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Sample records for chronic disease prevalence

  1. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  2. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them wi

  3. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis (IA) in the general practice and compare this to a group of control patients without IA. Methods: In this nested-case-control study, data were used from the Netherlands Information Network of eneral Pra

  4. Disparities in Periodontitis Prevalence among Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidou, E; Swede, H.

    2011-01-01

    Because of adverse effects of uremia in the innate and adaptive immune systems, we hypothesized that chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients would have higher prevalence of moderate periodontitis compared with individuals without CKD. We examined this hypothesis using the NHANES III dataset, including 12,081 adults stratified by Race-Ethnicity. We followed the American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition for moderate periodontitis. Estimated glomerula...

  5. Prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Kratzer; Mark M Haenle; Richard A Mason; Christian von Tirpitz; Volker Kaechele

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD) specific risk factors for cholecystolithiasis,as duration and involvement pattern of the disease and prior surgery in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: A total of 222 patients with CD (135 females,87 males; average age, 35.8±11.8 years; range 17-81 years)and 88 patients with UC (39 females, 49 males; average age, 37.2±13.6 years; range 16-81 years) underwent clinical and ultrasound examinations. Besides age, sex and degree of obesity, patients' CIBD specific parameters, including duration and extent of disease and prior operations were documented and evaluated statistically using logistic regression.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of gallbladder stone disease in patients with CD was 13% (n = 30). Only age could be shown to be an independent risk factor (P = 0.014).Compared to a collective representative for the general population in the same geographic region, the prevalence of cholecystolithiasis was higher in all corresponding age groups. Patients with UC showed an overall prevalence of gallbladder stone disease of only 4.6%.CONCLUSION:Only age but not disease-specific factors such as duration and extent of disease, and prior surgery are independent risk factors for the development of cholecystolithiasis in patients with CIBD.

  6. Prevalence of anemia in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients

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    FAM Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of anemia in a large cohort that comprises patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, we conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study of a cohort of CKD patients who have not started dialysis. The study patients were recruited from the nephrology clinics in 11 different medical centers distributed all over the regions of the KSA. For the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR, we used the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. There were 250 study patients who fulfilled the criteria for the study. The patients were stratified according to their GFR as follows: stage 1: 19 patients, stage 2: 35 patients, stage 3: 67 patients, stage 4: 68 patients, and stage 5: 61 patients. The composite of proteinuria and abnormal imaging in stages 1 and 2 was satisfied in 100% of the cases. The prevalence of anemia was elevated for the hemoglobin levels below 12 g/dL (the level at which the evaluation of anemia in CKD should be initiated in the different stages of CKD, that is, 42%, 33%, 48%, 71%, and 82% in the stages from 1 to 5, respectively. The prevalence was also elevated for the hemoglobin levels below 11 g/dL (the minimum hemoglobin level at which therapy should be initiated with erythropoietin, that is, 21%, 17%, 31%, 49%, and 72%, respectively for stages from 1 to 5. In conclusion, we found a large prevalence of anemia among the CKD population in Saudi Arabia, and the burden of patients who require treatment with erythropoietin is considerably large. However, the response to therapy will not require large doses according to the availability of long-acting erythropoiesis stimulating agents, which will render the therapy more convenient and less expensive.

  7. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

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    Sansores RH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raúl H Sansores, Mónica Velázquez-Uncal, Oliver Pérez-Bautista, Jaime Villalba-Caloca, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia, Alejandra Ramírez-VenegasTobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic.Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers.Methods: Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire.Results: Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5% smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5% had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961 and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637. From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers.Conclusion: Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may

  8. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Olivera Stojceva-Taneva

    2016-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Our study showed that chronic kidney disease is frequent in the Republic of Macedonia and is associated with older age and diabetes. Diabetes had a significantly stronger association with CKD at younger age.

  9. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about the presence of chronic morbidity in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients at disease onset. Previous studies have been mainly performed in established IA patients or they focus on isolated co-morbid diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic disease

  10. Prevalence, predictors, and survival in pulmonary hypertension related to end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Iversen, Martin; Kjaergaard, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, prognostic importance, and factors that predict the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed with right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear....

  11. Discriminants of Prevalent Fractures in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nickolas, Thomas L.; Cremers, Serge; Zhang, Amy; Thomas, Valeri; Stein, Emily; Cohen, Adi; Chauncey, Ryan; Nikkel, Lucas; Yin, Michael T.; Liu, Xiaowei S.; Boutroy, Stephanie; Staron, Ronald B.; Leonard, Mary B.; McMahon, Donald J.; Dworakowski, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher rates of fracture than the general population. Increased bone remodeling, leading to microarchitectural deterioration and increased fragility, may accompany declining kidney function, but there are no reliable methods to identify patients at increased risk for fracture. In this cross-sectional study of 82 patients with predialysis CKD, high-resolution imaging revealed that the 23 patients with current fractures had significantly lower are...

  12. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

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    Steven W. Howard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]. The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease. Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Insomnia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaj Ahmad; Manan Gupta; Ravi Gupta; Mohan Dhyani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood. Aims: This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with ′high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)′ in adults with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details re...

  14. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how frequency-dependent, density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates in harvested yearling deer. An intermediate transmission model, incorporating both disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  15. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in subjects hospitalized due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing from 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hua; Miao, Dong-Mei; Wei, Zhi-Min; Cai, Jian-Fang; Li, Yi; Liu, Ai-min; Li, Fan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and explore the prevalence of the major CVD complications and trends in patients with COPD over a 10-year period. Methods Medical records in the PLA General Hospital, Beijing Union Medical College Hospital, and Beijing Hospital from 2000/01/01 to 2010/03/03 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 4960 patients with COPD were reviewed in ...

  16. The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, Peter; Holme, I;

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease, where the initial symptoms are often cough as a result of excessive mucus production and dyspnea. With disease progression several other symptoms may develop, and patients with moderate to severe COPD have often multiorganic disease...... with severely impaired respiratory dysfunction, decreased physical activity, right ventricular failure of the heart, and a decreased quality of life. In addition osteoporosis might develop possibly due to a number of factors related to the disease. We wanted to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis...

  17. Pain in chronic kidney disease: prevalence, cause and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkia, Theodora; Chamney, Melissa; Drinkwater, Anna; Pegoraro, Marisa; Sedgewick, John

    2011-06-01

    Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience and is the most common symptom experienced by renal patients. It can be caused by primary co-morbid diseases, renal replacement therapies, medication or treatment side effects, and its intensity varies from moderate to severe. Pain management in renal patients is difficult, since the distance between pain relief and toxicity is very small. This paper will provide an algorithm for pain management proposed using paracetamol, nonsteroid anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), mild and stronger opioids as well as complementary techniques. Quality of Life (QoL) and overall enhancement of the patient experience through better pain management are also discussed. To improve pain management it is essential that nurses recognise that they have direct responsibilities related to pain assessment and tailoring of opioid analgesics and better and more detailed education.

  18. Toward reducing the prevalence of chronic disease: a life course perspective on health preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barondess, Jeremiah A

    2008-01-01

    Chronic disease is now hyper-endemic in the United States and is the central problem to be addressed in efforts to enhance the health of the American population. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of chronic disease through diminished exposure to risk factors have achieved significant success in recent decades, but most have been expressions of secondary or tertiary prevention. Current knowledge suggests it would be more effective to extend efforts directed at reduction of risk to earlier phases in the biology of chronic diseases, and to maintain them over the life course. This approach lends itself to a health preservation perspective-in other words, to an orientation around protection of the future health of the individual across the lifespan, from preconception to old age. This will require linked efforts of the clinical, public health, and policy communities, together with private-sector collaborators in information management, marketing, and other areas of expertise. PMID:18997362

  19. Prevalence of HBV and/or HDV markers using RIA in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty six with different chronic liver disease (CLD) were studied for the prevalence of HBV and/or HDV markers using radioimmunoassay. The total prevalence of HBV markers (i.e. when any of the markers is present) for chronic active hepatitis (CAH), post viral cirrhosis, chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH), cryptogenic cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCA) and methyldopa induced chronic hepatitis were 6/13 (46.2%), 6/6 (100%), 7/9 (77.8%), 0/10, 0/2, 10/15 (66.7%), 7/10 (70%) and 0/1 respectively; whereas the total prevalence of anti-delta antibody was 0/13, 1/6 (16.7%), 3/9 (33.3%), 0/10 0/2, 0/15, 2/10 (20%) and 0/1 respectively, while the prevalence of anti-delta antibody for the control group was 4/102 (3.9%). Various patients with CLD, though they showed various viral markers yet they showed different pattern groups. 3 tabs

  20. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy - a nationwide population based study from 1989 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...... of both physical and mental health conditions recorded within a period of 10 years before childbirth. RESULTS: We included 1 362 200 childbirths during the study period. The overall prevalence of maternal chronic disease increased from 3.71% in 1989 to 15.76% in 2013. The most frequently registered...

  1. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Jayatilake, Nihal; Mendis, Shanthi; Maheepala, Palitha; Mehta, Firdosi R

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu), which cannot be attributed to diabetes, hypertension or other known aetiologies, that has emerged in the North Central region of Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for CKDu. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, pesticides and other elements were analysed in biological samples from individuals with CKDu and compared with age- and sex-matched ...

  2. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaj Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood. Aims: This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with ′high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA′ in adults with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details regarding kidney disease and hemodialysis (HD were recorded. Presence of insomnia and its severity was assessed. They were screened for sleep apnea using a validated questionnaire. Results: Average age was 54.17 (΁ 12.96 years. 89.4% had stage 5 nephropathy and 78.8% subjects were on regular HD. Males outnumbered females. Insomnia was reported by 35.5%. Among these, 50% had chronic insomnia. Insomnia subjects had higher prevalence of diabetes (P = 0.01 and depression (P < 0.001. Fifty-one percent subjects were at "high risk for sleep apnea". They had higher prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001, coronary disease (P = 0.02, insomnia (P = 0.008, and experienced daytime symptoms of insomnia (P < 0.001. However, in the logistic regression, only male gender (odds ratio, OR = 13.59 and daytime symptoms of insomnia (OR = 7.34 were found to be associated with "higher risk for sleep apnea". Conclusion: Insomnia was prevalent in CKD. Nearly half of these patients are at high risk for sleep apnea and a third of them suffer from insomnia. Hence, these patients should be screened for sleep disorders.

  3. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Magni, Chiara; Bonti, Viola; Diciotti, Stefano; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema) and severity (mild and severe diseases) were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide %) and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively). IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed significantly in predominant emphysema, and ischemic heart disease and PVD prevailed in mild COPD. All cardiovascular comorbidities prevailed significantly in predominant airway phenotype of COPD and mild COPD severity. Conclusion Specific comorbidities prevail in different phenotypes of COPD; this fact may be relevant to identify patients at risk for specific, phenotype-related comorbidities. The highest prevalence of comorbidities in patients with mild disease indicates that these patients should be investigated for coexisting diseases or syndromes even in the less severe, pauci-symptomatic stages of COPD. The simple method employed to phenotype and

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

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    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  5. Impact of farm modernity on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, Alexia; Degano, Bruno; Soumagne, Thibaud; Thaon, Isabelle; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2016-02-01

    Dairy farming is associated with an excess of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dairy industry has been changing for the past three decades with larger, more efficient farms and potentially less exposure to agents involved in COPD development. However, the impact of farm modernisation on COPD prevalence is unknown. We studied respiratory symptoms, respiratory function by spirometry and tobacco smoking in 575 male dairy farmers working either in traditional or in modern farms in the French Doubs region. COPD was defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criterion (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) normal (LLN)). Modern farms were defined either as having a separation between the house and the cowshed (model 1) or as having a loose housing system for the animals (model 2). The prevalence of COPD in dairy farmers was 12.0 ± 2.7% (GOLD), and 5.6 ± 4.1% (LLN definition). By multivariate analysis using the LLN definition, tobacco smoking (OR (95% CI) 3.96 (1.53 to 10.3) and 3.42 (1.32 to 8.84) for models 1 and 2, respectively) and characteristics of traditional farms (1.97 (1.02 to 4.47) and 5.20 (1.73 to 15.64) for models 1 and 2, respectively) were associated with higher COPD prevalence. Working in a traditional farm plus current smoking had an additive effect on COPD prevalence in model 1 and a synergistic effect in model 2. These findings support a positive impact of farm modernity on COPD prevalence in dairy farmers. Occupational and smoking-related risk factors are of nearly the same magnitude. PMID:26675204

  6. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in subjects hospitalized due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Cui; Dong-Mei Miao; Zhi-Min Wei; Jian-Fang Cai; Yi Li; Ai-Min Liu; Fan Li

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and explore the prevalence of the major CVD complications and trends in patients with COPD over a 10-year period.Methods Medical records in the PLA General Hospital,Beijing Union Medical College Hospital,and Beijing Hospital from 2000/01/01 to 2010/03/03 were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 4960 patients with COPD were reviewed in the study (3570 males,mean age,72.2 ± 10.5 years; 1390 females,mean age,72.0 ± 10.4 years).Results The prevalence of CVD in COPD patients was 51.7%.The three most prevalent CVDs were ischemic heart disease (28.9%),heart failure (19.6%),and arrhythmia (12.6%).During the 10-year study period,the prevalence of various CVDs in COPD patients showed a gradual increasing trend with increasing age.There was higher morbidity due to ischemic heart disease (P < 0.01) in male COPD patients than in the female counterparts.However,heart failure (P < 0.01)and hypertension (P < 0.01) occurred less frequently in male COPD patients than in female COPD patients.Furthermore,the prevalence of ischemic heart disease decreased year by year.In addition to heart failure,various types of CVD complications in COPD patients tended to occur in younger subjects.The prevalence of all major types of CVD in women tended to increase year by year.Conclusions The prevalence of CVD in patients hospitalized for COPD in Beijing was high.Age,sex and CVD trends,as well as life style changes,should be considered when prevention and control strategies are formulated.

  7. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  8. Comorbidities and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prevalence, Influence on Outcomes, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Nirupama; Drummond, M. Bradley; Wise, Robert A.; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidities impact a large proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with over 80% of patients with COPD estimated to have at least one comorbid chronic condition. Guidelines for the treatment of COPD are just now incorporating comorbidities to their management recommendations of COPD, and it is becoming increasingly clear that multimorbidity as well as specific comorbidities have strong associations with mortality and clinical outcomes in COPD, including dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, healthcare utilization, and exacerbation risk. Appropriately, there has been an increased focus upon describing the burden of comorbidity in the COPD population and incorporating this information into existing efforts to better understand the clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity of this group. In this article, we summarize existing knowledge about comorbidity burden and specific comorbidities in COPD, focusing on prevalence estimates, association with outcomes, and existing knowledge about treatment strategies. PMID:26238643

  9. Prevalence of anemia in chronic kidney disease in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E Stauffer

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the many complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, the current prevalence of anemia in CKD patients in the United States is not known. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES in 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 were used to determine the prevalence of anemia in subjects with CKD. The analysis was limited to adults aged >18 who participated in both the interview and exam components of the survey. Three outcomes were assessed: the prevalence of CKD, the prevalence of anemia in subjects with CKD, and the self-reported treatment of anemia. CKD was classified into 5 stages based on the glomerular filtration rate and evidence of kidney damage, in accordance with the guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. We found that an estimated 14.0% of the US adult population had CKD in 2007-2010. Anemia was twice as prevalent in people with CKD (15.4% as in the general population (7.6%. The prevalence of anemia increased with stage of CKD, from 8.4% at stage 1 to 53.4% at stage 5. A total of 22.8% of CKD patients with anemia reported being treated for anemia within the previous 3 months-14.6% of patients at CKD stages 1-2 and 26.4% of patients at stages 3-4. These results update our knowledge of the prevalence and treatment of anemia in CKD in the United States.

  10. What do health interview surveys tell us about the prevalences of somatic chronic diseases?: a study into concurrent validity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, J. van der; Abrahamse, H.P.H.; Donker, G.; Steen, J. van der; Sonsbeek, J.L.A. van; Bos, G.A.M. van den

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent validity of a list of chronic conditions used in health interview surveys. The results regarding the prevalence of chronic diseases from three health interview surveys, carried out in The Netherlands during the 1980s, were compared. In addition, the results for chr

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of atrial fibrillation in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骄

    2013-01-01

    Objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained tachyarrhythmia in the general population.AF and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) share several common risk factors.We investigated the association between chronic kidney disease and risk of atrial fibrillation

  12. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus among Iranian patients with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematizadeh Fariborz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are frequently observed in cirrhosis. We conducted this study to define the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in Iranian patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, and explore the factors associated with DM in these patients. Methods One hundred and eighty-five patients with CLD were enrolled into the study. Fasting plasma glucose and two-hour plasma glucose were measured in patients' sera. DM and IGT were diagnosed according to the latest American Diabetes Association criteria. Results The subjects included 42 inactive HBV carriers with a mean age of 42.2 ± 12.0 years, 102 patients with HBV or HCV chronic hepatitis with a mean age of 41.2 ± 10.9 years, and 41 cirrhotic patients with a mean age of 52.1 ± 11.4 years. DM and IGT were diagnosed in 40 (21.6% and 21 (11.4% patients, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age (P = 0.000, CLD status (P = 0.000, history of hypertension (P = 0.007, family history of DM (P = 0.000, and body mass index (BMI (P = 0.009 were associated with DM. Using Multivariate analysis, age (OR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.8–12.2, family history of DM (OR = 6.6, 95%CI: 2.6–17.6, chronic hepatitis (OR = 11.6, 95%CI: 2.9–45.4, and cirrhosis (OR = 6.5, 95%CI: 2.4–17.4 remained as the factors independently associated with DM. When patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were analyzed separately, higher Child-Pugh's score in cirrhotic patients (OR = 9.6, 95%CI: 1.0–88.4 and older age (OR = 7.2, 95%CI: 1.0–49.1, higher fibrosis score (OR = 59.5, 95%CI: 2.9–1211.3/ OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 1.0–132.2, and higher BMI (OR = 30.3, 95%CI: 3.0–306.7 in patients with chronic hepatitis were found to be associated with higher prevalence of DM. Conclusions Our findings indicate that patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis are at the increased risk of DM occurrence. Older age, severe liver disease, and obesity were associated

  13. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  14. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the...

  15. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Davids, Adlai; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most. PMID:24054088

  16. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  17. Prevalence and variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Irish health system: initial findings from the National Kidney Disease Surveillance Programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable chronic disease that is associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. Passive surveillance systems are likely to improve efforts for prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inform national service planning. This study was conducted to determine the overall prevalence of CKD in the Irish health system, assess period trends and explore patterns of variation as part of a novel surveillance initiative.

  18. Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Yoshitsugu Obi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an important nutrient involved in bone mineral metabolism, and vitamin D status is reflected by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and nutritional vitamin D supplementation decreases elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations in subgroups of these patients. Furthermore, vitamin D is supposed to have pleiotropic effects on various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Indeed, there is cumulative evidence showing the associations of low vitamin D with the development and progression of CKD, cardiovascular complication, and high mortality. Recently, genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D-binding protein have received great attention because they largely affect bioavailable 25(OHD concentrations. This finding suggests that the serum total 25(OHD concentrations would not be comparable among different gene polymorphisms and thus may be inappropriate as an index of vitamin D status. This finding may refute the conventional definition of vitamin D status based solely on serum total 25(OHD concentrations.

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with lung cancer: Prevalence, severity, and common pathogenesis

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    Griffin JP

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop a clinical prediction model of contribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to the pathogenesis of lung cancer, by reporting the estimated prevalence and severity by GOLD criteria in a single-institution cohort of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Primary objective was investigating the effects of impaired lung function with various histological cell types on crude survival, while considering the initial staging of disease extent. Materials & methods: A total of 441 patients, in this historical cohort from electronic medical records, completed spirometry prior to invasive diagnostic procedures and initial treatment of their lung cancer. All statistical analyses, including ANOVA and survival analysis, were performed using SAS version 9.1 software. Results: Estimated prevalence of COPD was 79.1% (95% confidence interval: 71.3%-82.9%. Lung function as measured by spirometry was a significant predictor of survival time in months (p<0.0001 both with and without adjusting for tumor-cell-type, age, and stage of disease. Median survival was similar (p=0.32 and longer among those patients with normal pulmonary function, those with restrictive disease patterns, and those with COPD–GOLD-1 defects. Median survival was shortest among patients with COPD–GOLD-4 impairment (p=0.001. Those patients with COPD–GOLD-2 and COPD-GOLD-3 impairment levels had intermediate survival times (p=0.003. Conclusions: This investigation suggests that strategies for early detection and slowing the progression of COPD before the development of lung cancer might increase patient survival. As demonstrated in this study, the presence and severity of COPD in lung cancer patients is an independent predictor of survival time, different from the established staging of initial extent of disease.

  20. PREVALENCE OF PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE IN CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS AS MEASURED BY ANKLE TO BRACHIAL INDEX

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    Raj Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ankle - brachial pressure index (ABI, which is the ratio of ankle to brachial systolic blood pressure, is the golden standard for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD and is a highly specific method for the assessment of vascular risk in otherwise asymptomatic patients . ABI value of individual with daily alcohol level >60g/d was significantly lower consumption of less than 60g/d had an inverse association with peripheral atherosclerosis whereas consumption of 60 g/d or more had a positive association. Studies have shown the sensitivity of ABPI is 90% with a corresponding 98% specificity for detecting hemodynamically significant (Serious stenosis >50% in major leg arteries, defined by angiogram. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To determine the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in chronic alcoholics using ankle to brachial index and to compare the values of ankle brachial index in chronic alcoholics with age and sex matched healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In the present study, 50 cases consuming more than 60gm of absolute alcohol per day for more than 12 months attending out p atient department and admitted were enrolled. 50 age and sex matched healthy controls who have never consumed alcohol (never drinkers were also enrolled . After taking detailed history using Doppler ultrasound blood flow detector mean systolic pressure in upper limb and lower limb was calculated and then the mean ABI was calculated. This value was then compared with variables like LDL levels, Triglycerides levels, age, clinical symptoms of PVD, alcohol consumption amount and duration. RESULTS: It was observed that mean ABI was significantly lower (<0.9 in 11(22% cases and majority of them were between age group of 41 - 50 years. Of these only 7(14% showed clinical symptoms of PVD. The prevalence of PVD was 66% in those who consumed 61 - 70 grams alcohol per day for around 6 - 10 years. Results were found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION

  1. Prevalence, survival analysis and multimorbidity of chronic diseases in the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Claire E; Duz, Marco; Parkin, Timothy D H; Marshall, John F

    2016-09-01

    The average age of the global human population is increasing, leading to increased interest in the effects of chronic disease and multimorbidity on health resources and patient welfare. It has been posited that the average age of the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK is also increasing, and therefore it could be assumed that chronic diseases and multimorbidity would pose an increasing risk here also. However, evidence for this trend in ageing is very limited, and the current prevalence of many chronic diseases, and of multimorbidity, is unknown. Using text mining of first-opinion electronic medical records from seven veterinary practices around the UK, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modelling, we were able to estimate the apparent prevalence among veterinarian-attended horses of nine chronic diseases, and to assess their relative effects on median life expectancy following diagnosis. With these methods we found evidence of increasing population age. Multimorbidity affected 1.2% of the study population, and had a significant effect upon survival times, with co-occurrence of two diseases, and three or more diseases, leading to 6.6 and 21.3 times the hazard ratio compared to no chronic disease, respectively. Laminitis was involved in 74% of cases of multimorbidity. The population of horses attended by UK veterinarians appears to be aging, and chronic diseases and their co-occurrence are common features, and as such warrant further investigation. PMID:27544263

  2. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Chun EM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun, Seo Woo Kim, So Yeon Lim Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential.Methods: Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC is <0.7 in post-bronchodilator spirometry. The non-COPD group was matched for both age and sex, and were defined as having an FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 in spirometry. Finally, 333 patients were retrospectively reviewed; of this group, 82 patients had COPD.Results: Among the subjects, 201 patients (60% were nonsmokers, while 78 (23% were current smokers. The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251 in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82 in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.8; P=0.019 were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential.Conclusion: The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking. Keywords: COPD, colorectal adenomatous polyp, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  3. Application of KDIGO classifcation of chronic kidney disease for analyzing the prevalence of kidney disease and other vascular diseases in 1645 type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence,risk factors of kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients with KDIGO classification of chronic kidney disease,and to study cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and death in these patients,so as to investigate the significance of the KDIGO classification system.Methods One thousand six hundred and forty-five type 2 diabetic patients who were in

  4. Prevalence and global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease group distribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease detected by preoperative pulmonary function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Choi

    Full Text Available Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD group distribution and self-awareness of COPD.We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ≥ 40 years who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of 40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44-93 years were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5% patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%, emphysema (0.8%, or chronic bronchitis (2.5%. The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D.The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in India

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    Jyothi Hattiholi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a syndrome of progressive airflow limitation caused by the abnormal inflammatory reaction of the airway and lung parenchyma. Osteoporosis is one of the major extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD. The, prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD patients in Indian population is unknown. Objectives: To study the prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD and to define various risk factors associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD in COPD. Materials and Methods: The study was done in the department of Pulmonary Medicine of a tertiary care hospital. All the diagnosed cases of COPD according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines were included in this study. The present study was a prospective study in for a period of 1 year. A brief history of the patients was taken, especially regarding duration of illness, number of exacerbations in the past 3 years, smoking in pack years, and history of steroid use (both systemic and inhaled steroids after which cumulative dose of steroids was calculated. Spirometry was done in all these patients to stage the severity of COPD according to GOLD criteria. DEXA scan of the lumbar spine was done using bone densitometer to determine osteoporosis. A world Health Organization (WHO criterion for definition of osteoporosis was applied and patients with T-score of > –2.5 standard deviation (SD were diagnosed to have osteoporosis, –1 SD to –2.5 SD were diagnosed to have osteopenia and 3 (OR: 30.3, 95% CI: 4.74-200, P 1,000 mg (OR: 7.35, 95% CI: 0.92-58.5, P < 0.04 were observed to be significant risk factors for osteoporosis in COPD patients. Conclusions: In the present study, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 66.6% and another 19.6% had osteopenia. As the severity of COPD increased, the risk of osteoporosis increased. GOLD stage III and stage IV patient had significantly lower BMD as compared to stage I and stage II of COPD disease

  6. Prevalence, risk factors, and disease knowledge of chronic hepatitis B infection in Vietnamese Americans in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nghi B; Trinh, Huy N; Nguyen, Trang T; Leduc, Truong-Sinh; Bui, Christopher; Ha, Nghiem B; Wong, Carrie R; Tran, Anh Thu; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2013-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and disease knowledge of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among Vietnamese Americans in California. We also examined treatment eligibility and linkage to care among patients who tested positive for CHB. We enrolled 717 subjects from ten different hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening events in five locations from January 2009 to June 2010 in California. HBV status was determined by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody. Data were collected by a 36-question survey. A total of 99 patients (13.8 %) had positive HBsAg, especially those aged 31-40 years (23.6 %), and 177 (24.7 %) were still susceptible to HBV infection. A significant proportion of those who were HBsAg positive or still susceptible reported a history of HBV vaccination (10 and 20 %, respectively). Following adjustments for age and sex, significant predictors for HBsAg positivity were lack of healthcare coverage (OR=2.4, p=0.004), having a family history of CHB (OR=2.1, p=0.009), and prior occupational exposure (OR=3.0, p=0.007). Of those who tested positive, 13.3 % met criteria for antiviral therapy, but none had been initiated on treatment. HBV prevalence in Vietnamese Americans in California was high (13.8 %), especially in those between 31 and 40 years of age. Patient disease and treatment knowledge was poor, as were follow-up and management of those found to have CHB and/or have indication for antiviral therapy. PMID:23564428

  7. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying; CAI Guang-yan; CHEN Xiang-mei; FU Ping; CHEN Jiang-hua; DING Xiao-qiang; YU Xue-qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the epidemiology of hypertension in Chinese non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are limited.The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence,awareness,treatment,and control of hypertension in the non-dialysis CKD patients through a nationwide,multicenter study in China.Methods The survey was performed in 61 tertiary hospitals in 31 provinces,municipalities,and autonomous regions in China (except Hong Kong,Macao,and Taiwan).Trained physicians collected demographic and clinical data and measured blood pressure (BP) using a standardized protocol.Hypertension was defned as systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg,and/or use of antihypertensive medications.BP <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg were used as the 2 thresholds of hypertension control.In multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for sex and age,we analyzed the association between CKD stages and uncontrolled hypertension in non-dialysis CKD patients.Results The analysis included 8927 non-dialysis CKD patients.The prevalence,awareness,and treatment of hypertension in non-dialysis CKD patients were 67.3%,85.8%,and 81.0%,respectively.Of hypertensive CKD patients,33.1% and 14.1% had controlled BP to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg,respectively.With successive CKD stages,the prevalence of hypertension in non-dialysis CKD patients increased,but the control of hypertension decreased (P<0.001).When the threshold of BP <130/80 mmHg was considered,the risk of uncontrolled hypertension in CKD 2,3a,3b,4,and 5 stages increased 1.3,1.4,1.4,2.5,and 4.0 times compared with CKD 1 stage,respectively (P<0.05).Using the threshold of <140/90 mmHg,the risk of uncontrolled hypertension increased in advanced stages (P<0.05).Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension Chinese non-dialysis CKD patients was high,and the hypertension control was suboptimal.With successive CKD stages,the risk of uncontrolled hypertension increased.

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    NR Anthonisen

    2007-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are...

  9. Increasing Prevalence of Chronic Lung Disease in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Mary Jo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Leung, Kar-Wei; Faverio, Paola; Fleming, Nicholas; Mortensen, Eric; Amuan, Megan E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Eapen, Blessen; Restrepo, Marcos; Morris, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Research from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mental health conditions; however, it is becoming clear that other health concerns, such as respiratory illnesses, warrant further scientific inquiry. Early reports from theater and postdeployment health assessments suggested an association with deployment-related exposures (e.g., sand, burn pits, chemical, etc.) and new-onset respiratory symptoms. We used data from Veterans Affairs medical encounters between fiscal years 2003 and 2011 to identify trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and interstitial lung disease in veterans. We used data from Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense sources to identify sociodemographic (age, sex, race), military (e.g., service branch, multiple deployments) and clinical characteristics (TBI, smoking) of individuals with and without chronic lung diseases. Generalized estimating equations found significant increases over time for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Trends for interstitial lung disease were significant only in adjusted analyses. Age, smoking, and TBI were also significantly associated with chronic lung diseases; however, multiple deployments were not associated. Research is needed to identify which characteristics of deployment-related exposures are linked with chronic lung disease. PMID:27136656

  10. Prevalence and factors affecting occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi patients with chronic liver disease

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    Singal Ashwani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 is more common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD in general and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in particular. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors affecting the occurrence of DM-2 in Saudi patients with CLD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study at the King Fahd Central Hospital (KFCH, Gizan, Saudi Arabia. A total of 277 patients with either cirrhosis (CH or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were analyzed for patient demographics, severity of liver disease, HBsAg, and anti-HCV, associated diseases including DM-2, and presence of HCC. The prevalence of DM-2 was also estimated in 400 age- and sex-matched Saudi patients admitted for various nonliver diseases (control group. Chi-square test, univariate analysis, and multivariate regression. Results: Prevalence of DM-2 in patients with CH was higher than in controls (19.2 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.001. Although those with HCC had a higher prevalence, the difference was not significant (10.9 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.5. Seventy-six percent of patients with HCC had associated CH. On multivariate analysis, age and hypertension were more common in diabetics. Although patients with HCV-related disease had a higher prevalence of DM-2 compared to HBV-related disease, the difference was not significant (26.3 vs. 15.7%; P > 0.05. Conclusions: DM-2 occurred more frequently in CLD patients, particularly in cirrhotics. Age and hypertension predicted the occurrence of DM-2. Small sample size of patients with HCV-related CH probably precluded higher prevalence of DM-2 in them.

  11. [Chagas' disease in patients in chronic hemodialysis. Prevalence and risk of transmission by blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, M; Lorca, E; Atías, A; Plubins, L

    1989-06-01

    A serologic study of Chagas disease was performed in 110 patients submitted to chronic hemodialisis and blood transfusions. Immunofluorescence antibody testing (IgG and IgM) was positive in 6 out of 62 patients receiving multiple blood transfusions (9.7%), but negative in all 48 subjects without transfusions. Thus, repeated blood transfusion is a significant risk for T cruzi infection in chronic hemodialized patients. PMID:2501847

  12. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest.

  13. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest. PMID:24128754

  14. Prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Sheng-chen; YANG Yuan-hua; LI Xu-yan; LIANG Xiao-ning; GUO Rui-jun; XIE Wan-mu; KUANG Tu-guang; DAI Hua-ping; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is always associated with a high incidence and mortality. Because of the presence of some concomitant risk factors such as immobilization, bronchial superinfection, patients who are admitted for acute exacerbations of COPD are generally considered to be at moderate risk for the development of venous thromboembolism. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and the clinical manifestations of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.Methods From March 2007 to March 2009, 520 consecutive patients were included in this study. On admission, color Doppler ultrasound of lower extremities in all cases was performed for diagnosing DVT. Patients with DVT were compared with those without DVT from such aspects as demographics, symptoms, physical signs and risk factors.Results Among the 520 patients, DVT was found in 46 cases (9.7%). In patients with DVT, the duration of hospitalization was longer (P=0.01), and the mechanical ventilation requirement increased (P <0.001). Other indicators for patients with more possibility of DVT were immobility exceeding 3 days (P <0.001); pneumonia as concomitance (P=0.01); respiratory failure type Ⅱ (P=0.013); current smoking (P=0.001). Lower extremity pain was more common in DVT cases in comparison to those without DVT (34.8% vs. 15.2%, P=0.01 ).Conclusions The acute exacerbation of COPD patients, who were immobilized for over 3 days, complicated by pneumonia and had respiratory failure type Ⅱ, had a higher risk of DVT. In addition, DVT detection awareness should be increased in cases that had a lower extremity pain.

