tests (BNP NT-proBNP), and instrumental methods (echocardiogram, MRI, spirography, X-ray studies).

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of obstructive ventilatory impairment and hyperinflation, especially the inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, correlates with the severity of sleep-related breathing disturbances. Early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves survival, reduces hospitalization and pulmonary hypertension, and also reduces hypoxemia. Evidence of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD and sleep apnea provides insight into potential interactions between both disorders that may predispose to cardiovascular disease. Long-term outcome studies of overlap patients currently underway should provide further evidence of the clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. SUMMARY: Studies of overlap syndrome patients at a clinical, physiological and molecular level should provide insight into disease mechanisms and consequences of COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to identifying potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  13. Prevalência de fatores de risco para doenças crônicas: inquérito populacional mediante entrevistas telefônicas em Botucatu, São Paulo, 2004 Prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases: population survey by telephone interviews in Botucatu, São Paulo, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite Carvalhaes

    2008-03-01

    nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of the application of a surveillance system for risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs based on telephone interviews (SIMTEL in the Municipality of Botucatu (State of São Paulo. METHODS: A random sample (n=1,410 of the population aged 18 years and more, living in households with regular telephones was interviewed. Sampling was done in three stages: random selection of telephone lines from the telephone company's directory, selection of active home telephones and random selection of the household member who was 18 years old or over to be interviewed. The success rate of the system (interviews performed: selected eligible lines was 86.9%, and the proportion of refusals was 5.8%. A questionnaire with 74 questions encompassing food consumption, physical activity, smoking habits, consumption of alcoholic beverages, recalled weight and height, and self-reporting of hypertension and diabetes was applied. Gross prevalence estimates on selected risk/protection factors for CNCDs were calculated for the adult population with telephone and fitted estimates for the city's entire population, taking into account the distribution according to age, gender and schooling of the city's total adult population as informed by the National Demographic Census of 2000. RESULTS: A high prevalence of overweight (46.7% and sedentary life (578.9% was observed. Differences between genders were found: men presented more consumption of alcoholic beverages, and women presented less physical activity in one or more days of the week. Among women, schooling was inversely correlated with obesity, overweight, sedentary life, low consumption of fruits, consumption of fatty meats, and smoking habits. Similar findings were observed for men, except for obesity and overweight. CONCLUSIONS: This SIMTEL experience confirmed the appropriate performance of the system in medium-sized cities in the state of Sao Paulo.

  14. PREVALENCE OF POULTRY DISEASES AND PARASITES IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed literature on the prevalence of diseases and parasites of poultry in Botswana over a five year period i.e., from 2006 to 2010. Coccidiosis was the most prevalent disease in poultry species except for ostriches which were mainly affected by colisepticaemia. The highest prevalence of diseases and parasites was recorded in 2007 with fowl pox, coccidiosis, salmonellosis and helminthiasis being the main contributors. Fowl pox was prevalent in family chickens which are reared under free range. Poultry diseases were mainly prevalent in Gaborone, Mochudi, Francistown and Molepolole districts with 225, 168, 148 and 135 cases, respectively. Newcastle disease was sporadic throughout the study period. In the present study, the common parasites of poultry were mites, fleas, lice, ticks and helminths, and helminths were the most prevalent followed by mites. Of all species, chickens were affected most by parasites followed by guinea fowl. These results suggest inadequacies in health management, indicating that strict biosecurity measures should be put in place in order to reduce mortalities. There is also a need for extension service to train farmers on health management.

  15. Sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, N.

    2007-01-01

    Sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often characterized by the presence of sympathetic hyperactivity. This contributes to the pathogenesis of renal hypertension. It is also associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality indep

  16. Cognitive impairment in human chronic Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Mangone

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We proposed to investigate subclinical cognitive impairment secondary to chronic Chagas' disease (CCD. No similar study was previously done. The neuropsychological performance of 45 chronic Chagasic patients and 26 matched controls (age, education place and years of residency in endemic area was compared using the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE, Weschler Memory Scale (WMS and the Weschler Adult Intelligent Scale (WAIS. Non-parametric tests and Chi2 were used to compare group means and multivariate statistics in two way frequency tables for measures of independence and association of categorical variables with the disease. Results: Chagasic patients showed lower MMSE scores (p<004, poor orientation (p<.004, and attention (p<.007. Lower WMS MQ were associated with CCD (Chi2 5.9; p<.01; Fisher test p<.02. Lower WAIS IQ were associated with CCD (Chi2 6.3, p<.01; Fisher test p<.01 being the digit symbol (p<.03, picture completion (p<.03, picture arrangement (p<.01 and object assembly (p<.03 subtests the most affected. The impairment in non-verbal reasoning, speed of information processing, problem solving, learning and sequencing observed in chronic Chagas disease patients resembles the cognitive dysfunction associated with white matter disease.

  17. Chronic Infection and Venous Thromboembolic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epaulard, Olivier; Foote, Alison; Bosson, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease often arises as a complication of another pathological condition and/or triggering event. Infectious diseases result from both the direct action of the pathogens themselves and their effect on the immune system. The resulting inflammatory process and the coagulation and fibrinolysis processes share common pathways, explaining why infection is associated with thrombosis. In this brief overview, besides certain chronic infectious diseases, we also consider some acute infections, as the mechanisms are likely to be similar, particularly in the initial infective stage or the more acute episodes of a chronic infection. The infectious agent can be viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic. However, the literature on the link between infections and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uneven, favoring infections that are found in more developed countries where physicians have access to VTE diagnostic tools. Thus, large epidemiological studies in this field are restricted to a limited number of the common chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, while for other infections, particularly parasitic and fungal infections, the link with VTE is only evoked in a few scattered case reports.

  18. Gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in older adults in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Forester, Brent P; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Yanhua; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-05-01

    There is little information on gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in Chinese elderly. We examined the gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and a number of chronic diseases in a large Chinese old population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4115 people (2198 women; 1917 men) aged between 60 and 79 years were included and their general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases were recorded with standardized assessment tools. Multivariate analyses revealed that women were less likely to be current smokers and frequent drinkers, but had higher prevalence of poor mental health compared with their male counterparts. In addition, the prevalence rate of chronic diseases and multi-morbidities were higher in women than that in men (both p values diseases and poor mental health in older women and higher prevalence of smoking and drinking in men.

  19. The global burden of periodontal disease: towards integration with chronic disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases). The present report highlights the global burden of periodontal disease: the ultimate burden of periodontal disease (tooth loss), as well as signs of periodontal disease, are described from World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiological data. High prevalence rates of complete tooth loss are found in upper middle-income countries, whereas the tooth-loss rates, at the time of writing, are modest for low-income countries. In high-income countries somewhat lower rates for edentulism are found when compared with upper middle-income countries. Around the world, social inequality in tooth loss is profound within countries. The Community Periodontal Index was introduced by the WHO in 1987 for countries to produce periodontal health profiles and to assist countries in the planning and evaluation of intervention programs. Globally, gingival bleeding is the most prevalent sign of disease, whereas the presence of deep periodontal pockets (≥6 mm) varies from 10% to 15% in adult populations. Intercountry and intracountry variations are found in the prevalence of periodontal disease, and these variations relate to socio-environmental conditions, behavioral risk factors, general health status of people (e.g. diabetes and HIV status) and oral health systems. National public health initiatives for the control and prevention of periodontal disease should include oral health promotion and

  20. Awareness Status of Chronic Disabling Neurological Diseases among Elderly Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Ping Tan; Lin-Qi Zhu; Jun Zhang; Shi-Min Zhang; Xiao-Yang Lan; Bo Cui; Yu-Cheng Deng; Ying-Hao Li; Guang-Hua Ye; Lu-Ning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The awareness, treatment and prevention of chronic diseases are generally poor among the elderly population of China, whereas the prevention and control of chronic diseases in elderly veteran communities have been ongoing for more than 30 years. Therefore, investigating the awareness status of chronic disabling neurological diseases (CDND) and common chronic diseases (CCD) among elderly veterans may provide references for related programs among the elderly in the general populatio...

  1. Renal resistive index and mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-08-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1962 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005, to October 2011) from an existing chronic kidney disease registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60%-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70), and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure, and the use of β blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.65; Pchronic kidney disease. Noncardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths were higher in those with RRI≥0.70. RRI≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes.

  2. Direct renin inhibition in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    that renin inhibition could hold potential for improved treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease, with diabetic nephropathy as an obvious group of patients to investigate, as the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is enhanced in these patients and as there is an unmet need....... In addition, combination treatment seemed safe and effective also in patients with impaired kidney function. These initial findings formed the basis for the design of a large morbidity and mortality trial investigating aliskiren as add-on to standard treatment. The study has just concluded, but was terminated...... early as a beneficial effect was unlikely and there was an increased frequency of side effects. Also in non-diabetic kidney disease a few intervention studies have been carried out, but there is no ongoing hard outcome study. In this review we provide the current evidence for renin inhibition in chronic...

  3. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  4. Netherlands : employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear national definition of a chronic disease in a work situation in the Netherlands. Questionnaire data shows that between 25% and 30% of all workers are affected by a chronic disease. Worker with a chronic disease have slightly different working conditions as compared to workers witho

  5. Chronic granulomatous disease: the European experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, J Merlijn; van Koppen, Elsbeth; Ahlin, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    micro-organisms. CGD patients lack this mechanism, which leads to life-threatening infections and granuloma formation. However, a clear picture of the clinical course of CGD is hampered by its low prevalence (approximately 1:250,000). Therefore, extensive clinical data from 429 European patients were.......6 years) than in XL CGD (37.8 years), suggesting a milder disease course in AR patients. The disease manifested itself most frequently in the lungs (66% of patients), skin (53%), lymph nodes (50%), gastrointestinal tract (48%) and liver (32%). The most frequently cultured micro-organisms per episode were...

  6. Prevalence of hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease and its impact on short-term survival Prevalência da síndrome hepatopulmonar e seu impacto na sobrevida de pacientes hospitalizados com doença parenquimatosa crônica descompensada de fígado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmireno Pinheiro Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatopulmonary syndrome is reported to occur in 4% to 32% of the patients with chronic liver disease and is associated with poor liver function and shortened patient survival before and after liver transplantation. AIMS: To assess the frequency of hepatopulmonary syndrome in Brazilian patients with decompensated chronic liver disease and to investigate its impact on patient survival. METHODS: One hundred and thirty patients (101 males, mean age 61 ± 12 years with decompensated chronic liver disease were evaluated for the presence of hepatopulmonary syndrome. The diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome was considered in the presence of alveolar arterial oxygen gradient of more than 15 mm Hg and of pulmonary vascular dilatation assessed by contrast enhanced echocardiography. RESULTS: Hepatopulmonary syndrome was observed in 21 (16% patients. The presence of hepatopulmonary syndrome was significantly associated with severity of liver disease assessed by the MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, but not with in hospital mortality after admission due to decompensated chronic liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatopulmonary syndrome occurs in 16% of patients with chronic liver disease and is associated with disease severity according to the MELD score. Short term mortality following decompensation of chronic liver disease was not associated with hepatopulmonary syndrome.RACIONAL: A síndrome hepatopulmonar ocorre em 4% a 32% dos pacientes com doença crônica parenquimatosa do fígado e está associada à gravidade da doença hepática e menor sobrevida antes e após o transplante hepático. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a freqüência da síndrome hepatopulmonar em pacientes brasileiros hospitalizados com doença crônica parenquimatosa do fígado descompensada e investigar o seu impacto na sobrevida intra-hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta doentes (101 homens, idade média 61 ± 12 anos com doença crônica parenquimatosa do f

  7. High prevalence of autoimmune urticaria in children with chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Luigia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Miniello, Vito L;

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood often remains unrecognized. Recently, in adults it has been shown that approximately 40% of patients with CU have autoimmune urticaria (AU); however, no data are available in children....

  8. Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Paweł Kocbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of Lyme disease, established diagnosis based on medical history and clinical symptoms, serology, duration of exposure in the workplace and occupational disease certification among forestry workers in selected districts of the Warmia and Mazury region. Material and Methods: The study consisted of annual screening of 332 employees in 6 forest districts under the supervision of the Health Center Medica in Ostróda. Serological tests were performed in all serum samples and IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by ELISA test. Positive results were confirmed by Western-blot test. Diagnosis was made based on medical history and clinical symptoms. Results were presented by the division of selected forest districts, gender, duration of exposure in the workplace and genospecies of spirochete Borrelia responsible for the disease development. Results: Lyme disease incidence was found in all selected forest districts. Positive results in Western-blot test were determined in 120 people (63.1% of all the surveyed. However, after taking a detailed medical history of the patients Lyme disease was diagnosed in 91 people which makes 27.4% of all the examined. Among patients with diagnosed disease, IgG antibodies were found in 76 people, IgM in 25 people, while both IgM and IgG in 10 people. There was also variation in the involvement of genospecies generating the disease; spirochete B. afzeli – 46% for IgG antibodies, whereas spirochete B. burgdorferi – 50% of all cases for IgM antibodies. At the same time the relationship between the extended duration of occupational exposure to tick bites and the increased incidence of Lyme disease was confirmed, indicating the group of workers employed for at least 25 years. Conclusions: Forestry districts of the Warmia and Mazury region, creates extremely dangerous occupational conditions because of exposure to tick bites. At the same time the duration of

  9. Treatment and Prevention of Common Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health problem with an increasing incidence and prevalence. Outcomes of CKD include not only complications of decreased kidney function and cardiovascular disease but also kidney failure causing increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, CKD is often undetected and undertreated because of its insidious onset, variable progression, and length of time to overt kidney failure. Diabetes is now the leading cause of CKD requiring renal replacement therapy in many parts of the world, and its prevalence is increasing disproportionately in the developing countries. This review article outlines the current recommendations from various clinical guidelines and research studies for treatment, prevention and delaying the progression of both CKD and its common complications such as hypertension, anemia, renal osteodystrophy, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, and hyperlipidemia. Recommendations for nutrition in CKD and measures adopted for early diabetic kidney disease to prevent further progression have also been reviewed. There is strong evidence that early detection and management of CKD can prevent or reduce disease progression, decrease complications and improve outcomes. Evidence supports that achieving optimal glucose control, blood pressure, reduction in albuminuria with a multifactorial intervention slows the progression of CKD. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are most effective because of their unique ability to decrease proteinuria, a factor important for the progression of CKD.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in mobility decline in chronic disease groups (asthma/COPD, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, low back pain): only a minor role for disease severity and comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between socioeconomic status and mobility decline and whether this could be explained by disease severity and comorbidity in four different chronic disease groups (asthma/COPD, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and low back pain). It is not clear, whether the adverse course of physical functioning in persons with a low socioeconomic status can be explained by a higher prevalence of more severe disease or comorbidity in these persons.

  11. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status.METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934, conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more was measured using a numerical scale (0-10 and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor. For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%, Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%.RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%:49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5% and lumbar region (29.5%; with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001 a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0, a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7, joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1 and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0. A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001.CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population.

  12. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khodavaisy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with a chronic inflammatory response in airways and lung parenchyma that results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking considered as an important risk factor plays a role in pathogenesis of disease. Pneumocystis jirovecii is an atypical opportunistic fungus that causes pneumonia in immunosuppressed host, although the low levels of its DNA in patients without signs and symptoms of pneumonia, which likely represents colonization. The increased prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in COPD patients has led to an interest in understanding its role in the disease. P. jirovecii colonization in these patients could represent a problem for public health since colonized patients could act as a major reservoir and source of infection for susceptible subjects. Using sensitive molecular techniques, low levels of P. jirovecii DNA have been detected in the respiratory tract of certain individuals. It is necessary to elucidate the role of P. jirovecii colonization in the natural history of COPD patients in order to improve the clinical management of this disease. In the current review paper, we discuss P. jirovecii colonization in COPD patients.

  13. Is autoimmune chronic active hepatitis a HCV-related disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, S; Craxì, A; Fiorentino, G; Fabiano, C; Provenzano, G; Pinzello, G B; Palazzo, U; Almasio, P; Pagliaro, L

    1991-07-01

    We evaluated the specificity and clinical relevance of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positivity in 22 HBsAg-negative patients with autoimmune (anti-nuclear, anti-actin or anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive) chronic active hepatitis. An ELISA anti-HCV test and a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-HCV) were used. Thirteen patients (59%) were anti-HCV positive and five (23%) anti-HCV negative by both ELISA and RIBA-HCV tests. Four patients (18%) were borderline positive by ELISA (OD less than 1.0), and three of them (all with severe disease) were negative by RIBA. Histologic necroinflammation, AST/ALT and gamma-globulins levels were higher and response to prednisolone treatment was better in RIBA anti-HCV-negative than in anti-HCV-positive cases. We confirmed with both RIBA and ELISA tests the high prevalence of anti-HCV already reported by ELISA in anti-nuclear and anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive chronic active hepatitis. False positive for anti-HCV (i.e., a positive ELISA test not confirmed by RIBA) occurred only among patients with severe disease. Since RIBA-negative subjects showed the best response to corticosteroid, they might represent the only subset of cases of 'true' autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.

  14. Prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of psoriasis, particularly in men. Despite this, little is known of the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: In total, 100 patients with proven alcoholic liver disease were surveyed for a history of psoriasis and a full skin examination was performed if relevant. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, 15 reported a history of psoriasis and another 8 had evidence of current activity, suggesting a prevalence (past or present) of 15% in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol is much higher than the 1-3% variously quoted in the general population.

  15. Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease.

  16. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  17. Chronic kidney disease screening methods and its implication for Malaysia: an in depth review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almualm, Yasmin; Zaman Huri, Hasniza

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR 60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been otherwise missed if only albuminuria and serum creatinine are measured.

  18. Trends in chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of several chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China. Data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) of 4 waves collected in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011, filtered to include individuals aged 80 and above. Bivariate and logistic regression methods were used in analyses. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart diseases, stroke/cardiovascular diseases, cancer and dementia, which generally saw an increase across the 4 waves. By contrast, prevalence of Parkinson was not significantly different over the 4 waves. Logistic regression results revealed that since 2002, hypertension had been significantly higher in subsequent waves in 2005, 2008 and 2011. Stroke had also shown significant increase in the 2008 and 2011 waves. Other chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, Parkinson and dementia were only found to be significantly higher in the recent 2011 wave compared to the initial wave in 2002. Arthritis, which initially increased in earlier waves, had dropped significantly in the recent 2011 wave. However, respiratory conditions had been significantly lower since the initial wave in 2002. Generally, findings confirmed the increasing trend of chronic morbidity in recent years among the oldest-old in China. Long life expectancy coupled with chronic morbidity in very late age will duly have societal and economic implications.

  19. Prevalence and structure of periodontal disease in young aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kholodnyak, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Under modern condotions the problem of prevention and treatment of periodontal does not lose its relevance, This is significant prevalence of periodontal lesions, including young people. One of the promising areas that help to reduce the incidence and intensity of periodontal disease is the development and implementation of objective methods for predicting and preventing their development. Data on periodontal status in young aged adults are contradictory, and rates of prevalence of periodonta...

  20. Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme;

    2014-01-01

    with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ⩾16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National...... medication overuse (⩾20 or ⩾30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health...... composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1...

  1. Should body mass index be adjusted for relative sitting height in cross-sectional studies of chronic diseases in Japanese-Brazilians? Deve-se corrigir o valor do Índice de Massa Corporal pelo comprimento relativo do tronco em estudos de prevalência de doenças crônicas em nipo-brasileiros?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bouças Ribeiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The current article aimed to verify the degree of agreement in classification of nutritional status according to body mass index (BMI and corrected body mass index (BMIc. Data were used from a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians. Statistical analysis provided prevalence rates for chronic diseases, kappa statistic, and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Some 5.9% of Japanese-Brazilians were discordant according to the BMI and BMIc classifications. The weighted kappa statistic (0.94; p = 0.000 indicated good agreement between the classifications. Similar prevalence rates for chronic diseases were obtained for individuals with excess weight classified by these two indices. Similar Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were obtained for these indices and waist circumference and body fat measurements. The results suggest that BMI correction for relative sitting height is probably unnecessary for these individuals.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o grau de concordância entre as classificações do estado nutricional segundo os valores do índice de massa corporal (IMC e o IMC corrigido (IMCc. Utilizou-se dados de estudo transversal realizado entre nipo-brasileiros. Na análise estatística dos dados foram obtidas as prevalências de doenças crônicas, a estatística kappa e o coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson. Observou-se que 5,9% dos nipo-brasileiros foram discordantes quanto às classificações pelo IMC e IMCc. O valor da estatística kappa ponderado (0,94; p = 0,000 indicou boa concordância entre as classificações. Prevalências semelhantes de doenças crônicas foram obtidas para os indivíduos com excesso de peso classificados segundo estes dois índices. Valores semelhantes para os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson foram obtidos entre esses índices e as medidas de circunferência de cintura e as medidas de gordura corporal. Estes resultados sugerem que, provavelmente, a corre

  2. Outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Huay Cheem

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Patients with CKD are known to have a greater prevalence of cardiovascular disease than the general population,1 and patients with concurrent CKD and coronary artery disease (CAD) have greater mortality than patients without CKD.2-4 The rate of cardiovascular mortality is approximately 50%,five to 10 times higher than the general population.