  15. [RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES AND ELECTROPHYSICAL STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Stekhin, A A; Yakovleva, G V; Karasev, A K; Marasanov, A V; Iksanova, T I; Ryabikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there is evaluated the relationship of features of electronic state of the environment with a level of chronic, noninfectious diseases (CNID) in the regions of Russia, obtained on the basis of the monitoring measurements of the intensity of natural background electronic Bose condensate (BEBC) of natural ecosystems in a number of Russian regions and seas of the Arctic Ocean. The assessment of BEBC was implemented on results of measurements of redox state of distilled water being in the contact with natural water. The equilibrium redox state of distilled water, determined by the influx of electrons (quantum reduction) outside, is proportional to the intensity of BEBC. The obtained data attest to an increase in the intensity of the background of EBC in Siberia regions and, especially, within the limits ofwaters of Lake Baikal (the redox potential of the surface water in the lake ~ -70mV). Also there is observed a strong dependence of the background EBC in the latitudinal direction. Low levels of background EBC were noted in the Arkhangelsk region and the north-eastern Chukotka. Functioning of international systems of plasma sounding of ionosphere (such systems as HAARP) were established to have a detrimental effect on the background EBC in these regions. According to the results of measurements of the relative values of intensities of natural background of Bose condensate of electrons there was constructed the dependence reflecting the relationship of the prevalence of noninfectious diseases in the regions of Russia with the redox state of distilled water which can be characterized as a significant (regression coefficient R2 = 0.78). The relationship between noninfectious diseases (NID, %) with the intensity of the background of EBC (Ib rel. units) is estimated by the equation: NID [%] = 0.24Eh [mV]-25, where Eh ~ I/Ib. Numerical evaluations show that an increase in the biosphere redox potential of water by 90mV leads to an increase of the primary

  16. Cognitive impairment and depression in a population of patients with chronic kidney disease in Colombia: a prevalence study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Angarita, Carlos Edgardo; Sanabria-Arenas, Rafael Mauricio; Vargas–Jaramillo, Juan Diego; Ronderos–Botero, Izcay

    2016-01-01

    Background Growth of the elderly population is linked to the increase of comorbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), depression, and cognitive impairment (CI). Cognitive impairment can vary from minimal deficits in the normal aging, to mild cognitive impairment with a prevalence ranging from 1 to 29 % in people ≥ 65 years of age, up to severe impairment with a prevalence of 6 to 42 %. The CI induced by depression usually affects the functional performance of the elderly. Objecti...

  17. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its association with tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Parasuramalu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD epidemiology in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India, which covers a population of 44,387 to find out the prevalence of COPD in adult subjects of 35 years and above using cluster sampling technique and to determine the association of tobacco smoking, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS exposure and type of cooking fuel used with COPD. The overall prevalence of COPD was 4.36%. The prevalence among males and females were 5.32% and 3.41% respectively. The prevalence was found to be increasing with an increase in age. The tobacco smoke and exposure to ETS was significantly associated with higher odds of COPD with adjusted odds ratio 2.97 and 2.67 respectively. Thus, there was a significant association between tobacco smoking and ETS exposure with COPD.

  18. High prevalence of and potential mechanisms for chronic kidney disease in patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet, Nicolas; Mami, Iadh; Schmitt, Caroline; Karim, Zoubida; François, Arnaud; Rabant, Marion; Nochy, Dominique; Gouya, Laurent; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Xu-Dubois, Yichum; Thervet, Eric; Puy, Hervé; Karras, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic disorder of the synthesis of heme caused by a deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), leading to the overproduction of the porphyrin precursors δ-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biological characteristics, the renal pathology, and the cellular mechanisms of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP. A total of 415 patients with HMBS deficiency followed up in the French Porphyria Center were enrolled in 2003 in a population-based study. A follow-up study was conducted in 2013, assessing patients for clinical, biological, and histological parameters. In vitro models were used to determine whether porphyrin precursors promote tubular and endothelial cytotoxicity. Chronic kidney disease occurred in up to 59% of the symptomatic AIP patients, with a decline in the glomerular filtration rate of ~1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) annually. Proteinuria was absent in the vast majority of the cases. The renal pathology was a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, associated with a fibrous intimal hyperplasia and focal cortical atrophy. Our experimental data provide evidence that porphyrin precursors promote endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and epithelial phenotypic changes in proximal tubular cells. In conclusion, the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP should be considered in cases of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy and/or focal cortical atrophy with severe proliferative arteriosclerosis.

  19. Prevalence of Apparent Therapy-Resistant Hypertension and Its Effect on Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beus, Esther; Bots, Michiel L; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    New options recently became available for treatment of uncontrolled blood pressure. Information on the prevalence of therapy-resistant hypertension (TRH) in patients with chronic kidney disease and its consequences is relevant to balance risks and benefits of potential new therapies. Data of 788 patients with chronic kidney disease came from a multicenter study investigating the effect on outcome of an integrated multifactorial approach delivered by nurse practitioners added to usual care versus usual care alone. Blood pressure was measured at the office and during 30 minutes using an automated oscillometric device. Apparent TRH (aTRH) was defined as a blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic or treatment with ≥4 antihypertensive drugs. Participants were followed up for the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality (composite cardiovascular end point) and end-stage renal disease. aTRH was present in 34% (office blood pressure) and in 32% (automated measurements). During 5.3 years of follow-up, 17% of patients with aTRH reached a cardiovascular end point and 27% reached end-stage renal disease. aTRH lead to a 1.5-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval, 0.8-3.0) of a cardiovascular end point compared with controlled hypertensives in multivariable-adjusted analysis. aTRH increased end-stage renal disease risk 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.4-3.7). During 4 years of follow-up, the prevalence of aTRH did not decline in either treatment group. The prevalence of aTRH is high in patients with chronic kidney disease even after optimization of nephrologist care. The presence of TRH is related to a substantially increased risk of renal and cardiovascular outcomes.

  20. Increased prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roed T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsten Roed,1 Ulrik Sloth Kristoffersen,2 Andreas Knudsen,1,2 Niels Wiinberg,3 Anne-Mette Lebech,1 Thomas Almdal,4 Reimar W Thomsen,5 Andreas Kjær,2 Nina Weis1,61Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 2Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET and Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Physiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design.Methods: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers.Results: Patients with chronic hepatitis C had more hypertension (40% versus 25%, prevalence ratio [PR] 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9–2.7 and smoked more (53% versus 38%, PR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.1. The two groups had similar body mass index (mean 25.0 versus 25.7 kg/m2, whereas those with chronic hepatitis C had less dyslipidemia (including significantly lower low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, higher glycosylated hemoglobin level (mean 6.2 versus 5

  1. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among US Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Elias; Jena, Anupam B

    2015-12-01

    Although health care professionals may be assumed to make healthier lifestyle choices and have better health outcomes than others because of their greater health literacy, little is known about how actual health outcomes of health care professionals compare with those of the overall population. We analyzed how trends in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease prevalence as well as several health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and exercise) varied between health care professionals and the general US population from 2002 to 2013, using nationally representative data collected by the National Health Interview Survey. We estimated multivariate logistic regressions of each disease and behavior adjusted for age, race, sex, geographic region, and year. Although rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension were lower among health care professionals compared with the overall population, disease was still common among health care professionals and increased over time at a rate similar to that of the overall population. For example, obesity prevalence was lower among health care professionals but increased similarly from 2002 to 2013 (health care professionals, 20.5% in 2002 to 22.1% in 2013; other occupations, 28.4% to 31.7%; P=.64 for difference in trend). Diabetes prevalence was modestly lower among health care professionals but increased at a similar rate (health care professionals, 7.4% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2013; other occupations, 8.7% to 9.9%; P=.67 for difference in trend). Similar patterns were noted in hypertension. Coronary artery disease prevalence declined over time among health care professionals but increased for others. Health care professionals reported better health behaviors than others in smoking and physical activity but not in moderate to heavy alcohol use. PMID:26422242

  2. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Omari M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mousa Al Omari,1 Basheer Y Khassawneh,2 Yousef Khader,1 Ali Shakir Dauod,1 George Bergus3 1Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (≥10 pack-year aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70% was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2% had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3% had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19% with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1% had moderate disease, eight (19% had severe disease, and two (4.8% had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9% and wheezing 28/42 (66.7% than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely

  3. Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Bodana, Shirisha; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Drawz, Paul; Flack, John M; Miller, Edgar R; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-02-01

    The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease. We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with blood pressure at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male sex, black race, diabetes mellitus, and higher body mass index were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events than participants without ATRH-composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.22-1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11-1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38-2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06-1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and blood pressure at goal on ≥4 medications also had higher risk for composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, CHF, and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], (1.30 [1.12-1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28-1.99]) than those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and chronic kidney disease.

  4. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  5. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  6. Self-Reported Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Their Relation to Selected Sociodemographic Variables: A Study in INDEPTH Asian Sites, 2005

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    Hoang Van Minh, MD, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLack of reliable population-based data, especially morbidity data, is a barrier to preventing and controlling chronic diseases in developing countries. We report the self-reported prevalences of major chronic diseases in Southeast Asia and examine their relation to selected sociodemographic variables in adults.MethodsData are from a 2005 cross-site study of 8 sites in 5 Asian countries that surveyed 18,484 people aged 25–64 years. Respondents were asked whether they had been told by a health care worker that they had any of 7 chronic health conditions: joint problems, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, pulmonary disease, hypertension, or cancer. Information about participants’ sex, age, and educational level was also obtained.ResultsWe found that 22.7% of men and 31.6% of women reported having at least 1 of the chronic health conditions of interest, and 5.1% of men and 9.2% of women reported having 2 or more chronic conditions. Multivariate regression analyses showed that women had more chronic conditions than men, the prevalence of chronic conditions increased with age, and people with the least education were more likely to have chronic conditions.ConclusionChronic conditions are commonly reported among adults in Asian countries. Disparities in the prevalence of chronic conditions by sex and education are evident.

  7. The Prevalence of Oral Inflammation Among Denture Wearing Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowska, D; Rubinsztajn, R; Chazan, R; Swoboda-Kopeć, E; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2015-01-01

    Oral inflammation is an important contributor to the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can impact patient's health status. Previous studies indicate that people with poor oral health are at higher risk for nosocomial pneumonia. Denture wearing is one promoting factor in the development of mucosal infections. Colonization of the denture plaque by Gram-negative bacteria, Candida spp., or other respiratory pathogens, occurring locally, may be aspirated to the lungs. The studies showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients treated with combinations of medicines with corticosteroids more frequently suffer from Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Treatment of oral candidiasis in patients with COPD constitutes a therapeutic problem. Therefore, it is essential to pay attention to the condition of oral mucosal membrane and denture hygiene habits. The guidelines for care and maintenance of dentures for COPD patients are presented in this paper. The majority of patients required improvement of their prosthetic and oral hygiene. Standard oral hygiene procedures in relation to dentures, conducted for prophylaxis of stomatitis complicated by mucosal infection among immunocompromised patients, are essential to maintain healthy oral tissues. The elimination of traumatic denture action in dental office, compliance with oral and denture hygiene, proper use and storage of prosthetic appliances in a dry environment outside the oral cavity can reduce susceptibility to infection. Proper attention to hygiene, including brushing and rinsing the mouth, may also help prevent denture stomatitis in these patients.

  8. Ethnic and Regional Differences in Prevalence and Correlates of Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors in Northern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joykrishna Sarkar, MSc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe investigated ethnic and geographic variations in major chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada, an area that is undergoing rapid changes in its social, cultural, and physical environments.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents from the 3 regions of northern Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Crude prevalence estimates, adjusted odds ratios (AORs, and confidence intervals were calculated for multiple chronic diseases and risk factors.ResultsThe percentage of Aboriginal respondents who reported having any chronic health condition increased between the 2 cycles of data collection, but did not change for non-Aboriginal respondents. AORs for heart disease, arthritis, and asthma varied by ethnicity or region. AORs for overweight, obesity, daily smoking, regular and binge drinking, and infrequent physical/leisure activity were also substantially different for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents or among respondents from the 3 northern regions.ConclusionThe changing profile of health in northern Canada suggests a need for action on health policy about the delivery of community-based primary prevention interventions and further research about the determinants of health and health care use.

  9. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonci Brkovic,1 Eliana Burilovic,2 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, 3Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Objectives: Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods: We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.Results: We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain.Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain

  10. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.

  11. Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagioti M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panagioti,1 Charlotte Scott,1 Amy Blakemore,1,2 Peter A Coventry31National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, 2Department of Psychiatry, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, 3National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – Greater Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in

  12. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and prediabetes and associated risk factors: a community-based screening in Zhuhai, Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Dong-feng; SHI Yan-lin; CHEN You-ming; LIU Hong-mei; DING Ya-nan; LIU Xin-yu; LI Yong-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and prediabetes has increased in China,and at different rates in different locations.Therefore a community-based screening research was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of CKD and prediabetes,and to analyze associated risk factors of CKD and prediabetes in a city of Southern China.Methods A total of 7801 community residents aged 18 year and older from 6 communities were screened by a stratified random cluster sampling method.An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),albuminuria,fasting plasma glucose (FPG),and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured.Age-standardized prevalence was calculated by the direct method with the use of data on the population distribution in China in 2006.Multivariate logistic analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of CKD and prediabetes,and association of insulin resistance (IR) with CKD and prediabetes was analyzed.Results The age-standardized prevalence of CKD was 12.5%,eGFR <60 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 was 2.7% and ACR (albumin to creatinine ratio) >30 mg/g was 10.3%.The age-standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 12.1%.Logistic regression suggests that IR was a common independent risk factor of CKD and prediabetes.Further analysis show that HOMA-IR was increased with the aggravation of kidney injury and FPG.Conclusion CKD and prediabetes have become a major public health problem in Zhuhai,Southern China; insulin resistance may be an important risk factor.

  13. Diabetes mellitus increases the prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: A nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutradis, Charalampos; Skodra, Alexandra; Georgianos, Panagiotis; Tolika, Panagiota; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Avdelidou, Afroditi; Sarafidis, Pantelis A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare anemia prevalence between matched chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and to assess factors associated with anemia development. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study of 184 type-2 diabetic and 184 non-diabetic CKD patients from a prospectively assembled database of a Nephrology outpatient clinic, matched for gender, age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin: Men: < 13 g/dL, women: < 12 g/dL and/or use of recombinant erythropoietin) was examined in comparison, in the total population and by CKD Stage. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with anemia. RESULTS: The total prevalence of anemia was higher in diabetics (47.8% vs 33.2%, P = 0.004). Accordingly, prevalence was higher in diabetics in CKD Stage 3 (53.5% vs 33.1%, P < 0.001) and particularly in Stage 3a (60.4% vs 26.4%, P < 0.001), whereas it was non-significantly higher in Stage 4 (61.3% vs 48.4%; P = 0.307). Serum ferritin was higher in diabetics in total and in CKD stages, while serum iron was similar between groups. In multivariate analyses, DM (OR = 2.206, 95%CI: 1.196-4.069), CKD Stages 3a, 3b, 4 (Stage 4: OR = 12.169, 95%CI: 3.783-39.147) and serum iron (OR = 0.976, 95%CI: 0.968-0.985 per mg/dL increase) were independently associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of anemia progressively increases with advancing stages of CKD and is higher in diabetic than matched non-diabetic CKD patients and diabetes is independently associated with anemia occurrence. Detection and treatment of anemia in diabetic CKD patients should be performed earlier than non-diabetic counterparts. PMID:27458564

  14. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in patients on hemodialysis in southwest Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Timothy S; Barnoya, Joaquin; Cipriano, Ever; Herrera, Erick; Lopez, Noemi; Polo, Vicente Sanchez; Rothstein, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of patients on hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional causes (CKDnt). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study interviewed patients on hemodialysis at the Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social on their health and occupational history. Laboratory serum, urine and vital sign data at the initiation of hemodialysis were obtained from chart reviews. Patients were classified according to whether they had hypertension or obesity or neither. The proportion of patients with and without these traditional CKD risk factors was recorded and the association between demographic and occupational factors and a lack of traditional CKD risk factors analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 242 total patients (including 171 non-diabetics) enrolled in hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala, 45 (18.6% of total patients and 26.3% of non-diabetics) lacked traditional CKD risk factors. While agricultural work history was common, only travel time greater than 30 minutes and age less than 50 years old were significantly associated with CKD in the absence of traditional risk factors. Individuals without such risk factors lived throughout southwestern Guatemala's five departments. Conclusions The prevalence of CKDnT appears to be much lower in this sample of patients receiving hemodialysis in Southwestern Guatemala than in hospitalized patients in El Salvador. It has yet to be determined whether the prevalence is higher in the general population and in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  16. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  17. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kokoszka

    2016-05-01

    A very high rate of prevalence of depressive disorders in dialysis patients was confirmed in the Polish population when a clinical structured interview was applied. It indicates that routine screening for depressive disorders in these patients is necessary.

  18. Implications of reversibility testing on prevalence and risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a community study

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, A; Omenaas, E; Bakke, P; Gulsvik, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a post-bronchodilator ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of

  19. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated risk factors in Uganda (FRESH AIR Uganda) : a prospective cross-sectional observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik; Kirenga, Bruce; Chavannes, Niels; Kamya, Moses; Luzige, Simon; Musinguzi, Patrick; Turyagaruka, John; Jones, Rupert; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Williams, Sian; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the damage to respiratory health caused by biomass smoke and tobacco smoke. We assessed the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related risk factors in a rural region of Uganda. METHODS: We did this prospective obser

  20. Chronic disease prevalence from Italian administrative databases in the VALORE project: A validation through comparison of population estimates with general practice databases and national survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gini (Rosa); P. Francesconi (Paolo); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); C. Cricelli; A. Pasqua (Alessandro); P. Gallina (Pietro); S. Brugaletta (Salvatore); D. Donato (Daniele); A. Donatini (Andrea); A. Marini (Alessandro); C. Zocchetti (Carlo); C. Cricelli; L. Damiani; M. Bellentani (Mariadonata); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Administrative databases are widely available and have been extensively used to provide estimates of chronic disease prevalence for the purpose of surveillance of both geographical and temporal trends. There are, however, other sources of data available, such as medical recor

  1. Increased prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Knudsen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    /high-density lipoprotein ratio), higher glycosylated hemoglobin level (mean 6.2 versus 5.7, difference of means 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8), and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (28% versus 18%, PR 1.6; 95% CI 0.8-3.0). Increased carotid intima media thickness above the standard 75th percentile was seen more frequently...

  2. The Platino project: methodology of a multicenter prevalence survey of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in major Latin American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Padilla Rogelio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in many developed countries appears to be increasing. There is some evidence from Latin America that COPD is a growing cause of death, but information on prevalence is scant. It is possible that, due to the high frequency of smoking in these countries, this disease may represent a major public health problem that has not yet been recognized as such. The PLATINO study is aimed at measuring COPD prevalence in major cities in Latin America. Methods/Design A multi-country survey is being carried out in major cities in Latin America. In each metropolitan area, a population-based sample of approximately 1,000 individuals aged 40 years or older is being interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Eligible subjects are submitted to pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, and classified according to several criteria for COPD. Anthropometric examinations are also performed. Several risk factors are being studied, including smoking, socioeconomic factors, exposure to domestic biomass pollution, occupational exposure to dust and hospital admissions due to respiratory conditions during childhood. Whether or not subjects affected by COPD are aware of their disease, and if so how it is being managed by health services, is also being investigated, as are the consequences of this condition on quality of life and work performance. Results At the present time, the study is completed in São Paulo, Mexico City and Montevideo; Chile has started the study in March 2004 and it will be followed by Venezuela; two other metropolitan areas could still join the PLATINO project. Similar sampling procedures, with stratification for socio-economic status, are being used in all sites. Strict coordination, training and standardization procedures have been used to ensure comparability of results across sites. Overall 92% of the pre-bronchodilator spirometry tests fulfilled ATS criteria of

  3. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PREVALENT IN SMALL VILLAGES OF NORTH COASTAL , ANDHRA PRADESH , INDIA , UDDANAM NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluri Satya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hamlets in and around Uddanam , Gunupalli , Kaviti of Srikakulam District , a North Coastal Andhra P radesh region with high prevalence of CKD presenting clinically or sub clinically ultimately leading to high mortality and morbidity with RRT and other types of conservative management , we were detected some facts during our survey in these villages. The many of them who are living in that belt eat Dry salted fish , less water intake , hardworking people , these peo ple approach quacks , using illicit drugs etc.

  4. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural women of Tamilnadu: implications for refining disease burden assessments attributable to household biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Johnson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive1 1This paper was orally presented in the Annual conference International Society of Environmental Epidemiology held in Pasadena in 2008. pulmonary disease (COPD is the 13th leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and is expected to become 5th by 2020. Biomass fuel combustion significantly contributes to COPD, although smoking is recognized as the most important risk factor. Rural women in developing countries bear the largest share of this burden resulting from chronic exposures to biomass fuel smoke. Although there is considerable strength of evidence for the association between COPD and biomass smoke exposure, limited information is available on the background prevalence of COPD in these populations.This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD and its associated factors among non-smoking rural women in Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 900 non-smoking women aged above 30 years, from 45 rural villages of Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India in the period between January and May 2007. COPD assessments were done using a combination of clinical examination and spirometry. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between COPD and use of biomass for cooking. R software was used for statistical analysis.The overall prevalence of COPD in this study was found to be 2.44% (95% CI: 1.43–3.45. COPD prevalence was higher in biomass fuel users than the clean fuel users 2.5 vs. 2%, (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.36–6.64 and it was two times higher (3% in women who spend >2 hours/day in the kitchen involved in cooking. Use of solid fuel was associated with higher risk for COPD, although no statistically significant results were obtained in this study.The estimates generated in this study will contribute significantly to the growing database of available information on COPD prevalence in rural women. Moreover, with

  5. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  7. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci; Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa; Neice Muller Xavier Faria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pai...

  8. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......, including hypertension, musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases were underreported by study participants. Erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism were substantially underreported in the study population even though these diseases were found to affect 48 and 21% of the participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS...

  9. [PREVALENCE OF MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS OF CHRONIC NON INFECTION DISEASES AMONG URBAN AND RURAL RESIDENTS OF KARAGANDA REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgunova, L; Laryushina, E; Amirkhanova, D; Alina, A; Bayesheva, T

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence of modifiable risk factors of chronic non infection diseases among urban and rural residents in Karaganda region. The cross-sectional screening study of 1453 respondents' age 18 to 65 among the urban and rural population of the Karaganda region: 672 urban and 781 rural adult residents were included into the study. The screening stage included conducting survey using international questionnaires, anthropometry, arterial blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol measurement. According study results the most common risk factors among residents of Saran town and Osakarovsky area included: hypercholesterolemia (46,2 % and 36,9 %, respectively), arterial hypertension (39,3 % and 32,2 %, respectively) and smoking (26,3 % and 19,5 % respectively). Frequency of active and passive smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and alcohol abuse 1.2-2.0 times higher compared in urban population in comparison rural population. These differences gave possibility to identify special groups need to management preventive targeted measures. PMID:27119832

  10. Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Rastelli, Andrea; Schembri, Valentina; Filippo, Massimo de [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Chetta, Alfredo [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Respiratory Diseases, Parma (Italy); Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria [Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Unita Operativa di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria, Bologna (Italy); Di Scioscio, Valerio; Bartalena, Tommaso; Zompatori, Maurizio [University of Bologna, Department of Radiology, Cardiothoracic Institute, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airway malacia and its relationship with ancillary morphologic features in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of patients with COPD who were imaged with inspiratory and dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Airway malacia was defined as {>=}50% expiratory reduction of the airway lumen. Both distribution and morphology of airway malacia were assessed. The extent of emphysema, extent of bronchiectasis and severity of bronchial wall thickness were quantified. The final study cohort was comprised of 71 patients. Airway malacia was seen in 38 of 71 patients (53%), and such proportion was roughly maintained in each stage of COPD severity. Almost all tracheomalacia cases (23/25, 92%) were characterised by an expiratory anterior bowing of the posterior membranous wall. Both emphysema and bronchiectasis extent did not differ between patients with and without airway malacia (p > 0.05). Bronchial wall thickness severity was significantly higher in patients with airway malacia and correlated with the degree of maximal bronchial collapse (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated a strong association between airway malacia and COPD, disclosing a significant relationship with bronchial wall thickening. (orig.)

  11. Airway malacia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence, morphology and relationship with emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airway malacia and its relationship with ancillary morphologic features in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of patients with COPD who were imaged with inspiratory and dynamic expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Airway malacia was defined as ≥50% expiratory reduction of the airway lumen. Both distribution and morphology of airway malacia were assessed. The extent of emphysema, extent of bronchiectasis and severity of bronchial wall thickness were quantified. The final study cohort was comprised of 71 patients. Airway malacia was seen in 38 of 71 patients (53%), and such proportion was roughly maintained in each stage of COPD severity. Almost all tracheomalacia cases (23/25, 92%) were characterised by an expiratory anterior bowing of the posterior membranous wall. Both emphysema and bronchiectasis extent did not differ between patients with and without airway malacia (p > 0.05). Bronchial wall thickness severity was significantly higher in patients with airway malacia and correlated with the degree of maximal bronchial collapse (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated a strong association between airway malacia and COPD, disclosing a significant relationship with bronchial wall thickening. (orig.)

  12. The Coexistence of asthma and Chronic Ostructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto de Marco; Giancarlo Pesce; Alessandro Marcon; Simone Accordini; Leonardo Antonicelli; Massimiliano Bugiani; Lucio Casali; Marcello Ferrari; Gabriele Nicolini; Maria Grazia Panico; Pietro Pirina; Maria Elisabetta Zanolin; Isa Cerveri; Giuseppe Verlato

    2013-01-01

    Background: The joint distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been well described. This study aims at determining the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnoses of asthma, COPD and of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and to assess whether these conditions share a common set of risk factors. Methods: A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, diagnoses and risk factors was administered by mail or phone to random samples of the general It...

  13. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and coexistence of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk in the population of the republic of moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Igor; Sali, Vera; Gaibu, Sergiu; Suveica, Luminita; Popa, Sergiu; Perico, Norberto; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Carminati, Sergio; Feehally, John; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) established the Global Outreach Program (GO) aimed at building a capacity for detecting and managing chronic kidney disease and its complications in low- and middle-income countries. Here we report data from the 2006-2007 screening program (1025 subjects from the general population) in the Republic of Moldova aimed to determine the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and their coexistence with microalbuminuria. The likelihood of a serious cardiovascular (CV) event was also estimated. Hypertension and diabetes were very common among screened subjects. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 16.9% and that of estimated GFR Moldova patients with hypertension and diabetes should be screened for the coexistence of renal abnormalities, with the intention of developing disease-specific health-care interventions with the primary goal to reduce CV morbidity and mortality and prevent renal disease progression to end stage renal disease.

  14. Prevalence of Selected Chronic, Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Jordan: Results of the 2007 Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Zindah, Meyasser; Belbeisi, Adel; Hadaddin, Raja; Brown, David W.; Walke, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of illness and death in Jordan. Since 2002, the Jordan Ministry of Health, in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to collect information on many of the behaviors and conditions related to NCDs. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of selected NCD risk factors and the relations...

  15. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... 2012_CKD_GL.pdf . McCullough PA. Interface between renal disease ... patients with kidney failure. N Engl J Med . 2010;362(14):1312- ...

  16. Desigualdades sociais na prevalência de doenças crônicas no Brasil, PNAD-2003 Social inequalities in the prevalence of chronic diseases in Brazil, PNAD-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os inquéritos de saúde de base populacional constituem o principal instrumento utilizado para conhecer a prevalência de doenças crônicas, de restrições de atividades e de uso de serviços de saúde. Com base nos dados da PNAD-2003, foram estimadas as prevalências das 12 doenças crônicas pesquisadas, segundo sexo, idade, cor, escolaridade, macrorregião de residência e situação urbana ou rural do domicílio. Foram analisados a presença de limitações e o uso de serviços de saúde segundo a presença de doença crônica. Utilizando regressão de Poisson, foram estimadas as razões de prevalências ajustadas por idade, sexo, macrorregião de residência e tipo de respondente. A prevalência de pelo menos uma doença crônica aumentou com a idade, foi maior entre mulheres, indígenas, pessoas com menor escolaridade, cidadãos detentores de plano de saúde, migrantes de outros estados, residentes em áreas urbanas e moradores da região Sul. A presença de doença crônica provocou aumento de limitação de atividades e da demanda por serviços de saúde. As condições mais prevalentes foram: doença de coluna, hipertensão, artrite e depressão. Foi detectada significativa desigualdade social no padrão das doenças crônicas, segundo gênero, cor/raça, nível de escolaridade, região de residência e situação do domicílio.Population-based health surveys are the main tool for obtaining data on the prevalence of chronic diseases, disabilities and use of healthcare services. Based on the data of the PNAD-2003, this study estimated the prevalence of 12 chronic diseases according to: gender, age, skin color, educational level, macro-region and urban or rural situation of the households. We analyzed the relation between presence of disabilities and use of healthcare services due to the presence of a chronic disease. The prevalence ratios adjusted according to age, gender, macro-region and type of respondent were estimated using

  17. PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC DISEASES IN INDIVIDUALS ASSISTED BY THE FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM IN NITEROI, BRAZIL: EVALUATION OF SELECTION BIAS AND PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Luiza G, Mesquita Evandro T, Jorge Antonio José L, Correia Dayse MS, Lugon Josemir R, Kang HC, Yokoo EM, Wahrlich V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The strategy of the Family Health Program has been used as an alternative scenario for prevalence studies. This study intended to present the protocol of the Digitalis Study (DS, prevalence study of chronic diseases, to assess sources of possible selection bias and estimate their impact on the prevalence of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, and myocardial infarction. Methods: Randomization was performed between 38 160 registered individuals with 45 to 99 years by the Family Health Program .Differences between the sources of selection bias (non-acceptance, non-attendance, substitutions were observed for gender and age. Results: Of the 1,190 residents contacted, 67.1% agreed to participate. There were 144 residents who were not randomly selected but whose participation was confirmed (substitutes. Women and individuals in the intermediate age groups and the prevalence of hypertension were higher among substitutes compared with the randomly selected individuals. Conclusion: The approach of the DS was adequate for the purposes of estimating prevalences, but there was a significant percentage of non-participation. The randomization strategy did not assume outdated records; alternative schedules for visits were not provided for; follow-up at the invitation stage was not sufficient to prevent substitutions and the inclusion of substitutes with a higher prevalence of hypertension.

  18. Helicobacter Infection and Chronic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-chun Chi; Xin-juan Yu; Quan-jiang Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recentHelicobacter infection associated with chronic liver disease. The bacteriology, prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis were reviewed. Future work should be conducted on the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease.

  19. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex.METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex.RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%.CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level.

  20. The coexistence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The joint distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has not been well described. This study aims at determining the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnoses of asthma, COPD and of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and to assess whether these conditions share a common set of risk factors. METHODS: A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, diagnoses and risk factors was administered by mail or phone to random samples of the general Italian population aged 20-44 (n = 5163 45-64 (n = 2167 and 65-84 (n = 1030 in the frame of the multicentre Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study. RESULTS: A physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD (emphysema/chronic bronchitis/COPD was reported by 13% and 21% of subjects aged <65 and 65-84 years respectively. Aging was associated with a marked decrease in the prevalence of diagnosed asthma (from 8.2% to 1.6% and with a marked increase in the prevalence of diagnosed COPD (from 3.3% to 13.3%. The prevalence of the overlap of asthma and COPD was 1.6% (1.3%-2.0%, 2.1% (1.5%-2.8% and 4.5% (3.2%-5.9% in the 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 age groups. Subjects with both asthma and COPD diagnoses were more likely to have respiratory symptoms, physical impairment, and to report hospital admissions compared to asthma or COPD alone (p<0.01. Age, sex, education and smoking showed different and sometimes opposite associations with the three conditions. CONCLUSION: Asthma and COPD are common in the general population, and they coexist in a substantial proportion of subjects. The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome represents an important clinical phenotype that deserves more medical attention and further research.

  1. Is Chronic Low Back Pain Associated with the Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease when Genetic Susceptibility Is Considered? A Co-Twin Control Study of Spanish Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Matt; Ordoñana, Juan R.; Hartvigsen, Jan; Ferreira, Manuela L.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Pinheiro, Marina B.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Hopper, John L.; Ferreira, Paulo H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chronic low back pain and coronary heart disease relationship, after adjusting for relevant confounders, including genetics. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 2148 twins were recruited from the Murcia Twin Registry, Spain. The exposure was chronic LBP and the outcomes were myocardial infarction and other coronary heart diseases—lifetime and in the last 2 years–based on standardized health-related questionnaires. First, logistic regression analysis investigated associations of the total sample followed by a matched co-twin control analyses, with all complete twin pairs discordant for chronic LBP utilised, separated for zygosity—dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) pairs, which adjusted for shared familial factors, including genetics. Results Chronic LBP pain is associated with lifetime myocardial infarction [odds ratio (OR) = 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.35–5.36], other coronary heart diseases over a lifetime (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.69–3.93) and in the last two years (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.33–3.60), while there was a borderline association with myocardial infarction in the last 2 years (OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 0.98–7.12). Although the magnitude of the association remained or increased in the co-twin control analyses, none reached statistical significance. Conclusion Chronic LBP is associated with a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. It is possible that this association remains even when controlling for genetics and early shared environment, although this should be investigated with larger samples of twins discordant for LBP. PMID:27171210

  2. Prevalence of anemia and its impact on mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a developing country setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad Hossein; Sadighi, Tannaz; Rabieepour, Masomeh; Dinparast, Reza; RahimiRad, Shagayegh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is going to be the third most common cause of death worldwide. The natural course of COPD is interrupted by acute exacerbations (AECOPD) with an overall mortality rate of 10%. Anemia is a well-known independent predictor of mortality in several chronic diseases. Little is known about the impact of anemia on mortality in AECOPD. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia in AECOPD patients and its impact on mortality in a developing country setting. We retrospectively studied 200 hospitalized patients with AECOPD (100 died in hospital and 100 survived) in Imam Khomeini teaching hospital, Urmia, Iran. Prevalence of anemia between deceased and surviving patients compared by using x-square test. Mean admission day Hb and Hct level were compared between the two groups by using Student t-test. Anemia was defined according to WHO criteria: Hbanemia was significantly higher in patients who died in hospital compared to those who survived (72% vs. 49%, p=0.001 and OR=2.68). The mean ±SD Hb level was 11.5±2.7 g/dl among deceased patients vs. 13.0±2.0 g/dl among survivors (p valueAnemia was common in AECOPD patients in this developing country setting and was significantly associated with in hospital mortality.

  3. Prevalence of airflow limitation in subjects undergoing comprehensive health examination in Japan: Survey of Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease Patients Epidemiology in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omori H

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hisamitsu Omori,1 Toshihiko Kaise,2 Takeo Suzuki,2 Gerry Hagan3 1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 2Development and Medical Affairs Division, GlaxoSmithKline, Tokyo, Japan; 3Independent Consultant, Marbella, Spain Purpose: There are still evidence gaps on the prevalence of airflow limitation in Japan. The purpose of this survey was to estimate the prevalence of airflow limitation among healthy subjects in Japan and to show what proportion of subjects with airflow limitation had been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Subjects and methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional survey targeting multiple regions of Japan. Subjects aged 40 years or above who were undergoing comprehensive health examination were recruited from 14 centers in Japan. Airflow limitation was defined as having forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity less than 70%.Results: In a total of 22,293 subjects, airflow limitation was most prevalent in subjects aged over 60 years (8.7%, but was also observed in subjects aged 50–59 years (3.1% and 40–49 years (1.7%. Overall prevalence was 4.3%. Among subjects with smoking history (n=10,981, the prevalence of airflow limitation in each age group (12.8% in those aged over 60 years, 4.4% in those aged 50–59 years, and 2.2% in those aged 40–49 years and overall prevalence (6.1% were higher than that of total subjects. Of the smokers with airflow limitation, 9.4% had been diagnosed with COPD/emphysema and 27.3% with other respiratory diseases.Conclusion: Among smokers undergoing comprehensive health examination, prevalence of airflow limitation reached 12.8% in those aged over 60 years and airflow limitation was observed in subjects aged 40–59 years as well, though their prevalence was lower than that in subjects aged over 60 years. We demonstrated that a significant proportion of smokers with airflow limitation

  4. Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Chronic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Todd M.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction arises in chronic lung disease when chronic hypoxemia and disruption of pulmonary vascular beds contribute to increase ventricular afterload, and is generally defined by hypertrophy with preserved myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Although the exact prevalence is unknown, right ventricular hypertrophy appears to be a common complication of chronic lung disease, and more frequently complicates advanced lung disease. Right ventricular failure is rare, ex...

  5. 慢性肾脏病患者贫血发病情况分析%The Prevalence of Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    保红云; 荣冬靖; 邱敏; 李欣樾

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨CKD 患者贫血的发病情况及其相关因素.方法 收集2007年1月至2010年1月在云南省第三人民医院肾脏血液风湿免疫科住院的CKD患者465例,对其临床和实验室资料进行回顾性分析.结果 465例CKD患者中,贫血的发病率为72.04%,其中年龄<30岁、30~50岁、50~70岁、>70岁的患者贫血的发病率依次为47.06%、60.94%、74.42%、86.26%;CKDⅠ~Ⅴ期的患者贫血的发病率依次为24.19%、43.84%、63.22%、88.61%和99.39%;经eGFR 矫正后,不同肾脏基础疾病患者贫血的发病率由高到低依次为糖尿病肾病(78.78%)、高血压肾病(66.00%)、慢性肾小球肾炎(65.61%)和多囊肾(60.00%);透析组与非透析组患者贫血的发病率分别为99.00%和51.75%(P<0.001).单因素分析表明,年龄、肾功能情况及透析与否均与贫血的发病率相关.结论 慢性肾脏病患者贫血的发病率较高,肾功能减退、年龄等是其发生的危险因素.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of anemia in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the related factors.Method The data of 465 in-patients with CKD in our hospital from January 2007 to January 2010 were collected and retrospectively analyzed.Results In the 465 patients with CKD, the prevalence of anemia was 72.04%, the prevalence of anemia in patients <30 years, 30 ~ 50 years, 50 ~ 70 years, and > 70 years was 47.06%, 60.94%, 74.45% and 86.26%, respectively.The prevalence of anemia in patients with CKD in stage Ⅰ ~ Ⅴ was 24.19%, 43.84%, 63.22%, 88.61% and 99.39%, respectively.The prevalence of anemia in patients with CKD corrected by GFR was associated with varied underling diseases, and the sequence from high to low was diabetic nephropathy (78.78%) , hypertensive nephropathy (66.00%) ,chronic glomeruionephritis (65.61%) and ploycystic renal disease (60.00%).The prevalence of anemia in dialysis patients and non-dialysis patients was 97

  6. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the U.S. working population: an analysis of data from the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ki Moon; Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the population attributable fraction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the U.S. adult workers, we analyzed data obtained from the National Health Interview Surveys for the period 1997-2004. The overall COPD prevalence was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-4.1%). The prevalence was higher in females (5.4%, 95% CI 5.3-5.6%) than in males (2.8%, 95% CI 2.7-2.9%); in Whites (4.2%, 95% CI 4.1-4.3%) than in Blacks (3.4%, 95% CI 3.1-3.7%) and other races (2.4%, 95% CI 2.1-2.8%). Compared with insurance, real estate and other finance industry, the top three industries associated with significantly higher prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, sex, race, and smoking) were other educational services (POR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3); transportation equipment (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8); and social services, religious and membership organizations (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Compared with managers and administrators, except public administration occupation, the top three occupations with significantly higher PORs were health service (1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), other protective service (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), and material moving equipment operators (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). The overall population attributable fraction for association of COPD with employment was 12.2% for industry and 17.4% for occupation. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors associated with COPD in industries and occupations with elevated prevalence and POR. PMID:19863367

  7. Prevalence of HFE mutations and relation to serum iron status in patients with chronic hepatitis C and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Jung Lin; Chih-Lin Lin; Chaur-Shine Wang; Shu-O Liu; Li-Ying Liao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of the two mutations, C282Y and H63D of HFE gene, in healthy subjects, patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Taiwan and to explore the contribution of the HFE mutation on serum iron stores in CHC and NAFLD groups.METHODS: We examined C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE gene in 125 healthy subjects, 29 patients with CHC,and 33 patients with NAFLD. The serum iron markers,including ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC),were assessed in all patients.RESULTS: All of the healthy subjects and patients were free from C282Y mutation. The prevalence of H63D heterozygosity was 4/125 (3.20%) in healthy subjects, 2/29(6.90%) in CHC group, and 1/33 (3.03%) in NAFLD group.The healthy subjects showed no significant difference in the prevalence of H63D mutation as compared with the CHC or NAFLD group. Increased serum iron store was found in 34.48% of CHC patients and 36.36% of NAFLD patients.In three patients of H63D heterozygosity, only one CHC patient had increased serum iron store. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of HFE mutations between patients with increased serum iron store and those without in CHC or NAFLD group.CONCLUSION: The HFE mutations may not contribute to iron accumulation in the CHC or NAFLD group even when serum iron overload is observed in more than one-third of these patients in Taiwan.

  8. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  10. Dynamic Adaptive Remote Health Monitoring for Patients with Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Myung-kyung

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. More than 70% of deaths among Americans are caused by chronic diseases and more than 133 million Americans have at least one chronic disease. Due to the prevalence of chronic disease-related issues, it is prudent to seek out methodologies that would facilitate the prevention, monitoring, and feedback for patients with chronic diseases.This dissertation describes WANDA (Weight and Activity with Other Vital Si...

  11. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, F M; March, L M; Brnabic, A J; Jorm, L R; Williamson, M; Cousins, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports chronic pain prevalence in a randomly selected sample of the adult Australian population. Data were collected by Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) using randomly generated telephone numbers and a two-stage stratified sample design. Chronic pain was defined as pain experienced every day for three months in the six months prior to interview. There were 17,543 completed interviews (response rate=70.8%). Chronic pain was reported by 17.1% of males and 20.0% of females. For males, prevalence peaked at 27.0% in the 65--69 year age group and for females, prevalence peaked at 31.0% in the oldest age group (80--84 years). Having chronic pain was significantly associated with older age, female gender, lower levels of completed education, and not having private health insurance; it was also strongly associated with receiving a disability benefit (adjusted OR=3.89, Punemployment benefit (adjusted OR=1.99, Punemployed for health reasons (adjusted OR=6.41, Pinsurance. There were strong associations between having interfering chronic pain and receiving disability benefits (adjusted OR=3.31, Punemployed due to health reasons (adjusted OR=7.94, P<0.001, respectively). The results show that chronic pain impacts upon a large proportion of the adult Australian population, including the working age population, and is strongly associated with markers of social disadvantage. PMID:11166468

  12. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable

  13. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  14. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Other Chronic Pain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Yunus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS. CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild.

  15. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history sta...

  16. Chronic disease prevalence and care among the elderly in urban and rural Beijing, China - a 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Renata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing is occurring at an unprecedented rate in China. Chronic diseases and their disabling consequences will become much more common. Public policy has a strong urban bias, and older people living in rural areas may be especially vulnerable due to limited access to good quality healthcare, and low pension coverage. We aim to compare the sociodemographic and health characteristics, health service utilization, needs for care and informal care arrangements of representative samples of older people in two Beijing communities, urban Xicheng and rural Daxing. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey of all those aged 65 years and over was conducted in urban and rural catchment areas in Beijing, China. Assessments included questionnaires, a clinical interview, physical examination, and an informant interview. Prevalence of chronic diseases, self-reported impairments and risk behaviours was calculated adjusting for household clustering. Poisson working models were used to estimate the independent effect of rural versus urban residence, and to explore the predictors of health services utilization. Results We interviewed 1002 participants in rural Daxing, and 1160 in urban Xicheng. Those in Daxing were more likely to be younger, widowed, less educated, not receiving a pension, and reliant on family transfers. Chronic diseases were more common in Xicheng, when based on self-report rather than clinical assessment. Risk exposures were more common in Daxing. Rural older people were much less likely to access health services, controlling for age and health. Community health services were ineffective, particularly in Daxing, where fewer than 3% of those with hypertension were adequately controlled. In Daxing, care was provided by family, who had often given up work to do so. In Xicheng, 45% of those needing care were supported by paid caregivers. Caregiver strain was higher in Xicheng. Dementia was strongly associated with

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J; Burney, Peter G J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celli, Bartolome R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with high global morbidity and mortality. COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airway obstruction, which is confirmed by spirometry, and includes obstruction of the small airways (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis) and emphysema, which lead to air trapping and shortness of breath in response to physical exertion. The most common risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, but other environmental factors, such as exposure to indoor air pollutants - especially in developing countries - might influence COPD risk. Not all smokers develop COPD and the reasons for disease susceptibility in these individuals have not been fully elucidated. Although the mechanisms underlying COPD remain poorly understood, the disease is associated with chronic inflammation that is usually corticosteroid resistant. In addition, COPD involves accelerated ageing of the lungs and an abnormal repair mechanism that might be driven by oxidative stress. Acute exacerbations, which are mainly triggered by viral or bacterial infections, are important as they are linked to a poor prognosis. The mainstay of the management of stable disease is the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, whereas corticosteroids are beneficial primarily in patients who have coexisting features of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation and more reversibility of airway obstruction. Apart from smoking cessation, no treatments reduce disease progression. More research is needed to better understand disease mechanisms and to develop new treatments that reduce disease activity and progression. PMID:27189863

  18. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turke...

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : a proteomics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Bruno Miguel Coelho, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Molecular), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation that is not fully reversible even under bronchodilators effect, caused by a mixture of small airway disease – obstructive bronchiolitis – and parenchymal destruction – emphysema. At the present time, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death and its prevalence and mortality are expected to contin...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated to chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients on HAART and undetectable viral load in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia M Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and associated factors with chronic kidney disease (CKD in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals with undetectable viral load on HAART. METHODS: From March, 2009 to September 2009, 213 individuals between 18-70 years, period on HAART ≥12 months, viral load < 50 copies/mm(3, and CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm(3, were consecutively enrolled at the outpatient clinic of Hospital de Clínicas, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were obesity, malnourishment, amputee, paraplegic, previous history of renal disease, pregnancy and hepatic insufficiency. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR assessed by the modification of diet in renal disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less or equal than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2, for a period of at least 3 months. Poisson regression was used to determine factors associated with CKD. RESULTS: CKD was diagnosed in 8.4% of the population, and after adjustment, the risk factors were hypertension (RR = 3.88, 95%CI, 1.84-8.16, time on HAART (RR = 1.15, 95%CI,1.03-1.27 and tenofovir exposure (RR = 2.25, 95%CI, 1.04-4.95. Higher weight (RR = 0.88 95%CI, 0.82-0.96 was associated to normal function. CONCLUSIONS: CKD was a common finding in this cohort of patients and was related to hypertension, time on HAART and tenofovir exposure. We suggest a more frequent monitoring of renal function, especially for those with risk factors to early identify renal impairment.

  1. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Are Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Responsible for Cognitive Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle, Pilar; Talavera, Juan O.; Reynoso, Nancy; González, Marissa; Gómez-Díaz, Rita A.; Cruz, Miguel; Vázquez, Felipe; Wacher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) among patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (RDD) and to identify any relationships between CI and RDD comorbidities. Methods: One thousand seven hundred twelve patients with RDD participated in a cross-sectional study. The patients’ sociodemographic and clinical data were registered. Results The sample population had an average age of 51 ± 11 years, and 63.26% of the patients were female. CI was diagnosed in 38 patients (2.2%) and was more common among both females (2.8% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.063) and the elderly (0% at an age ≤ 30 years vs. 10.4% at an age > 70 years, p = 0.0001). Rheumatoid arthritis (present in 15.8% vs. absent in 2.1%) and asthma (13% vs. 2.1%) correlated significantly with CI based on the results of our logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Age, female gender, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma are risk factors for CI in the setting of RDD. PMID:26517541

  2. Utility of Anthropometric Measures in a Multiethnic Population: Their Association with Prevalent Diabetes, Hypertension and Other Chronic Disease Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Tarleton, Heather P.; Lisa V. Smith; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are two common anthropometric measures of obesity in clinical and public health practice. Consensus, however, remains elusive regarding their utility for predicting cardiovascular disease risk in multiethnic populations. We address this gap in the literature by analyzing cross-sectional data from the first round of the Los Angeles County Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011. We characterized the relationships between BMI, WC, waist-t...

  3. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  4. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad;

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantitie...

  5. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: A study from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikrant, Sanjay; Parashar, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disordered mineral metabolism is common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in Indian CKD population. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) over a period of 3 years. The biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, namely, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and 25-hydoxyvitamin Vitamin D3 (25OHD), were measured in newly diagnosed CKD Stage 3–5 and prevalent CKD Stage 5D adult patients. Results: A total of 462 patients of CKD Stage 3–5D were studied. The frequency of various biochemical abnormalities was hypocalcemia (23.8%), hypercalcemia (5.4%), hypophosphatemia (2.8%), hyperphosphatemia (55.4%), raised alkaline phosphatase (56.9%), secondary hyperparathyroidism (82.7%), and hypoparathyroidism (1.5%). 25OHD was done in 335 (72.5%) patients and 90.4% were found to have Vitamin D deficiency. About 70.6% of the patients had iPTH levels were above kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI) target range. Nondiabetic CKD as compared to diabetic CKD had a higher alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.016), a higher iPTH (P = 0.001) a higher proportion of patients with iPTH above KDOQI target range (P = 0.09), and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004). The 25OHD levels were suggestive of severe Vitamin D deficiency in 33.7%, Vitamin D deficiency in 45.4%, and Vitamin D insufficiency in 11.3% patients. There was a significant positive correlation between iPTH with alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.572, P = 0.001), creatinine (r = 0.424, P = 0.001), and phosphorus (r = 0.241, P = 0.001) and a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin (r = −0.325, 0.001), age (r = −0.169, P = 0.002), and 25OHD (r = −0.126, P = 0.021). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an elevated alkaline phosphatase was a significant predictor of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 9.7, 95

  6. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: A study from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered mineral metabolism is common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, there are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in Indian CKD population. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD over a period of 3 years. The biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, namely, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and 25-hydoxyvitamin Vitamin D3 (25OHD, were measured in newly diagnosed CKD Stage 3–5 and prevalent CKD Stage 5D adult patients. Results: A total of 462 patients of CKD Stage 3–5D were studied. The frequency of various biochemical abnormalities was hypocalcemia (23.8%, hypercalcemia (5.4%, hypophosphatemia (2.8%, hyperphosphatemia (55.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase (56.9%, secondary hyperparathyroidism (82.7%, and hypoparathyroidism (1.5%. 25OHD was done in 335 (72.5% patients and 90.4% were found to have Vitamin D deficiency. About 70.6% of the patients had iPTH levels were above kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (KDOQI target range. Nondiabetic CKD as compared to diabetic CKD had a higher alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.016, a higher iPTH (P = 0.001 a higher proportion of patients with iPTH above KDOQI target range (P = 0.09, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.004. The 25OHD levels were suggestive of severe Vitamin D deficiency in 33.7%, Vitamin D deficiency in 45.4%, and Vitamin D insufficiency in 11.3% patients. There was a significant positive correlation between iPTH with alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.572, P = 0.001, creatinine (r = 0.424, P = 0.001, and phosphorus (r = 0.241, P = 0.001 and a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin (r = −0.325, 0.001, age (r = −0.169, P = 0.002, and 25OHD (r = −0.126, P = 0.021. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, an elevated alkaline phosphatase was a significant predictor of hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio 9.7, 95

  7. Prevalence and diagnosis of chronic respiratory symptoms in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohns, P; Ebrahim, S; Anderson, R

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence and diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease in adults. DESIGN--Screening questionnaire was sent to all patients aged 40-70 on the register of a group general practice; those responding positively were sent a detailed questionnaire and invited for assessment of respiratory function by forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, peak flow rate, and reversibility studies with a beta adrenergic inhaler. SETTING--Group general practice i...

  8. Prevalence of chronic conditions – Chronic Airflow Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland and Northern Ireland Population Health Observatory (INIsPHO)

    2012-01-01

    IPH has estimated and forecast clinical diagnosis rates of CAO among adults for the years 2010, 2015 and 2020. In the Republic of Ireland, the data are based on the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) 2007. The data describe the number of people who report that they have experienced doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung (pulmonary) disease, or emphysema in the previous 12 months (annual clinical diagnosis). Data is available by age and sex for each Loca...

  9. The prevalence and social patterning of chronic diseases among older people in a population undergoing health transition. A 10/66 Group cross-sectional population-based survey in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Maria del C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little of the increased attention towards chronic diseases in countries with low and middle incomes has been directed towards older people, who contribute 72% of all deaths, and 14% of all Disability Adjusted Life Years linked to this group of conditions in those regions. We aimed to study the prevalence of physical, mental and cognitive diseases and impairments among older people in the Dominican Republic, their social patterning, and their relative contributions to disability. Methods A cross-sectional catchment area one-phase survey of chronic disease diagnoses, physical impairments, risk factors and associated disability among 2011 people aged 65 years and over (of whom 1451 gave fasting blood samples in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Results The most prevalent diagnoses were hypertension (73.0%, anaemia (35.0%, diabetes (17.5%, depression (13.8% and dementia (11.7%, with 39.6% meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome. After direct standardization (for age and sex the prevalences of stroke (standardized morbidity ratio [SMR] 100 and hypertension (SMR 108 were similar to those in the United States of America National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES reference SMR 100, while those of diabetes (SMR 83 and metabolic syndrome (SMR 72 were somewhat lower. Anaemia was three times more common than in the USA (SMR 310. Diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity and the metabolic syndrome were associated with affluence and female sex. Arthritis, anaemia, dementia and stroke were strongly age-associated and these conditions were also the main independent contributors to disability. Conclusions The prevalence of many chronic diseases is similar in predominately low socioeconomic status neighbourhoods in the Dominican Republic to that in the USA. Prevalence of age-associated conditions is likely to increase with demographic ageing. There is also scope for increases in cardiovascular disease prevalence, if

  10. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tilert, Timothy; Dillon, Charles; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Hnizdo, Eva; Doney, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background During 2007–2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6–79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and...

  11. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik;

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...

  12. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Pradeep

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2½-year-old child presented with multiple discrete granulomatous lesions on the face and flexural regions since the age of 2 months along with lymphadenopathy. The patient also had recurrent bouts of pyodermas and respiratory tract infections. Biopsy of the lesion showed necrosis of tissue with suppuration and histiocytes but no evidence of tuberculosis, fungal infections or atypical mycobacteria. Lymph node biopsy also showed necrosis with suppuration but no infective organism. Nitroblue tetrazolium test was negative indicating that the neutrophils failed to oxidize the dye. We are reporting here a rare case of chronic granulomatous disease.

  14. Chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pradeep S; Moorthy, Prasanna K; Suprakasan, S; Jayapalan, Sabeena; Preethi, K

    2005-01-01

    A 2(1/2)-year-old child presented with multiple discrete granulomatous lesions on the face and flexural regions since the age of 2 months along with lymphadenopathy. The patient also had recurrent bouts of pyodermas and respiratory tract infections. Biopsy of the lesion showed necrosis of tissue with suppuration and histiocytes but no evidence of tuberculosis, fungal infections or atypical mycobacteria. Lymph node biopsy also showed necrosis with suppuration but no infective organism. Nitroblue tetrazolium test was negative indicating that the neutrophils failed to oxidize the dye. We are reporting here a rare case of chronic granulomatous disease. PMID:16394414

  15. Hyperphosphatemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Keith A.; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard; Qiu, Ping; Pratt, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Observational studies have determined hyperphosphatemia to be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease. Mechanistic studies have elucidated that hyperphosphatemia is a direct stimulus to vascular calcification, which is one cause of morbid cardiovascular events contributing to the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease. This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that develops as a consequence of positive phosphate balance in chronic kidney disease and the me...

  16. Prevalence of autoantibodies and the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated with interferon-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Gehring; Ulrike Kullmer; Sabine Koeppelmann; Patrick Gerner; Philip Wintermeyer; Stefan Wirth

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected children focusing on thyroid autoimmunity.METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of autoantibodies in 123 chronic HCV-infected children before,during and after monotherapy with interferon-alpha (TFN-α) or combined treatment with interferon-α or peginterferon-α and ribavirin. Besides antibodies against smooth muscle (SMA), nuclei (ANA), and liver/kidney microsomes (LKM), the incidence of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies as well as thyroid function parameters (TSH, FT3 and FT4) were determined.RESULTS: We found that 8% of children had autoantibodies before treatment. During treatment,18% of children were found positive for at least one autoantibody; 15.5% of children developed pathologic thyroid values during IFN-α treatment compared to only one child before therapy. Six children had to be substituted while developing laboratory signs of hypothyroidism.CONCLUSION: Our data indicate a strong correlation between interferon-α treatment and autoimmune phenomena, notably the emergence of thyroid antibodies. The fact that some children required hormone replacement underlines the need of close monitoring in particularly those who respond to therapy and have to be treated for more than 6 mo.

  17. An observational, cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in India (START -India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prasannakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular complications and macrovascular complications was present in 657 (43.8%, 655 (43.7%, 268 (17.9% and 104 (6.93%, respectively. This interim analysis revealed that about 46% of the T2DM patients had CKD (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR ≥30 mg/g and/or estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The renal dysfunction as per e

  18. HIV and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmanian, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 - 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV

  19. Autoimmune thyroid disease and chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Cecilia; Demarco, Paul; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    We report six cases of autoimmune thyroid disease associated with chronic urticaria and briefly review the literature, including the histopathological nature of such lesions, and their aetiology and pathogenesis. In view of the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with chronic urticaria, screening measurements of thyrotropin and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies are recommended, although negative antibodies do not exclude a relationship between urticaria and thyroid autoimmunity. After failure of conventional therapy for urticaria, patients who are apparently clinically euthyroid may be considered for a trial with levothyroxine. Improvement of urticaria was seen with levothyroxine treatment in three of four patients with only marginal abnormalities in thyroid function.

  20. Prevalence and pattern of cystic kidney diseases in Ilorin, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chijioke Adindu; Aderibigbe Ademola; Olarenwaju Timothy; Makusidi Aliyu; Oguntoyinbo Adewale

    2010-01-01

    Cystic kidney disease is an important cause of chronic renal failure. Since the utili-zation of imaging techniques in the diagnosis of diseases has become widespread, cystic kidney disease is now being increasingly diagnosed. This study is designed to determine the prevalence and pattern of cystic kidney disease at the Nephrology Unit of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin. All consecutive adult patients seen in the Nephrology Unit of UITH during a ten-year period (January 1...

  1. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  2. Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coll-de-Tuero Gabriel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is associated with an increased total mortality and cardiovascular morbimortality in the general population and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of kidney disease and different types of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2,642 T2DM patients cared for in primary care during 2007. Studied variables: demographic and clinical characteristics, pharmacological treatments and T2DM complications (diabetic foot, retinopathy, coronary heart disease and stroke. Variables of renal function were defined as follows: 1 Microalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 30 mg/g or 3.5 mg/mmol, 2 Macroalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 300 mg/g or 35 mg/mmol, 3 Kidney disease (KD: glomerular filtration rate according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 2 and/or the presence of albuminuria, 4 Renal impairment (RI: glomerular filtration rate 2, 5 Nonalbuminuric RI: glomerular filtration rate 2 without albuminuria and, 5 Diabetic nephropathy (DN: macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria plus diabetic retinopathy. Results The prevalence of different types of renal disease in patients was: 34.1% KD, 22.9% RI, 19.5% albuminuria and 16.4% diabetic nephropathy (DN. The prevalence of albuminuria without RI (13.5% and nonalbuminuric RI (14.7% was similar. After adjusting per age, BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure and macrovascular disease, RI was significantly associated with the female gender (OR 2.20; CI 95% 1.86–2.59, microvascular disease (OR 2.14; CI 95% 1.8–2.54 and insulin treatment (OR 1.82; CI 95% 1.39–2.38, and inversely associated with HbA1c (OR 0.85 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 0.80–0.91. Albuminuria without RI was inversely associated with the female gender (OR 0.27; CI 95% 0.21–0.35, duration of diabetes (OR 0.94 per year; CI 95% 0.91–0.97 and directly associated with HbA1c (OR 1.19 for every

  3. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  5. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Chronic Tubulointerstitial Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic tubulointerstitial diseases are a common final pathway toward chronic renal failure regardless the primary damage (glomerular, vascular or directly the tubulointerstitium). Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (CTN) is characterized by interstitial scarring, fibrosis and tubule atrophy, resulting in progressive chronic kidney disease. Most frequent causes of CTN are drugs, heavy metals, obstructive uropathy, nephrolithiasis, reflux disease, immunologic diseases, neoplasia, ischemia, metabolic diseases, genetics and miscellaneous. At ultrasound (US), kidneys' morphological aspect is similar in all forms of chronic interstitial nephropathy and only chronic pyelonephritis with or without reflux shows distinguishing characteristics. In interstitial nephropathy, kidneys' profiles are finely irregular and corticomedullary differentiation is altered because of a diffused hyperechogenicity. The only indirect sign of chronic interstitial damage can be derived from the value of intrarenal resistive indexes that hardly overcome 0.75. US is mandatory in clinical chronic pyelonephritis work-up because it provides information on kidney's diameter and on growth nomogram in children. Renal profiles can be more or less altered depending on the number of cortical scars and the presence of pseudonodular areas of segmental compensatory hypertrophy. In the early stages, US diagnosis of renal tuberculosis is difficult because parenchymal lesions are non-specific. US sensitivity in the diagnosis of hydronephrosis is very high, close to 100% and, finally, US is the first choice imaging technique in the diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. PMID:27169608

  6. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed-methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max

    2012-01-01

    of fruit and vegetables is associated with NCDs. In Zanzibar, the incidence of diabetes has increased from 252 new cases in 2006, to 373 in 2008, in an adult population of just over a million people and hypertension is the second commonest cause of death. We explored the association between fruit...... and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related NCDs in Zanzibar.......Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low consumption...

  7. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed-methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low consumption...... of fruit and vegetables is associated with NCDs. In Zanzibar, the incidence of diabetes has increased from 252 new cases in 2006, to 373 in 2008, in an adult population of just over a million people and hypertension is the second commonest cause of death. We explored the association between fruit...... and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related NCDs in Zanzibar....

  8. The nature and prevalence of chronic pain in homeless persons: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Fisher; Judith Ewing; Alice Garrett; E Katherine Harrison; Kimberly KT Lwin; Wheeler, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Homeless people are known to suffer disproportionately with health problems that reduce physical functioning and quality of life, and shorten life expectancy. They suffer from a wide range of diseases that are known to be painful, but little information is available about the nature and prevalence of chronic pain in this vulnerable group. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain among homeless people, and to examine its location, effect on activities of daily li...

  9. Prevalence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in South Indian population with hypertension and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shanmuganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is associated with a high risk of developing further severe complications such as, cardiovascular disease and eventually End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD leading to death. Hypertension plays a key role in the progression of renal failure and is also a chief risk factor for the occurrence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Aim: This study investigates the possible association of insertion (I and deletion (D polymorphism of ACE gene in patients of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD with and without hypertension (HT. Settings and Design: Total 120 participants with 30 members in each group (Control, HT, CKD and CKD-HT were chosen followed by informed consent. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical analyses and nested PCR amplification was performed to genotype the DNA, for ACE I/D using specific primers. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 13. Allele and genotypic frequency was calculated by direct gene counting method. Comparison of the different genotypes was done by using Chi square test. Odd′s ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval limit. Results: The ACE genotype were distributed as II, 27 (90%; DD, 2 (6.67% and ID, 1 (3.33% in control, II, 1 (3.33%; DD, 5 (16.67% and ID, 24 (80% in HT, II, 4 (13.33%; DD, 24 (80% and ID, 2 (6.67% in CKD and II, 0 (0%; DD, 2 (6.67% and ID, 28 (93.33% in CKD-HT group. Conclusions: D allele of ACE gene confers a greater role in genetic variations underlying CKD and hypertension. This result suggest that CKD patients should be offered analysis for defects in ACE I/D polymorphisms, especially if they are hypertensive.

  10. Arterial Stiffness and Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Anne-Sophie; Briet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health concern due to the high prevalence of associated cardiovascular (CV) disease. CV mortality is 10-30 times higher in end-stage renal disease patients than in the age-adjusted general population. The last 20 years have been marked by a huge effort in the characterization of the vascular remodeling process associated with CKD and its consequences on the renal, CV and general prognosis. By comparison with patients with normal renal function, w...

  11. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  12. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turkey was 31.8%. The PatenT study also reported that overall awareness (40.7%), treatment (31.1%), and control rates (8.1%) of hypertension were strikingly low. Only 20.7% of the patients who were aware of their hypertension and receiving treatment had their blood pressure controlled to diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome were reported as 32.7%, 12.7%, 76.3%, 20.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. The prevalence and awareness of hypertension in CREDIT population was 32.7% and 48.6%, respectively. According to the data obtained from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey is alarmingly high. To improve prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of these major public health problems, appropriate health strategies should be implemented by the government, together with medical societies, non-governmental organizations, industry, health-care providers, and academia. PMID:25019009

  13. Prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases in individuals over the age of 40 in São Paulo, Brazil: the Platino study Prevalência de doenças crônicas autorrelatadas em indivíduos acima de 40 anos em São Paulo, Brasil: estudo Platino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa K. Carvalho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic diseases and its impact in individuals aged 40 years or over in Brazil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of some common chronic diseases in the Brazilian subgroup assessed by the PLATINO study using a self-reported survey. A total of 918 individuals (55% women with a mean age of 54.6 ± 10.9 years were evaluated. The most prevalent diseases were obesity (62.5%, hypertension (39.2% and gastritis (30.9%. We conclude from this study that there is a high prevalence of chronic diseases in the population over 40 years of age: 88% of the population suffers from a minimum of one disease and 26% of the sample suffers from at least three diseases. We also observed that the number of comorbidities increases with age.Poucos estudos foram desenvolvidos para determinar a prevalência de doenças crônicas e suas associações em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos de idade no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de algumas doenças crônicas altamente prevalentes no país, de modo autorreferido, avaliadas no Estudo PLATINO em São Paulo, em uma amostra de base populacional. Novecentos e dezoito indivíduos (55% mulheres com média de idade de 54,6 ± 10,9 anos foram avaliados. As três doenças mais prevalentes foram obesidade (62,5%, hipertensão (39,2% e gastrite (30,9%. Há uma alta prevalência de doenças crônicas na população acima de 40 anos: 88% da amostra apresentaram pelo menos uma doença e 26%, pelo menos, três doenças; e o número de doenças apresentava tendência a aumentar com a idade.

  14. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  15. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Brøvig;

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.......Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  16. Nutrition in Chronic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Silva; Sara Gomes; Armando Peixoto; Paulo Torres-Ramalho; Hélder Cardoso; Rosa Azevedo; Carla Cunha; Guilherme Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition is a transversal condition to all stages of chronic liver disease. Early recognition of micro or macronutrient deficiencies is essential, because the use of nutritional supplements reduces the risk of complications. The diet of patients with chronic liver disease is based on a standard diet with supplements addition as necessary. Restrictions may be harmful and should be individualized. Treatment management should aim to maintain an adequate protein and caloric...

  17. The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a multifactorial disease. Allergies are considered a predisposing factor to CRS; however, this remains controversial. The objective of this research was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities and allergic reaction, and to specify the most common allergens in patients with confirmed CRS.   Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with signs and symptoms of CRS who met the diagnostic endoscopic and radiologic criteria of chronic rhinosinusitis were selected. They filled out a questionnaire and underwent a skin prick test for the common inhalant allergens. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed according to the history and positive skin prick tests.   Results: The mean age of patients was 34. Males were slightly more involved (54%. The prevalence of polypoid and none-polypoid rhinosinusitis was 54% and 46% respectively. The patients’ most common symptoms were nasal discharge (95%, blockage (94%, smell disorders (63%, cough (45%, halitosis (41%, lethargy (37%, and aural fullness (36%. Allergy to at least one allergen was noted in 64% of the CRS patients which is higher than general population in Mashhad, Iran with allergic rhinitis (22.4%. Salsola was the most common allergen. There was no significant difference in allergic reactions between polypoid and non-polypoid CRS patients.   Conclusion:  Allergic reactions was found in Iranian CRS patients with or without polyposis to be much higher than general population in Mashhad with allergic rhinitis alone.