  3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chronic Hepatitis B and C Patients from Western Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, A. C. M.; D. R. Maia; Neto, S. M.; Lima, E. M.; Twycross, M.; Baquette, R. F.; Lobato, C. M. O.

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a wide spectrum of histological conditions, extending from simple steatosis to end-stage liver failure. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of NAFLD and its associations in chronic hepatitis B and C patients. Methods. We included all patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and C who underwent a liver biopsy between January 2010 and October 2011 (n = 104). Parameters studied included hepatitis type, anthropometric data, hist...

  4. Prevalence of comorbid retinal disease in patients with glaucoma at an academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffith JF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph F Griffith,1 Jeffrey L Goldberg2 1Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, 2Shiley Eye Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Background: Patients with various retinal diseases and patients who have undergone retinal procedures and surgeries have an increased risk of developing ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Little is known about the epidemiology of comorbid retinal diseases in glaucoma patients. This study evaluated the prevalence of retinal comorbidities in a population of patients with five types of glaucoma.Methods: A longitudinal, retrospective study was conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9 billing records from 2003 to 2010 at an academic medical center. Patients were classified as having primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, low tension open-angle glaucoma (NTG, pigmentary open-angle glaucoma, chronic-angle closure glaucoma (CACG, or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG if they had at least three clinic visits with the same ICD-9 code. Patients were classified as having a retinal comorbidity if they had two visits with the same code. Variables were analyzed with the independent t-test, χ2 test, analysis of variance, or Fisher’s exact test.Results: A total of 5,154 patients had glaucoma, and 14.8% of these had a retinal comorbidity. The prevalence of comorbid retinal disease was higher in patients with POAG (15.7% than in those with NTG (10.7%, PXG (10.1%, or pigmentary open-angle glaucoma (3.7%; P<0.05. Two hundred and two patients had diabetic retinopathy, with POAG patients (4.5% having a higher prevalence than those with CACG (1.4% or PXG (0.6%; P<0.001. There were 297 patients who had macular degeneration and both POAG (2.0% and PXG patients (2.9% had a higher prevalence of nonexudative macular degeneration than those with CACG (0%; P<0.01. Patients with comorbid retinal disease had a higher prevalence of blindness and low vision than those without comorbid

  5. Evidence for severe atherosclerotic changes in chronic hemodialysis patients: comparative autopsy study against cardiovascular disease patients without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chigure; Nakamura, Satoko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Kawano, Yuhei

    2011-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among hemodialysis patients, but whether it is more severe in hemodialysis patients than in cardiovascular disease patients without chronic kidney disease is unclear. We examined 46 autopsy patients who had undergone hemodialysis, and age and sex-matched 46 patients with cardiovascular disease and an eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). There was no difference in the prevalence of diabetes or hypertension between the groups. We divided the aorta into four segments: A, ascending artery to arch; B, descending artery to diaphragm; C, suprarenal; and D, infrarenal. We used the classification of the American Heart Association to evaluate atherosclerosis progression. Distribution was scored by the extent to which each segment was damaged: 0, none; 1, less than 1/3; 2, more than 1/3 to less than 2/3; 3, more than 2/3. Histological examination revealed that the progression score (P 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Aortic atherosclerosis was aggravated by traditional and chronic kidney disease-related risk factors.

  6. Diabetic kidney disease: world wide difference of prevalence and risk factors

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    Gheith Osama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease – which is defined by elevated urine albumin excretion or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR or both – is a serious complication that occurs in 20% to 40% of all diabetics. In this review we try to highlight the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy which is not uncommon complication of diabetes all over the world. The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has extended epidemic magnitudes and is expected to affect more than 350 million people by the year 2035. There is marked racial/ethnic besides international difference in the epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease which could be explained by the differences in economic viability and governmental infrastructures. Approximately one-third of diabetic patients showed microalbuminuria after 15 years of disease duration and less than half develop real nephropathy. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD is more frequent in African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Native Americans. Progressive kidney disease is more frequent in Caucasians patients with type 1 than type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, although its overall prevalence in the diabetic population is higher in patients with type 2 DM while this type of DM is more prevalent. Hyperglycemia is well known risk factor for in addition to other risk factors like male sex, obesity, hypertension, chronic inflammation, resistance to insulin, hypovitaminosis D, and dyslipidemia and some genetic loci and polymorphisms in specific genes. Management of its modifiable risk factors might help in reducing its incidence in the nearby future.

  7. Fisher choice may increase prevalence of green turtle fibropapillomatosis disease

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    Thomas B Stringell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Disease in wildlife populations is often controlled through culling. But when healthy individuals are removed and diseased individuals are left in the population, it is anticipated that prevalence of disease increases. Although this scenario is presumably common in exploited populations where infected individuals are less marketable, it is not widely reported in the literature. We describe this scenario in a marine turtle fishery in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI, where green turtles are harvested for local consumption. During a two-year period, we recorded the occurrence of fibropapillomatosis (FP disease in green turtles (Chelonia mydas captured during in-water surveys and compared it with that of turtles landed in the fishery. 13.4% (n=32 of turtles captured during in-water surveys showed externally visible signs of FP. FP occurred at specific geographic locations where fishing also occurred. Despite the disease being prevalent in the size classes selected by fishers, FP was not present in any animals landed by the fishery (n=162. The majority (61% of fishers interviewed expressed that they had caught turtles with FP. Yet, 82% of those that had caught turtles with the disease chose to return their catch to the sea, selectively harvesting healthy turtles and leaving those with the disease in the population. Our study illustrates that fisher choice may increase the prevalence of FP disease and highlights the importance of this widely neglected driver in the disease dynamics of exploited wildlife populations.

  8. [Advances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Belén Arnalich; Pumarega, Irene Cano; Ausiró, Anna Mola; Izquierdo Alonso, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by poorly reversible, chronic airflow obstruction, from the clinical point of view we must continue to make progress in the diagnosis and management of these patients so that spirometry is not the only technique used. Understanding that COPD is a heterogeneous process and that patient complexity usually increases due to the presence of comorbidities will allow more individualized strategies to be designed, which may improve control of the process. The TORCH and UPLIFT trials have shown that current treatment can improve important aspects of the disease, including mortality. However, the finalizing of these two large trials has generated a current of opinion favoring a more individually-tailored approach that should include all the factors -both pulmonary and extrapulmonary- that can modify the patient's form of presentation. Although we are witnessing a change in the therapeutic approach to COPD, future treatment will probably be based on studies performed in specific patient subgroups and on clarifying the interrelation between COPD and other diseases that are common in these patients. Greater knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease may improve pharmacological treatment but drugs that, by themselves, alter the short- and longterm course of COPD are not on the horizon. However, a more patient-focussed approach may be the main tool available to physicians to increase quality of life -and possibly survival- in these patients.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula; Iruzubieta; lvaro; Terán; Javier; Crespo; Emilio; Fábrega

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis,but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation,has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)and chronic hepatitis C(CHC)virus infection.The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known,but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases.Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease.Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required.

  10. Role of cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Parfieniuk; Robert Flisiak

    2008-01-01

    Cannabinoids are a group of compounds acting primarily via CB1 and CB2 receptors. The expression of cannabinoid receptors in normal liver is low or absent. However, many reports have proven up-regulation of the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors in hepatic myofibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells, as well as increased concentration of endocannabinoids in liver in the course of chronic progressive liver diseases. It has been shown that CB1 receptor signalling exerts profibrogenic and proinflammatory effects in liver tissue, primarily due to the stimulation of hepatic stellate cells, whereas the activation of CB2 receptors inhibits or even reverses liver fibrogenesis. Similarly, CB1 receptor stimulation contributes to progression of liver steatosis. In end-stage liver disease, the endocannabi-noid system has been shown to contribute to hepatic encephalopathy and vascular effects, such as portal hypertension, splanchnic vasodilatation, relative pe-ripheral hypotension and probably cirrhotic cardiomy-opathy. So far, available evidence is based on cellular cultures or animal models. Clinical data on the effects of cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases are limited. However, recent studies have shown the contribution of cannabis smoking to the progression of liver fibrosis and steatosis. Moreover, controlling CB1 or CB2 signal-ling appears to be an attractive target in managing liver diseases.

  11. Prevalence of Chagas' Disease in Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Aras

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of T. Cruzi infection in patients of from Mulungu do Morro, a rural tropical region of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS - A cross-sectional study was performed. After randomly selecting samples of the population, and obtaining their consents , patients completed pretested epidemiological and clinical questionnaires. Serum samples from all patients were collected and screened for the presence of T. cruzi antibodies. RESULTS - Of 694 patients examined, 174 patients (25.1% tested had a positive serology for Chagas' disease. Of the study population, 341 patients were male with 27% Chagas' disease prevalence, without a statistical difference. Illiteracy was the only variable related to T. cruzi infection in our population. CONCLUSION - In conclusion, our study points to the high prevalence of Chagas' disease among patients in Mulungu do Morro, suggesting that this region has a high frequency of infection and probably active vectorial transmission.

  12. Respiratory Conditions Update: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, Daphne J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as persistent airflow limitation due to irritant-induced chronic inflammation. A postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of 0.7 or less is diagnostic in a patient with dyspnea, chronic cough or sputum production, and a history of irritant exposure. Tobacco smoking is the most significant etiology, and smoking cessation is the only intervention shown to slow disease progression. Long-acting beta2-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists are first-line treatments for patients with persistently symptomatic COPD with an FEV1 of 80% or less of predicted. When COPD is uncontrolled with a long-acting bronchodilator, combination therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist-long-acting beta2-agonist or long-acting beta2-agonist-inhaled corticosteroid should be prescribed. Patients with COPD and reduced exercise tolerance should undergo pulmonary rehabilitation and be evaluated for supplemental oxygen therapy. Other treatment options for persistently symptomatic COPD include inhaler triple therapy (ie, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, long-acting beta2-agonist, inhaled corticosteroid), phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors, oxygen, and surgical interventions.