  18. The Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors amongst Adults in the Dikgale Health Demographic and Surveillance System (HDSS Site, Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Maimela

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors in a rural community in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.This survey was conducted using the WHO "STEPwise approach to the surveillance of non-communicable diseases" (STEPS methodology. Participants were residents of the Dikgale HDSS site and standardised international protocols were used to measure behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and, physical activity and physical characteristics (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure-BP. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL-C were determined in 732 participants. Data were analysed using STATA 12 for Windows.The prevalence of current smokers amongst the participants was 13.7%, of which 81.3% were daily smokers. Alcohol was consumed by 16.3% of the participants. The majority of participants (88.6% had low daily intake of fruit and vegetables and low physical activity (66.5%. The prevalence of hypertension amongst the participants was 38.2%. Overweight, obesity and high waist circumference were prevalent in females. The cardio-metabolic risk profile was not significantly different between men and women. People who were older than 40 years, overweight or obese and those who consumed alcohol were more likely to be hypertensive. Smoking was associated significantly with older age, males, never married and divorced people. Alcohol consumption was associated with older age, males, low educational status and low income.High levels of risk factors for NCDs among adults in the Dikgale HDSS suggest an urgent need for health interventions to control these risk factors at the population level in order to reduce the prevalence of NCDs.

  19. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Biryukov, Stan; Bolliger, Ian; Charlson, Fiona; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dicker, Daniel; Duan, Leilei; Erskine, Holly; Feigin, Valery L.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Heuton, Kyle R.; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kyu, Hmwe; Laurie, Evan; Liang, Xiofeng; Lofgren, Katherine; Lozano, Rafael; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Odell, Shaun; Ortblad, Katrina; Roberts, David Allen; Roth, Gregory A.; Sandar, Logan; Serina, Peter T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Thomas, Bernadette; Vollset, Stein Emil; Whiteford, Harvey; Wolock, Timothy M.; Ye, Pengpeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Avila, Marco A.; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Josef C.; Arnlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J.; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Anderson, H. Ross; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Arsenijevic, Valentain S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Basu, Arindam; Baxter, Amanda; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfi Qar; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brooks, Peter M.; Brown, Jonathan; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Burch, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Cardenas, Rosario; Cabral, Norberto L.; Nonato, Ismael R. Campos; Campuzano, Julio C.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coggeshall, Megan; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Contreras, Alejandra G.; Cooper, Leslie T.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Coresh, Josef; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Dansereau, Emily; Dantes, Hector G.; Dargan, Paul I.; Davey, Gail; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; de Veber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. R.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duber, Herbert; Durrani, Adnan M.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fahimi, Saman; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferri, Cluesa P.; Flaxman, Abraham; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard C.; Furst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim A.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Gugnani, Harish C.; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Howard; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huang, Cheng; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Katz, Ronit; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A. H.; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kissela, Brett M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Kramer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Lim, Stephen; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lind, Margaret; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lopez-Olmedo, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Low, Nicola; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Mackay, Mark T.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mapoma, Christopher C.; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn M.; Margono, Chris; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin B.; Masci, Joseph R.; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopoulos, Richard G.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGill, Neil W.; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abby; McMahon, Brian J.; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mensah, George; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Moore, Ami R.; Moran, Andrew E.; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Moyer, Madeline; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Paria; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newman, Lori M.; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Nhung, Nguyen T.; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Ortiz, Alberto; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S.; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phillips, David; Phillips, Bryan; Piel, Frederic B.; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, C. A.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qato, Dima; Quistberg, D. A.; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Refaat, Amany; Rehm, Jurgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Riederer, Anne M.; Robinson, Margot; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Ksoreide, Kjetil; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E.; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I.; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Speyer, Peter; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stoeckl, Heidi; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Murray B.; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stewart, Andrea; Stork, Eden; Stovner, Lars J.; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Tan, Feng; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Theadom, Alice M.; Thomas, Elissa; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uzun, Selen B.; van Brakel, Wim H.; de Vijver, Steven van; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Veerman, Lennert J.; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Waller, Stephen; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Linhong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Thomas N.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wong, John Q.; Wong, Haidong; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yentur, Gokalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Kim, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhao, Yong; Zhu, Jun; Zonies, David; Zunt, Joseph R.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities f

  20. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, T.; Barber, R.M.; Bell, B.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities f

  1. Comparação das informações sobre as prevalências de doenças crônicas obtidas pelo suplemento saúde da PNAD/98 e as estimadas pelo estudo Carga de Doença no Brasil Comparison of the information on prevalences of chronic diseases obtained by the health suplement of PNAD/98 and the estimated ones by the study Burden of Disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iúri da Costa Leite

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, estimativas de prevalência de cinco doenças crônicas ­ cirrose, depressão, diabetes, insuficiência renal crônica e tuberculose ­ obtidas pelo Suplemento Saúde da PNAD/98 foram comparadas com as obtidas no Projeto Carga Global de Doença no Brasil. Essas estimativas foram baseadas em análise sistemática de literatura e banco de dados de morbidade disponíveis. Os resultados mostram que a PNAD apresentou número de casos mais elevados para depressão e insuficiência renal crônica, enquanto as estimativas do Projeto Carga de Doença no Brasil apresentou maiores prevalências para cirrose, diabetes e tuberculose.In this study, prevalence estimates of five chronic disease cirrhosis, depression, diabetes, chronic rhenal insufficiency and tuberculosis based on the 1998 PNAD Health Supplement were compared to those obtained by the Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Project. These estimates were based on systematic literature review as well as on available data set of morbidities. The results show that PNAD presented higher number of cases for depression and Chronic rhenal insufficiency while the prevalence rates estimated by Brazilian Global Burden of Disease Project were higher for cirrhosis, diabetes and tuberculosis.

  2. Ivabradine, heart failure and chronic kidney disease

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    Luca Di Lullo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure are actually increasing worldwide, especially in Western countries. In Europe and the United States, congestive heart failure represents a disabling clinical disease, accountable for increased hospitalization and health care costs. European guidelines have underlined the importance of pharmacological treatment to improve both patients’ outcomes and quality of life. The latest clinical trials to evaluate ivabradine’s efficacy have underlined its usefulness as a stand-alone medication and in combination with conventional congestive heart failure therapy, including in chronic kidney disease patients.

  3. The dyslipidemia of chronic renal disease: effects of statin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Ozsoy; S.I. van Leuven; J.J.P. Kastelein; L. Arisz; M.G. Koopman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of review Dyslipidemia is a prevalent condition in patients with chronic renal disease, but is often left untreated. Statin treatment constitutes an effective way to improve lipid abnormalities. This review summarizes present studies on dyslipidemia and its treatment in patients with chronic

  4. 上海市崇明县离休干部慢性病现况调查%Investigation in prevalences of chronic diseases in retired cadres in Chongming County of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周熙琳; 梁辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalences of 9 common chronic diseases in retired cadres in Chongming County of Shanghai.Methods General epidemiological investigation was conducted in all retired cadres (n = 268) living in Ghongming County of Shanghai, and all data were collected from the cadre clinic, physical examination center and ward of cadres of Chongming Branch of Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and on-site investigation.The diagnostic standard of classification of diseases referred to the standards of International Classification of Diseases lCD-10.Two hundred and forty-nine people were investigated actually, and the response rate was 92.9%.The prevalences of chronic diseases and distribution of diseases in retired cadres were retrospectively analysed.Results The prevalences of chronic diseases were 98.39% (245/249), and the prevalences of coronary heart disease, hypertension,stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastritis and gastric ulcer, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease,dementia and malignant tumors were73.1%, 72.3%, 35.7%, 34.5%, 33.7%, 28.1%, 20.5%, 14.5% and 14.1%,respectively.The prevalence of having 3 diseases in the same cadre was 83.5%, that of having 7 diseases in the same cadre was 9.1%, and that of tumor was 14.1%.Conclusion Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases dominate the disease spectrum of retired cadres.Various diseases may seize the same retired cadres at the same time, which is the most important epidemiological characteristics.The prevalence of tumors is higher in old people.Appropriate preventive measures should be taken, and proper treatment should be performed in the cadres.%目的 对上海市崇明县离休干部常见的9种慢性病的患病状况进行调查分析.方法 采用流行病学调查方法对现居该县的所有离休老干部(n=268)进行普查,全部病历资料来自该院的干部门诊、体检中心、干部病

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Related Symptoms among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…

  6. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  7. Living With Chronic Lower Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Pooler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I present a phenomenological study of individuals’ experiences of living with moderate to very severe chronic lower pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or both. Phenomenology is a philosophy, distinct from descriptive or thematic research, which is useful as a foundation for scientific inquiry. In this study, I used the lens of Merleau-Ponty to understand and interpret participants’ experiences of living with pulmonary disease, and the approach of van Manen for analysis. I conclude that in chronic pulmonary disease, awareness of breathing and the body is experienced in the sounds, sensations, and signals of breathing and the body, and in the experiences of the body-in-the-world. Central themes of being-in-the-world from the study describe the disruption of the embodied phenomenological self: Participants experienced slowing down, doing less, and having to stop due to shortness of breath. Both chronic and acute dyspnea were prevalent and the taken-for-granted aspects of daily activities were disrupted. Findings of this study have implications for public and patient education, and opportunities for integration of experiential aspects within nursing education and practice.

  8. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  9. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients.

  10. Prevalence and treatment of giardiasis in chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, P B; Marsh, M N; Phillips, M B; Dewit, O; Neale, G; Cevallos, A M; Yamson, P; Farthing, M J

    1991-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of giardiasis in Gambian children with chronic diarrhoea and to assess their response to treatment, 31 children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition were investigated for giardiasis using a combination of serology (specific antigiardia IgM antibody) and microscopy of faeces and jejunal biopsy specimens. Fourteen of 31 children with chronic diarrhoea had giardiasis compared with only four of 33 healthy age and sex matched control children. Four of 15 malnourished...

  11. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; L. Peters; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristics (concerning course, control and possible stressful consequences), physical quality of life indicators and social and relationship problems. Panel data from the Dutch national Panel of Patients w...

  12. Investigate and Analysis on Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Sunhe Community of Beijing%北京市孙河地区居民慢性病发病情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 张义军; 孙玉衡

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解社区居民慢性病的发病情况并分析其因为,并提出针对高危人群的卫生策略.方法 2009年12月组织朝阳区孙河地区成年居民进行了免费健康检查,进行慢性病发病情况的调查分析.结果 高血压患病率为27.8%,明显高于全国高血压发病率和北京高血压患病率;糖尿病患病率为10.8%,高于我国20岁以上人群糖尿病患病率;血脂异常患病率为23.3%,明显高于我国成人血脂异常患病率.结论 本次体检人群高血压、糖尿病、冠心病、血脂异常的患病率明显高于全国上述疾病的患病率,孙河地区慢性疾病高的患病率可能和吸烟、肥胖、血脂异常、不良的生活方式等可控制因素密切相关,作为卫生工作者,对社区居民进行卫生策略的建议及健康的指导,对于我国人民的卫生健康具有重要的意义.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of chronic diseases in community residents, and propose hygienic strategy for the high-risk group of people. Methods The free health check for adult residents in Sunhe area of Chaoyang District was carried out to investigate the incidence of chronic diseases in December 2009. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 27.8%,significantly higher than the incidence of Nation and Beijing area;the prevalence rate of diabetes was 10.8% ,higher than the national prevalence of diabetes over the age of 20;the prevalence rate of dyslipidemia was 23.3%, significantly higher than the prevalence of adult dyslipidemia. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and dyslipidemia are significantly higher than the national incidence, and this higher prevalence rate may be closely related to smoking, obesity,poor lifestyle which can be easily controlled. Therefore ,family doctors giving healthy advice and doing healthy education are significant for public health.

  13. Sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Stephanie C; El Sara, Ammar; Chapman, Cherylle; Cohen, Danielle; Cukor, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Sleep disorders have a profound and well-documented impact on overall health and quality of life in the general population. In patients with chronic disease, sleep disorders are more prevalent, with an additional morbidity and mortality burden. The complex and dynamic relationship between sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain relatively little investigated. This article presents an overview of sleep disorders in patients with CKD, with emphasis on relevant pathophysiologic underpinnings and clinical presentations. Evidence-based interventions will be discussed, in the context of individual sleep disorders, namely sleep apnea, insomnia, restless leg syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness. Limitations of the current knowledge as well as future research directions will be highlighted, with a final discussion of different conceptual frameworks of the relationship between sleep disorders and CKD. PMID:27152260

  14. Recent trends in chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Joseph S; Hung William W; Boockvar Kenneth S; Siu Albert L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To examine concurrent prevalence trends of chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults. Methods We analyzed the 1998, 2004 and 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of older adults in the United States, and included 31,568 community dwelling adults aged 65 and over. Measurements include: prevalence of chronic diseases including hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease and arthr...

  15. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  16. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated factors: the PLATINO Study in São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e fatores associados: Estudo PLATINO em São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; José Roberto Jardim; Rogelio Pérez-Padilla; Aquiles Camelier; Fernanda Rosa; Oliver Nascimento; Pedro Curi Hallal

    2005-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now a major public health concern; deaths attributable to COPD in Latin America have increased by 65.0% in the last decade. This study was aimed at evaluating COPD prevalence and associated factors in adults (> 40 years) living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. The study is part of the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (The PLATINO Project), a multi-center survey on COPD burden in Latin America, with São ...

  17. Chronic kidney disease and bone fracture: a growing concern

    OpenAIRE

    Nickolas, Thomas L.; Leonard, Mary B.; Shane, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility to fracture is increased across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moreover, fracture in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) results in significant excess mortality. The incidence and prevalence of CKD and ESKD are predicted to increase markedly over the coming decades in conjunction with the aging of the population. Given the high prevalence of both osteoporosis and CKD in older adults, it is of the utmost public health relevance to be able to assess fract...

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  19. Vitamin D status and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is common among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether vitamin D affects the development and deterioration of COPD or is a consequence of the disease lacks clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent ...

  20. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  1. Metformin in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James

    2014-01-01

    Metformin has traditionally been regarded as contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), though guidelines in recent years have been relaxed to permit therapy if the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is > 30 mL/min. The main problem is the perceived risk of lactic acidosis (LA). Epidemiological...

  2. Study on prevalence and related factors of chronic diseases among adults in rural area of Zhongshan city%中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志宏; 梁佩韶; 邝周平

    2010-01-01

    Objective Study on prevalence and related factors of chronic diseases among adults in rural area of Zhongshan city and provide evidences for health care policy making. Methods 15550 adults in rural area of Zhongshan city were investigated about status of chronic diseases and its related factors. Results 46.23% adults suffered from chronic diseases, in which the top five were overweight (30. 8%), hypertension ( 11.9% ), high blood cholesterol level ( 8.5 % ), diabetes ( 8.1% ), and Arthropathy ( 6. 5 % ). The main incorrect life manner were High-fat diet (58.9%), smoking( 25.6% % )and drinking( 15.3 % ). Multi-variable logistic regression analysis showed that time of sitting, salt diet, fat diet, smoking, drinking, quality of sleeping, sport were primary influencing factors of the chronic disease of rural adults. Conclusion The rural adults had high prevalence of chronic disease. Effective health education, active and efficient community service should be Provided, good living habits should be Advocated to promote the health of rural adults.%目的 探讨中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况及相关因素的现状,为农村慢性病综合防治的实施提供依据.方法 对中山市某两镇15550名居民健康调查和健康体检资料进行回顾性研究,分析中山市农村居民慢性病患病情况、行为习惯、就医意向等相关情况.结果 中山市农村居民主要慢性病的总患病率为46.23%,排在前5位的是:超重和肥胖、高血压、高脂血症、糖尿病和关节病,其患病率分别是30.8%、11.9%、8.5%、8.1%和6.5%;不良行为习惯排在前3位的是高脂饮食(58.9%)、吸烟(25.6%)和饮酒(15.3%);就医意向方面;有66.0%的居民表示患病时首选社区卫生服务机构就医,有81.3%的居民曾经到社区卫生服务机构就诊.多因素logistic回归分析显示:长期坐着工作(OR=1.704),高盐饮食(OR=2.752),高脂饮食(OR=2.497),吸烟(OR=1.932),饮酒(OR=1.354),经常熬夜(OR=1.213)是农

  3. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levey, Andrew S.; Coresh, Josef; Bolton, Kline; Culleton, Bruce; Harvey, Kathy Schiro; Ikizler, T. Alp; Johnson, Cynda Ann; Kausz, Annamaria; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kusek, John; Levin, Adeera; Minaker, Kenneth L.; Nelson, Robert; Rennke, Helmut; Steffes, Michael; Witten, Beth; Hogg, Ronald J.; Furth, Susan; Lemley, Kevin V.; Portman, Ronald J.; Schwartz, George; Lau, Joseph; Balk, Ethan; Perrone, Ronald D.; Karim, Tauqeer; Rayan, Lara; Al-Massry, Inas; Chew, Priscilla; Astor, Brad C.; De Vine, Deirdre; Eknoyan, Garabed; Levin, Nathan; Burrows-Hudson, Sally; Keane, William; Kliger, Alan; Latos, Derrick; Mapes, Donna; Oberley, Edith; Willis, Kerry; Bailie, George; Becker, Gavin; Burrowes, Jerrilynn; Churchill, David; Collins, Allan; Couser, William; de Zeeuw, Dick; Garber, Alan; Golper, Thomas; Gotch, Frank; Gotto, Antonio; Greer, Joel W.; Grimm Jr., Richard; Hannah, Ramon G.; Acosta, Jaime Herrera; Hogg, Ronald; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Klag, Michael; Klahr, Saulo; Lewis, Caya; Lowrie, Edmund; Matas, Arthur; McCulloch, Sally; Michael, Maureen; Nally, Joseph V.; Newmann, John M.; Nissenson, Allen; Norris, Keith; Owen Jr., William; Patel, Thakor G.; Payne, Glenda; Rivera-Mizzoni, Rosa A.; Smith, David; Star, Robert; Steinman, Theodore; Valderrabano, Fernando; Walls, John; Wauters, Jean-Pierre; Wenger, Nanette; Briggs, Josephine

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease as a public health problem. Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure, with poor outcomes and high cost. There is an even higher prevalence of earlier stages of

  4. Chronic Lyme disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Studies have shown that most patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease either have no objective evidence of previous or current infection with Borrelia burgdorferi or are patients who should be classified as having post-Lyme disease syndrome, which is defined as continuing or relapsing nonspecific symptoms (such as fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints) in a patient previously treated for Lyme disease. Despite extensive study, there is currently no clear evidence that post-Lyme disease syndrome is caused by persistent infection with B burgdorferi. Four randomized placebo-controlled studies have shown that antibiotic therapy offers no sustained benefit to patients who have post-Lyme disease syndrome. These studies also showed a substantial placebo effect and a significant risk of treatment-related adverse events. Further research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying persistent symptoms after Lyme disease and controlled trials of new approaches to the treatment and management of these patients are needed.

  5. Chronic kidney disease: considerations for nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, Alison L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent and has major health consequences for patients. Caring for patients with CKD requires knowledge of the food supply, renal pathophysiology, and nutrition-related medications used to work synergistically with diet to control the signs and symptoms of the disease. The nutrition care process and International Dietetic and Nutrition Terminology allow for systematic, holistic, quality care of patients with this complex, progressive disease. Nutrition interventions must be designed with the individual patients needs in mind while prioritizing factors with the largest negative impact on health outcomes and mortality risk. New areas of nutrition treatment are emerging that involve a greater focus on micronutrient needs, the microbiome, and vegetarian-style diets. These interventions may improve outcomes by decreasing inflammation, improving energy and protein delivery, and lowering phosphorus, electrolytes, and fluid retention.

  6. Perspectives on "chronic Lyme disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip J

    2008-07-01

    There is much controversy about the treatment of Lyme disease with respect to 2 poorly defined entities: "chronic Lyme disease" and "posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome." In the absence of direct evidence that these conditions are the result of a persistent infection, some mistakenly advocate extended antibiotic therapy (>/=6 months), which can do great harm and has resulted in at least 1 death. The purpose of this brief report is to review what is known from clinical research about these conditions to assist both practicing physicians and lawmakers in making sound and safe decisions with respect to treatment.

  7. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessolossky M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mireya Wessolossky,1 Verna L Welch,2 Ajanta Sen,1 Tara M Babu,1 David R Luke21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USABackground: Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients.Methods: The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis.Results: Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61% and asthma (18%, and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27% and bone marrow transplants (14%. A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03. The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14; 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75.Conclusion: Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the

  8. Chronic Diseases among Older Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Deckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the occurrence of pre-existing and subsequent comorbidity among older cancer patients (≥60 years with older non-cancer patients. Material and Methods. Each cancer patient (n=3835, mean age 72 was matched with four non-cancer patients in terms of age, sex, and practice. The occurrence of chronic diseases was assessed cross-sectionally (lifetime prevalence at time of diagnosis and longitudinally (incidence after diagnosis for all cancer patients and for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients separately. Cancer and non-cancer patients were compared using logistic and Cox regression analysis. Results. The occurrence of the most common pre-existing and incident chronic diseases was largely similar in cancer and non-cancer patients, except for pre-existing COPD (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.37 and subsequent venous thrombosis in the first two years after cancer diagnosis (HR 4.20, 95% CI 2.74–6.44, which were significantly more frequent (P<0.01 among older cancer compared to non-cancer patients. Conclusion. The frequency of multimorbidity in older cancer patients is high. However, apart from COPD and venous thrombosis, the incidence of chronic diseases in older cancer patients is similar compared to non-cancer patients of the same age, sex, and practice.

  9. 兰州地区军队离退休老干部慢性疾病患病现况调查%A SURVEY ON PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC DISEASES AMONG THE RETIRED CADRES IN ARMY OF LANZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东; 杨丹; 张岩红; 王梅艳; 王朝端; 鹿琼; 尹榕

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To survey the situation of chronic non-communicable diseases among the retired cadres in army of Lanzhou, and trake some prevention tactics. [Methods] Using cluster sampling method, 550 veteran retired in Lanzhou were given physical examinations and questionaire. [Results] In this study, the mean age of interviewees, aged 56-98 years, was 78.90 year. 78.5% were more than 76 years (P< 0.01). The sex ratio (M/F) was 3.3∶1 (P< 0.05). All the interviewees had chronic disease, and compared with suffering from one kind of disease (15.33%) , the prevalence with four kinds was 47.38% (P<0.01). Compared with Xi'an and Anhui, Lanzhou had higher incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (P < 0.01), however, the prevalence rates of diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were low (P < 0.01). The top 5 chronic diseases in men were prostatic hyperplasia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cataract, diabetes, and the top 5 chronic diseases in women were hypertension, coronary heart disease, cataract, diabetes, and bone and joint diseases. [Conclusion] Nearly 2/3 of Lanzhou retired veterans have more than two chronic diseases. Men suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia are significantly more than the same age groups in other regions. Women suffering from bone and joint diseases are more than the men. Therefore, it is high time that the early intervention should be carried out for chronic disease risk factors to improve health care of Lanzhou retired veteran cadres. In addition to treatment for the diseases, the low-fat, low-salt, low-calorie diet and high calcium diet intervention and outdoor activities should be carried out for women.%[目的]调查兰州地区军队离退休老干部慢性非传染性疾病的患病情况,并提出相应的预防策略.[方法]采用整群抽样的方法.对兰州地区某3个干休所550名离退休老干部进行问卷调查和体格检查相结合的方法进行流调分析.[结果]调查对象年龄56~98

  10. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome in the urban Chinese population: prevalence and disease burden using the 2010, 2012, and 2013 China National Health and Wellness Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Ding B; DiBonaventura M; Karlsson N; Ling X

    2016-01-01

    Bo Ding,1 Marco DiBonaventura,2 Niklas Karlsson,1 Xia Ling31Department of Global Medical Affairs, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medical Affairs China, AstraZeneca, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Research has suggested a significant burden for patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, few studies have studied this populati...

  11. Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Webinars Tips & Stories Links & Resources Learn About Chronic Kidney Disease Kidney Glossary Ask Our Expert Toll-Free Helpline: ... Questions What You Can Do Download all the chronic kidney disease information presented here. Preview Our CKD Booklets Stage ...

  12. Pericytes in chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jessica E; Johnson, Jill R

    2014-01-01

    Pericytes are mesenchymal cells embedded within the abluminal surface of the endothelium of microvessels such as capillaries, pre-capillary arterioles, post-capillary and collecting venules, where they maintain microvascular homeostasis and participate in angiogenesis. In addition to their roles in supporting the vasculature and facilitating leukocyte extravasation, pericytes have been recently investigated as a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their capacity to differentiate into numerous cell types including the classic MSC triad, i.e. osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Other studies in models of fibrotic inflammatory disease of the lung have demonstrated a vital role of pericytes in myofibroblast activation, collagen deposition and microvascular remodelling, which are hallmark features of chronic lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Further studies into the mechanisms of the pericyte-to-myofibroblast transition and migration to fibrotic foci will hopefully clarify the role of these cells in chronic lung disease and confirm the importance of pericytes in human fibrotic pulmonary disease. PMID:25034005

  13. Vouchers for chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer J; Segal, Leonie

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of vouchers for chronic disease management with respect to achieving objectives of equity and efficiency. Vouchers as a payment policy instrument for health care services have a set of properties that suggest they may address both demand-side and supply-side issues, and contribute to equity and efficiency. They provide a means whereby health care services can be targeted at selected groups, enabling consumer choice of provider, and encouraging competition in the supply of health services. This analysis suggests that, when structured appropriately, vouchers can support consumers to choose services that will meet their health care needs and encourage competition among providers. Although they may not be appropriate across the entire health care system, there are features of vouchers that make them a potentially attractive option, especially for the management of chronic disease.

  14. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation...... renal failure. Studies on liver biopsies have revealed synthesis of ET-1 in hepatic endothelial and other cells, and recent investigations have identified the hepatosplanchnic system as a major source of ET-1 and ET-3 spillover into the circulation, with a direct relation to portal venous hypertension....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J.; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Stefano M. Bertozzi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HI...

  16. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Beiko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant decreases in morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and cancers, morbidity and cost associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continue to be increasing. Failure to improve disease outcomes has been related to the paucity of interventions improving survival. Insidious onset and slow progression halter research successes in developing disease-modifying therapies. In part, the difficulty in finding new therapies is because of the extreme heterogeneity within recognized COPD phenotypes. Novel biomarkers are necessary to help understand the natural history and pathogenesis of the different COPD subtypes. A more accurate phenotyping and the ability to assess the therapeutic response to new interventions and pharmaceutical agents may improve the statistical power of longitudinal clinical studies. In this study, we will review known candidate biomarkers for COPD, proposed pathways of pathogenesis, and future directions in the field.

  17. Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revisio...

  18. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L; Thornburg, Kent L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  19. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max; Dræbel, Tania

    2012-01-01

    and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related NCDs in Zanzibar. Methods We used mixed methods research. The quantitative part of the study is a secondary analysis of data for obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and fruit and vegetable consumption previously collected in the Zanzibar NCD STEPS survey (n......=2800, age 25–65 years, done from June to July, 2011). We calculated frequency, percentage, and 95% CIs for age, sex, marital status, level of education, income, tobacco use, alcohol use, obesity (body mass index), hypertension (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and diabetes (fasting blood glucose...... did the independent sample t test for obesity and blood pressure and obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in rural and urban areas. We did ANOVA to assess the association between hypertension and fruit and vegetable intake. We used SPSS (version 20) for the analyses. The qualitative component...

  20. Skin diseases : prevalence and predictors of itch and disease severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Elisabeth Wilhelmina Maria

    2009-01-01

    Chronic skin diseases are known to be common among the general population. Nevertheless, little research attention has been paid to patients with skin diseases in the general population, and consequently, little is known about the impact of skin diseases on daily life within this population. General

  1. Ghrelin in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai W. Cheung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD often exhibit symptoms of anorexia and cachexia, which are associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Chronic inflammation may be an important mechanism for the development of anorexia, cachexia, renal osteodystrophy, and increased cardiovascular risk in CKD. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone. The biological effects of ghrelin are mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR. The salutary effects of ghrelin on food intake and meal appreciation suggest that ghrelin could be an effective treatment for anorexic CKD patients. In addition to its appetite-stimulating effects, ghrelin has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The known metabolic effects of ghrelin and the potential implications in CKD will be discussed in this review. The strength, shortcomings, and unanswered questions related to ghrelin treatment in CKD will be addressed.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, K K; Kjaergaard, J; Akkan, D;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with heart failure (HF). The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of COPD and to test the accuracy of self-reported COPD in patients admitted with HF. Secondary aims were to study a...

  3. Chronic periodontitis and smoking Prevalence and dose-response relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahrukh; Khalid, Taimur; Awan, Kamran H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 (±6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (>5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. Results: Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p<0.007), male gender (p<0.001), and lower education level (p<0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p<0.001) and severity (p<0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis. PMID:27464867

  4. Characterization of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niovis Sosa Barberena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cienfuegos has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease, which is a health problem of great social and economic impact. Objective: to characterize patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 80 patients treated at the Specialized Outpatient Center of Cienfuegos in 2013. General variables such as age, sex, and place of origin were analyzed, in addition to the causes of the disease, length of time on hemodialysis, type of vascular access, and prevalence of hepatitis C. Absolute frequencies, percentages, and rates were calculated. Results: the 45 to 54 age group was the most affected by the condition. Males accounted for 63.7%. Cienfuegos municipality showed the highest prevalence with 27.6 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most common cause of chronic kidney disease was nephroangiosclerosis (33.3%. Seventy three percent of patients started hemodialysis as an emergency therapy. The time on hemodialysis was less than one year and one to two years in more than half of patients. An arteriovenous fistula was used in 81.3% of cases. Hepatitis C showed a high prevalence. Conclusion: renal disease is more common in men of working age in Cienfuegos municipality. The major causes of this disease are associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  5. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorded, respectively. Other diseases and conditions recorded sporadically included coccidiosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, actinomyces, urolithiasis, aflatoxicosis, meningitis, pasteurella, and other miscellaneous conditions caused by microbial infestation from stomach or colic raptures. Mange and ascariasis were the main parasitic diseases recorded. The high prevalence of diseases suggests inadequacy of biosecurity measures. In order to reduce disease outbreaks and spread, strict biosecurity measures should be put in place on pig operations.

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  7. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  8. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  9. Tracking Chronic Disease and Risk Behavior Prevalence as Survey Participation Declines: Statistics From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and Other National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Levy, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionResponse rates for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS have declined in recent years. The response rate in 1993 was approximately 72%; in 2006, the response rate was approximately 51%. To assess the impact of this decline on the quality of BRFSS estimates, we compared selected health and risk factor estimates from BRFSS with similar estimates from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES.MethodsWe reviewed questionnaires from the 3 surveys and identified a set of comparable measures related to smoking prevalence, alcohol consumption, medical conditions, vaccination, health status, insurance coverage, cost barriers to medical care, testing for human immunodeficiency virus, and body measurements (height and weight.We compared weighted estimates for up to 15 outcome measures, including overall measures and measures for 12 population subgroups. We produced design-appropriate point estimates and carried out statistical tests of hypotheses on the equality of such estimates. We then calculated P values for comparisons of NHIS and NHANES estimates with their BRFSS counterparts.ResultsAlthough BRFSS and NHIS estimates were statistically similar for 5 of the 15 measures examined, BRFSS and NHANES estimates were statistically similar for only 1 of 6 measures. The observed differences for some of these comparisons were small, however.ConclusionThese surveys produced similar estimates for several outcome measures, although we observed significant differences as well. Many of the observed differences may have limited consequences for implementing related public health programs; other differences may require more detailed examination. In general, the range of BRFSS estimates examined here tends to parallel those from NHIS and NHANES, both of which have higher rates of participation.

  10. The prevalence of coeliac disease in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, G F; Dessole, S; Vargiu, N; Tomasi, P A; Musumeci, S

    1999-11-01

    An increased incidence of reproductive problems, including infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight newborns, and shorter duration of breast-feeding, are known to exist in women with coeliac disease; some of these conditions are improved by a gluten-free diet. We have tried to ascertain the prevalence of coeliac disease in 99 couples who were being evaluated for infertility, compared with the known prevalence of silent disease in the population of Northern Sardinia, in which it is endemic. Of all women, four tested positive for at least two out of three markers: immunoglobulin A (IgA) antigliadin, immunoglobulin (IgG) antigliadin, and anti-endomysium antibodies, and underwent a jejunal biopsy; three had histological evidence of coeliac disease. One male partner was positive for two markers, and had a diagnostic jejunal biopsy. The prevalence of coeliac disease in infertile women seems higher (three out of 99, 3. 03%) in the study group than in the general population (17 out of 1607, 1.06%), and particularly in the subgroup with unexplained infertility (two out of 25, 8%, P infertile women, particularly when no apparent cause can be ascertained after standard evaluation. PMID:10548618

  11. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  12. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin White-tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Ribic, Christine A; Langenberg, Julie A; Beheler, Kerry; Batha, Carl A; Dhuey, Brian J; Rolley, Robert E; Bartelt, Gerald; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Samuel, Michael D

    2003-05-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  13. Chronic kidney disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Francesca; Roperto, Rosa Maria; Materassi, Marco; Romagnani, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Although relatively uncommon in children, it can be a devastating illness with many long-term consequences. CKD presents unique features in childhood and may be considered, at least in part, as a stand-alone nosologic entity. Moreover, some typical features of paediatric CKD, such as the disease aetiology or cardiovascular complications, will not only influence the child's health, but also have long-term impact on the life of the adult that they will become. In this review we will focus on the unique issues of paediatric CKD, in terms of aetiology, clinical features and treatment. In addition, we will discuss factors related to CKD that start during childhood and require appropriate treatments in order to optimize health outcomes and transition to nephrologist management in adult life. PMID:27478602

  14. Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions in the United States' Medicare population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Debbie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which administers the Medicare program in the United States, launched the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW. The CCW contains all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS institutional and non-institutional claims, nursing home and home health assessment data, and enrollment/eligibility information from January 1, 1999 forward for a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (and 100% of the Medicare population from 2000 forward. Twenty-one predefined chronic condition indicator variables are coded within the CCW, to facilitate research on chronic conditions. The current article describes this new data source, and the authors demonstrate the utility of the CCW in describing the extent of chronic disease among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare claims were analyzed to determine the prevalence, utilization, and Medicare program costs for some common and high cost chronic conditions in the Medicare FFS population in 2005. Chronic conditions explored include diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, heart failure, cancer, chronic kidney disease (CKD, and depression. Fifty percent of Medicare FFS beneficiaries were receiving care for one or more of these chronic conditions. The highest prevalence is observed for diabetes, with nearly one-fourth of the Medicare FFS study cohort receiving treatment for this condition (24.3 percent. The annual number of inpatient days during 2005 is highest for CKD (9.51 days and COPD (8.18 days. As the number of chronic conditions increases, the average per beneficiary Medicare payment amount increases dramatically. The annual Medicare payment amounts for a beneficiary with only one of the chronic conditions is $7,172. For those with two conditions, payment jumps to $14,931, and for those with three or more conditions, the annual Medicare payments per beneficiary is $32,498. The CCW data files have tremendous value for health services research. The

  15. Anemia of Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Chung; Lee, Jhung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The pathogenetic mechanisms of anemia in patients with chronic liver disease were observed. Seventeen patients with moderate to advanced hepatic diseases were studied by various methods. Only patients without previous blood loss were included : 14 had cirrhosis, 2 had active chronic hepatitis, and one had inferior vena cava obstruction with associated liver cirrhosis. The followings were the results: 1. The anemia based on red blood cell count, Hb., and Ht. was found in 76.5-78.6% of the patients. 2. Red cell indices indicated that normo-macrocytic and normochromic anemia was present is the majority of the patients. 3. No evidence of megaloblastic anemia was found on the basis of the morphological examinations. 4. Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation and iron content in the bone marrow indicated that iron deficiency anemia was present in about half of the patients. 5. In the view of the erythrocyte dynamics, primary increase in the red cell destruction was ascribed to the cause of the anemia. 6. Decrease in the red cell survival time was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and S.L. ratio. Also, hemoglobin level was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and T{sub 50} Cr. Therefore, multiple causes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia. 7. Anemia as determined by the red cell volume was found in only 60% of the patients. It may be possible that hemodilutional anemia is present.