  13. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Gagnon,1,2 Jordan A Guenette,3,4 Daniel Langer,5 Louis Laviolette,2 Vincent Mainguy,1 François Maltais,1,2 Fernanda Ribeiro,1,2 Didier Saey1,2 1Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 3Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, St Paul's Hospital, 4Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Department of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In a significant proportion of patients with COPD, reduced lung elastic recoil combined with expiratory flow limitation leads to lung hyperinflation during the course of the disease. Development of hyperinflation during the course of COPD is insidious. Dynamic hyperinflation is highly prevalent in the advanced stages of COPD, and new evidence suggests that it also occurs in many patients with mild disease, independently of the presence of resting hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is clinically relevant for patients with COPD mainly because it contributes to dyspnea, exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle limitations, morbidity, and reduced physical activity levels associated with the disease. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of ventilatory limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to address the more recent literature regarding the pathogenesis, assessment, and management of both static and dynamic lung hyperinflation in patients with COPD. We also address the influence of biological sex and obesity and new developments in our understanding of hyperinflation in patients with mild COPD and its evolution during

  14. Prevalence of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Related Factors in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasifar, I.; Lankarani, K. B.; Moosazadeh, M.; Afshari, M.; Ghaemi, A.; Aliramezany, M.; Afsar Gharebagh, R.; Malary, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developing and developed countries. Estimating the total prevalence of NAFLD by means of appropriate statistical methods can provide reliable evidence for health policy makers. Objective: To determine the prevalence of NAFLD in Iran using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We identified relevant studies by searching national and international databases. Standard error of the prevalence reported in each study was calculated assuming a binomial distribution. The heterogeneity between the results of the studies was determined using Cochran’s Q and I square indices. We used a random effect model to combine the prevalence rates reported in the studies. Results: We entered 23 eligible studies in this systematic review investigated NAFLD among 25,865 Iranian people. The total prevalence of NAFLD, prevalence of mild, moderate and severe fatty liver disease were estimated at 33.9% (95% CI 26.4%–41.5%), 26.7% (95% CI 21.7%–31.7%), 7.6% (95% CI 5.7%–9.4%), and 0.5% (95% CI 0.1%–0.9%), respectively. The majority of studies reported that NAFLD was more common among men (seven of eight studies), obese person (15 of 15 studies), older people (10 of 10 studies), patients with systolic hypertension (5 of 8 studies), patients with diastolic hypertension (7 of 9 studies), patients with hypertriglyceridemia (14 of 16 studies), patients with high HOMA level (4 of 4 studies), patients with metabolic syndrome (4 of 4 studies), and those with elevated serum ALT (8 of 12 studies). Conclusion: Our study showed that the prevalence of NAFLD in Iran was relatively high and male gender, old age, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, systolic/diastolic hypertension, high serum ALT, and hypertriglyceridemia may be determinants of NAFLD.

  15. Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How Are They Linked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan He

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases.

  16. Curcumin, inflammation, and chronic diseases: how are they linked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Yue, Yuan; Zheng, Xi; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Shaohua; Du, Zhiyun

    2015-05-20

    It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases.

  17. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  18. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  19. Somatic chronic diseases and 6-year change in cognitive functioning among older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.; Kriegsman, D.M.W.; Dik, M.G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of seven highly prevalent somatic chronic diseases on changes in cognitive functioning is investigated in older persons in a prospective design covering a 6-year follow-up period. The data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). The associations between

  20. Screening for chronic kidney disease can be of help to prevent atherosclerotic end organ damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozyilmaz, Akin; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerotic damage to the kidney is one of the most prevalent causes of chronic kidney disease and ultimately kidney failure. It frequently coincides with atherosclerotic damage to the heart, the brain and the lower extremities. In fact, the severity of the damage in the various end organs runs

  1. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Philippe; Guenette, Jordan A; Langer, Daniel; Laviolette, Louis; Mainguy, Vincent; Maltais, François; Ribeiro, Fernanda; Saey, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In a significant proportion of patients with COPD, reduced lung elastic recoil combined with expiratory flow limitation leads to lung hyperinflation during the course of the disease. Development of hyperinflation during the course of COPD is insidious. Dynamic hyperinflation is highly prevalent in the advanced stages of COPD, and new evidence suggests that it also occurs in many patients with mild disease, independently of the presence of resting hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is clinically relevant for patients with COPD mainly because it contributes to dyspnea, exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle limitations, morbidity, and reduced physical activity levels associated with the disease. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of ventilatory limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to address the more recent literature regarding the pathogenesis, assessment, and management of both static and dynamic lung hyperinflation in patients with COPD. We also address the influence of biological sex and obesity and new developments in our understanding of hyperinflation in patients with mild COPD and its evolution during progression of the disease.

  2. Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammatory State in Uremia and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Panichi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the general population; traditional risk factors seem inadequate to explain completely the remarkable prevalence of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity observed in the uremic population. A role for chronic inflammation has been well established in the development of atherosclerotic disease, and, on the basis of these observations, atherosclerosis might be considered an inflammatory disease. Inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of coronary artery disease in the general population, and traditional inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6 have been shown to predict cardiovascular events in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals as well as those in the uremic population. Later on, new nontraditional markers were related to the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in general and in uremic population. As a consequence of the expanding research base and availability of assays, the number of inflammatory marker tests ordered by clinicians for cardiovascular disease (CVD risk prediction has grown rapidly and several commercial assays have become available. So, up to now we can consider that several new nontraditional markers as CD40-CD40 ligand system and pentraxin-3 seem to be significant features of cardiovascular disease in general and in ESRD population.

  3. [Chronic kidney diseases, metformin and lactic acidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus represent a worldwide public health problem. The incidence of these diseases is gradually growing into epidemic proportions. In many cases they occur simultaneously, what leads to increased morbidity and mortality among the affected patients. The majority of the patients treated for diabetes mellitus are unaware of the presence of renal insufficiency. Vascular hypertrophy and diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes are the most common causes of kidney failure in countries with advanced healthcare systems. Metformin is a basic drug used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is excreted in an unchanged form by the kidneys. When administered to patients with renal insufficiency, sepsis, dehydration or after the parenteral administration of iodinated contrast agents, metformin can cause lactic acidosis, which is also associated with an increased mortality rate.

  4. Chronic kidney disease and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James; Matsuo, Koji; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) is a syndrome defined as a systemic mineral metabolic disorder associated with CKD, and the term renal osteodystrophy indicates a pathomorphological concept of bone lesions associated with CKD-MBD. Cortical bone thinning, abnormalities in bone turnover and primary/secondary mineralization, elevated levels of circulating sclerostin, increased apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteocytes, disturbance of the coupling phenomenon, iatrogenic factors, accumulated micro-crackles, crystal/collagen disorientation, and chemical modification of collagen crosslinks are all possible candidates found in CKD that could promote osteopenia and/or bone fragility. Some of above factors are the consequences of abnormal systemic mineral metabolism but for others it seem unlikely. We have used the term uremic osteoporosis to describe the uremia-induced bone fragility which is not derived from abnormal systemic mineral metabolism. Interestingly, the disease aspect of uremic osteoporosis appears to be similar to that of senile osteoporosis.

  5. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, E Liana; Petts, Jennifer R; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L; de la Morena, M Teresa; Greenberg, David E; Zerbe, Christa S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis.

  6. Natural histories of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...... English men over 8 years, was used to construct a proposed life-long natural history. Although this is a classic study that has greatly advanced understanding of COPD, it has a number of limitations. Its duration is relatively short compared with the duration of COPD, so it is more cross-sectional than...... longitudinal. It was unable to distinguish among varied "natural histories." It assessed primarily the FEV(1), and the natural history of other features of COPD is largely undescribed. With advances in understanding the clinical features of COPD and with the development of evaluating new tools to assess...

  7. Clinical and fiberoptic endoscopic assessment of swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macri, Marina Rodrigues Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible obstruction of pulmonary airflow. Aim: To characterize swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and correlate the findings with the degree chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and smoking. Method: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 19 patients (12 men and 7 women; age range, 50–85 years with confirmed medical diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was performed in 2 stages (clinical evaluation and functional assessment using nasolaryngofibroscopy on the same day. During both stages, vital signs were checked by medical personnel. Results: Clinical evaluation of swallowing in all patients showed the clinical signs of cough. The findings of nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted subsequent intraoral escape in 5 patients (26.5%. No patient had tracheal aspiration. There was no association of subsequent intraoral escape with degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking. Conclusion: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there was a prevalence of oral dysphagia upon swallowing and nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted the finding of subsequent intraoral escape. There was no correlation between intraoral escape and the degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking.

  8. [Chronic disease, the chronic patient and his family. Psychosocial impact of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, L

    1992-07-01

    Concerning a revision about the mutual influence between the diabetes, the diabetic and his family, the author reviews the literature about the psychosocial area of the Family Physician content's work. It is also confirmed the high prevalency of the chronic disease and the importance of the family ecosystem, not only as support but also as problem to the bearing person of such type of disease. Studies of chronic disease indicate that family dysfunction is associated with poor health outcomes. The areas which more and better have been studied in this scope are reviewed. Thus, having as backdrop the diabetes management, the family's diabetic influence in general is reviewed, as well as the parental attitudes, the family organization and the family life events. Finally, the health care team role is reviewed and particulary the role of the family physician in the management of this type of patients. It is pointed out, as example of the Family Medicine specific contribution, the improving cooperation with medical treatment from the diabetic.

  9. Relation of Aortic Valve and Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease to the Stage and Etiology of the Renal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Lieuwe H.; Touw, Hugo R. W.; Gansevoort, Ron; Franssen, Casper F. M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix; Tio, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure have increased cardiac calcium loads. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and quantitative extent of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the impact of

  10. Anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence, differential diagnosis and association with clinical and laboratory variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrade Alves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES:Anemia is the most frequent extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to: 1 determine the prevalence of anemia among patients with inflammatory bowel disease; 2 investigate whether routine laboratory markers are useful for diagnosing anemia; and 3 evaluate whether any association exists between anemia and clinical/laboratory variables.DESIGN AND SETTING:Cross-sectional at a federal university.METHODS:44 outpatients with Crohn's disease and 55 with ulcerative colitis were evaluated. Clinical variables (disease activity index, location of disease and pharmacological treatment and laboratory variables (blood count, iron laboratory, vitamin B12 and folic acid were investigated.RESULTS:Anemia and/or iron laboratory disorders were present in 75% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 78.2% with ulcerative colitis. Anemia was observed in 20.5% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 23.6% with ulcerative colitis. Iron-deficiency anemia was highly prevalent in patients with Crohn's disease (69.6% and ulcerative colitis (76.7%. Anemia of chronic disease in combination with iron deficiency anemia was present in 3% of the patients with Crohn's disease and in 7% of the patients with ulcerative colitis. There was no association between anemia and disease location. In ulcerative colitis, anemia was associated with the disease activity index.CONCLUSIONS:Most patients present iron laboratory disorders, with or without anemia, mainly due to iron deficiency. The differential diagnosis between the two most prevalent types of anemia was made based on clinical data and routine laboratory tests. In ulcerative colitis, anemia was associated with the disease activity index.

  11. Asymptomatic patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming; WANG Chang-zheng; NI Dian-tao; WANG Xiao-ping; WANG Da-li; LIU Sheng-ming; L(U) Jia-chun; SHEN Ning; DING Yan-ling; RAN Pi-xin; YAO Wan-zhen; ZHONG Nan-shan; ZHOU Yu-min; WANG Chen; CHEN Ping; KANG Jian; HUANG Shao-guang; CHEN Bao-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has a variable natural history and not all individuals follow the same course. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic COPD patients from a population-based survey in China.Methods A multistage cluster sampling strategy was used in a population from seven different provinces/cities. All residents (over 40 years old) were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and spirometry.Post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 70% was defined as the diagnostic criterion of COPD. All COPD patients screened were divided into symptomatic group and asymptomatic group according to the presence or absence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Socio-demographic,personal and exposure variables were collected and analyzed.Results Among the 1668 patients who were diagnosed with COPD from the 25 627 sampling subjects, 589 (35.3%)were asymptomatic. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI),rural and urban distributions, smoking habit and education levels were similar in the two groups. A total of 64.7% of the asymptomatic patients had no comorbidities. Cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer were more common among symptomatic COPD patients than asymptomatic group.Asymptomatic COPD group were less likely to present with poor ventilation in the kitchen, a family history of respiratory disease and recurrent childhood cough. Asymptomatic COPD patients had significantly higher FEV1 (73.1% vs. 61.0%), FVC (91.9% vs. 82.0%), and a higher ratio of FEV1/FVC (62.9% vs.58.7%) (all P <0.001) than symptomatic group. More asymptomatic patients were underdiagnosed (91.9% vs.54.3%, P<0.001) than symptomatic patients.Conclusions This large population-based survey confirmed a high prevalence of asymptomatic COPD patients in China. More use of spirometry screening test may be important to the early detection of COPD.

  12. Lung hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: mechanisms, clinical implications and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Daniel; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Neder, J Alberto; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2014-12-01

    Lung hyperinflation is highly prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occurs across the continuum of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that lung hyperinflation contributes to dyspnea and activity limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is an important independent risk factor for mortality. In this review, we will summarize the recent literature on pathogenesis and clinical implications of lung hyperinflation. We will outline the contribution of lung hyperinflation to exercise limitation and discuss its impact on symptoms and physical activity. Finally, we will examine the physiological rationale and efficacy of selected pharmacological and non-pharmacological 'lung deflating' interventions aimed at improving symptoms and physical functioning.

  13. Using online health communication to manage chronic sorrow: mothers of children with rare diseases speak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Adriana D

    2015-01-01

    Families affected by rare disease experience psychosocial reactions similar to families with prevalent chronic diseases. The ability to respond and manage the condition depends on psychosocial factors. This phenomenological study of 16 mothers of children with Alagille syndrome explored their lived experience in using online health communications to manage their chronic sorrow. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews analyzed using techniques described by van Manen. Analysis yielded four essential themes: connectedness, online triggers, empowerment, and seasons of online use contributed to online communication essential to a rare disease community. Findings suggest mothers need emotional support and help accessing appropriate online resources.

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China: a tale of two people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-chang

    2010-01-01

    @@ The term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been well known and the disease extensively studied for more than a decade in China, but only recently has great progress been made in the epidemiology and management of this highly prevalent disease in this country. Historically, beginning in the early 1960s, long before the definition of COPD was widely accepted, a great number of studies that included traditional Chinese medicine had been performed on chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and related respiratory failure and cor pulmonale.

  15. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischeamic heart disease and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Davidsen, Michael; Andersen, Lisbeth V.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Denmark peaked around 1977, after which a marked decline has occurred as a result of decreasing incidence and increasing effect of treatment. IHD is a chronic, relapsing condition, and the effect...... of these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the past 20...... years (beginning in 1980). A prevalent case is defined as a subject surviving the first year after the incident diagnosis. Regarding IHD, age-standardised incidence rates declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 for both sexes (females 445 to 340/100,000, males 822 to 678/100,000), reflecting...

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with renal disease undergoing hemodialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Frank Bastiani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of hepatitis C among 649 patients diagnosed with chronic or acute kidney disease − patients were undergoing hemodialysis treatment at a large hemodialysis center in Porto Alegre-RS, from January through December, 2012 –, as well as relating our data to that presented in the national census, reporting cases of coinfection by hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and defining the demographic profile of these patients. Method: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted and data was obtained from information in patients’ electronic medical records. Result and conclusion: The prevalence of hepatitis C in this study was 10.17% of the sampled population. However, further analysis of other liver centers would be required to estimate an accurate prevalence rate of infection caused by the hepatitis C virus in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Porto Alegre.

  17. Integration of mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru: challenges and opportunities for primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Psicólogo, magíster en Salud Pública.; Ipince, Alessandra; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. antropóloga.; Toyama, Mauricio; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Humanas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú. estudiante de Psicología.; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú. médico geriatra.; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano.; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico pediatra.; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Centro de Salud “El Progreso”, Microrred de Salud Carabayllo, Red de Salud Túpac Amaru, DISA V Lima Ciudad, Ministerio de Salud, Lima, Perú. psicólogo.; Araya, Ricardo; Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Londres, Reino Unido. médico psiquiatra, doctor en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica.; Miranda, J. Jaime; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, magíster y doctor en Epidemiología.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Addition...

  18. Vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristin M; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2013-11-07

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review includes a summary of the data available on vitamin K status in patients across the spectrum of CKD as well as the link between vitamin K deficiency in CKD and bone dynamics, including mineralization and demineralization, as well as ectopic mineralization. It also describes two current clinical trials that are underway evaluating vitamin K treatment in CKD patients. These data may inform future clinical practice in this population.

  19. Nutrition for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Millen, Barbara E

    2016-11-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally, and are attributable largely to poor nutrition and suboptimal lifestyle behaviors. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans promote healthy eating and lifestyle patterns across the lifespan to reduce risk of NCDs. Physicians are well positioned to provide lifestyle preventive interventions that are personalized to their patients' biological needs and cultural preferences through multidisciplinary team activities or referral to professional nutrition and physical activity experts. They can also advocate for environmental changes in healthcare and community settings that promote healthful lifestyle behaviors.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of diabetic patients in a chronic heart failure population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistorp, Caroline; Galatius, Søren; Gustafsson, Finn;

    2005-01-01

    Previously, estimates of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have solely been based on history in retrospective studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DM and glucose abnormalities in patients with CHF in accordance...... with the modern diagnostic criteria of DM. A second aim was to characterize patients with DM with respect to severity of CHF....

  1. ISCHEMIA in chronic kidney disease: improving the representation of patients with chronic kidney disease in cardiovascular trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Christina M; Shineski, Matthew; Chertow, Glenn M; Bangalore, Sripal

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high cardiovascular risk associated with chronic kidney disease, a recent systematic review confirmed that patients with kidney disease remain underrepresented in cardiovascular trials. Two ongoing trials are assessing the risk:benefit of aggressive evaluation and intervention for ischemic heart disease in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  2. STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN URBAN POPULATION OF BHOPAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPIYA BIGONIYA*, ALOK SHUKLA, HUMA IRAM ,FARAH IRAM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic respiratory disease occurrence in urban population is creating burden on economic growth and challenges to public health management. This descriptive, prevalence study was designed to gather data on risk factor related association of respiratory diseases occurrence with information on sign, symptoms and treatment modalities. Questionnaire based personal interview was conducted on selected patients with well documented respiratory problem on demographic, biosocial, educational, occupational and economic background. Body weight, height, blood pressure, details of treatment modalities, sign and symptoms were recorded from hospital data. The prevalence rates were presented as percentage and 95% confidence interval estimated and analyzed by person’s chi-square test. Age, number of children more than three (p<0.0001, family members more than three (p<0.01, overcrowding (p<0.0001, low socioeconomic class (p<0.0001, unhygienic surrounding (p<0.001, education below secondary level (p<0.01, low to normal BMI (p<0.002 and chronic smoking habit (p<0.001 showed significant risk factor related association with occurrence of respiratory disease. Most frequently found sign and symptom are apnea, tiredness, nausea, coughing and nose tickling. Marital status, source of drinking water, cooking fuel, occupation, employment status, income, respiratory rate, sleep pattern and regular use of other medication does not show any co-relation with respiratory disease occurrence. The significant risk factor for respiratory disease occurrence is aging, unhygienic environment, low level education, overcrowding and smoking.

  3. Factors associated with low adherence to medicine treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze factors associated with low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of data from Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - Brazilian Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a population-based cross-sectional household survey, based on a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population. We analyzed the association between low adherence to drug treatment measured by the Brief Medication Questionnaire and demographic, socioeconomic, health, care and prescription factors. We used Poisson regression model to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, their respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and p-value (Wald test). RESULTS The prevalence of low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases was 30.8% (95%CI 28.8-33.0). The highest prevalence of low adherence was associated with individuals: young adults; no education; resident in the Northeast and Midwest Regions of Brazil; paying part of the treatment; poor self-perceived health; three or more diseases; reported limitations caused by a chronic disease; using five drugs or more. CONCLUSIONS Low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil is relevant, and regional and demographic differences and those related to patients’ health care and therapy regime require coordinated action between health professionals, researchers, managers and policy makers. PMID:27982378

  4. High prevalence of frailty in end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Diederik; Kalf, Annette; Vogtlander, Nils; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prognosis of the increasing number of elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is poor with high risk of functional decline and mortality. Frailty seems to be a good predictor for those patients that will not benefit from dialysis. Varying prevalences between populations are prob

  5. High prevalence of Parkinson's disease in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Joensen, P; Bünger, N

    1997-01-01

    We used several case-findings methods and strict criteria for case ascertainment to diagnose parkinsonism and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Faroe Islands. In the last few years before the prevalence date of July 1, 1995, we searched various registries from pharmacies, hospitals, and ...

  6. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny L Gayton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature.Results: Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications.Conclusion: The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.Keywords: dry eye disease, etiology, prevalence, postmenopausal women

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kartaloglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES measured by educational and income levels has long been known to be associated with mortality from some diseases. Many studies from developed countries suggested that SES is associated with lung function and COPD exacerbation, prevalence and mortality. Socioeconomic disadvantage is an independent risk factor for COPD. The impact of low SES on respiratory disease in general has been attributed to poorer housing, more hazardous occupational exposure, poorer diet, a higher prevalence of smoking and respiratory infections in childhood. It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between lung function and SES. Childhood SES may influence pulmonary function in adulthood. Pulmonary functions decline earlier and faster for individual with lower childhood SES. It was reported that hospital admission rates for COPD in low SES group were higher than in the high SES group. There was not adequate data about relationship between SES and COPD in our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 87-96

  8. Extracellular Vesicles in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Kadota

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by the progression of irreversible airflow limitation and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although several crucial mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis have been studied, the precise mechanism remains unknown. Extracellular vesicles (EVs, including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, are released from almost all cell types and are recognized as novel cell–cell communication tools. They have been shown to carry and transfer a wide variety of molecules, such as microRNAs, messenger RNAs, and proteins, which are involved in physiological functions and the pathology of various diseases. Recently, EVs have attracted considerable attention in pulmonary research. In this review, we summarize the recent findings of EV-mediated COPD pathogenesis. We also discuss the potential clinical usefulness of EVs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COPD.