  16. Chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, N; Alberti, K G M M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for almost 60% of global mortality, and 80% of deaths from NCD occur in low- and middle-income countries. One quarter of these deaths--almost 9 million in 2005--are in men and women aged globalisation of the food, tobacco and alcohol industries. Because NCD have a major impact on men and women of working age and their elderly dependents, they result in lost income, lost opportunities for investment, and overall lower levels of economic development. Reductions in the incidences of many NCD and their complications are, however, already possible. Up to 80% of all cases of cardiovascular disease or type-2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer, for example, are probably preventable based on current knowledge. In addition, highly cost-effective measures exist for the prevention of some of the complications of established cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving these gains will require a broad range of integrated, population-based interventions as well as measures focused on the individuals at high risk. At present, the international-assistance community provides scant resources for the control of NCD in poor countries, partly, at least, because NCD continue to be wrongly perceived as predominantly diseases of the better off. As urbanization continues apace and populations age, investment in the prevention and control of NCD in low-and middle-income countries can no longer be ignored. PMID:16899148

  17. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.

  19. Prevalence and pattern of cystic kidney diseases in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Adindu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic kidney disease is an important cause of chronic renal failure. Since the utili-zation of imaging techniques in the diagnosis of diseases has become widespread, cystic kidney disease is now being increasingly diagnosed. This study is designed to determine the prevalence and pattern of cystic kidney disease at the Nephrology Unit of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH, Ilorin. All consecutive adult patients seen in the Nephrology Unit of UITH during a ten-year period (January 1999-December 2008 were studied for the presence of cystic kidney disease. The results were analyzed with specific reference to age, gender, annual inci-dence, type of cystic disease, location of cyst, mode of presentation, complications and prognosis. A total of 67 out of 436 renal patients (15.4% studied had cystic kidney disease. A progressive annual increase in the number of cases was noticed. The age-range was 20-83 years with a mean of 47.4 +/- 16.2 years and the peak incidence was in the third and sixth decades with male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The types of cystic kidney disease identified in the study were: 26 simple cysts (38.8%, 35 polycystic kidney disease (53.3% and six multicystic kidney disease (8.9%. The most common mode of presentation was abdominal pain followed by hypertension, urinary tract infection, chronic renal failure and palpable abdominal mass, in decreasing order. Our study indicates that cystic kidney disease is not an uncommon problem among our renal patients and the incidence is on the increase. Although, routine screening of family members with cystic kidney disease still remains a contentious issue because the knowledge may evoke anxiety in terms of employment and insurance, screening of symptomatic cases or those that develop hypertension, hematuria and proteinuria is strongly recommended.

  20. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levey, Andrew S.; Rocco, Michael V.; Anderson, Sharon; Andreoli, Sharon P.; Bailie, George R.; Bakris, George L.; Callahan, Mary Beth; Greene, Jane H.; Johnson, Cynda Ann; Lash, James P.; McCullough, Peter A.; Miller III, Edgar R.; Nally, Joseph V.; Pirsch, John D.; Portman, Ronald J.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Sica, Domenic; Wesson, Donald E.; Agodoa, Lawrence; Bolton, Kline; Cutler, Jeffrey A.; Hostetter, Tom; Lau, Joseph; Uhlig, Katrin; Chew, Priscilla; Kausz, Annamaria; Kupelnick, Bruce; Raman, Gowri; Sarnak, Mark; Wang, Chenchen; Astor, Brad C.; Eknoyan, Garabed; Levin, Adeera; Levin, Nathan; Bailie, George; Becker, Bryan; Becker, Gavin; Burrowes, Jerrilynn; Carrera, Fernando; Churchill, David; Collins, Allan; Crooks, Peter W.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Golper, Thomas; Gotch, Frank; Gotto, Antonio; Greenwood, Roger; Greer, Joel W.; Grimm Jr., Richard; Haley, William E.; Hogg, Ronald; Hull, Alan R.; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Klag, Michael; Klahr, Saulo; Lameire, Norbert; Locatelli, Francesco; McCulloch, Sally; Michael, Maureen; Newmann, John M.; Nissenson, Allen; Norris, Keith; Obrador, Gregorio; Owen Jr., William; Patel, Thakor G.; Payne, Glenda; Ronco, Claudio; Rivera-Mizzoni, Rosa A.; Schoolwerth, Anton C.; Star, Robert; Steffes, Michael; Steinman, Theodore; Wauters, John-Pierre; Wenger, Nanette; Briggs, Josephine; Burrows-Hudson, Sally; Latos, Derrick; Mapes, Donna; Oberley, Edith; Pereira, Brian J.G.; Willis, Kerry; Gucciardo, Anthony; Fingerhut, Donna; Klette, Margaret; Schachne, Elicia

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: CHRONIC KIDNEY disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue. In the United States, there is a rising incidence and prevalence of kidney failure (Fig 1), with poor outcomes and high cost. The prevalence of earlier stages of CKD is approximately 100 times greater than the prevalence

  1. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum. PMID:24459193

  2. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  3. Chronic liver disease in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, M V; Zawawi, M M

    1990-08-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse the clinical spectrum of chronic liver disease (cirrhosis, and others with portal hypertension) in Kuala Lumpur. Eighty patients were diagnosed over a 6-year period. Twenty-two had biopsy proven cirrhosis while 58 others had portal hypertension with clinical and biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. The commonest aetiology was alcohol (36%), followed by the idiopathic variety and hepatitis B. The male to female ratio was 4.4:1. Indians had a high prevalence of alcohol-associated chronic liver disease. Overall, ascites was the commonest presentation. Eight patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was diagnosed in 13% of patients undergoing abdominal paracentesis. Gallstones were detected in 37% of patients who underwent ultrasonography. Diabetes mellitus and peptic ulcer disease were noted in 22% and 31% of patients respectively.

  4. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  5. Interaction in COPD experiment (ICE): a hazardous combination of cigarette smoking and bronchodilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Weel, C. van; Schermer, T.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent disease, characterised by poorly reversible, obstructive airflow limitation. Alongside other comorbidities, COPD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease - mainly heart failure and is

  6. Kidneys in chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Hartleb; Krzysztof Gutkowski

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI),defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL,occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis.Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state,reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones.The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia,hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis.Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development,natriuresis,urine osmolality,response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion,and rarely on renal biopsy.Chronic glomeruIonephritis and obstructive uropathy are rare causes of azotemia in cirrhotic patients.AKI is one of the last events in the natural history of chronic liver disease,therefore,such patients should have an expedited referral for liver transplantation.Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is initiated by progressive portal hypertension,and may be prematurely triggered by bacterial infections,nonbacterial systemic inflammatory reactions,excessive diuresis,gastrointestinal hemorrhage,diarrhea or nephrotoxic agents.Each type of renal disease has a specific treatment approach ranging from repletion of the vascular system to renal replacement therapy.The treatment of choice in type 1 hepatorenal syndrome is a combination of vasoconstrictor with albumin infusion,which is effective in about 50% of patients.The second-line treatment of HRS involves a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt,renal vasoprotection or systems of artificial liver support.

  7. 老年体检人群主要慢性病患病现状及营养状况评价%Prevalence of Major Chronic Diseases and Assessment of Nutritional Status in Elderly Health Examination ;Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红艳; 林晓洁; 文燕; 梁兆凤; 陈伟银

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of major chronic diseases and nutritional status of elderly health examination population in order to provide scientific basis for improving the health status of the elderly. Method:Elderly health examination people in our hospital from September 2011 to December 2014 were selected as the research objects.Self designed questionnaire and Mini Nutritional Assessment(MNA)were used to survey the research objects.Result:In the 877 examination people,there were 114(13.0%)people without any diseases,405(46.2%) people suffering from one kind of disease,221(25.2%)people suffering from two kinds of diseases and 137(15.6%) people suffering from three or more kinds of diseases.There were 481(54.8%)people with hypertension,203(23.1%) people with coronary heart disease and 153(17.4%)people with diabetes mellitus,the diseases above were the first three diseases according to their morbidity rates.The first three diseases according to the medication compliance were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(81.8%),hypertension(81.7%)and pneumonia(81.0%).The average MNA total score was(23.1±3.9).In the research objects,there were 416(47.4%)people with potential malnutrition and 48(5.5%)people with malnutrition.Comparing the MNA scores of the elderly in different financial situation and different teeth situation respectively,the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Most of the elderly population are associated with one or more chronic diseases and there are also a certain number of undernourished people. The relevant departments should attach importance to the nutrition and health education of the elderly and actively improve the nutritional status of the old.%目的:了解老年体检人群主要慢性病患病现状及营养状况,为改善老人健康状况提供科学依据。方法:选择2011年9月-2014年12月在本院体检中心进行健康体检的老人作为研究对象,采用自行设计的主要慢

  8. Landscape genetics and the spatial distribution of chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A; Samuel, Michael D; Scribner, Kim T; Weckworth, Byron V; Langenberg, Julia A; Filcek, Kristine B

    2008-02-23

    Predicting the spread of wildlife disease is critical for identifying populations at risk, targeting surveillance and designing proactive management programmes. We used a landscape genetics approach to identify landscape features that influenced gene flow and the distribution of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Wisconsin white-tailed deer. CWD prevalence was negatively correlated with genetic differentiation of study area deer from deer in the area of disease origin (core-area). Genetic differentiation was greatest, and CWD prevalence lowest, in areas separated from the core-area by the Wisconsin River, indicating that this river reduced deer gene flow and probably disease spread. Features of the landscape that influence host dispersal and spatial patterns of disease can be identified based on host spatial genetic structure. Landscape genetics may be used to predict high-risk populations based on their genetic connection to infected populations and to target disease surveillance, control and preventative activities.

  9. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided...... comparable prevalence rates from many countries, whereas studies including clinical examinations and strict diagnostic criteria are scarce. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atopic diseases, the pattern of sensitization, and comorbidities at 14 years in a prospective birth cohort. METHODS......: The children were examined eight times from birth to 14 years. Visits included questionnaire-based interviews, clinical examination, skin prick test, and specific IgE. RESULTS: Follow-up rate at 14 years was 66.2%. The 12-month prevalence of any atopic disease was high (40.3%) mostly due to a high prevalence...

  10. Palliative care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Evan J; Senderovich, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the only major worldwide cause of mortality that is currently increasing in prevalence. Furthermore, COPD is incurable, and the only therapy that has been shown to increase survival is oxygen therapy in selected patients. Compared to patients with cancer, patients with COPD experience similar levels of pain, breathlessness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety and have a worse quality of life but have comparatively little access to palliative care. When these patients do receive palliative care, they tend to be referred later than patients with cancer. Many disease, patient-, and provider-related factors contribute to this phenomenon, including COPD's unpredictable course, misperceptions of palliative care among patients and physicians, and lack of advance care planning discussions outside of crisis situations. A new paradigm for palliative care would introduce palliative treatments alongside, rather than at the exclusion of disease-modifying interventions. This integrated approach would circumvent the issue of difficult prognostication in COPD, as any patient would receive individualized palliative interventions from the time of diagnosis. These points will be covered in this review, which discusses the challenges in providing palliative care to COPD patients, the strategies to mitigate the challenges, management of common symptoms, and the evidence for integrated palliative care models as well as some suggestions for future development.

  11. Monitoring the prevalence of chronic conditions: which data should we use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orueta Juan F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are an increasing threat to people’s health and to the sustainability of health organisations. Despite the need for routine monitoring systems to assess the impact of chronicity in the population and its evolution over time, currently no single source of information has been identified as suitable for this purpose. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of various chronic conditions estimated using routine data recorded by health professionals: diagnoses on hospital discharge abstracts, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses. Methods The ICD-9-CM codes for diagnoses and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC codes for prescriptions were collected for all patients in the Basque Country over 14 years of age (n=1,964,337 for a 12-month period. We employed a range of different inputs: hospital diagnoses, primary care diagnoses, primary care prescriptions and combinations thereof. Data were collapsed into the morbidity groups specified by the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs Case-Mix System. We estimated the prevalence of 12 chronic conditions, comparing the results obtained using the different data sources with each other and also with those of the Basque Health Interview Survey (ESCAV. Using the different combinations of inputs, Standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMRs for the considered diseases were calculated for the list of patients of each general practitioner. The variances of the SMRs were used as a measure of the dispersion of the data and were compared using the Brown-Forsythe test. Results The prevalences calculated using prescription data were higher than those obtained from diagnoses and those from the ESCAV, with two exceptions: malignant neoplasm and migraine. The variances of the SMRs obtained from the combination of all the data sources (hospital diagnoses, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses were significantly lower than those using only diagnoses. Conclusions The

  12. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... of adults who have ever been diagnosed with emphysema: 3.4 million Percent of adults who have ...

  13. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 270 KB). Alternate Language URL Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease Page Content On ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which a person ...

  14. Relevance of chronic lyme disease to family medicine as a complex multidimensional chronic disease construct: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Vandevoorde, Jan; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review.

  15. Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Borgermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review.

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death world-wide and a further increase in the prevalence as well as mortality of the disease is predicted for coming decades. There is now an increased appreciation for the need to build awareness regarding COPD and to help the thousands of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely from COPD or its associated complication(s. Peripheral neuropathy in COPD has received scanty attention despite the fact that very often clinicians come across COPD patients having clinical features suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. Electrophysiological tests like nerve conduction studies are required to distinguish between axonal and demyelinating type of disorder that cannot be analyzed by clinical examination alone. However, various studies addressing peripheral neuropathy in COPD carried out so far have included patients with COPD having markedly varying baseline characteristics like severe hypoxemia, elderly patients, those with long duration of illness, etc. that are not uniform across the studies and make it difficult to interpret the results to a consistent conclusion. Almost one-third of COPD patients have clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy and two-thirds have electrophysiological abnormalities. Some patients with no clinical indication of peripheral neuropathy do have electrophysiological deficit suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. The more frequent presentation consists of a polyneuropathy that is subclinical or with predominantly sensory signs, and the neurophysiological and pathological features of predominantly axonal neuropathy. The presumed etiopathogenic factors are multiple: chronic hypoxia, tobacco smoke, alcoholism, malnutrition and adverse effects of certain drugs.

  17. The prevalence of type 2 cardio-renal syndrome in inpatients with chronic heart disease%慢性心脏病住院患者2型心肾综合征的发生情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 倪兆慧; 牟珊; 张敏芳; 王琴; 车霞静; 钱家麒

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解慢性心脏病(Chronic kidney disease,CHD)患者2型心肾综合征(Cardiorenal syndrome,CRS)的发生情况并探讨其相关因素.方法 本研究对自2008年7月至2009年7月于上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院心脏内科住院的1275名患者的病历资料进行了回顾性调查.由MDRD公式估算肾小球滤过率(estimated glomerular filtration rate,eGFR),并对患者的基础资料包括年龄、性别、慢性病病史、相关实验室指标以及生活方式等进行了收集和分析.结果 1275名CHD住院患者的2型CRS患病率为18.4%(235/1275).2型CRS患者年龄较非CRS人群偏高,且更多存在糖尿病(28.9% 比 21.8%,P<0.05=和脑血管事件(9.8% 比 5.7%,P<0.001=.单变量分析结果显示血红蛋白( r=-0.148,P<0.001=、白蛋白(r= -0.147,P<0.001=、C反应蛋白(r=-0.330,P<0.001=、纤维蛋白原(r=0.098 P<0.05=、乳酸脱氢酶(r=0.127,P =0.042)、B型脑钠素(brain natriuretic peptide,BNP)(r= 0.182,P<0.001=、尿酸(r= 0.142,P<0.001=以及NYHA分级(r = 0.189,P<0.001=与2型CRS发生相关.进一步分析发现 2型CRS的发生与年龄[OR=1.039(1.013-1.065),P= 0.003]、白蛋白[OR=0.912(0.852~0.976),P=0.008]和尿酸[OR=1.005(1.003-1.007),P<0.001=水平有着密切联系.结论 本研究结果表明在CHD患者中2型CRS患病率高.某些心肾传统危险因素及患者心功能等情况与2型CRS的发生相关.对于高龄、高尿酸血症及营养状况较差的CHD患者,2型CRS的早期诊断和早期治疗尤为重要.%Objective In this study, we aim to investigate the prevalence of type 2 cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) in chronic heart disease (CHD) patients and to find out the factors relating to type 2 CRS. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 1275 CHD inpatients in the Cardiology Department from July 2008 to July 2009 was conducted. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the simplified Modification of

  18. Controversies in Chronic Kidney Disease Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Polkinghorne, Kevan R

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, a new chronic kidney disease staging system was developed by the US National Kidney Foundation. The classification system represented a new conceptual framework for the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (moving to a schema based on disease severity defined by the glomerular filtration rate). While the introduction of the staging system stimulated significant clinical and research interest in kidney disease, there has been vigorous debate on its merits. This mini-review aims to summ...

  19. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  20. Chronic diseases among older cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckx, L.D.; Akker, M.A. van der; Metsemakers, J.M.; Knottnerus, A.K.; Schellevis, F.G.; Buntinx, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: With the growing number of older cancer patients, the burden of chronic diseases among older cancer patients will become increasingly important. Chronic diseases often interfere with treatment decisions and prognosis for cancer patients. However, little is known about the occurrence of

  1. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Schwarz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence.......The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence....

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection in chronic liver disease in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, A; Taliani, G; Bruni, R; Sharif, O S; Moallin, K A; Celestino, D; Quaranta, G; Sebastiani, A

    1993-04-01

    To assess the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver disease in Somalia, antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) in 110 patients with chronic liver diseases, in 309 healthy adults, in 179 institutionalized subjects with a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Schistosoma haematobium, and in 287 children with diseases other than hepatitis. According to the RIBA test, anti-HCV was present in three healthy adults (0.97%), in four institutionalized individuals (2.2%), but in none of the children. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 4.8% in patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive chronic liver diseases and 20.6% in patients with HBsAg-negative chronic liver diseases. Thus, HCV infection appears to play a minor role in HBsAg-positive liver disease in Somalia but may be an important factor in HBsAg-negative chronic liver disease. The low anti-HCV prevalence in individuals with no hepatic disorders is consistent with the fact that HCV does not spread by nonpercutaneous transfer. We found also a large proportion of both patients with hepatic disease and institutionalized individuals who tested positive by ELISA but not confirmed by RIBA. However, the likelihood of a true positive result increases proportionally with the ELISA value; thus, in most cases a low ELISA value probably represents a false-positive reaction, while a high ELISA value probably represents a true positive reaction. PMID:7683179

  3. Obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutritional abnormalities have one of the most important systematic effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A relationship between COPD and obesity has been observed and recognized. In COPD patients, beside changes in the total body weight, changes in body composition are also possible with the loss of fat-free mass (FFM. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of obesity and the change of body composition on the pulmonary function, dyspnoea level and the quality of life in COPD patients. Methods. Seventy-nine patients in the stable state of COPD were evaluated. Pulmonary function and arterial blood gas analysis were assessed. Nutritional status was analyzed according to Body Mass Index (BMI. Body composition was evaluated by using anthropometric measurement by fat free mass index (FFMI. Quality of life was assessed using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to evaluate dyspnoea. Results. The highest prevalence of obesity (50.0% was found in patients with mild COPD, while the lowest prevalence was detected in very severe COPD patients (10.0%. The loss of FFM occurred in 22.2% patients with normal body weight and in 9.0% of overweight COPD patients. The quality of life was lower in obese patients compared to other COPD patients. A higher dyspnoea level was also present in obese patients. The lowest airflow obstruction was in obese patients (p=0.023. We found a significant positive correlation between forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1% and BMI (r=0.326, p=0.003, FEV1% and FFMI (r=0.321, p=0.004. Conclusion. The highest prevalence of obesity was in patients with mild COPD. Obese patients with COPD had the lowest level of airflow obstruction, higher dyspnoea level and lower quality of life in comparison to other COPD patients.

  4. Chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients: Prevalence of coccidian parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV patients with or without diarrhoea and to see an association between diarrhoea and the coccidian parasites in our setting. Stool samples from 113 HIV patients, 34 chronic diarrhoea and 79 without any history of diarrhoea were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy. One hundred and thirteen control samples from HIV negative patients complaining of prolonged diarrhoea were also collected and analysed. Prevalence of coccidian parasites in HIV and non-HIV patients; with and without diarrhoea was compared using chi-square tests. Enteric parasites were detected in 55.8% HIV patients with diarrhoea compared to 16.4% in patients without diarrhoea ( P < 0.001. Isospora belli was found in 41.1% (14/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 6.3% (5/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.001. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.6% (7/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 2.5% (2/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.01. Cyclospora cayetanensis associated diarrhoea was detected in only one case of chronic diarrhoea (2.9%. CD4+ T-cell count was lower (180 cells/μl0 in diarrhoeal HIV patients as compared to non-diarrhoeal patients. Coccidian parasites were seen at a mean CD4+ T-cell count of 186.3 cells/μL. This study concluded that Isospora belli was the predominant parasite followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and both were strongly associated with diarrhoea among HIV patients.

  5. The global burden of chronic respiratory disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Perez-Padilla, R

    2015-01-01

    With an aging global population, chronic respiratory diseases are becoming a more prominent cause of death and disability. Age-standardised death rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highest in low-income regions of the world, particularly South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in these areas. Airflow obstruction is, by contrast, more common in regions with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. COPD mortality is much more closely related to the prevalence of a low forced vital capacity which is, in turn, associated with poverty. Mortality from asthma is less common than mortality from COPD, but it is also relatively more common in poorer areas, particularly Oceania, South and South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Again this contrasts with the asthma prevalence among adults, which is highest in high-income regions. In high-income areas, mortality due to asthma, which is predominantly an adult problem, has fallen substantially in recent decades with the spread of new guidelines for treatment that emphasise the use of inhaled steroids to control the disease. Although mortality rates have been falling, the prevalence of atopy has been increasing between generations in Western Europe. Changes in the prevalence of wheeze among adults has been more varied and may have been influenced by the reduction in smoking and the increase in the use of inhaled steroids. PMID:25519785

  6. 急性卒中患者的慢性肾脏病患病率和危险因素评价%Evaluation of the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the risk factors in patients with acute stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟根龙; 李焰生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with acute stroke and the risk factors and prognostic characteristics in these patients.Methods A total of 270 consecutive hospitalized patients with acute stroke was recruited, and their CKD was evaluated transversally. Various risk factors and short-term prognosis of 53 patients with CKD whose National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were similar at admission among the 270 patients with stroke were compared to those of 106 patients without CKD. CKD was defined as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 ml/(min·1.73 m2) and (or) random urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACR) > 30 mg/g, and continued for more than 3 months. GFR was estimated according to the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to evaluate the shortterm prognosis. Results The prevalence of CKD in these patients was 19.6%, and most of them were early-and middle-stage CKD. The proportions of the histories of hypertension (81.13%), diabetes mellitus (33.96%), and stroke (45.28%) in patients with CKD were significantly higher than those in patients without CKD (64.15%, 18.86% and 27.36%,respectively, all P<0.05). The mean levels of systolic pressure (151.74±20.98 mm Hg) and low density lipoprotein (3.03±0.96 mmol/L) in patients with CKD were significantly higher than those in patients without CKD (systolic pressure was 144.44±21.13 mm Hg, and low density lipoprotein was 2.75±0.76 mmol/L, all P<0.05). In addition, the levels of erythrocytes sedimentation rate(median, 39 mm/h), high sensitive C-reactive protein (median,5.12 mg/L) and parathyroid hormone (81.01±26.78 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in patients without CKD (they were 20 mm/h, 3.36 mg/L, and 46.95±24.63 pg/ml,respectively, all P<0.05). There was a changing trend in low serum calcium and high serum phosphorus in patients with CKD. The

  7. Micro Data: Wearable Devices Contribute to Improved Chronic Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Andria; Parke, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Issues involving chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) are prevalent in today's aging society, and suggestions for improvement are essential to treat this patient demographic effectively. This article addresses the use of wearable devices for the medical community to improve CDPM by relying on the accumulation of micro data. For the patient, we recognize that these devices can be an effective tool to facilitate real-time monitoring of their vital signs and activity levels. With real-time monitoring and earlier responses, individuals can benefit by preventing, delaying or reducing exacerbations of chronic diseases. Use of these devices also has great benefit to the person and has the potential to decrease the individual's emergency room visits, hospital admissions and re-admissions. As patients and their healthcare providers work together to identify cumulative trends in their micro data, transitions in care planning will be enhanced, further contributing to improved chronic disease management.

  8. Interactions between chronic renal disease and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R G

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing and patients receiving renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation will comprise an enlarging segment of the dental patient population. Renal replacement therapy can affect periodontal tissues including gingival hyperplasia in immune suppressed renal transplantation patients and increased levels of plaque, calculus and gingival inflammation and possible increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal diseases in ESRD patients on dialysis maintenance therapy. Also, the presence of undiagnosed periodontitis may have significant effects on the medical management of the ESRD patient. Periodontitis has been found to contribute to systemic inflammatory burden including the elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the general population. Atherosclerotic complications including myocardial infarction and stroke are the primary causes of mortality in the ESRD population and, in contrast to that of the general population, the best predictor of all cause and cardiac death in this population is CRP. Consequently, periodontitis may be a covert but treatable source of systemic inflammation in the ESRD population. The objective of this review was to explore the interaction between chronic renal disease, renal replacement therapy and periodontal diseases based upon the results of studies published within the last decade.

  9. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-01-01

    Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS) were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08%) and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%). Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidios...

  10. Gout and risk of chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis: meta-analysis of observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    Roddy, E.; Mallen, C.; Belcher, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis in people with gout, and the association between gout and prevalent or incident chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Data sources; MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases, hand-searched reference lists, citation history and contact with authors. Eligibility criteria: cohort, case–control or cross-sectional studies which examined the...

  11. [Etiology and prevalence of chronic pain in adults: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latina, Roberto; Sansoni, Julita; D'Angelo, Daniela; Di Biagio, Ettore; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Tarsitani, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    The chronic nonmalignant pain is an underestimated epidemiologic health problem. It is a disease in its own right. It is one of the major reasons because patients use health service. The magnitude of chronic pain is in terms of human suffering and costs to society. The aim of this review is to identify the diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmalignant chronic pain in the adults. We have done a review of the literature from 1998 to 2012 using the virtual newspaper libraries starting from data bases (Pub-Med, CINAHL, Cochrane). We have made a narrative review of the articles obtained. Excluding topics of headache, pain for pediatric and geriatric groups, cancer pain and disease-specific items. Studies were classified for year, author sample, methods, age groups and definition of pain. We have obtained 7 articles. These epidemiological studies conducted in different part of the world, reported prevalence rates of chronic pain ranging from 16-53%. They shows a high heterogeneity of results concerning diagnosis and methods. Although limited the number of articles, show the high complexity of the phenomenon. PMID:24083495

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of CKD in Chinese Patients with Periodontal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kejin Liu; Qinghua Liu; Wei Chen; Mengjun Liang; Wei Luo; Xianfeng Wu; Yiping Ruan; Jie Wang; Ricong Xu; Xiaojiang Zhan; Jianwen Yu; Jiaqing Tan; Xiuqing Dong; Jincai Zhang; Xueqing Yu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is common among adults and is associated with an increasing risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in patients with periodontal disease in China. METHODS: In the current cross-sectional study, patients with periodontal disease were included from Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital between March 2011 and August 2011. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  13. Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Children with Autoimmune Hepatitis and vice versa

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Mehri; Sadjadei, Nooshin; Eftekhari, Kambiz; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh; Fallahi, Gholam-Hossain; Farahmand, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the risk of autoimmune liver disease is high. Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic and progressive entity and the risk of its being associated with other autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease is high also. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and vice versa. Methods: In a cross-sectional study children with autoimmune hepatitis underwent serological screenin...

  14. Etiologies of chronic liver disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahmand F

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Liver diseases in children is the result of many different diseases including: metabolic, genetic, infectious, toxic and idiopathic causes. This was a case series study on 133 infants and children with age range 6 month to 12 years old, who presented clinically with manifestation of chronic liver disease and were admitted to Children Hospital Medical Center from year 1999 to 2000. In this study, 32 (24.5 percent patients had autoimmune chronic hepatitis, 15 (11.3 percent Glycogen storage diseases, 12 (9 percent extrahepatic biliary atresia, 11 (8.2 percent willson disease, 10 (7.5 percent cryptogenic cirrhosis, 6 (4.5 percent chronic hepatitis C, 5 (3.8 percen chronic hepatitic B, 5 (3.8 percent galactosemia 3 (2.25 percent congenital hepatic fibrosis, 3 (3.8 percent histiocytosis X, 3 (2.25 percent sclerosing cholangitis, 2 (1.5 percent byler’s disease 2 (1.5 percent primary tuberculosis, 1 (0.75 percent choledocalcyst, 1 (0.75 percent Alagyle syndrome. According to our data, chronic liver disease should be considered in infants and children. In our study, the most common causes are found to be: metabolic and genetic diseases (37.5 percent, chronic autoimmune hepatitis (24 percent and biliary disorders (14 percent, that encompass 86 percent of the patients.

  15. Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E

    2008-01-01

    Vegetarians form a non-homogenous group consisting of semivegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs and fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and vegans (plant food only). According to pure vegetarian ideologists, people consuming vegetarian diet have better health and live longer than nonvegetarians, because persons consuming milk, dairy products, meat, eggs and fish are at health risk. In fact the most healthy people in Europe are inhabitants of Iceland, Switzerland and Scandinavia, consuming great amounts of food of animal origin. Meta-analysis of several prospective studies showed no significant differences in the mortality caused by colorectal, stomach, lung, prostate or breast cancers and stroke between vegetarians and "health-conscious" nonvegetarians. In vegetarians, a decrease of ischemic heart disease mortality was observed probably due to lower total serum cholesterol levels, lower prevalence of obesity and higher consumption of antioxidants. Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful. Now, the largest cohort study of diet and health on more than half million of persons, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, will bring new data on the relationships between diet, lifestyle and environmental factors and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Vegetarianism is a form of food restriction; and in our overfed society, food restriction is a plus unless it results in a nutritional deficiency (Fig. 1, Tab. 2, Ref. 18). PMID:19166134

  16. Understanding asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurst, Keele E; Kelly-Reif, Kaitlin; Bushnell, Greta A; Pascoe, Steven; Barnes, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a loosely-defined clinical entity referring to patients who exhibit characteristics of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical definitions and classifications for ACOS vary widely, which impacts our understanding of prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of the condition. This literature review was therefore conducted to characterize the prevalence of ACOS and the effect of different disease definitions on these estimates, as this has not previously been explored. From an analysis of English language literature published from 2000 to 2014, the estimated prevalence of ACOS ranges from 12.1% to 55.2% among patients with COPD and 13.3%-61.0% among patients with asthma alone. This variability is linked to differences in COPD and asthma diagnostic criteria, disease ascertainment methods (spirometry-based versus clinical or symptom-based diagnoses and claims data), and population characteristics including age, gender and smoking. Understanding the reasons for differences in prevalence estimates of ACOS across the literature may help guide decision making on the most appropriate criteria for defining ACOS and aid investigators in designing future ACOS clinical studies aimed at effective treatment.

  17. Imaging in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and staging are based on estimated or calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinalysis and kidney structure at renal imaging techniques. Ultrasound (US) has a key role in evaluating both morphological changes (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US), thus contributing to CKD diagnosis and to the follow-up of its progression. In CKD, conventional US allows measuring longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness and evaluating renal echogenicity and urinary tract status. Maximum renal length is usually considered a morphological marker of CKD, as it decreases contemporarily to GFR, and should be systematically recorded in US reports. More recently, it has been found to be a significant correlation of both renal longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness with renal function. Conventional US should be integrated by color Doppler, which shows parenchymal perfusion and patency of veins and arteries, and by spectral Doppler, which is crucial for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis and provides important information about intrarenal microcirculation. Different values of renal resistive indexes (RIs) have been associated with different primary diseases, as they reflect vascular compliance. Since RIs significantly correlate with renal function, they have been proposed to be independent risk factors for CKD progression, besides proteinuria, low GFR and arterial hypertension. Despite several new applications, US and color Doppler contribute to a definite diagnosis in <50% of cases of CKD, because of the lack of specific US patterns, especially in cases of advanced CKD. However, US is useful to evaluate CKD progression and to screen patients at risk for CKD. The indications and the recommended frequency of color Doppler US could differ in each case and the follow-up should be tailored. PMID:27170301

  18. Caregiver Burden in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ilhan Atagun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Duration of human life has been substantially increased in the last fifty years. Survivals of diseases have been prolonged through the advances in medicine. Together with these gratifying consequences, there appeared novel difficulties to cope with. Furthermore developments including globalization, industrialization and transition from rural to urban life occurred during the last century; so family units became smaller and numbers of members on employment in family units increased. As a result numbers of family members to undertake the responsibility of care decreased. As a concept, caregiver burden expresses physical, psychosocial and financial reactions during the course of care providing. Distinct factors including structures of social, cultural and family units and health care systems may affect conditions of care. Caregiver’s age, gender, ethnicity, education, relationship with the patient, attitude towards providing care, financial situation, coping abilities, her own health, beliefs, social support and cultural pattern are the personal factors that are related to perception of caregiver burden. Burden of care giving is geared to differential aspects of care needs. For instance care needs of physically disabled and medical care requiring patients with spinal cord injuries may differ from care needs of chronic psychiatric disorders, demented patients in advanced age of their lives or cancer patients in terminal periods. Strain due to care giving may differ as a result of properties of care demands. It is aimed to review the burden of caregivers in different medical and psychiatric care requiring conditions and to introduce differential aspects of caregiver burden in these different conditions.