  9. NADPH Oxidases in Chronic Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy X. Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common feature observed in a wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidases (NOXs are emerging as major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Several major isoforms are expressed in the liver, including NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4. While the phagocytic NOX2 has been known to play an important role in Kupffer cell and neutrophil phagocytic activity and inflammation, the nonphagocytic NOX homologues are increasingly recognized as key enzymes in oxidative injury and wound healing. In this review, we will summarize the current advances in knowledge on the regulatory pathways of NOX activation, their cellular distribution, and their role in the modulation of redox signaling in liver diseases.

  10. Seroprevalence of anti-HAV among patients with chronic viral liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Chin Cho; Seung Woon Paik; Yu Jin Kim; Moon Seok Choi; Joon Hyeok Lee; Kwang Cheol Koh; Byung Chul Yoo; Hee Jung Son; Seon Woo Kim

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients with chronic viral liver disease in Korea. We also tried to identify the factors affecting the prevalence of HAV antibodies.METHODS: We performed an analysis of the clinical records of 986 patients (mean age: 49 ± 9 years, 714males/272 females) with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone HAV antibody testing between January 2008 and December 2009.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IgG anti-HAV was 86.61% (854/986) in patients with chronic liver disease and was 88.13% (869/986) in age- and gendermatched patients from the Center for Health Promotion.The anti-HAV prevalence was 80.04% (405/506)in patients with chronic hepatitis B, 86.96% (20/23)in patients with chronic hepatitis C, 93.78% (422/450)in patients with HBV related liver cirrhosis, and 100%(7/7) in patients with HCV related liver cirrhosis. The anti-HAV prevalence according to the decade of age was as follows: 20s (6.67%), 30s (50.86%), 40s (92.29%), 50s (97.77%), and 60s (100%). The anti-HAV prevalence was significantly higher in patients older than 40 years compared with that in patients younger than 40 years of age. Multivariable analysis showed that age ≥ 40 years, female gender and metropolitan cities as the place of residence were independent risk factors for IgG anti-HAV seropositivity.CONCLUSION: Most Korean patients with chronic liver disease and who are above 40 years of age have already been exposed to hepatitis A virus.

  11. The Unfolded Protein Response in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of nonfunctional and potentially cytotoxic, misfolded proteins in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is believed to contribute to lung cell apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy. Because of its fundamental role as a quality control system in protein metabolism, the "unfolded protein response" (UPR) is of potential importance in the pathogenesis of COPD. The UPR comprises a series of transcriptional, translational, and post-translational processes that decrease protein synthesis while enhancing protein folding capacity and protein degradation. Several studies have suggested that the UPR contributes to lung cell apoptosis and lung inflammation in at least some subjects with human COPD. However, information on the prevalence of the UPR in subjects with COPD, the lung cells that manifest a UPR, and the role of the UPR in the pathogenesis of COPD is extremely limited and requires additional study.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, K K; Kjaergaard, J; Akkan, D;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with heart failure (HF). The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of COPD and to test the accuracy of self-reported COPD in patients admitted with HF. Secondary aims were to study...... a possible relationship between right and left ventricular function and pulmonary function. DESIGN: Prospective substudy. SETTING: Systematic screening at 11 centres. SUBJECTS: Consecutive patients (n = 532) admitted with HF requiring medical treatment with diuretics and an episode with symptoms...... corresponding to New York Heart Association class III-IV within a month prior to admission. INTERVENTIONS: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured by spirometry and ventricular function by echocardiography. The diagnosis of COPD and HF were made according...

  13. Cardioprotective Effects of ω-3 PUFAs in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Mi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, and cardiovascular disease (CVD is a main cause of death in patients with CKD. The high incidence of CVD in CKD patients is related to chronic inflammation, dyslipidemia, malnutrition, atherosclerosis, and vascular calcification. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs have been shown to reduce the risk of CVD. In this paper, we review the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs on CVD and the possible cardioprotective mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs in CKD patients by determining the effect of ω-3 PUFAs in the general population. ω-3 PUFAs have several cardioprotective benefits, such as reducing inflammation, decreasing oxidative stress, inhibiting platelet activity, exerting antiarrhythmic effects, and improving triglyceride levels, in the general population and patients with CKD. Modifications of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content, including an increased ω-3 index and decreased oleic acid, after ω-3 PUFAs supplementation are important changes related to CVD risk reduction in the general population and patients with CKD. Further basic and clinical studies are essential to confirm the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on vitamin D activation, vascular calcification prevention, cardiovascular events, and mortality in CKD patients.

  14. Leptomeningeal disease in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, C P E; Brouwer, R E; Brooimans, R; Vecht, Ch J

    2007-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common lymphoproliferative disorder in the western hemisphere, with an annual incidence of 3:100000. Commonly patients are asymptomatic but not rarely disease progression occurs in the setting of lymphadenopathy and extensive leukemic burden. Leptomeningeal involvement in patients with CLL is infrequent, with presenting symptoms of headache (23%), acute or chronic changes in mental status (28%), cranial nerve abnormalities (54%) including optic neuropathy (28%), weakness of lower extremities (23%) and cerebellar signs (18%). In this report, we discuss a CLL patient with leptomeningeal involvement, who presented with neurological symptoms as the first clinical sign, and a diagnosis of leptomeningeal was made based on CSF cytology and flow cytometry. Treatment consisted of radiation therapy and intrathecal chemotherapy with arabinoside-cytosine and systemic chemotherapy. On the basis of this patient-report together with 37 other previously reported cases, the clinical characteristics together with treatment options and outcome of leptomeningeal involvement in CLL are reviewed. Our case together with data from the literature indicate that a timely diagnosis and intensive treatment of leptomeningeal disease of CLL may lead to longstanding and complete resolution of neurological symptoms.

  15. Tetracycline therapy for chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, S T

    1997-07-01

    Two hundred seventy-seven patients with chronic Lyme disease were treated with tetracycline for 1 to 11 months (mean, 4 months); the outcomes for these patients were generally good. Overall, 20% of the patients were cured; 70% of the patients' conditions improved, and treatment failed for 10% of the patients. Improvement frequently did not take place for several weeks; after 2 months of treatment, 33% of the patients' conditions were significantly improved (degree of improvement, 75%-100%), and after 3 months of treatment, 61% of the patients' conditions were significantly improved. Treatment outcomes for seronegative patients (20% of all patients) were similar to those for seropositive patients. Western immunoblotting showed reactions to one or more Borrelia burgdorferi-specific proteins for 65% of the patients for whom enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were negative. Whereas age, sex, and prior erythema migrans were not correlated with better or worse treatment outcomes, a history of longer duration of symptoms or antibiotic treatment was associated with longer treatment times to achieve improvement and cure. These results support the use of longer courses of treatment in the management of patients with chronic Lyme disease. Controlled trials need to be conducted to validate these observations.

  16. Models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung K Fan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem and is predicted to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Apart from the important preventive steps of smoking cessation, there are no other specific treatments for COPD that are as effective in reversing the condition, and therefore there is a need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to new therapeutic strategies. The development of experimental models will help to dissect these mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level. COPD is a disease characterized by progressive airflow obstruction of the peripheral airways, associated with lung inflammation, emphysema and mucus hypersecretion. Different approaches to mimic COPD have been developed but are limited in comparison to models of allergic asthma. COPD models usually do not mimic the major features of human COPD and are commonly based on the induction of COPD-like lesions in the lungs and airways using noxious inhalants such as tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide. Depending on the duration and intensity of exposure, these noxious stimuli induce signs of chronic inflammation and airway remodelling. Emphysema can be achieved by combining such exposure with instillation of tissue-degrading enzymes. Other approaches are based on genetically-targeted mice which develop COPD-like lesions with emphysema, and such mice provide deep insights into pathophysiological mechanisms. Future approaches should aim to mimic irreversible airflow obstruction, associated with cough and sputum production, with the possibility of inducing exacerbations.

  17. Chronic diseases knowledge and related factors among the elderly in Jinan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapei Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the prevalence of chronic diseases is high among old people and they have poor chronic diseases knowledge. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the awareness rate of chronic diseases knowledge among people aged over 60 years, to explore its related factors and to provide evidence for future health education. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August in 2011. People aged 60 years and above from 3 communities in Jinan were selected by cluster sampling. Nine hundred and twenty five participants were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The awareness rates of chronic diseases knowledge varied from 29.5% to 90.2%. Four healthy lifestyles including quitting smoking and less drinking, keeping broad-minded, maintaining balanced diet and moderate physical activity were best known (from 86.3% to 90.2%. The least known knowledge were 2 complications of hypertension: nephropathy (29.5% and retinopathy (37.2%. Participants with the following characteristics or behaviors were more likely to have higher chronic diseases knowledge: younger age, female, Han Chinese, higher level of education, having health insurance, participating in societies, having family history of chronic diseases, frequently gathering with friends/relatives, usually going to provincial hospitals/hospitals affiliated with medical universities, usually going to municipal hospitals and usually going to community health center/station. CONCLUSIONS: Old people in Jinan had incomplete chronic diseases knowledge and the overall awareness rate was not high. The older people's chronic diseases knowledge should be improved and health education programs should target males, older people with lower educational level, having no health insurance, having no family history of chronic diseases, participating in no societies, and less frequently gathering with friends/relatives. Also, lower level medical

  18. Chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors in 12 regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuchalin AG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander G Chuchalin,1 Nikolai Khaltaev,2 Nikolay S Antonov,1 Dmitry V Galkin,3 Leonid G Manakov,4 Paola Antonini,5 Michael Murphy,5 Alexander G Solodovnikov,6 Jean Bousquet,7 Marcelo HS Pereira,8 Irina V Demko9 1Institute of Pulmonology, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia; 2Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD, Genève, Switzerland; 3GlaxoSmithKline, Moscow, Russia; 4Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk, Russia; 5Worldwide Clinical Trials, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 6Worldwide Clinical Trials, Ekaterinburg, Russia; 7Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Montpellier, France; 8Research and Development Chief Medical Office, International Medical, GlaxoSmithKline, London, United Kingdom; 9Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Background: Estimation suggests that at least 4 million people die, annually, as a result of chronic respiratory disease (CRD. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD was formed following a mandate from the World Health Assembly to address this serious and growing health problem. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of CRD in Russian symptomatic patients and to evaluate the frequency of major risk factors for CRD in Russia. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study using the GARD questionnaire on adults from 12 regions of the Russian Federation. Common respiratory symptoms and risk factors were recorded. Spirometry was performed in respondents with suspected CRD. Allergic rhinitis (AR and chronic bronchitis (CB were defined by the presence of related symptoms according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma and the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines; asthma was defined based on disease symptoms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD was defined as a post

  19. Estimating disease prevalence in two-phase studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Todd A; Pepe, Margaret Sullivan; Lumley, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Disease prevalence is ideally estimated using a 'gold standard' to ascertain true disease status on all subjects in a population of interest. In practice, however, the gold standard may be too costly or invasive to be applied to all subjects, in which case a two-phase design is often employed. Phase 1 data consisting of inexpensive and non-invasive screening tests on all study subjects are used to determine the subjects that receive the gold standard in the second phase. Naive estimates of prevalence in two-phase studies can be biased (verification bias). Imputation and re-weighting estimators are often used to avoid this bias. We contrast the forms and attributes of the various prevalence estimators. Distribution theory and simulation studies are used to investigate their bias and efficiency. We conclude that the semiparametric efficient approach is the preferred method for prevalence estimation in two-phase studies. It is more robust and comparable in its efficiency to imputation and other re-weighting estimators. It is also easy to implement. We use this approach to examine the prevalence of depression in adolescents with data from the Great Smoky Mountain Study.

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  1. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Inflammation in End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. In patients affected by CKD, a progressive destruction of the nephrons is observed not only in structuralbut also in functional level. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is characterized by the deposition of lipids and fibrous elements and is a common complication of the uremic syndrome because of the coexistence of a wide range of risk factors. High blood pressure, anaemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, high oxidative stress are some of the most common factors that cause cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis in patients suffering from End Stage Kidney Disease (ESRD. At the same time, the inflammatory process constitutes a common element in the apparition and development of CKD. A wide range of possible causes can justify the development of inflammation under uremic conditions. Such causes are oxidative stress, oxidation, coexistentpathological conditions as well as factors that are due to renal clearance techniques. Patients in ESRD and coronary disease usually show increased acute phase products. Pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-a, and acute phase reactants, such as CRP and fibrinogen, are closely related. The treatment of chronic inflammation in CKD is of high importance for the development ofthe disease as well as for the treatment of cardiovascular morbidity.Conclusions: The treatment factors focus on the use of renin-angiotensic system inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, statins and anti-oxidant treatment in order to prevent the action of inflammatorycytokines that have the ability to activate the mechanisms of inflammation.

  2. Epidemiology of Comorbidities in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lahousse (Lies)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is defined by the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a common preventable and treatable disease, which is characterized by a persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associat

  3. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... CFR Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health... beryllium disease prevention program. The Department solicits comment and information on the permissible... course of action regarding its chronic beryllium disease prevention program. DATES: All comments on...

  4. Recent trends in chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joseph S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine concurrent prevalence trends of chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults. Methods We analyzed the 1998, 2004 and 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of older adults in the United States, and included 31,568 community dwelling adults aged 65 and over. Measurements include: prevalence of chronic diseases including hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease and arthritis; prevalence of impairments, including impairments of cognition, vision, hearing, mobility, and urinary incontinence; prevalence of disability, including activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Results The proportion of older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased from 13.1% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 12.4%-13.8% in 1998 to 7.8% (95% CI, 7.2%-8.4% in 2008, whereas the proportion reporting 1 or more chronic diseases increased from 86.9% (95% CI, 86.2%-89.6% in 1998 to 92.2% (95% CI, 91.6%-92.8% in 2008. In addition, the proportion reporting 4 or more diseases increased from 11.7% (95% CI, 11.0%-12.4% in 1998 to 17.4% (95% CI, 16.6%-18.2% in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting no impairments was 47.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-48.4% in 1998 and 44.4% (95% CI, 43.3%-45.5% in 2008, whereas the proportion of respondents reporting 3 or more was 7.2% (95% CI, 6.7%-7.7% in 1998 and 7.3% (95% CI, 6.8%-7.9% in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting any ADL or IADL disability was 26.3% (95% CI, 25.4%-27.2% in 1998 and 25.4% (95% CI, 24.5%-26.3% in 2008. Conclusions Multiple chronic disease is increasingly prevalent among older U.S. adults, whereas the prevalence of impairment and disability, while substantial, remain stable.

  5. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall ME

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Hall,1,2 Jussara M do Carmo,2 Alexandre A da Silva,2 Luis A Juncos,1,2 Zhen Wang,2 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mississippi Center for Obesity Research, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. Keywords: visceral adiposity, type II diabetes, sodium reabsorption

  6. Prevalence of Chronic Health Conditions in Children With Intellectual Disability : A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient m

  7. Current treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉惠

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined by fixed airflow limitation associated with an abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response of the lungs to cigarette smoke. COPD represents an increasing burden worldwide, reported to be the sixth leading cause of death in 1990 and the fourth in 2000. Discouragingly, it is projected to jump to third place by the year 2020.There is increasing evidence that COPD is a more complex systemic disease than an airway and lung disease. In particular, cachexia, skeletal muscle abnormalities, diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure, cancer and pulmonary vascular disease are the most common comorbidities. It is associated with a wide variety of systemic consequences, most notably systemic inflammation. Because COPD patients have in general ahigher cardiovascular risk than the average population, cardiovascular safety in a COPD medication is of critical importance.SINGH et al performed a systematic review and recta-analysis of 17 clinical trials enrolling 14 783 patients treated with inhaled anticholinergic drugs used for the treatment of COPD. Inhaled anticholinergics significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke ( 1.8 % vs 1.2 % for control; RR, 1.58 (95 % CI,1.21 - 2.06); P < 0.001 ). However, UPLIIFT (Understanding the Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium) , a large, 4-year, placebo controlled clinical trial with tiotropium in approximately 6 000 patients with COPD. The preliminary results of UPLIFT showed that there was no increased risk of stroke with tiotropium bromide compared to placebo.A meta-analysis is always considered less convincing than a large prospective trial designed to assess the outcome of interest. However, COPD is a systemic disease. COPD management needs to focus on four major areas: smoking cessation, pharmacologic therapy, exercise training, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Clinicians and patients should always carefully consider any

  8. Mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose and age-specific prevalence rate from endemic chronic arsenic poisoning: a human toxicology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zald' ivar, R.; Ghai, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose, and age-specific prevalence rate for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning. Data on mean age (years), mean arsenic dietary dose (mg/kg body weight/day), and age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, for the 1968 to 1971 period, were collected. Endemic chronic arsenic poisoning means here chronic arsenical dermatosis associated with marked or sever symptoms (or signs) of chronic arsenic poisoning (chronic diarrhea, hepatic cirrohsis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, recurrent broncho-pneumonia, cardiomegaly, systemic occlusive arterial disease, cerebral thrombosis, etc.). There was a strong positive correlation between age-specific pevalence rate per 100,000 population and mean arsenic dose (r = + 0.9593) and a negative correlation between prevalence rate and mean age (r = 0.8789). These findings show that the prevalence rate declines with the advancing age and increases with the increase of arsenic dose. A multiple linear regression model E(y) = alpha + beta X1 + gamma X2, where y represents the age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population, X1 the mean arsenic dose, and X2 the mean age, was fitted to the data. The estimates of the parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma) were obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares sigma(y - alpha - beta X1 - gamma X2)2. The following multiple linear regression equation was obtained: Y = 202.161 + 8452.455 X1 - 2.394 X2. Of the total variability in the prevalence rate, 96.22 percent was accounted for by the multiple regression.

  9. Prevalence of feline calicivirus, feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to FIV in cats with chronic stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, J O; Gaskell, R M; Gaskell, C J; Harvey, C E; Lutz, H

    1989-04-01

    The prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies were assessed in 78 British and 18 North American household cats with chronic stomatitis and in appropriate controls. In British cats, FCV was significantly (P less than 0.005) more prevalent in both hospital (92 per cent) and general practice (79 per cent) cases compared to their controls (19 per cent in both cases). A similar difference in prevalence of FCV was noted in North American cats where 50 per cent of cases were positive compared to 0 per cent of controls (P less than 0.01). FeLV prevalence was low in all chronic stomatitis populations. A significantly higher prevalence of antibody to FIV was found in British hospital cases (81 per cent) compared with time-matched controls (16 per cent) (P less than 0.001): a similar rate was found in the general practice cases (75 per cent) for which no controls were available. In the North American sample, FIV antibody status was similar in cases (54 per cent positive) and their age, sex and breed matched controls (50 per cent). The possible role of FCV and FIV in the pathogenesis of feline chronic stomatitis is discussed.

  10. Persistent disabling breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundh J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Josefin Sundh,1 Magnus Ekström2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Objective: To determine the prevalence, change in breathlessness status over time, and risk factors for disabling and persistent disabling breathlessness in relation to treatments in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Materials and methods: Longitudinal analysis of data from the Swedish National Register of COPD with breathlessness measured using modified Medical Research Council (mMRC scores at two subsequent visits. Prevalence of disabling breathlessness (mMRC ≥2 at baseline and persistent disabling breathlessness (disabling breathlessness at baseline and follow-up was investigated in relation to COPD treatment. Risk factors for disabling breathlessness, change from non-disabling to disabling breathlessness, and persistent disabling breathlessness were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 1,689 patients were included in the study with a median follow-up of 12 months (interquartile range: 4 months. Prevalence of disabling breathlessness was 54% at baseline. Persistent disabling breathlessness was present in 43% of patients despite treatment and in 74% of patients despite combined inhaled triple therapy and physiotherapy. Risk factors for disabling breathlessness or change to disabling breathlessness were higher age, lower lung function, frequent exacerbations, obesity, heart failure, depression, and hypoxic respiratory failure (all P<0.05. Persistent disabling breathlessness was associated with lower lung function and ischemic heart disease (all P<0.05. Conclusion: Disabling breathlessness is common in COPD despite treatment, which calls for improved symptomatic treatments and consideration of factors influencing disabling breathlessness. Factors influencing

  11. Development and application of chronic disease risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sun Min; Stefani, Katherine M; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-07-01

    Currently, non-communicable chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a large proportion of chronic diseases are preventable through risk factor management. However, the prevention efficacy at the individual level is not yet satisfactory. Chronic disease prediction models have been developed to assist physicians and individuals in clinical decision-making. A chronic disease prediction model assesses multiple risk factors together and estimates an absolute disease risk for the individual. Accurate prediction of an individual's future risk for a certain disease enables the comparison of benefits and risks of treatment, the costs of alternative prevention strategies, and selection of the most efficient strategy for the individual. A large number of chronic disease prediction models, especially targeting cardiovascular diseases and cancers, have been suggested, and some of them have been adopted in the clinical practice guidelines and recommendations of many countries. Although few chronic disease prediction tools have been suggested in the Korean population, their clinical utility is not as high as expected. This article reviews methodologies that are commonly used for developing and evaluating a chronic disease prediction model and discusses the current status of chronic disease prediction in Korea.