  19. Prevalence of Depression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Risk Factors Analysis%慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并抑郁的发生率及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 万毅新; 王晓平; 王虹; 魏海东; 陶红艳; 黄晖蓉; 赵艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者合并抑郁的发生率,探讨COPD患者合并抑郁的危险因素.方法 选择2011年1月至2013年1月兰州大学第二医院门诊和住院治疗的215例COPD稳定期患者,采用病人健康问卷抑郁量表(PHQ-9)对患者抑郁状况进行评价,同时完成CAT量表、肺功能检查及相关病史(性别、年龄、身高、体重、吸烟史、教育程度)的采集.根据患者的临床症状(mMRC或CAT量表)、未来急性加重的风险、肺功能的异常程度(FEV1%pred)以及并发症的情况进行综合评估而分成A、B、C、D组.采用x2检验及多因素Logistic回归分析COPD患者合并抑郁的发生率及危险因素.结果 COPD患者合并抑郁的发生率为37.7%,COPD的A、B、C、D各组间的抑郁发生率分别为18.5%、35.8%、46.5%和62.5%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).COPD合并抑郁的发生与患者的性别、年龄、教育程度、FEV1% pred、CAT、BMI有关,与年龄、FEV1%pred、BMI呈负相关,与教育程度、CAT评分呈正相关.而吸烟和FEV1/FVC与COPD合并抑郁无显著相关性(P>0.05).结论 COPD患者容易合并抑郁,A、B、C、D各亚组之间抑郁的发生率有明显差异.COPD合并抑郁与性别、年龄、教育程度、FEV1% pred、BMI和CAT评分有关.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and risk factors.Methods 215 patients with stable COPD were recruited in the study.The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) standardized scale were performed for the depression survey.Meanwhile CAT,pulmonary function test and the history taking (sex,age,height,weigh,smoking status,education level) were applied to evaluate all the COPD patients.The COPD patients were classified into A,B,C,and D groups according to 2011 GOLD new COPD classification system.Pearson chi-square test and multivariate logistic modeling were used to estimate the

  20. Prevalence and incidence density rates of chronic comorbidity in type 2 diabetes patients: an exploratory cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luijks Hilde

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based diabetes guidelines generally neglect comorbidity, which may interfere with diabetes management. The prevalence of comorbidity described in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D shows a wide range depending on the population selected and the comorbid diseases studied. This exploratory study aimed to establish comorbidity rates in an unselected primary-care population of patients with T2D. Methods This was a cohort study of 714 adult patients with newly diagnosed T2D within the study period (1985-2007 in a practice-based research network in the Netherlands. The main outcome measures were prevalence and incidence density rates of chronic comorbid diseases and disease clusters. All chronic disease episodes registered in the practice-based research network were considered as comorbidities. We categorised comorbidity into 'concordant' (that is, shared aetiology, risk factors, and management plans with diabetes and 'discordant' comorbidity. Prevalence and incidence density were assessed for both categories of comorbidity. Results The mean observation period was 17.3 years. At the time of diabetes diagnosis, 84.6% of the patients had one or more chronic comorbid disease of 'any type', 70.6% had one or more discordant comorbid disease, and 48.6% and 27.2% had three or more chronic comorbid diseases of 'any type' or of 'discordant only', respectively. A quarter of those without any comorbid disease at the time of their diabetes diagnosis developed at least one comorbid disease in the first year afterwards. Cardiovascular diseases (considered concordant comorbidity were the most common, but there were also high rates of musculoskeletal and mental disease. Discordant comorbid diseases outnumbered concordant diseases. Conclusions We found high prevalence and incidence density rates for both concordant and discordant comorbidity. The latter may interfere with diabetes management, thus future research and clinical practice

  1. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation. PMID:26324012

  2. Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cannata, J.B. (Jorge); Rodríguez, Minerva; Gómez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Among the chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone format...

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Osteopathy: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Cicchitti; Marta Martelli; Francesco Cerritelli

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) are globally highly prevalent and characterized by severe pathological medical conditions. Several trials were conducted aiming at measuring the effects of manipulative therapies on patients affected by CID. The purpose of this review was to explore the extent to which osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) can be benefi-cial in medical conditions also classified as CID. Methods This review included any type of experimental study which enrolled...

  4. Increasing awareness of recognition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The medical community should, by now, be well aware of the importance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an increasingly common condition with high morbidity and mortality. In modern terms, COPD has come to signify concurrent chronic bronchitis, asthmatic bronchitis and emphysema. Cigarette smoking has long been recognized as the predominant aetiological agent. Arterial hypoxaemia, a frequent complication of COPD, can lead to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. COPD affects over 5% of the adult population and is the only major cause of death whose morbidity and mortality are increasing in several countries.1 In China, it is difficult to quantify how many people are affected with COPD. However, a recent epidemiological survey indicated that COPD prevalence was 8.2% in China. COPD prevalence in men was significantly higher than in women (12.4% cf 5.1%). The prevalence in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (8.8% cf 7.8%). Of patients with COPD, 61.5% were smokers. The report also stated that COPD is the major cause of death in rural areas in China and the fourth leading cause of death in urban areas, rising to the third leading cause of death by 2020.2 The prevalence of the disease increases with age with highest rates seen in people over the age of 70 years. COPD is the only major cause of mortality with a rising incidence and prevalence worldwide, rendering it an increasingly worrisome

  5. Prevalence of disability according to multimorbidity and disease clustering: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Marengoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of chronic diseases has increased with population ageing, and research has attempted to elucidate the correlation between chronic diseases and disability. However, most studies in older populations have focused on the effect of single disabling conditions, even though most older adults have more than one chronic disease (multimorbidity. Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of disability with disease, in terms of multimorbidity and specified pairs of diseases, in a population-based study of older adults. Materials and Methods: Using the Kungsholmen Project, we estimated the prevalence of disability by the number of chronic diseases, disease status by organ systems, and in specific pairs of chronic conditions, in a Swedish population (n=1,099; ≥77 years. Disability was defined as need of assistance in at least one activity of daily living (Katz index. Results: Functional disability was seen in 17.9% of participants. It increased as the number of chronic diseases increased. The prevalence of disability varied greatly amongst specific pairs of diseases: from 6.7% in persons affected by hypertension and atrial fibrillation to 82.4% in persons affected by dementia and hip fracture. In multivariate logistic regression models, the disease pairs that were significantly associated with the highest increased relative odds of disability contained dementia (dementia–hip fracture, dementia–CVD, and dementia–depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest specific pairs of diseases are much more highly associated with disability than others, particularly diseases coupled with dementia. This knowledge may improve prevention of disablement and planning of resource distribution.

  6. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Colvin Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the ...

  7. Overlap Syndrome in Respiratory Medicine: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Corlateanu; Valeria Pripa; Gloria Montanari; Victor Botnaru

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by similar mechanisms: airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the distinction between the two obstructive diseases is not always clear. Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrate that in elderly people with obstructive airway disease, as many as half or more may have overlapping diagnoses of asthma and COPD...

  8. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive and interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte U; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik;

    2013-01-01

    treatment with existent drugs effective in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is beneficial in lung disease related PH. Studies investigating existing PAH drugs in animal models of lung disease related PH have indicated a positive effect, and so have case reports and open label studies. However......, and is considered one of the most frequent types of PH. However, the prevalence of PH among patients with COPD and ILD is not clear. The diagnosis of PH in chronic lung disease is often established by echocardiographic screening, but definitive diagnosis requires right heart catheterization, which...... is not systematically performed in clinical practice. Given the large number of patients with chronic lung disease, biomarkers to preclude or increase suspicion of PH are needed. NT-proBNP may be used as a rule-out test, but biomarkers with a high specificity for PH are still required. It is not known whether specific...

  9. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Mariani; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreaUtis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis.There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane con ductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation,hereditary and obstructive pancreatitis seem an acute disease that progress to chronic pancreatitis,likely as a consequence of the activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells that produce and activate collagen and therefore fibrosis.From the diagnostic point of view,in patients with acute recurrent pancreatitis Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) seems the more reliable technique for an accurate evaluation and follow-up of some ductal and parenchymal abnormalities suspected for early chronic pancreatitis.

  10. [Chronic diseases. Definition and basic concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspe, H

    2011-01-01

    The baroque deity Chronos symbolizes much of what we intuitively connect with "chronic", but it must not obscure our view of the diversity of chronic diseases. Common to all forms is a prognostic implication: a chronic disease and all associated burden will accompany the patient for the rest of his/her life. Chronic diseases are in general multifocal disorders simultaneously affecting biological, psychic, and social equilibria. This requires systematic problem-screening and -assessment, including possible comorbidities. Comorbidity in a strict sense should be distinguished from risk factors, implications, complications, and consequences of the index disorder of interest. The assessment is usually followed by the shared identification of therapeutic goals and indications. In chronic disorders, a wide spectrum of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, methods, and professions becomes relevant. PMID:21246322

  11. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2011-08-26

    HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.

  12. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART, it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.

  13. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity. PMID:21871074

  14. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  15. The changing trend of chronic disease prevalence and its related risk factors in Nanning community residents%南宁市某社区居民慢性病及其危险因素变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳华; 周吉; 叶琳; 江珊; 杨建敏

    2015-01-01

    [ Abstratc] Obje ctive To study the changing trend of chronic disease and its related risk factors in Nanning community residents.Methods The certain community residents in Nanning were investigated using the same ques-tionnaire in 2007 and 2012, respectively.The survey items included smoking, drinking risk factors, and physical ex-amination.The comparative analysis was done statistically.Results In 2007, the prevalences of hypertension, hy-perlipidemia, diabetes and stroke were 22.8%, 14.4%, 4.2%and 2.7%respectively;The current smoking rate, drinking rate over the past 12 months, central obesity rate, and obesity rate were 23.1%, 22.0%, 60.8% and 9.8%respectively.In 2012, the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and stroke were 23.2%, 19.4%, 8.3%and 2.8%respectively;The rate of current smoking, drinking rate over the past 12 months, central obesity rate, and obesity rate were 17.5%, 19.4%, 68.1%and 16.8%respectively.Compared with 2007, the hy-perlipidemia and diabetes prevalence in 2012 were significantly elevated(χ2 =4.536, 7.280, P=0.033, 0.007). Central obesity and obesity rates were on the rise significantly(χ2 =5.655, 10.858, P=0.017, 0.001).Neverthe-less, the current smoking rate was on the decline(χ2 =4.779, P=0.029).Hypertension and stroke prevalence, drinking rate changed little(χ2 =0.018, 0.017, 0.989, P=0.892, 0.898, 0.320).Conclusion The prevalences of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and central obesity are on the remarkable rise, while current smoking rate is on the decline a bit during the last 5 years in Nanning community residents.The proper diet and physical exercise such as“eat-move balanced” behavior intervention should be better to control the hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and obesity. More measures should be taken for tobacco and alcohol control.%目的:了解南宁市某社区居民慢性病及其危险因素的变化趋势。方法使用同一个心血管危险因素调查表分别在2007年、2012年调查南宁

  16. Decreased prevalence of celiac disease among Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of Brazilian individuals over 60 years of age and compare it with the previously known prevalence in a pediatric group living in the same geographical area.

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with behavioral disorders in children with chronic health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso Adji

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions Prevalence of behavioral disorders in children with chronic health condition is 37.5%. The duration of illness contributes to the manifestation of behavioral disorders in children with chronic health conditions. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:1-5].

  18. A Review of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, C D W; Bholah, R; Bunchman, T E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is complex in both adults and children, but the disease is far from the same between these populations. Here we review the marked differences in etiology, comorbidities, impact of disease on growth and quality of life, issues unique to adolescents and transitions to adult care, and special considerations of congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies for transplantation. PMID:26766175

  19. Genetic influences on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon F; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted....

  20. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Laviolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the comparative impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD between women and men and about women’s response to pulmonary rehabilitation.

  1. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairam, Krish; Scoffone, Cesare M; Alken, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    by glomerular filtration rate, including chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II-greater than 60, stage III-30 to 59 and stages IV/V-less than 30 ml/minute/1.73 m(2). Patient characteristics, operative characteristics, outcomes and morbidity were assessed. RESULTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate data were...... available on 5,644 patients, including 4,436 with chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II, 994 with stage III and 214 with stages IV/V. A clinically significant minority of patients with nephrolithiasis presented with severe chronic kidney disease. A greater number of patients with stages IV/V previously...... underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy or nephrostomy and had positive urine cultures than less severely affected patients, consistent with the higher incidence of staghorn stones in these patients. Patients with chronic kidney disease stages IV/V had statistically significantly worse...

  2. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is COPD? Español COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary (PULL-mun- ... can clog them. Normal Lungs and Lungs With COPD Figure A shows the location of the lungs ...

  3. Dispelling the chronic Lyme disease myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemperman, Melissa M; Bakken, Johan S; Kravitz, Gary R

    2008-07-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness endemic to Minnesota that can have potentially severe complications. As the incidence of Lyme disease continues to increase, it is important for physicians in Minnesota to become familiar with its clinical aspects, including the concept of "chronic Lyme disease." Chronic Lyme disease is a misnomer that is often applied to patients with nonspecific presentations who may or may not have a history of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent that causes Lyme disease. When a patient does present with persistent nonspecific symptoms attributed to chronic Lyme disease, clinicians should ascertain the presence of objective manifestations, obtain laboratory results, and get a history of tick exposure. If active infection with B. burgdorferi is unlikely, they should avoid prescribing empiric antibiotic therapy and instead thoroughly evaluate the patient for other possible causes of the complaints and recommend appropriate care.

  4. Thiazide Diuretics in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arjun D; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2015-03-01

    Widely prevalent in the general population, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently complicated with hypertension. Control of hypertension in this high-risk population is a major modifiable cardiovascular and renal risk factor but often requires multiple medications. Although thiazides are an attractive agent, guidelines have previously recommended against thiazide use in stage 4 CKD. We review the updated guidelines on thiazide use in advanced CKD, the antihypertensive mechanism of thiazides, and the clinical studies of thiazides in CKD. Older uncontrolled studies have shown that metolazone reduces blood pressure in CKD, but more recently small randomized controlled trials of hydrochlorothiazide in CKD have shown significant improvement in mean arterial pressure of 15 mmHg. Two recent uncontrolled studies of chlorthalidone including one that used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring found significant improvements in blood pressure. These findings all suggest that thiazides may be efficacious even in advanced CKD; however, electrolyte abnormalities were common in the studies reviewed so close monitoring is necessary during use. Adequately powered randomized trials are now needed before the routine use of thiazide diuretics in advanced CKD can be recommended.

  5. Chronic diseases in captive geriatric female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-04-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. PMID:22546920

  6. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  7. The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Johnston,1 Ekua W Brenu,1 Donald Staines,1,2 Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik1 1Griffith Health Institute, School of Medical Sciences, National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia; 2Gold Coast Public Health Unit, Queensland Health, Robina, QLD, Australia Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to examine variability among prevalence estimates for CFS/ME, according to the method of assessment used. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for studies on CFS/ME prevalence in adults that applied the 1994 Centers for Disease Control (CDC case definition.1 Estimates were categorized into two methods of assessment: self-reporting of symptoms versus clinical assessment of symptoms. Meta-analysis was performed to pool prevalences by assessment using random effects modeling. This was stratified by sample setting (community or primary care and heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic. Results: Of 216 records found, 14 studies were considered suitable for inclusion. The pooled prevalence for self-reporting assessment was 3.28% (95% CI: 2.24–4.33 and 0.76% (95% CI: 0.23–1.29 for clinical assessment. High variability was observed among self-reported estimates, while clinically assessed estimates showed greater consistency. Conclusion: The observed heterogeneity in CFS/ME prevalence may be due to differences in method of assessment. Stakeholders should be cautious of prevalence determined by the self-reporting of symptoms alone. The 1994 CDC case definition appeared to be the most reliable clinical assessment tool available at the time of these studies. Improving clinical case definitions and their adoption internationally will enable better comparisons of findings and inform health systems about the true burden of CFS/ME. Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis, prevalence, meta-analysis

  8. Application of KDIGO classifcation of chronic kidney disease for analyzing the prevalence of kidney disease and other vascular diseases in 1645 type 2 diabetic patients%KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统在1645例2型糖尿病患者伴发肾脏疾病及相关血管性疾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 陈慧卿; 赵文波; 刘迅; 司美君; 唐骅; 娄探奇

    2013-01-01

    目的 采用KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统,研究2型糖尿病患者肾脏疾病的发病情况、危险因素及并发心脑血管性疾病、死亡情况,探讨KDIGO分级系统的意义.方法 选取2008年6月至2012年12月于本院住院的1645例资料完整的2型糖尿病患者为研究对象,采用KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统进行分组,明确KDIGO分期下糖尿病患者的血管疾病发病情况,并对合并及不合并肾脏疾病两组间进行比较,分析肾脏疾病的危险因素,另分析其死亡的危险因素.结果 1645例2型糖尿病患者中男915例,女730例,平均年龄(57.86±12.54)岁,糖尿病病程(6.35±6.30)年.37.2%(612/1645)患者合并肾脏疾病,G3a、G3b期及G4+G5期分别占5.7%、3.5%、7.6%,蛋白尿患者占33.4%,其中微量白蛋白尿患者19.5%,大量白蛋白尿患者13.5%.49.5%患者合并高血压,67.7%合并高脂血症,27.4%合并糖尿病视网膜病变(DR),18.5%合并心脑血管疾病(其中16.5%合并冠状动脉性疾病(CAD),8.8%患者合并脑血管疾病),G3a和G3b组在DR、CAD、脑血管疾病的比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).糖尿病病程、合并高血压尤其是收缩压升高、糖尿病视网膜病变、高尿酸血症是2型糖尿病患者合并肾脏疾病的独立危险因素.而年龄、Scr、合并心脑血管疾病、高CKD分期是2型糖尿病合并肾脏疾病患者死亡的独立危险因素.结论 KDIGO慢性肾脏病分级系统可以更准确划分糖尿病患者肾脏疾病的分期以指导临床和判断预后,糖尿病患者肾脏疾病和心脑血管疾病的患病率较普通人群更高,早期控制血压、血尿酸等因素可延缓肾脏疾病的进展,需重视糖尿病视网膜病变的预测作用.%Objective To analyze the prevalence,risk factors of kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients with KDIGO classification of chronic kidney disease,also to study cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and death in these

  9. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: asthmatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic obstructive asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slats, Annelies; Taube, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are different disease entities. They are both clinical diagnoses, with diagnostic tools to discriminate between one another. However, especially in older patients (>55 years) it seems more difficult to differentiate between asthma and COPD. This has led to the definition of a new phenotype called asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, our understanding of ACOS is at a very preliminary stage, as most research has involved subjects with existing diagnoses of asthma or COPD from studies with different definitions for ACOS. This has led to different and sometimes opposing results between studies on several features of ACOS, also depending on the comparison with COPD alone, asthma alone or both, which are summarized in this review.We suggest not using the term ACOS for a patient with features of both asthma and COPD, but to describe a patient with chronic obstructive airway disease as completely as possible, with regard to characteristics that determine treatment response (e.g. eosinophilic inflammation) and prognosis (such as smoking status, exacerbation rate, fixed airflow limitation, hyperresponsiveness, comorbidities). This will provide a far more clinically relevant diagnosis, and would aid in research on treatment in more homogenous groups of patients with chronic airways obstruction. More research is certainly needed to develop more evidence-based definitions for this patient group and to evaluate biomarkers, which will help to further classify these patients, treat them more adequately and unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:26596632

  10. Lung Compliance and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papandrinopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis, is a chronic inflammatory response of the airways to noxious particles or gases, with resulting pathological and pathophysiological changes in the lung. The main pathophysiological aspects of the disease are airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The mechanical properties of the respiratory system and its component parts are studied by determining the corresponding volume-pressure (P-V relationships. The consequences of the inflammatory response on the lung structure and function are depicted on the volume-pressure relationships.

  11. Pediatric kidney diseases in an African country: Prevalence, spectrum and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A Ladapo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient data to guide the authorities responsible for resource allocation and a focus on communicable diseases increase the challenges of care of children with kidney disease in resource-constrained settings like ours. This study was performed with the aim to describe the current spectrum of pediatric nephrology disease in a tertiary hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the challenges encountered in their care. A 4-year retrospective review of pediatric renal admissions was carried out and the overall prevalence, disease-specific prevalence and mortality rates were determined. Results were compared with nationwide data. Kidney diseases accounted for 8.9% of pediatric admissions with a prevalence of 22.3 admissions per 1000 child-admissions per year. Nephrotic syndrome, acute kidney injury and nephroblastoma accounted for almost 70% of admissions. The overall mortality was 14.4% with acute kidney injury accounting for 36% of this. Chronic kidney disease was also associated with poor outcome. The spectrum of disease nationwide is similar with a wide variation in disease-specific prevalence between geographic regions. The prevalence of genetic and hereditary conditions was low. The prevalence of pediatric renal disease in our environment is on the increase and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Late presentation and high treatment costs were limitations to care. Preventive nephrology, training of pediatric nephrologists and strengthening of health insurance schemes are advocated.

  12. Prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of Iranian patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Chomeili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Celiac disease, one of the best-known autoimmune human leukocyte antigen-dependent disorders, has a relatively increased prevalence in first-degree relatives. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease. METHODS: Siblings of confirmed celiac disease patients in our center were identified and enrolled in this study. Their serum immunoglobulin A and tissue transglutaminase antibody-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (anti-tissue transglutaminase, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin G were measured and multiple endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained with parental consensus. Celiac disease was confirmed by observation of characteristic histological changes. RESULTS: A total of 49 children (male, 29; female, 20; age, 2-16 years with confirmed celiac disease in a pediatric gastroenterology ward were studied from 1999 to 2006. We found 30 siblings (female, 16 all shared in both parents. The only measurement available was for immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase antibody. A duodenal biopsy was performed in all 30 siblings. Clinical findings such as abdominal pain, fatigue, growth retardation and diarrhea were found in 53.3% of the completely studied siblings, and positive serology without histological changes was identified in four cases. Both serology and biopsy (confirmed new cases were positive in 2 of the 30 siblings. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of celiac disease among siblings of patients with confirmed celiac disease necessitates serologic screening (and confirmatory biopsy if indicated in families having celiac disease. It is advantageous to diagnose the disease as soon as possible because early diagnosis and diet intervention may prevent serious complications such as growth retardation, short stature, chronic diarrhea, and malignancy.

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Robert; Kanso, Abbas; Sedor, John R

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disease impacting more than twenty million individuals in the United States. Progression of CKD is associated with a number of serious complications, including increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, anemia and metabolic bone disease. CKD patients should be assessed for the presence of these complications and receive optimal treatment to reduce their morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary approach is required to accomplish...

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive and interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charlotte U; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Hilberg, Ole; Simonsen, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge on PH in relation to COPD and ILD from a clinical perspective with emphasis on diagnosis, biomarkers, prevalence, impact, treatment, and practical implications. PH in COPD and ILD is associated with a poor prognosis, and is considered one of the most frequent types of PH. However, the prevalence of PH among patients with COPD and ILD is not clear. The diagnosis of PH in chronic lung disease is often established by echocardiographic screening, but definitive diagnosis requires right heart catheterization, which is not systematically performed in clinical practice. Given the large number of patients with chronic lung disease, biomarkers to preclude or increase suspicion of PH are needed. NT-proBNP may be used as a rule-out test, but biomarkers with a high specificity for PH are still required. It is not known whether specific treatment with existent drugs effective in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is beneficial in lung disease related PH. Studies investigating existing PAH drugs in animal models of lung disease related PH have indicated a positive effect, and so have case reports and open label studies. However, treatment with systemically administered pulmonary vasodilators implies the risk of worsening the ventilation-perfusion mismatch in patients with lung disease. Inhaled vasodilators may be better suited for PH in lung disease, but new treatment modalities are also required. PMID:23849967

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis G Virus in Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Takagi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV in liver disease of non-A, -B, -C viral hepatitis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C was determined. Two of 44 patients (4.5% with liver injury without any hepatitis A, B or C marker were positive for HGV. One of five cases of hepatocellular carcinoma was positive for HGV. One of three cases with fulminant hepatitis was positive for HGV. This case was negative at the onset of fulminant hepatitis and became positive after plasmapheresis. No patient with acute (n=8 or chronic (n=5 hepatitis or liver cirrhosis (n=8 was positive for HGV in non-A, -B, -C liver disease. One of 30 patients with various HBV-positive liver diseases and nine (17.3 of 52 patients with type C liver disease were positive for HGV. In patients with hepatitis C, four (28.6% of 14 HGV-co-infected patients were complicated with diabetes mellitus compared with four (10.5% of 38 single hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients (not significant. In 12 HGV-positive patients, eight of 10 (80% had a history of blood transfusion. In HCV-positive patients, co-infection with HGV was not a risk factor in patients with diabetes mellitus as a complication. HGV appeared to cause non-A, -B, -C hepatitis rarely, and its main route of infection was blood transfusion.

  16. Lung hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: mechanisms, clinical implications and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Daniel; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Neder, J. Alberto; Katherine A. Webb; O'Donnell, Denis E.

    2014-01-01

    Lung hyperinflation is highly prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occurs across the continuum of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that lung hyperinflation contributes to dyspnea and activity limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is an important independent risk factor for mortality. In this review, we will summarize the recent literature on pathogenesis and clinical implications of lung hyperinflation. We will outline the cont...

  17. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  18. Circulating Adipocytokines and Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Katherine T.; L Lee Hamm; A Brent Alper; Chad Miller; Alhakam Hudaihed; Saravanan Balamuthusamy; Chung-Shiuan Chen; Yanxi Liu; Joseph Tarsia; Nader Rifai; Myra Kleinpeter; Jiang He; Jing Chen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipokines have been associated with atherosclerotic heart disease, which shares many common risk factors with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but their relationship with CKD has not been well characterized. METHODS: We investigated the association of plasma leptin, resistin and adiponectin with CKD in 201 patients with CKD and 201 controls without. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  19. The Western Diet and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Divya; Vellanki, Kavitha; Kramer, Holly

    2015-03-01

    Characteristics of the Western diet that fueled the obesity epidemic may also impact kidney disease incidence and progression. Enlarging portion sizes over the past half century has been accompanied by increased intake of protein, sodium, and processed foods while consumption of fruits and vegetables has declined. Overall dietary patterns play a strong role for chronic disease risk including chronic kidney disease. While dietary patterns high in fresh fruits and vegetables and low in red meats, such as the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of chronic diseases, the Western diet, characterized by high intake of red meat, animal fat, sweets, and desserts and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, increases risk of chronic diseases. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms whereby several key characteristics of the typical Western diet may impact kidney disease incidence and progression. We also discuss a public health policy initiative to improve dietary choices. Reducing protein intake to the recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg/day and increasing intake of fruit and vegetables and fiber may mitigate kidney disease progression and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. PMID:25754321

  20. Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Race, Brent; Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a prion disease of cervids. Assessment of its zoonotic potential is critical. To evaluate primate susceptibility, we tested monkeys from 2 genera. We found that 100% of intracerebrally inoculated and 92% of orally inoculated squirrel monkeys were susceptible, but cynomolgus macaques were not, suggesting possible low risk for humans.

  1. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  2. Trace elements and chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loguercio, C.; De Girolamo, V.; Federico A., A.; Del Vecchio Blanco, C. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy). Cattedra di Gastroenterologia; Feng, S.L.; Gialanella, G. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche; Cataldi, V. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Prima Medicina Ospedale Ascalesi

    1997-12-31

    The relationships between chronic liver diseases and trace element (TE) contents are debated. Particularly, no defined data are available about the TE levels in viral liver disease patients with or without malnutrition. In this study we evaluated blood and plasma levels of various trace elements in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease, at different stages of liver damage (8 patients with chronic hepatitis and 32 with liver cirrhosis) with or without malnutrition. We also studied 10 healthy volunteers as control group. We found that cirrhotic subjects had a significant decrease of blood levels of Zn and Se, independently on the nutritional status, whereas plasma levels of Fe were significantly reduced only in malnourished cirrhotic patients. Our data indicate that liver impairment is the main cause of the blood decrease of Se and Zn levels in patients with non alcoholic liver disease, whereas the malnutrition affects Fe levels only. (orig.)

  3. A systematic review of barriers to optimal outpatient specialist services for individuals with prevalent chronic diseases: what are the unique and common barriers experienced by patients in high income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie

    2015-06-09

    Health utilization and need assessment data suggest there is considerable variation in access to outpatient specialist care. However, it is unclear if the types of barriers experienced are specific to chronic disease groups or experienced universally. This systematic review provides a detailed summary of common and unique barriers experienced by chronic disease groups when accessing and receiving care, and a synthesized list of possible health service initiatives to improve equitable delivery of optimal care in high-income countries. Quantitative articles describing barriers to specialist outpatient services were retrieved from CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PyscINFO. To be eligible for review, studies: were published from 2002 to May 2014; included samples with cancer, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arthritis, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic pulmonary disorder (COPD) or depression; and, were conducted in high-income countries. Using a previously validated model of access (Penchansky and Thomas' model of fit), barriers were grouped according to five overarching domains and defined in more detail using 33 medical subject headings. Results from reviewed articles, including the scope and frequency of reported barriers, are conceptualized using thematic analysis and framed as possible health service initiatives. A total of 3181 unique records were screened for eligibility, of which 74 studies were included in final analysis. The largest proportion of studies reported acceptability barriers (75.7 %), of which demographic disparities (44.6 %) were reported across all diseases. Other frequently reported barriers included inadequate need assessment (25.7 %), information provision (32.4 %), or health communication (20 %). Unique barriers were identified for oncology, mental health, and COPD samples. Based on the scope, frequency and measurement of reported barriers, eight key themes with associated implications for health services are presented. Examples

  4. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  5. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyana Gujral; Hugh J Freeman; Alan BR Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases,resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and nonHLA genes].The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world.However,the population with diabetes,autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD,at least in part,because of shared HLA typing.Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium,and interact directly with the immune system,via both bans-and para-cellular routes.From a diagnostic perspective,symptoms may be viewed as either "typical" or "atypical'; In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD,should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis.Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or antiendomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy.Currently,the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD.A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide,prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption,blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue,restore immune tolerance towards gluten,modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin,and restoration of intestinal architecture.

  6. Barrett's esophagus: Prevalence and risk factors in patients with chronic GERD in Upper Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser M Fouad; Madiha M Makhlouf; Heba M Tawfik; Hussein El Amin; Wael Abdel Ghany; Hisham R El-khayat

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in El Minya and Assuit, Upper Egypt. METHODS: One thousand consecutive patients with chronic GERD symptoms were included in the study over 2 years. They were subjected to history taking including a questionnaire for GERD symptoms, clinical examination and upper digestive tract endoscopy. Endoscopic signs suggestive of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were defined as mucosal tongues or an upward shift of the squamocolumnar junction. BE was diagnosed by pathological examination when specialized intestinal metaplasia was detected histologically in suspected CLE. pH was monitored in 40 patients. RESULTS: BE was present in 7.3% of patients with chronic GERD symptoms, with a mean age of 48.3 ± 8.2 years, which was significantly higher than patients with GERD without BE (37.4 ± 13.6 years). Adenocarcinoma was detected in eight cases (0.8%), six of them in BE patients. There was no significant difference between patients with BE and GERD regarding sex, smoking, alcohol consumption or symptoms of GERD. Patients with BE had significantly longer esophageal acid exposure time in the supine position, measured by pH monitoring. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BE in patients with GERD who were referred for endoscopy was 7.3%. BE seems to be associated with older age and more in patients with nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux.

  7. Improving compliance with iron infusion therapy in the treatment of chronic anemia in haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nuti, Amith

    2015-01-01

    This quality improvement project was conducted at the haemodialysis unit in the paediatric nephrology department at Noah's Ark Children's Hospital, Cardiff. Stakeholders involved were the medical and nursing staff at the haemodialysis unit, responsible for the care of children with chronic kidney disease CKD. Anaemia is prevalent among children with CKD. Iron infusion is administered to such children with chronic anaemia. Children on haemodialysis attending the Children's Kidney Center receiv...

  8. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in patients with graves' disease than in patients with nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bové, Kira Bang; Watt, Torquil; Vogel, Asmus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Graves' disease has been associated with an increased psychiatric morbidity. It is unclarified whether this relates to Graves' disease or chronic disease per se. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with Grave...

  9. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Slee Adrian D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabol...

  10. Relationship between acute and chronic disease epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, L.H. (Lewis H.)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary goal of epidemiological studies should be the identification of the determinants of disease in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies evolve through descriptive, analytical, and experimental approaches. The traditional infectious disease epidemiology studies were primarily concerned with identification of an agent, incubation period, mode of transmission, population at risk, and methods of disease control. Chronic...

  11. Diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin)-induced chronic pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit Ramakant; Dixit Kalpana; Nuwal Paras; Banerjee Arunima; Sharma Sidharth; Dave Lokendra

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced respiratory diseases are difficult to diagnose and therefore usually not identified, probably underestimated and under-reported. We report a case of diphenylhydantoin/phenytoin-induced chronic pulmonary disease in a 62-year-old male patient presenting with progressive dyspnea, eosinophilia, and pulmonary abnormalities. The importance of drug history in clinical history-taking and early diagnosis of drug-induced respiratory diseases is emphasized so as to prevent permanent pulmona...

  12. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Wright; Alastair Hutchison

    2009-01-01

    Julian Wright, Alastair HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UKAbstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease do not progress to end stage renal failure, but do have a significantly higher incidence of all cardiovascular co-morbidities. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors only partially account for this ...

  13. Sleep disorders in pediatric chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabouli, Stella; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Printza, Nikoleta; Dotis, John; Papachristou, Fotios

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders during childhood has been estimated to range from 25 to 43 %. The aim of this review is to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders and possible associations with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with CKD. An electronic systematic literature search for sleep disorders in children with CKD in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library Databases identified seven relevant articles for review, all of which reported an increased prevalence of sleep disorders in children with CKD. Five studies included children with CKD undergoing dialysis, and two studies included only non-dialysis patients. In all studies the presence of sleep disturbances was assessed by questionnaires; only one study compared the results of a validated questionnaire with laboratory-based polysomnography. The prevalence of any sleep disorder ranged from 77 to 85 % in dialysis patients, to 32-50 % in transplanted patients and 40-50 % in non-dialysis patients. The most commonly studied disorder was restless legs syndrome, which presented at a prevalence of 10-35 %. Three studies showed significant associations between presence of sleep disorders and HRQOL. We found consistent evidence of an increased prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with CKD, and these seemed to play a critical role in HRQOL. PMID:26482250

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in French dairy farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dalphin, J.C.; Debieuvre, D.; Pernet, D.; Maheu, M F; Polio, J. C.; Toson, B.; Dubiez, A.; Monnet, E; Laplante, J. J.; Depierre, A

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and of clinical farmer's lung was studied in 30 districts of the French Doubs province in relation to individual (age, sex, smoking) and geographical (altitude) factors. 5703 exclusively dairy farmers (response rate 83%) participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. Prevalences of chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung were 9.3% and 1.4% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchi...

  15. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated factors: the PLATINO Study in São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e fatores associados: Estudo PLATINO em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is now a major public health concern; deaths attributable to COPD in Latin America have increased by 65.0% in the last decade. This study was aimed at evaluating COPD prevalence and associated factors in adults (> 40 years living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. The study is part of the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (The PLATINO Project, a multi-center survey on COPD burden in Latin America, with São Paulo as the first center where the project has been carried out. A population-based sample was selected in multiple stages. Spirometry tests were performed in each subject pre- and post-bronchodilator and COPD was mainly defined as the ratio of forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity below 70.0% (fixed ratio definition. Other spirometric criteria were also used for the diagnosis of COPD. COPD prevalence was 15.8% (95%CI: 13.5-18.1 using the fixed ratio definition. COPD was positively associated with age and smoking and inversely with body mass index. Utilization of different COPD spirometry criteria resulted in different percentages of COPD, but similar associated factors.A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC é hoje um grande desafio para a saúde pública; as mortes atribuídas a DPOC na América Latina aumentaram 65,0% na última década. Avaliou-se a prevalência de DPOC e fatores associados em uma população adulta (> 40 anos da grande área metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. Esse estudo faz parte do Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (Projeto PLATINO, um estudo multicêntrico sobre DPOC em grandes cidades da América Latina, tendo sido São Paulo o primeiro centro onde o projeto se realizou. O estudo foi transversal de base populacional e amostragem em múltiplos estágios. Os indivíduos realizaram espirometria, e DPOC foi basicamente definida como a razão entre o volume expiratório forçado em

  16. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra Katia S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs. This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011. Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  17. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a relatively common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its appearance during the course of COPD is associated with a worsened prognosis, due to reduced life expectancy and greater use of health care resources. Although a well-defined lineal relationship has not been shown, the prevalence of PH in patients with COPD is higher in cases characterized by greater obstruction and severity. PH is infrequent in cases of mild and moderate COPD. In cases of COPD, PH is generally mild or moderate, and seldom impairs right ventricular function. In many cases it is not apparent during rest, and manifests itself during exercise. PH can be severe or out of proportion with the severity of COPD. In this situation, the possibility of associated conditions should be explored, although COPD might be the only final explanation. There is scarce knowledge about the prevalence and behavior of PH in patients with COPD residing at intermediate and high altitudes (>2.500 meters above sea level), which is a common situation in Latin America and Asia. PH in COPD is not exclusively related with hypoxia/hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. The mechanical disturbances related with COPD (hyper inflation and high alveolar pressure) and inflammation may prevail as causes of endothelial injury and remodeling of pulmonary circulation, which contribute to increased pulmonary vascular pressure and resistance. The appearance of signs of corpulmonale indicates advanced PH. This condition should therefore be suspected early when dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, and impairment of diffusion are not in keeping with the degree of obstruction. PH is confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Right heart catheterization may be justified in selected cases. Long-term oxygen therapy is the only intervention proven to be temporarily useful. Conventional vasodilators do not produce medium- or long-term improvement and can be detrimental to the ventilation-perfusion relation. Neither

  18. Chronic gingivitis: the prevalence of periodontopathogens and therapy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, M; Kesic, L; Lekovic, V; Apostolovic, M; Mihailovic, D; Kostadinovic, L; Milasin, J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of gingival inflammation and the prevalence of periodontopathogenic microorganisms in adolescents with chronic gingivitis, as well as to compare the effectiveness of two approaches in gingivitis treatment-basic therapy alone and basic therapy + adjunctive low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After periodontal evaluation, the content of gingival pockets of 140 adolescents with gingivitis was analyzed by multiplex PCR for the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythensis and P. intermedia. Subsequent to bacteria detection, the examinees were divided into two groups with homogenous clinical and microbiological characteristics. Group A was subjected to basic gingivitis therapy, and group B underwent basic therapy along with adjunctive LLLT. A statistically significant difference between the values of plaque-index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) before and after therapy was confirmed in both groups (pgingivitis should be regarded as a sign for dentists to foster more effective oral health programs. LLLT appears to be beneficial as adjuvant to basic therapy.

  19. Transcending chronic liver disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-01-01

    This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.

  20. Management of Pruritus in Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There continues to be uncertainty on the ideal treatment of pruritus in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to gather the latest information on the evidence-based management of pruritus in chronic liver disease. Methodology. A literature search for pruritus in chronic liver disease was conducted using Pubmed and Embase database systems using the MeSH terms “pruritus,” “chronic liver disease,” “cholestatic liver disease,” and “treatment.” Results. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus is described in addition to detailing research into contemporary treatment options of the condition. These medical treatments range from bile salts, rifampicin, and opioid receptor antagonists to antihistamines. Conclusion. The burden of pruritus in liver disease patients persists and, although it is a common symptom, it can be difficult to manage. In recent years there has been greater study into the etiology and treatment of the condition. Nonetheless, pruritus remains poorly understood and many patients continue to suffer, reiterating the need for further research to improve our understanding of the etiology and treatment for the condition.

  1. Chronic Disease Cost not Transferable: Colombian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gallardo Solarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to reflect on the social and economic costs of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD in Colombia to display a charging indicator of these pathologies. Material and methods: In a review of 50 studies, 27 were selected since these met the inclusion criteria, like chronical disease, studies conducted between 2002 and 2011 related to costs, chronic disease, and being Colombian. Results: This is a review study of chronic diseases vs. their costs, being here cardiovascular diseases part of the group of high cost and higher incidence diseases, thus repre­senting a great risk to the financial stability of healthcare companies. There are few studies that address the costs generated by the treatment of ncds patients that show the economic impact experienced by public and private institutions providing and promoting health services. Most of them forget the economic, family and social costs the affected population must suffer. Conclu­sions: ncds represent a burden to the health service system for their very high costs, untimely intervention and reduced significant benefit for this population and their families.

  2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn about your disease, receive counseling, and create exercise and eating plans tailored to your needs. Surgery: Rarely, patients who have very serious COPD may benefit from surgery. They might have a lung reduction ...

  3. Quality of life in chronic disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Megari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades there was an increasing predominance of chronic disorders, with a large number of people living with chronic diseases that can adversely affect their quality of life. The aim of the present paper is to study quality of life and especially Health-related quality of life (HRQoL in chronic diseases. HRQOL is a multidimensional construct that consists of at least three broad domains − physical, psychological, and social functioning − that are affected by one’s disease and/or treatment. HRQoL is usually measured in chronic conditions and is frequently impaired to a great extent. In addition, factors that are associated with good and poor HRQoL, as well as HRQoL assessment will be discussed. The estimation of the relative impact of chronic diseases on HRQoL is necessary in order to better plan and distribute health care resources aiming at a better HRQoL.[«All the people perceive the concept of living good or being well, that is the same as being happy». (Aristotle. 384-322 BC. Ethica Nichomachea

  4. Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pa...

  5. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in CKD Page Content On this page: What ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ...

  6. Adult stem cells for chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Ana L; Rojas, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic, progressive and lethal lung diseases. The incidence of IPF and COPD increases with age, independent of exposure to common environmental risk factors. At present, there is limited understanding of the relationship between ageing and the development of chronic lung diseases. One hypothesis is that chronic injury drives to exhaustion the local and systemic repair responses in the lung. These changes are accentuated during ageing where there is a progressive accumulation of senescent cells. Recently, stem cells have emerged as a critical reparative mechanism for lung injury. In this review, we discuss the repair response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-MSC) after lung injury and how their function is affected by ageing. Our own work has demonstrated a protective role of B-MSC in several animal models of acute and chronic lung injury. We recently demonstrated the association, using animal models, between age and an increase in the susceptibility to develop severe injury and fibrosis. At the same time, we have identified functional differences between B-MSC isolated from young and old animals. Further studies are required to understand the functional impairment of ageing B-MSC, ultimately leading to a rapid stem cell depletion or fatigue, interfering with their ability to play a protective role in lung injury. The elucidation of these events will help in the development of rational and new therapeutic strategies for COPD and IPF. PMID:23648014

  7. Migraine in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Prevalence, potential mechanisms, and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakib eRayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of headache subtypes in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome compared to controls. Background: Migraines are reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Approximately, 25% of the military personnel who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI. Symptoms in GWI share considerable overlap with CFS, including headache complaints. The type and prevalence of headaches in GWI have not been adequately assessed.Methods: 50 GWI, 39 CFS and 45 controls were examined. Participants had structured headache evaluations based on the 2004 International Headache Society criteria. All subjects had history and physical examinations, measurements of systemic hyperalgesia (dolorimetry, assessments for exclusionary indicators, fatigue and symptom related questionnaires. Results: Migraines were detected in 64% of GWI (odds ratio, 11.6, [±95% CI, 4.1 to 32.5] and 82% of CFS subjects (odds ratio, 22.5, [±95% CI, 7.8 to 64.8] compared to only 13% of controls. There was a predominance of females in the CFS compared to GWI and controls. However, gender did not influence migraine status (x2= 2.7; P = 0.101. Measures of fatigue, pain, and other ancillary criteria were comparable between GWI and CFS subjects with and without headache. Conclusion: Results validate previous findings of migraine in CFS and confirms similar increased prevalence in GWI compared to controls. This suggests GWI and CFS subjects share pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie migraine attacks and contribute to the extensive overlap of symptom constructs and disease pathophysiology. The high migraine prevalence warrants the inclusion of a structured headache evaluation that coincides with clinical assessments of GWI and CFS diagnosis.

  8. An Update on Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Afsar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the improvements in diagnostic tools and medical applications, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially coronary artery disease (CAD, remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main factors for the heightened risk in this population, beside advanced age and a high proportion of diabetes and hypertension, are malnutrition, chronic inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery calcification, left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities, and bone mineral disorders. Chronic kidney disease is now recognized as an independent risk factor for CAD. In community-based studies, decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR and proteinuria were both found to be independently associated with CAD. This paper will discuss classical and recent epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical aspects of CAD in CKD patients.

  9. A Customizable Model for Chronic Disease Coordination: Lessons Learned From the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voetsch, Karen; Sequeira, Sonia; Chavez, Amy Holmes

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding and technical assistance to all states and territories to implement the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program, marking the first time that all state health departments had federal resources to coordinate chronic disease prevention and control programs. This article describes lessons learned from this initiative and identifies key elements of a coordinated approach. We analyzed 80 programmatic documents from 21 states and conducted semistructured interviews with 7 chronic disease directors. Six overarching themes emerged: 1) focused agenda, 2) identification of functions, 3) comprehensive planning, 4) collaborative leadership and expertise, 5) managed resources, and 6) relationship building. These elements supported 4 essential activities: 1) evidence-based interventions, 2) strategic use of staff, 3) consistent communication, and 4) strong program infrastructure. On the basis of these elements and activities, we propose a conceptual model that frames overarching concepts, skills, and strategies needed to coordinate state chronic disease prevention and control programs. PMID:27032986

  10. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  11. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P;

    2012-01-01

    and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies.......-up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic...... and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness...

  12. Multiple Bowen's disease in chronic arsenicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Singha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bowen’s disease is a carcinoma in-situ of skin. It was fi rst described by John T. Bowen. It usually present as a solitary lesion in elderly person over sun-exposed area. A case of multiple Bowen’s disease involving non-sun exposed areas of a person with clinical sign of chronic arsenicosis has been found.Read more....

  13. Multiple Bowen's disease in chronic arsenicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Joydeep Singha

    2014-01-01

    Bowen’s disease is a carcinoma in-situ of skin. It was fi rst described by John T. Bowen. It usually present as a solitary lesion in elderly person over sun-exposed area. A case of multiple Bowen’s disease involving non-sun exposed areas of a person with clinical sign of chronic arsenicosis has been found.Read more....

  14. Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Christine; Ortiz, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic data indicate that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Patients with poorly managed COPD are likely to experience exacerbations that require emergency department visits or hospitalization—two important drivers contributing to escalating healthcare resource use and costs associated with the disease. Exacerbations also contribute to worsening lung function and negative outcomes in COPD. The aim of this review is to present th...

  15. Interleukin-10 and chronic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, LI-JUAN; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine produced by many cell populations. Numerous investigations suggest that IL-10 plays a major role in chronic liver diseases. IL-10 gene polymorphisms are possibly associated with liver disease susceptibility or severity. Recombinant human IL-10 has been produced and is currently tested in clinical trials. These trials may give new insights into the immunobiology of IL-10 and suggest that the IL-10/IL-10 receptor system may become a ...

  16. Interleukin-10 and chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Juan Zhang; Xiao-Zhong Wang

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine produced by many cell populations. Numerous investigations suggest that IL-10 plays a major role in chronic liver diseases. IL-10 gene polymorphisms are possibly associated with liver disease susceptibility or severity. Recombinant human IL-10 has been produced and is currently tested in clinical trials. These trials may give new insights into the immunobiology of IL-10 and suggest that the IL-10/IL-10 receptor system may become a new therapeutic target.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich;

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  18. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 699–710. 4 Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease Eating, Diet, and Nutrition People with anemia caused by ... Phone: 202–776–0544 Fax: 202–776–0545 Internet: www. hematology. org Iron Disorders Institute P.O. Box 675 Taylors, SC 29687 ...

  19. Screening of Elderly for Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezaic, Visnja; Bajcetic, Sanja; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Bukvic, Danica; Dimkovic, Nada; Djukanovic, Ljubica

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: The frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) markers was assessed in two groups of patients over 60 years - one without and the other with hypertension. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 585 asymptomatic elderly patients (227 males), 93 without and 492 with hypertensi

  20. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  1. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis M. Steyers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α, reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein, autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population.

  2. Avaliação nutricional e prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em idosos pertencentes a um programa assistencial Nutritional evaluation and prevalence of not transmissible chronic disease in elderly participating in an assistance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Macedo Bueno

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o estado nutricional e a prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em idosos que participavam de um programa assistencial da Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG, Alfenas, MG, Brasil. Foram coletadas variáveis socioeconômicas, antropométricas, bioquímicas e pressão arterial sistêmica de 82 indivíduos de 60 a 87 anos, sendo 90,2% do sexo feminino. Encontrou-se 52,4% de sobrepeso, 28,0% de eutrofia e 19,5% de baixo peso pelo IMC e 37,8% apresentaram percentual de gordura corpórea (%GC elevada. Relacionando-se Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC com %GC, 63,4% dos idosos com sobrepeso, 12,5% dos eutróficos e 11,8% dos com baixo peso apresentavam %GC elevado. A razão da circunferência da cintura e do quadril (RCQ revelou 40,2% em risco alto e 12,2% em risco muito alto para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares. Quanto à pressão arterial, 22,0% eram hipertensos. Em relação aos exames bioquímicos, observou-se que 39,3%, 39,3% e 3,3% dos idosos apresentavam valores plasmáticos elevados de colesterol, triglicerídeos e glicose, respectivamente. Programas de educação nutricional continuada e de monitoramento do estado nutricional e de saúde são necessários para melhoria da qualidade de vida destes indivíduos estudados.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state and the prevalence of not transmissible chronic disease in elderly, who were participating in an assistance program of the Federal University of Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG, Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Socio-economical, anthropometric and biochemical variables, as well as systemic blood pressure were collected from 82 individuals between 60 and 87 years of age, 90,2 % of them female. According to the body mass index (BMI 52,4% of the studied sample were overweight, 28,0% eutrophic and 19,5% underweight; 37,8% presented high body fat percentage (BF%. With regard to the relation BMI/BF%, 63,4% of the elderly with

  3. [The prevalence of epidemic diseases in Inner Mongolia region and the social vicissitude of Mongolian ethnic group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gang

    2013-03-01

    Since modern times, due to the natural environment, medical and health conditions, living habits and other reasons, the diseases were prevalent in the region of Inner Mongolia, including fulminating infectious diseases like plague; chronic diseases like syphilis, trachoma; along with many common chronic disorders like stomach disease and rheumatism etc. The high incidence of some of these diseases in Inner Mongolia region, especially plague and venereal diseases, greatly affected the growth of the population of Mongolian ethnic group in modern times, and also seriously hindered the development of social economy in this region. PMID:24135476

  4. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  5. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  6. Myocardial Ischemia Assessment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Challenges and Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Susie Fei Cen Parnham; Gleadle, Jonathan M.; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the chronic kidney disease population and often presents with atypical symptoms. Current diagnostic investigations of myocardial ischemia in chronic kidney disease lack sensitivity and specificity or may have adverse effects. We present a case vignette and explore the challenges of diagnostic myocardial stress investigation in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  7. Pregnancy in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellanki, Kavitha

    2013-05-01

    Despite vast improvements in fetal outcomes, pregnancy in women with CKD is fraught with hazards; worsening of renal function and complications like preeclampsia and premature delivery are common. To date, there is no accurate formula to calculate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Also, whether the current CKD classification is better than the older classification at predicting outcomes in pregnant women with CKD is unknown. Women with an estimated GFR ≥1.4 mg/dL are at increased risk of progressive worsening of renal function regardless of the cause of the underlying kidney disease. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in pregnant women with underlying CKD, and serum markers such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PIGF) may lead the way for definitive diagnosis. New-onset lupus or lupus flare is an indication for kidney biopsy during pregnancy; cyclosporine is safe and is the most effective agent that can be used during pregnancy. Women with adult polycystic kidney disease are at increased risk of hypertension and preeclampsia during pregnancy, as well as hepatic cysts later in life, the latter occurring with multiple pregnancies. Strict blood pressure control is important in pregnant women with diabetic nephropathy. A multidisciplinary team that includes nephrologists and obstetricians who deal with high-risk pregnancies should be involved in the care of pregnant women with CKD for successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23928386

  8. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwit Rahmawati; Heru Muryawan; Farah Prabowo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were in...

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youl Rhee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP cohort study is performing an ongoing large-scale prospective multicenter investigation to discover the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in Korean patients. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes among those registered in the KNDP cohort within the past 4 years.MethodsThis study was performed between June 2006 and September 2009 at 13 university hospitals and included 4,265 KNDP cohort participants. Among the participants, the crude prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular diseases of those checked for diabetes-related complications was determined, and the adjusted standard prevalence and standardization of the general population prevalence ratio (SPR was estimated based on the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES population demographics.ResultsAmong the KNDP registrants, 43.2% had hypertension, 34.8% had dyslipidemia, 10.8% had macrovascular disease, and 16.7% had microvascular disease. The SPR of the KNDP registrants was significantly higher than that of the KNHANES subjects after adjusting for demographics in the KNHANES 2005 population. However, with the exception of cardiovascular disease in females, the standardized prevalence for the most complicated items in the survey was significantly higher than that in the KNHANES subjects.ConclusionThe prevalence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease were significantly higher in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes than in the normal population. However, no significant difference was noted in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in females.

  10. Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deter Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of patients with chronic diseases will be one of the main challenges of medicine in the future. This paper presents an overview of different origins, mechanism, and symptoms necessary for understanding new and different interventions that include a psychosomatic view. In a psychosomatic therapeutic intervention there are very different targets, such as psychological symptoms, personality traits, attitudes toward disease and life, risk behaviour, and social isolation and as biological targets the change of autonomic imbalance and of the effects of the psycho-endocrinological or psycho-immunological stress responses. And there are also different psychosomatic measures that influence the individual biological, psychological and sociological targets. There is a need to give different answer to different questions in the field of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine. Comparative effectiveness research is an important strategy for solving some methodological issues. What is the target of treatment for different diseases: Symptom reduction, healing, or limiting progression to the worst case - the death of patients. We know that, the patient-physician relationship is important for every medical/therapeutic action for patients with chronic diseases. This volume of BioPsychoSocial Medicine will present four different psychosomatic treatment studies from the clinical field in the sense of phase 2 studies: Reports of patients with obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic somatoform pain and coronary artery disease were presented

  11. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  12. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  13. Arterial hypertension and chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, S

    2005-01-01

    , calcitonin gene-related peptide, nitric oxide, and other vasodilators, and is most pronounced in the splanchnic area. This provides an effective (although relative) counterbalance to raised arterial blood pressure. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during......This review looks at the alterations in the systemic haemodynamics of patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of renal origin. Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic...... the development of chronic liver disease, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in those with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial...

  14. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  15. Neurohumoral fluid regulation in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Impaired homeostasis of the blood volume, with increased fluid and sodium retention, is a prevailing element in the deranged systemic and splanchnic haemodynamics in patients with liver disease. In this review, some basic elements of the circulatory changes that take place and of neurohumoral fluid...... regulation are outlined in order to provide an update of recent investigations on the neuroendocrine compensation of circulatory and volume dysfunction in chronic liver disease. The underlying pathophysiology is a systemic vasodilatation in which newly described potent vasoactive substances such as nitric...... and lungs. It is still an enigma why patients with chronic liver disease are at the same time overloaded and functional hypovolaemic with a hyperdynamic, hyporeactive circulation. Further research is needed to find the solution to this apparent haemodynamic conflict concerning the abnormal neurohumoral...

  16. Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Hairong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p  Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.

  17. Contribution of Inflammation to Vascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by an exceptionally high mortality rate, much of which results from cardiovascular disease (CVD. Chronic low-grade inflammation, as evidenced by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP, is a common feature of CKD and may cause atherosclerotic CVD through various pathogenetic mechanisms. Evidence suggests that persistent inflammation may also be a risk factor for progression of CKD, which may result in a vicious inflammation-driven circle. The causes of inflammation in CKD are multifactorial. The influence of various comorbidities may contribute to inflammation in the setting of progressive loss of renal function. Available data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines also play a central role in the genesis of the metabolic syndrome. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and consequences of inflammation in relation to protein-energy wasting (PEW and CVD in CKD patients from developing countries. The ′westernization′ of nutritional intakes and changes of life style besides the high prevalence of chronic infections in developing countries are possible additive contributors to a high prevalence of inflammation, PEW and CVD among CKD patients. Also, genetic differences may affect inflammatory responses and nutritional status and, thus, the susceptibility to CVD in different regions.

  18. Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Lower Prevalence and Subsequent Incidence of Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Lars E; Jepsen, Peter; Christensen, Lisbet A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori infection may protect against some chronic inflammatory diseases. This study examined H. pylori infection and its association with the prevalence of the gastrointestinal diseases Crohn's disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and coeliac disease [Ce......D]. Incident cases in a follow-up period after H. pylori testing were recorded to investigate if protective effects of H. pylori persisted after probable eradication. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study performed in the Central Denmark Region. Patients were enrolled consecutively from primary health...... care centres after a urea breath test [UBT] for H. pylori and were then followed for a median of 6 years. The patient's diseases, country of birth, and gender were acquired from nationwide administrative registries. We used logistic regression to compare the prevalences of CD, UC, and CeD and Cox...

  19. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  20. Simultaneidade dos fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adolescentes: prevalência e fatores associados Simultaneidad de los factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en adolescentes: prevalencia y factores asociados Clustering of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases among adolescents: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara da Silva

    2012-09-01

    adolescentes de Caxias do Sul, en Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de base escolar, involucrando a 1.675 estudiantes (53,2% del sexo femenino, con edades entre 11 y 17 años, de escuelas públicas y privadas. El consumo de tabaco y alcohol, el alto consumo de grasa en la dieta y el bajo nivel de actividad física constituyeron las variables comportamentales. Circunferencia de la cintura y presión arterial elevada y baja aptitud cardiorrespiratoria compusieron las variables biológicas. Se realizó regresión logística multinominal para identificar variables asociadas a la simultaneidad de los factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. RESULTADOS: De los adolescentes, el 61,6 y el 31,2% presentaron baja aptitud cardiorrespiratoria y elevado consumo de grasas, respectivamente. Dos en cada diez adolescentes tenían dos o más comportamientos de riesgo y un tercio de ellos tenía al menos dos factores de riesgo biológico para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. En total, el 62,0% de los adolescentes tenían al menos dos factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, con mayor frecuencia en los estudiantes mayores. En el análisis simultáneo de todas las variables, se observó que el aumento de la edad estuvo asociado a la acumulación de dos o más factores de riesgo (sexo masculino con OR 2,10 y femenino con OR 5,74. CONCLUSIONES: Seis en cada diez adolescentes tenían al menos dos factores de riesgo, mientras que la proporción del agrupamiento de esos factores aumentó con la edad. Por lo tanto, cuanto más temprano tienen lugar las intervenciones, probablemente menos adolescentes serán acometidos por problemas de la salud en edades más avanzadas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clustering patterns of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases, according to the socioeconomic level and age of adolescents. METHODS: School-based cross-sectional study with 1,675 adolescents (females - 53

  1. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rucha Shah; Dhoom Singh Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque in...

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of obstructive ventilatory impairment and hyperinflation, especially the inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, correlates with the severity of sleep-related breathing disturbances. Early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves survival, reduces hospitalization and pulmonary hypertension, and also reduces hypoxemia. Evidence of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD and sleep apnea provides insight into potential interactions between both disorders that may predispose to cardiovascular disease. Long-term outcome studies of overlap patients currently underway should provide further evidence of the clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. SUMMARY: Studies of overlap syndrome patients at a clinical, physiological and molecular level should provide insight into disease mechanisms and consequences of COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to identifying potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  3. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in The Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Bech, Sara Brynhild Winther; Petersen, Maria Skaalum;

    2008-01-01

    A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively.......A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively....

  4. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, ... 54. 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per ...

  5. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…

  6. The fitting of general force-of-infection models to wildlife disease prevalence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, D.M.; Joly, D.O.; Messier, F.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers and wildlife managers increasingly find themselves in situations where they must deal with infectious wildlife diseases such as chronic wasting disease, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and West Nile virus. Managers are often charged with designing and implementing control strategies, and researchers often seek to determine factors that influence and control the disease process. All of these activities require the ability to measure some indication of a disease's foothold in a population and evaluate factors affecting that foothold. The most common type of data available to managers and researchers is apparent prevalence data. Apparent disease prevalence, the proportion of animals in a sample that are positive for the disease, might seem like a natural measure of disease's foothold, but several properties, in particular, its dependency on age structure and the biasing effects of disease-associated mortality, make it less than ideal. In quantitative epidemiology, the a??force of infection,a?? or infection hazard, is generally the preferred parameter for measuring a disease's foothold, and it can be viewed as the most appropriate way to a??adjusta?? apparent prevalence for age structure. The typical ecology curriculum includes little exposure to quantitative epidemiological concepts such as cumulative incidence, apparent prevalence, and the force of infection. The goal of this paper is to present these basic epidemiological concepts and resulting models in an ecological context and to illustrate how they can be applied to understand and address basic epidemiological questions. We demonstrate a practical approach to solving the heretofore intractable problem of fitting general force-of-infection models to wildlife prevalence data using a generalized regression approach. We apply the procedures to Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) prevalence in bison (Bison bison) in Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada, and demonstrate strong age dependency in the force of

  7. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  8. Direct renin inhibition in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    that renin inhibition could hold potential for improved treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease, with diabetic nephropathy as an obvious group of patients to investigate, as the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is enhanced in these patients and as there is an unmet need....... In addition, combination treatment seemed safe and effective also in patients with impaired kidney function. These initial findings formed the basis for the design of a large morbidity and mortality trial investigating aliskiren as add-on to standard treatment. The study has just concluded, but was terminated...... early as a beneficial effect was unlikely and there was an increased frequency of side effects. Also in non-diabetic kidney disease a few intervention studies have been carried out, but there is no ongoing hard outcome study. In this review we provide the current evidence for renin inhibition in chronic...

  9. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Uranium Millers § 79.57 Proof of chronic renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following...

  10. Netherlands : employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear national definition of a chronic disease in a work situation in the Netherlands. Questionnaire data shows that between 25% and 30% of all workers are affected by a chronic disease. Worker with a chronic disease have slightly different working conditions as compared to workers witho

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease: What Does It Mean for Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Españ​ol Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Basics Page Content Chronic Kidney Disease: The ... and My Lifestyle CKD: Tracking My Test Results Chronic Kidney Disease: The Basics You've been told that you ...

  12. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenheijm, Coen A. C.; Heunks, Leo M.A.; Sieck, Gary C.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Jansen, Suzanne M.; Degens, Hans; de Boo, Theo; Dekhuijzen, P.N Richard

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Hypercapnic respiratory failure because of inspiratory muscle weakness is the most important cause of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the pathophysiology of failure of the diaphragm to generate force in COPD is in part unclear. Objectives: The present study investigated contractile function and myosin heavy chain content of diaphragm muscle single fibers from patients with COPD. Methods: Skinned muscle fibers were isolated from muscle biopsies from t...

  13. PREVALENCE OF POULTRY DISEASES AND PARASITES IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed literature on the prevalence of diseases and parasites of poultry in Botswana over a five year period i.e., from 2006 to 2010. Coccidiosis was the most prevalent disease in poultry species except for ostriches which were mainly affected by colisepticaemia. The highest prevalence of diseases and parasites was recorded in 2007 with fowl pox, coccidiosis, salmonellosis and helminthiasis being the main contributors. Fowl pox was prevalent in family chickens which are reared under free range. Poultry diseases were mainly prevalent in Gaborone, Mochudi, Francistown and Molepolole districts with 225, 168, 148 and 135 cases, respectively. Newcastle disease was sporadic throughout the study period. In the present study, the common parasites of poultry were mites, fleas, lice, ticks and helminths, and helminths were the most prevalent followed by mites. Of all species, chickens were affected most by parasites followed by guinea fowl. These results suggest inadequacies in health management, indicating that strict biosecurity measures should be put in place in order to reduce mortalities. There is also a need for extension service to train farmers on health management.

  14. Treatment and Prevention of Common Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health problem with an increasing incidence and prevalence. Outcomes of CKD include not only complications of decreased kidney function and cardiovascular disease but also kidney failure causing increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, CKD is often undetected and undertreated because of its insidious onset, variable progression, and length of time to overt kidney failure. Diabetes is now the leading cause of CKD requiring renal replacement therapy in many parts of the world, and its prevalence is increasing disproportionately in the developing countries. This review article outlines the current recommendations from various clinical guidelines and research studies for treatment, prevention and delaying the progression of both CKD and its common complications such as hypertension, anemia, renal osteodystrophy, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, and hyperlipidemia. Recommendations for nutrition in CKD and measures adopted for early diabetic kidney disease to prevent further progression have also been reviewed. There is strong evidence that early detection and management of CKD can prevent or reduce disease progression, decrease complications and improve outcomes. Evidence supports that achieving optimal glucose control, blood pressure, reduction in albuminuria with a multifactorial intervention slows the progression of CKD. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are most effective because of their unique ability to decrease proteinuria, a factor important for the progression of CKD.

  15. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Cystic Renal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Cysts are frequently found in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and they have a different prognostic significance depending on the clinical context. Simple solitary parenchymal cysts and peripelvic cysts are very common and they have no clinical significance. At US, simple cyst appears as a round anechoic pouch with regular and thin profiles. On the other hand, hereditary polycystic disease is a frequent cause of CKD in children and adults. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) are the best known cystic hereditary diseases. ADPKD and ARPKD show a diffused cystic degeneration with cysts of different diameters derived from tubular epithelium. Medullary cystic disease may be associated with tubular defects, acidosis and lithiasis and can lead to CKD. Acquired cystic kidney disease, finally, is secondary to progressive structural end-stage kidney remodelling and may be associated with renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27169740

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, T.; Thomsen, S.F.; Vestbo, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation and is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs primarily caused by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important environmental risk factor for COPD, but less than half of all heavy...... smokers develop COPD. This indicates a genetic contribution to the individual disease susceptibility. Although many genes have been examined, the puzzle of COPD genetics seems still largely unsolved. It is therefore important to measure phenotypes and to perform genome-wide scans of COPD patients in order...

  17. Biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Don D; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, with exception of lung function tests, there are no well validated biomarkers or surrogate endpoints that can be used to establish efficacy of novel drugs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the lung function test is not an ideal surrogate for short-term drug...... trials because it (1) does not provide information regarding disease activity or the underlying pathologic process, (2) cannot separate the various phenotypes of COPD, (3) is not specific for COPD, and (4) is relatively unresponsive to known therapies that prolong survival. Accordingly, there are large...

  18. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khodavaisy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with a chronic inflammatory response in airways and lung parenchyma that results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking considered as an important risk factor plays a role in pathogenesis of disease. Pneumocystis jirovecii is an atypical opportunistic fungus that causes pneumonia in immunosuppressed host, although the low levels of its DNA in patients without signs and symptoms of pneumonia, which likely represents colonization. The increased prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in COPD patients has led to an interest in understanding its role in the disease. P. jirovecii colonization in these patients could represent a problem for public health since colonized patients could act as a major reservoir and source of infection for susceptible subjects. Using sensitive molecular techniques, low levels of P. jirovecii DNA have been detected in the respiratory tract of certain individuals. It is necessary to elucidate the role of P. jirovecii colonization in the natural history of COPD patients in order to improve the clinical management of this disease. In the current review paper, we discuss P. jirovecii colonization in COPD patients.

  19. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  20. Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease.

  1. Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanru; Owens, Robert L.; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome) have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease. PMID:27445564

  2. Hirschsprung's disease prevalence in Europe. A register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital gut motility disorder, characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglion cells along the distal gut. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Hirschsprung's disease, including additional congenital anomalies, total prevalence,...