  12. [New insights on hepcidin in anemia of chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Dan; Zhou, Dao-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Anemia of chronic disease is normocytic and normochromic. One of the mechanisms is misbalance of iron metabolism. Hepcidin, a kind of protein secreted by liver is considered to be the hormone regulating iron metabolism. It binds to ferroportin and induces the latter one's internalization. Thus, iron transportation from iron storage cells to serum is reduced. Cytokines are elevated in chronic disease. They stimulate hepcidin expression in liver through JAK2/STAT3 pathway. As a result, iron absorption and reabsorption is blocked, which leads to the misbalance of iron metabolism in anemia of chronic disease. In this article, the hepcidin and its relation to iron metabolism and anemia in chronic disease are reviewed.

  13. [Comparison and outcome of prevalence of concurrent diseases in patients with urological malignant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ohno, Rena; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Terao, Toshiya; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2006-07-01

    We compared the prevalence of concurrent diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart diseases and apoplexy) in patients with renal cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma and prostatic carcinoma diagnosed in our department with that in all patients in our department analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel regression. In hypertension, there was a significantly high prevalence of patients with renal cell carcinoma (p diabetis mellitus, ischemic heart diseases and apoplexy, no apparent characteristic of prevalence was recognized. The close relationship between renal cell carcinoma, prostatic carcinoma and hypertension in this study corresponded with previous reports.

  14. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population.

  15. PREVALENCE OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH VALVULAR HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Kumar Saharia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Heart disease is a growing problem, particularly in developing countries. India has quoted to have 12.2% and 12% prevalence of coronary artery disease and rheumatic valvular heart disease respectively. Some older reports suggest that rheumatic fever, in addition to producing specific injuries to small coronary arterial branches may accelerate the development of coronary atherosclerosis. AIM To assess the prevalence of Coronary Artery disease in patients with Valvular Heart disease in some selected hospitals of Guwahati, Assam. SETTING AND DESIGN It was conducted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital and Hayat Hospital, Guwahati. Explorative approach, survey design was selected for the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Purposive sampling technique was used to select 126 patients who were diagnosed with valvular heart disease. Data was collected through a self-structured interview scheduled on prevalence of coronary artery disease. RESULTS Of the total 126 patients of valvular heart disease, 108 (85.71% cases were rheumatic valvular heart disease and 18 (14.29% were non-rheumatic valvular heart disease. Majority (56.34% of cases with CAD and RHD were in the range of 45 to 54 years. The prevalence of typical angina was significantly high among men (41.18%. Most of the rheumatic patients (72.22% did not complain about angina. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia are significantly high among non-rheumatic group and Coronary artery disease group. In our study, the overall prevalence of significant coronary artery disease in patients with valvular heart disease was 14.28%. CONCLUSION Coronary artery disease prevalence is very high in this part of the country. Health professionals should actively participate in health promotion activities, apply the findings of the study to identify high risk individuals and prevent the occurrence of coronary artery disease.

  16. A Mobile Care Coordination System for the Management of Complex Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Sarah; Kim, Katherine K

    2016-01-01

    There is global concern about healthcare cost, quality, and access as the prevalence of complex and chronic diseases, such as heart disease, continues to grow. Care for patients with complex chronic disease involves diverse practitioners and multiple transitions between medical centers, physician practices, clinics, community resources, and patient homes. There are few systems that provide the flexibility to manage these varied and complex interactions. Participatory and user-centered design methodology was applied to the first stage of building a mobile platform for care coordination for complex, chronic heart disease. Key informant interviews with patients, caregivers, clinicians, and care coordinators were conducted. Thematic analysis led to identification of priority user functions including shared care plan, medication management, symptom management, nutrition, physical activity, appointments, personal monitoring devices, and integration of data and workflow. Meaningful stakeholder engagement contributes to a person-centered system that enhances health and efficiency.

  17. Self-reported chronic somatic diseases among adolescent students in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of the common self-reported chronic diseases among adolescent students in public secondary schools in Mansoura, Egypt.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 1493 adolescent students. Thirty clusters were selected to cover both general and vocational public schools of both sexes in urban and rural areas. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data from the students and their families, as well as a checklist of 15 chronic diseases.Results: About 6% of students reported one or more chronic somatic disease. The most frequent are acne vulgaris (4.2%, rheumatic heart disease (3.4%, refractive errors (1.4 and bronchial asthma (1.1%. This pattern does not show significant differences between males and females.Conclusions: Despite the self-reported nature, our findings indicate that Egyptian adolescents are not healthy as it is often considered.

  18. Prevalence and differentiation of diseases in Maryland backyard flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-09-01

    Several epidemiologic surveillance studies have implicated backyard flocks as a reservoir for poultry diseases; however, much debate still exists over the risk these small flocks pose. To evaluate this concern, the prevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Salmonella was determined in 39 Maryland backyard flocks. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds throughout nine counties in Maryland. Through PCR and ELISA analysis, disease prevalence and seroprevalence were determined in flocks, respectively, for the following: ND (0%, 23%); ILT (26%, 77%); MG (3%, 13%); and Salmonella (0%, not done). Vaccine status could not be accurately confirmed. Premise positives were further differentiated and identified by partial nucleotide sequencing. Screening of the 10 ILT premise positives showed that most were live attenuated vaccines: eight matched a tissue culture origin vaccine, one matched a chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine, and one was CEO related. The single MG-positive flock, also positive for the CEO-related sequence, was identified as the infectious S6 strain. The prevalence rates for these economically important poultry diseases ranged from none to relatively low, with the vast majority of sampled flocks presenting no clinical signs.

  19. Prevalence, severity, and clinical features of acute and chronic pancreatitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Shen, Min; Leng, Xiaomei; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Qian, Jiaming

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatitis is a rare, life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed to describe the clinical features of acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) in patients with SLE. Data of patients who fulfilled the revised criteria of the American Rheumatism Association for diagnosis of SLE were retrospectively analyzed. SLE activity was graded according to the SLE Disease Activity Index. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find out independent associations. Survival rates were estimated by using Kaplan-Meier plots. This study included 5665 SLE patients admitted between January 1983 and January 2014, of whom 52 patients were diagnosed with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis prevalence in SLE patients was 0.92 % (52/5665). AP (0.8 %, 46/5665) was more prevalent than CP (0.1 %, 6/5665), presented mostly during active SLE, and affected more organs. Hypertriglyceridemia occurred in 76.9 % of AP patients and in none of the CP patients. AP patients were divided into severe (n = 10) or mild (n = 20) cases. The average triglyceride level in severe AP cases was higher than that in mild AP cases (P = 0.006), and the mortality rate of lupus-associated AP was 32.6 % (15/46). Concomitant infections and thrombocytopenia were independently associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001, P = 0.028, respectively). There were significant differences in the clinical manifestations of AP and CP. Patients with severe AP were found to have a higher incidence of concomitant infection and serum triglyceride levels. Concomitant infections and thrombocytopenia were independent risk factors for poor prognosis.

  20. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slee Adrian D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabolic factors may play key roles in CKD development and pathogenesis. These include raised proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and −6, tumor necrosis factor, altered hepatic acute phase proteins, including reduced albumin, increased C-reactive protein, and perturbations in normal anabolic hormone responses with reduced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis activity. Others include hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS, with angiotensin II and aldosterone implicated in hypertension and the promotion of insulin resistance, and subsequent pharmacological blockade shown to improve blood pressure, metabolic control and offer reno-protective effects. Abnormal adipocytokine levels including leptin and adiponectin may further promote the insulin resistant, and proinflammatory state in CKD. Ghrelin may be also implicated and controversial studies suggest activities may be reduced in human CKD, and may provide a rationale for administration of acyl-ghrelin. Poor vitamin D status has also been associated with patient outcome and CVD risk and may indicate a role for supplementation. Glucocorticoid activities traditionally known for their involvement in the pathogenesis of a number of disease states are increased and may be implicated in CKD-associated hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes risk and cachexia, both directly and indirectly through effects on other systems including activation of the mineralcorticoid

  1. Dirty electricity, chronic stress, neurotransmitters and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, David

    2013-12-01

    Dirty electricity, also called electrical pollution, is high-frequency voltage transients riding along the 50 or 60 Hz electricity provided by the electric utilities. It is generated by arcing, by sparking and by any device that interrupts current flow, especially switching power supplies. It has been associated with cancer, diabetes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in humans. Epidemiological evidence also links dirty electricity to most of the diseases of civilization including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and suicide, beginning at the turn of the twentieth century. The dirty electricity level in a public library was reduced from over 10 000 Graham/Stetzer (G/S) units to below 50 G/S units by installing plug-in capacitive filters. Before cleanup, the urinary dopamine level of only one of seven volunteers was within normal levels, while four of seven phenylethylamine levels were normal. After an initial decline, over the next 18 weeks the dopamine levels gradually increased to an average of over 215 μg/g creatinine, which is well above 170 μg/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Average phenylethylamine levels also rose gradually to slightly above 70 μg/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Neurotransmitters may be biomarkers for dirty electricity and other electromagnetic field exposures. We believe that dirty electricity is a chronic stressor of electrified populations and is responsible for many of their disease patterns.

  2. Gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarran Guldris, Secundino; González Parra, Emilio; Cases Amenós, Aleix

    The intestinal microflora maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host under normal conditions, but its imbalance has recently been associated with several diseases. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), dysbiotic intestinal microflora has been reported with an increase in pathogenic flora compared to symbiotic flora. An enhanced permeability of the intestinal barrier, allowing the passage of endotoxins and other bacterial products to the blood, has also been shown in CKD. By fermenting undigested products that reach the colon, the intestinal microflora produce indoles, phenols and amines, among others, that are absorbed by the host, accumulate in CKD and have harmful effects on the body. These gut-derived uraemic toxins and the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD have been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress and have been involved in various CKD-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, anaemia, mineral metabolism disorders or the progression of CKD. The use of prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, among other approaches, could improve the dysbiosis and/or the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD. This article describes the situation of the intestinal microflora in CKD, the alteration of the intestinal barrier and its clinical consequences, the harmful effects of intestinal flora-derived uraemic toxins, and possible therapeutic options to improve this dysbiosis and reduce CKD-related complications.

  3. Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamedali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4. These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient.

  4. Virtual Communities for Diabetes Chronic Disease Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Chorbev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is classified as the world's fastest-growing chronic illness that affects millions of people. It is a very serious disease, but the bright side is that it is treatable and can be managed. Proper education in this view is necessary to achieve essential control and prevent the aggregation of this chronic sickness. We have developed a healthcare so