  3. Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Paweł Kocbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of Lyme disease, established diagnosis based on medical history and clinical symptoms, serology, duration of exposure in the workplace and occupational disease certification among forestry workers in selected districts of the Warmia and Mazury region. Material and Methods: The study consisted of annual screening of 332 employees in 6 forest districts under the supervision of the Health Center Medica in Ostróda. Serological tests were performed in all serum samples and IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by ELISA test. Positive results were confirmed by Western-blot test. Diagnosis was made based on medical history and clinical symptoms. Results were presented by the division of selected forest districts, gender, duration of exposure in the workplace and genospecies of spirochete Borrelia responsible for the disease development. Results: Lyme disease incidence was found in all selected forest districts. Positive results in Western-blot test were determined in 120 people (63.1% of all the surveyed. However, after taking a detailed medical history of the patients Lyme disease was diagnosed in 91 people which makes 27.4% of all the examined. Among patients with diagnosed disease, IgG antibodies were found in 76 people, IgM in 25 people, while both IgM and IgG in 10 people. There was also variation in the involvement of genospecies generating the disease; spirochete B. afzeli – 46% for IgG antibodies, whereas spirochete B. burgdorferi – 50% of all cases for IgM antibodies. At the same time the relationship between the extended duration of occupational exposure to tick bites and the increased incidence of Lyme disease was confirmed, indicating the group of workers employed for at least 25 years. Conclusions: Forestry districts of the Warmia and Mazury region, creates extremely dangerous occupational conditions because of exposure to tick bites. At the same time the duration of

  4. Trends in chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of several chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China. Data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) of 4 waves collected in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011, filtered to include individuals aged 80 and above. Bivariate and logistic regression methods were used in analyses. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart diseases, stroke/cardiovascular diseases, cancer and dementia, which generally saw an increase across the 4 waves. By contrast, prevalence of Parkinson was not significantly different over the 4 waves. Logistic regression results revealed that since 2002, hypertension had been significantly higher in subsequent waves in 2005, 2008 and 2011. Stroke had also shown significant increase in the 2008 and 2011 waves. Other chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, Parkinson and dementia were only found to be significantly higher in the recent 2011 wave compared to the initial wave in 2002. Arthritis, which initially increased in earlier waves, had dropped significantly in the recent 2011 wave. However, respiratory conditions had been significantly lower since the initial wave in 2002. Generally, findings confirmed the increasing trend of chronic morbidity in recent years among the oldest-old in China. Long life expectancy coupled with chronic morbidity in very late age will duly have societal and economic implications.

  5. High prevalence of autoimmune urticaria in children with chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Luigia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Miniello, Vito L;

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood often remains unrecognized. Recently, in adults it has been shown that approximately 40% of patients with CU have autoimmune urticaria (AU); however, no data are available in children.......The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood often remains unrecognized. Recently, in adults it has been shown that approximately 40% of patients with CU have autoimmune urticaria (AU); however, no data are available in children....

  6. Early cardiovascular risk markers and cardiac function in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tranæus Lindblad, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    Children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of premature death, foremost due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular (CV) morbidity starts early in the disease process and renal transplanted children (CKD-T) are also at risk. Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to study CV morbidity and potential risk factors in pediatric CKD and CKD-T patients. The prevalence of various known biomarkers associated with increased risk of CVD was assessed ...

  7. Outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Huay Cheem

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Patients with CKD are known to have a greater prevalence of cardiovascular disease than the general population,1 and patients with concurrent CKD and coronary artery disease (CAD) have greater mortality than patients without CKD.2-4 The rate of cardiovascular mortality is approximately 50%,five to 10 times higher than the general population.

  8. Complexity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalized in internal medicine: a survey by FADOI

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Nozzoli; Luigi Anastasio; Leonardo M. Fabbri; Pietro Marino; Roberto Nardi; Antonio Sacchetta; Franco Mastroianni; Giovanni Mangano; Fabrizio Lombardini; Angela Zappaterra; Antonella Valerio; Giorgio Vescovo; Giancarlo Agnelli; Mauro Campanini; for the Research Department of FADOI

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most frequent pathologies among patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine (IM) Departments. COPD is frequently associated with concomitant diseases, which represent major causes of death, and affect disease management. Objectives of our study are to assess the prevalence of COPD patients in IM, to evaluate their comorbidity status, and to describe their complexity, by means of the validated multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) sco...

  9. Evidence for severe atherosclerotic changes in chronic hemodialysis patients: comparative autopsy study against cardiovascular disease patients without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chigure; Nakamura, Satoko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Kawano, Yuhei

    2011-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among hemodialysis patients, but whether it is more severe in hemodialysis patients than in cardiovascular disease patients without chronic kidney disease is unclear. We examined 46 autopsy patients who had undergone hemodialysis, and age and sex-matched 46 patients with cardiovascular disease and an eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). There was no difference in the prevalence of diabetes or hypertension between the groups. We divided the aorta into four segments: A, ascending artery to arch; B, descending artery to diaphragm; C, suprarenal; and D, infrarenal. We used the classification of the American Heart Association to evaluate atherosclerosis progression. Distribution was scored by the extent to which each segment was damaged: 0, none; 1, less than 1/3; 2, more than 1/3 to less than 2/3; 3, more than 2/3. Histological examination revealed that the progression score (P 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Aortic atherosclerosis was aggravated by traditional and chronic kidney disease-related risk factors.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula; Iruzubieta; lvaro; Terán; Javier; Crespo; Emilio; Fábrega

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis,but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation,has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)and chronic hepatitis C(CHC)virus infection.The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known,but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases.Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease.Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required.

  11. Role of cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Parfieniuk; Robert Flisiak

    2008-01-01

    Cannabinoids are a group of compounds acting primarily via CB1 and CB2 receptors. The expression of cannabinoid receptors in normal liver is low or absent. However, many reports have proven up-regulation of the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors in hepatic myofibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells, as well as increased concentration of endocannabinoids in liver in the course of chronic progressive liver diseases. It has been shown that CB1 receptor signalling exerts profibrogenic and proinflammatory effects in liver tissue, primarily due to the stimulation of hepatic stellate cells, whereas the activation of CB2 receptors inhibits or even reverses liver fibrogenesis. Similarly, CB1 receptor stimulation contributes to progression of liver steatosis. In end-stage liver disease, the endocannabi-noid system has been shown to contribute to hepatic encephalopathy and vascular effects, such as portal hypertension, splanchnic vasodilatation, relative pe-ripheral hypotension and probably cirrhotic cardiomy-opathy. So far, available evidence is based on cellular cultures or animal models. Clinical data on the effects of cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases are limited. However, recent studies have shown the contribution of cannabis smoking to the progression of liver fibrosis and steatosis. Moreover, controlling CB1 or CB2 signal-ling appears to be an attractive target in managing liver diseases.

  12. Prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of psoriasis, particularly in men. Despite this, little is known of the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: In total, 100 patients with proven alcoholic liver disease were surveyed for a history of psoriasis and a full skin examination was performed if relevant. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, 15 reported a history of psoriasis and another 8 had evidence of current activity, suggesting a prevalence (past or present) of 15% in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol is much higher than the 1-3% variously quoted in the general population.

  13. Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How Are They Linked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan He

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases.

  14. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Gagnon,1,2 Jordan A Guenette,3,4 Daniel Langer,5 Louis Laviolette,2 Vincent Mainguy,1 François Maltais,1,2 Fernanda Ribeiro,1,2 Didier Saey1,2 1Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 3Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, St Paul's Hospital, 4Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Department of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In a significant proportion of patients with COPD, reduced lung elastic recoil combined with expiratory flow limitation leads to lung hyperinflation during the course of the disease. Development of hyperinflation during the course of COPD is insidious. Dynamic hyperinflation is highly prevalent in the advanced stages of COPD, and new evidence suggests that it also occurs in many patients with mild disease, independently of the presence of resting hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is clinically relevant for patients with COPD mainly because it contributes to dyspnea, exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle limitations, morbidity, and reduced physical activity levels associated with the disease. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of ventilatory limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to address the more recent literature regarding the pathogenesis, assessment, and management of both static and dynamic lung hyperinflation in patients with COPD. We also address the influence of biological sex and obesity and new developments in our understanding of hyperinflation in patients with mild COPD and its evolution during

  15. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  16. Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme;

    2014-01-01

    with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ⩾16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National...... medication overuse (⩾20 or ⩾30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health...... composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1...

  17. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, E Liana; Petts, Jennifer R; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L; de la Morena, M Teresa; Greenberg, David E; Zerbe, Christa S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis.

  18. [Pulmonary obstructive chronic disease and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, Carla; Gonçalves, Ana Paula; Tavares, Alcina

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease that can be prevented and treated, with a pulmonary component and with significant systemic effects that contribute to the severity of clinical manifestations. COPD causes a number of changes, including those which lead to exercise tolerance limitation and to a progressive deterioration of life quality of the patients. Respiratory rehabilitation (RR) represents a key part of the treatment. The benefits of RR are independent of sex, age and disease severity. At the end of the program, the patient should have acquired a life style as independent and healthy as possible. With this article the authors intend to review the benefits of physical exercise in rehabilitation of patients with COPD and the different types of training used in the respiratory rehabilitation program established for each patient. PMID:20700562

  19. Natural histories of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    English men over 8 years, was used to construct a proposed life-long natural history. Although this is a classic study that has greatly advanced understanding of COPD, it has a number of limitations. Its duration is relatively short compared with the duration of COPD, so it is more cross-sectional than......Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...... longitudinal. It was unable to distinguish among varied "natural histories." It assessed primarily the FEV(1), and the natural history of other features of COPD is largely undescribed. With advances in understanding the clinical features of COPD and with the development of evaluating new tools to assess...

  20. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Philippe; Guenette, Jordan A; Langer, Daniel; Laviolette, Louis; Mainguy, Vincent; Maltais, François; Ribeiro, Fernanda; Saey, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In a significant proportion of patients with COPD, reduced lung elastic recoil combined with expiratory flow limitation leads to lung hyperinflation during the course of the disease. Development of hyperinflation during the course of COPD is insidious. Dynamic hyperinflation is highly prevalent in the advanced stages of COPD, and new evidence suggests that it also occurs in many patients with mild disease, independently of the presence of resting hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is clinically relevant for patients with COPD mainly because it contributes to dyspnea, exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle limitations, morbidity, and reduced physical activity levels associated with the disease. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of ventilatory limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to address the more recent literature regarding the pathogenesis, assessment, and management of both static and dynamic lung hyperinflation in patients with COPD. We also address the influence of biological sex and obesity and new developments in our understanding of hyperinflation in patients with mild COPD and its evolution during progression of the disease.

  1. The Sex Factor: Epidemiology and Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat G Camp

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in women have been predicted to overtake that of men within the next decade. These predictions are based in part on data from surveys using self-reports of a COPD diagnosis. Whether these predictions have been realized is unknown.

  2. Diabetic kidney disease: world wide difference of prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Osama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease – which is defined by elevated urine albumin excretion or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR or both – is a serious complication that occurs in 20% to 40% of all diabetics. In this review we try to highlight the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy which is not uncommon complication of diabetes all over the world. The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has extended epidemic magnitudes and is expected to affect more than 350 million people by the year 2035. There is marked racial/ethnic besides international difference in the epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease which could be explained by the differences in economic viability and governmental infrastructures. Approximately one-third of diabetic patients showed microalbuminuria after 15 years of disease duration and less than half develop real nephropathy. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD is more frequent in African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Native Americans. Progressive kidney disease is more frequent in Caucasians patients with type 1 than type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, although its overall prevalence in the diabetic population is higher in patients with type 2 DM while this type of DM is more prevalent. Hyperglycemia is well known risk factor for in addition to other risk factors like male sex, obesity, hypertension, chronic inflammation, resistance to insulin, hypovitaminosis D, and dyslipidemia and some genetic loci and polymorphisms in specific genes. Management of its modifiable risk factors might help in reducing its incidence in the nearby future.

  3. Clinical and fiberoptic endoscopic assessment of swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macri, Marina Rodrigues Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible obstruction of pulmonary airflow. Aim: To characterize swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and correlate the findings with the degree chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and smoking. Method: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 19 patients (12 men and 7 women; age range, 50–85 years with confirmed medical diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was performed in 2 stages (clinical evaluation and functional assessment using nasolaryngofibroscopy on the same day. During both stages, vital signs were checked by medical personnel. Results: Clinical evaluation of swallowing in all patients showed the clinical signs of cough. The findings of nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted subsequent intraoral escape in 5 patients (26.5%. No patient had tracheal aspiration. There was no association of subsequent intraoral escape with degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking. Conclusion: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there was a prevalence of oral dysphagia upon swallowing and nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted the finding of subsequent intraoral escape. There was no correlation between intraoral escape and the degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking.

  4. Fisher choice may increase prevalence of green turtle fibropapillomatosis disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B Stringell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Disease in wildlife populations is often controlled through culling. But when healthy individuals are removed and diseased individuals are left in the population, it is anticipated that prevalence of disease increases. Although this scenario is presumably common in exploited populations where infected individuals are less marketable, it is not widely reported in the literature. We describe this scenario in a marine turtle fishery in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI, where green turtles are harvested for local consumption. During a two-year period, we recorded the occurrence of fibropapillomatosis (FP disease in green turtles (Chelonia mydas captured during in-water surveys and compared it with that of turtles landed in the fishery. 13.4% (n=32 of turtles captured during in-water surveys showed externally visible signs of FP. FP occurred at specific geographic locations where fishing also occurred. Despite the disease being prevalent in the size classes selected by fishers, FP was not present in any animals landed by the fishery (n=162. The majority (61% of fishers interviewed expressed that they had caught turtles with FP. Yet, 82% of those that had caught turtles with the disease chose to return their catch to the sea, selectively harvesting healthy turtles and leaving those with the disease in the population. Our study illustrates that fisher choice may increase the prevalence of FP disease and highlights the importance of this widely neglected driver in the disease dynamics of exploited wildlife populations.

  5. Screening for chronic kidney disease : Where does Europe go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Paul E.; van der Velde, Marije; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Zoccali, Carmine

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses various screening approaches for chronic kidney disease that are used in Europe. The criterion for defining chronic kidney disease in the various programs differs but is frequently limited to estimated glomerular filtration rate, thus offering only data on chronic kidney diseas

  6. Asymptomatic patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming; WANG Chang-zheng; NI Dian-tao; WANG Xiao-ping; WANG Da-li; LIU Sheng-ming; L(U) Jia-chun; SHEN Ning; DING Yan-ling; RAN Pi-xin; YAO Wan-zhen; ZHONG Nan-shan; ZHOU Yu-min; WANG Chen; CHEN Ping; KANG Jian; HUANG Shao-guang; CHEN Bao-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has a variable natural history and not all individuals follow the same course. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic COPD patients from a population-based survey in China.Methods A multistage cluster sampling strategy was used in a population from seven different provinces/cities. All residents (over 40 years old) were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and spirometry.Post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 70% was defined as the diagnostic criterion of COPD. All COPD patients screened were divided into symptomatic group and asymptomatic group according to the presence or absence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Socio-demographic,personal and exposure variables were collected and analyzed.Results Among the 1668 patients who were diagnosed with COPD from the 25 627 sampling subjects, 589 (35.3%)were asymptomatic. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI),rural and urban distributions, smoking habit and education levels were similar in the two groups. A total of 64.7% of the asymptomatic patients had no comorbidities. Cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer were more common among symptomatic COPD patients than asymptomatic group.Asymptomatic COPD group were less likely to present with poor ventilation in the kitchen, a family history of respiratory disease and recurrent childhood cough. Asymptomatic COPD patients had significantly higher FEV1 (73.1% vs. 61.0%), FVC (91.9% vs. 82.0%), and a higher ratio of FEV1/FVC (62.9% vs.58.7%) (all P <0.001) than symptomatic group. More asymptomatic patients were underdiagnosed (91.9% vs.54.3%, P<0.001) than symptomatic patients.Conclusions This large population-based survey confirmed a high prevalence of asymptomatic COPD patients in China. More use of spirometry screening test may be important to the early detection of COPD.

  7. Genetic Considerations in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Lyndsay A; Zepeda-Orozco, Diana

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is an irreversible process that, in some cases, may lead to end-stage renal disease. The majority of children with CKD have a congenital disorder of the kidney or urological tract arising from birth. There is strong evidence for both a genetic and epigenetic component to progression of CKD. Utilization of gene-mapping strategies, ranging from genome-wide association studies to single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, serves to identify potential genetic variants that may lend to disease variation. Genome-wide association studies evaluating population-based data have identified different loci associated with CKD progression. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on an individual level suggests that secondary systemic sequelae of CKD are closely related to dysfunction of the cardiovascular-inflammatory axis and may lead to advanced cardiovascular disease through abnormal vascular calcification and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Similarly, genetic variants affecting cytokine control, fibrosis, and parenchymal development may modulate CKD through development and acceleration of renal interstitial fibrosis. Epigenetic studies evaluate modification of the genome through DNA methylation, histone modification, or RNA interference, which may be directly influenced by external or environmental factors directing genomic expression. Lastly, improved understanding of the genetic and epigenetic contribution to CKD progression may allow providers to identify a population at accelerated risk for disease progression and apply novel therapies targeted at the genetic mechanism of disease. PMID:27617141

  8. The prevalence of metabolic risk factors among outpatients with diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantinas, Jonas; Apanaviciene, Daiva Asta; Maroziene, Ligita; Sveikata, Audrius

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease; there is growing evidence that it is a hepatic manifestation of a metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic risk factors among patients with NAFLD. Material/Methods Outpatients with NAFLD were recruited into the study. Family physicians recorded patients’ demographic and anthropometric data, leisure-time physical activity, concomitant diseases, and pharmacological treatment for NAFLD into standardized Case Report Forms. Results In total, data on 798 patients were analyzed. Most patients were women and they were older than the men (mean age, 60.2±9.6 vs. 54.5±11.4 years; p30 kg/m2 or central obesity in the 2 age groups (≤60 years and >60 years). Hypertension and diabetes were more prevalent among older men and women. Dyslipidemia was more common among older women. The level of leisure-time physical activity was lower in women and in older patients. The most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents were cytoprotective agents, lipid-lowering drugs, and antioxidants. Conclusions Metabolic risk factors were highly prevalent among patients with NAFLD. Obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were more prevalent among women. The differences in the prevalence of hypertension seemed to be influenced by older age of women. PMID:22534719

  9. Prevalence of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Related Factors in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasifar, I.; Lankarani, K. B.; Moosazadeh, M.; Afshari, M.; Ghaemi, A.; Aliramezany, M.; Afsar Gharebagh, R.; Malary, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developing and developed countries. Estimating the total prevalence of NAFLD by means of appropriate statistical methods can provide reliable evidence for health policy makers. Objective: To determine the prevalence of NAFLD in Iran using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We identified relevant studies by searching national and international databases. Standard error of the prevalence reported in each study was calculated assuming a binomial distribution. The heterogeneity between the results of the studies was determined using Cochran’s Q and I square indices. We used a random effect model to combine the prevalence rates reported in the studies. Results: We entered 23 eligible studies in this systematic review investigated NAFLD among 25,865 Iranian people. The total prevalence of NAFLD, prevalence of mild, moderate and severe fatty liver disease were estimated at 33.9% (95% CI 26.4%–41.5%), 26.7% (95% CI 21.7%–31.7%), 7.6% (95% CI 5.7%–9.4%), and 0.5% (95% CI 0.1%–0.9%), respectively. The majority of studies reported that NAFLD was more common among men (seven of eight studies), obese person (15 of 15 studies), older people (10 of 10 studies), patients with systolic hypertension (5 of 8 studies), patients with diastolic hypertension (7 of 9 studies), patients with hypertriglyceridemia (14 of 16 studies), patients with high HOMA level (4 of 4 studies), patients with metabolic syndrome (4 of 4 studies), and those with elevated serum ALT (8 of 12 studies). Conclusion: Our study showed that the prevalence of NAFLD in Iran was relatively high and male gender, old age, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, systolic/diastolic hypertension, high serum ALT, and hypertriglyceridemia may be determinants of NAFLD.

  10. Lung hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: mechanisms, clinical implications and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Daniel; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Neder, J Alberto; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2014-12-01

    Lung hyperinflation is highly prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occurs across the continuum of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that lung hyperinflation contributes to dyspnea and activity limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is an important independent risk factor for mortality. In this review, we will summarize the recent literature on pathogenesis and clinical implications of lung hyperinflation. We will outline the contribution of lung hyperinflation to exercise limitation and discuss its impact on symptoms and physical activity. Finally, we will examine the physiological rationale and efficacy of selected pharmacological and non-pharmacological 'lung deflating' interventions aimed at improving symptoms and physical functioning.

  11. [The prevalence of chronic drinkers in Mexico: an ecologic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, G

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is an important element in the epidemiologic profile of Mexico. This can be confirmed observing the increased per capita consumption of certain alcoholic beverages (like beer and wine), alcohol related medical problems (e.g. liver cirrhosis), social problems (i.e. violence) and by the data provided by household surveys of prevalence of alcohol consumption in Mexico since the 60's. The population's consumption of alcoholic beverages has generated concern, as the Simple Distribution Theory (SDT) predicts that an increment in the per capita alcohol consumption is likely to be accompanied by an increment of heavy drinkers. This increment is, then, related to a theoretical increment in alcohol related damages. In order to partially test the SDT data from a series of surveys done in the country, six surveys of the 70's were used. Those surveys were executed in six cities, the capital of five states and the capital of the Republic, with a comparable methodology and definition of alcohol consumption. We used prevalence data of heavy drinkers in those cities as an independent variable for a series of medical and social problems, in a multiple-group comparison study. In general, the results do not support the SDT in the case of mortality by liver cirrhosis, suicide and traffic deaths, or for alcohol related offenses at the Federal Courts. Nevertheless, the results seem to support the SDT for some groups in Common Court offenses and for the rate of traffic accidents. In a comparison with other independent variables (prevalence of abstainers, per capita bars, illiteracy, unemployment, and population density), the prevalence of heavy drinkers and population density were the best. Both obtained the largest number of statistically significant correlations with the problems studied. For the prevalence of heavy drinkers some of those correlations were in the inverse sense as predicted by the SDT. PMID:2588069

  12. Associations between thyroid dysfunction and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănciulescu Miulescu Rucsandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The interactions between kidney and thyroid functions are well established: thyroid hormones are necessary for the maintenance of electrolyte and water homeostasis and kidney is involved in the regulation of thyroid hormones metabolism. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Material and Method. 23 patients with diabetes mellitus and CKD in pre-dialysis phase were recruited for this study. All subjects were investigated with thyroid ultrasound and laboratory tests to determine thyroid function, including: serum triiodothyronine (T3, free thyroxine (free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO. Results were compared with the same measurements in 21 patients with diabetes mellitus but without CKD. Results. The prevalence of goiter (52.17% vs. 19.04%, p<0.05, subclinical hypothyroidism (23.80% vs. 9.52%, p<0.05, hypothyroidism (8.69% vs. 4.76 %, p<0.05 and low T3 syndrome (23.80% vs. 0.00% p<0.05 were significant high in diabetic patients with CKD compared with patients with diabetes mellitus but without CKD. Conclusions. We observed high prevalence of thyroid morphology abnormalities and thyroid function disorders in diabetic patients with CKD. Low T3 syndrome and subclinical hypothyroidism are the most frequently thyroid function disorders in CKD patients.

  13. Myocardial Ischemia Assessment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Challenges and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Fei Cen Parnham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the chronic kidney disease population and often presents with atypical symptoms. Current diagnostic investigations of myocardial ischemia in chronic kidney disease lack sensitivity and specificity or may have adverse effects. We present a case vignette and explore the challenges of diagnostic myocardial stress investigation in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  14. Analysis of electrocardiogram in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lazović Biljana; Zlatković-Švenda Mirjana; Mazić Sanja; Stajić Zoran; Đelić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is defined as a persistent airflow limitation usually progressive and not fully reversible to treatment. The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severity of disease is confirmed by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease produces electrical changes in the heart which shows characteristic electrocardiogram pattern. The aim of this study was to observe an...

  15. Pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory anorexia in chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Theodore P.; Marks, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Decreased appetite and involuntary weight loss are common occurrences in chronic disease and have a negative impact on both quality of life and eventual mortality. Weight loss in chronic disease comes from both fat and lean mass, and is known as cachexia. Both alterations in appetite and body weight loss occur in a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, heart failure, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and HIV. An increase in circulating inflammatory cytokines has been ...

  16. Vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristin M; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2013-11-07

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review includes a summary of the data available on vitamin K status in patients across the spectrum of CKD as well as the link between vitamin K deficiency in CKD and bone dynamics, including mineralization and demineralization, as well as ectopic mineralization. It also describes two current clinical trials that are underway evaluating vitamin K treatment in CKD patients. These data may inform future clinical practice in this population.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Laviolette; Yves Lacasse; Mariève Doucet; Miriam Lacasse; Karine Marquis; Didier Saey; Pierre Leblanc; François Maltais

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the comparative impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) between women and men and about women’s response to pulmonary rehabilitation.OBJECTIVES: To compare lung function, disability, mortality and response to pulmonary rehabilitation between women and men with COPD.METHODS: In the present retrospective study, 68 women (mean age 62.5±8.9 years) and 168 men (mean age 66.3±8.4 years) were evaluated by means of pulmonary function testing and an inc...

  18. Vitamin K Status in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Holden

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease (CKD. This review includes a summary of the data available on vitamin K status in patients across the spectrum of CKD as well as the link between vitamin K deficiency in CKD and bone dynamics, including mineralization and demineralization, as well as ectopic mineralization. It also describes two current clinical trials that are underway evaluating vitamin K treatment in CKD patients. These data may inform future clinical practice in this population.

  19. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Rogova; Fomin, V. V.; I. V. Damulin; E. G. Minakova; O. Yu. Selivanova; Yu. A. Petleva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs), the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of...

  20. The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in Iceland - a national comparison by gender drawing on four different criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Líndal, Eiríkur; Stefánsson, Jón G; Bergmann, Sverrir

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Iceland. No previous prevalence studies known to us have been undertaken in Iceland or in Scandinavia. A 95-item custom-made questionnaire was sent to 4000 randomly selected people. The response rate was 63%. The questionnaire was constructed to include questions on all the items found in the four most common criteria for diagnosing CFS; the criteria being Australian, British and American. Results show very different prevalences according to the criteria used. The prevalence ranged from 0 to 4.9%, with the most established criteria yielding a prevalence of 1.4%. Re-test validity of the questionnaire was good, the following results are based on the selection criteria by Fukuda et al. (Fukuda K, Straus SE, Hickie I, Sharpe MC, Dobbins JG, Komaroff A, et al. The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. Ann Int Med 1994;121:953-9). Women were in a majority (78%); their mean age was 44, they were fully employed and worked long hours. They believed that the onset of their symptoms was stress related. The type of work was unskilled in the majority of cases. A significant proportion of the males felt a constant buzzing in their ears (P < 0.05). Food suppliants were used daily by significantly more women than men (P < 0.01). Men had more frequently phobic symptoms (P < 0.001) than did women. Differences were found in the prevalence of phobia and panic (P < 0.001) between women in the CFS group compared to healthy ones. A positive correlation was found in the prevalence of phobia between women in the CFS group and those with Iceland Disease. PMID:12470318

  1. High prevalence of Parkinson's disease in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Joensen, P; Bünger, N;

    1997-01-01

    We used several case-findings methods and strict criteria for case ascertainment to diagnose parkinsonism and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Faroe Islands. In the last few years before the prevalence date of July 1, 1995, we searched various registries from pharmacies, hospitals......, and general practices, and found 195 patients with suspected parkinsonism out of 43,709 inhabitants. After excluding those who died before the prevalence date or were treated with levodopa (LD) for other diseases, a total of 124 patients remained for study, of whom 122 participated. We found 102 patients...... with parkinsonism and 82 with PD versus the expected 53 (p

  2. [Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease and strategies to counteract chronic diseases in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrilli, Valeria; D'Elia, Roberto; Galeone, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is placed in the more general context of prevention of major chronic Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs): cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic lung diseases and tumors that are the main problem for public health worldwide. Any health policy strategy aimed to the prevention of NCDs has to provide knowledge of health and socioeconomic status of the population, to reduce the level of exposure to risk factors and to adapt health services to the request for assistance. To this purpose, population monitoring systems have been implemented in the last years. The NCDs share some risk factors that are related, in large part, to unhealthy individual behaviours: smoking, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. NCDs prevention has to be understood as the set of all actions, sanitary and not, aiming to prevent or delay the onset of diseases or their complications. Preventive measures should, therefore, involve not only the health sector but also all the actors that can help to prevent that disease. As for the Prevention of CKD, the Ministry of Health has established a working table, which handled the Drafting of the "Position paper for the CKD", approved in the State-Regions Conference on august 8th 2014. The document draws a national strategy to combat this disease through primary prevention, early diagnosis and the establishment of diagnostic - therapeutic pathways (DTP). PMID:27545630

  3. ISCHEMIA in chronic kidney disease: improving the representation of patients with chronic kidney disease in cardiovascular trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Christina M; Shineski, Matthew; Chertow, Glenn M; Bangalore, Sripal

    2016-06-01

    Despite the high cardiovascular risk associated with chronic kidney disease, a recent systematic review confirmed that patients with kidney disease remain underrepresented in cardiovascular trials. Two ongoing trials are assessing the risk:benefit of aggressive evaluation and intervention for ischemic heart disease in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  4. Telomeres, NAFLD and Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Benedetta; Valenti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres consist of repeat DNA sequences located at the terminal portion of chromosomes that shorten during mitosis, protecting the tips of chromosomes. During chronic degenerative conditions associated with high cell replication rate, progressive telomere attrition is accentuated, favoring senescence and genomic instability. Several lines of evidence suggest that this process is involved in liver disease progression: (a) telomere shortening and alterations in the expression of proteins protecting the telomere are associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; (b) advanced liver damage is a feature of a spectrum of genetic diseases impairing telomere function, and inactivating germline mutations in the telomerase complex (including human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) and human Telomerase RNA Component (hTERC)) are enriched in cirrhotic patients independently of the etiology; and (c) experimental models suggest that telomerase protects from liver fibrosis progression. Conversely, reactivation of telomerase occurs during hepatocarcinogenesis, allowing the immortalization of the neoplastic clone. The role of telomere attrition may be particularly relevant in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver, an emerging cause of advanced liver disease. Modulation of telomerase or shelterins may be exploited to prevent liver disease progression, and to define specific treatments for different stages of liver disease. PMID:26999107

  5. The prevalence of chronic knee injury in triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, K.; Yates, B.; Curran, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To add to the area of triathlon research by providing much needed prevalence data on knee injury in triathletes. METHOD: An incidental "in field" sampling technique was used to interview 58 triathletes aged between 15 and 55 years about knee injury during a triathlon event. The sample comprised 46 men and 12 women. RESULTS: Most knee injuries occurred during the running event (72%) and affected the lateral side of the knee (38%). In all, 78% of the sample sought treatment fr...

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kartaloglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES measured by educational and income levels has long been known to be associated with mortality from some diseases. Many studies from developed countries suggested that SES is associated with lung function and COPD exacerbation, prevalence and mortality. Socioeconomic disadvantage is an independent risk factor for COPD. The impact of low SES on respiratory disease in general has been attributed to poorer housing, more hazardous occupational exposure, poorer diet, a higher prevalence of smoking and respiratory infections in childhood. It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between lung function and SES. Childhood SES may influence pulmonary function in adulthood. Pulmonary functions decline earlier and faster for individual with lower childhood SES. It was reported that hospital admission rates for COPD in low SES group were higher than in the high SES group. There was not adequate data about relationship between SES and COPD in our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 87-96

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Deborah

    As chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major causes of worldwide mortality, it is important to prevent, diagnose and manage it. COPD creates a huge burden on the NHS and has a significant impact on patients. This is a problem with the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. In primary care there is a lack of knowledge, under-use of quality-assured spirometry and under-diagnosis in about half of all cases. To be able to effectively diagnose, assess and manage COPD, health professionals must understand the physiology and aetiology of the disease. COPD is similar to asthma in its presentation and physiology but management of the condition can differ. The authors therefore looked at the similarities between the two conditions and what tests one can use to make a diagnosis of COPD. PMID:27081728

  8. Achieving Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. McMahon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is consistent evidence linking excessive dietary sodium intake to risk factors for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD progression in CKD patients; however, additional research is needed. In research trials and clinical practice, implementing and monitoring sodium intake present significant challenges. Epidemiological studies have shown that sodium intake remains high, and intervention studies have reported varied success with participant adherence to a sodium-restricted diet. Examining barriers to sodium restriction, as well as factors that predict adherence to a low sodium diet, can aid researchers and clinicians in implementing a sodium-restricted diet. In this paper, we critically review methods for measuring sodium intake with a specific focus on CKD patients, appraise dietary adherence, and factors that have optimized sodium restriction in key research trials and discuss barriers to sodium restriction and factors that must be considered when recommending a sodium-restricted diet.

  9. [Chronic ischaemic heart disease in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Gómez Huelgas, Ricardo; Abu-Assi, Emad; Calderón, Alberto; Vidán, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of this manuscript to take into account the peculiarities and specific characteristics of elderly patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the participation of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (sections of Geriatric Cardiology and Ischaemic Heart Disease/Acute Cardiovascular Care), the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology. This consensus document shows that in order to adequately address these elderly patients a comprehensive assessment is needed, which includes comorbidity, frailty, functional status, polypharmacy and drug interactions. We conclude that in most patients medical treatment is the best option and that this treatment must take into account the above factors and the biological changes associated with aging. PMID:27102136

  10. [Neurourological signs of chronic cerebral vascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, P G; Dutov, V V; Kadykov, A S; Shvedkov, V V; Popov, S V; Plotnikov, A N

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of urination, along with motor and cognitive disorders, are characteristic of different forms of chronic cerebral vascular diseases (CCVD). Irritation symptoms are more frequent in subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) and multi infarct hypertonic encephalopathy (MIHE). Overactive urine bladder syndrome (OUBS) caused by neurogenic detrusive hyperactivity manifests itself in frequent urination, nocturia and imperative enuresis and thus decreases quality of life and results in disability of patents with CCVD. At the same time, the character of symptoms points indirectly to the localization of lacunar infarction or the extent of severity of leukoareosis. It is the most frequent form of disorders of urination in the first years of disease that significantly aggravates its course and needs timed diagnosis and pharmacological treatment. Competitive antagonists of muscarinic receptors M2, M3 subtypes are the most effective drugs for treatment of OUBS comorbid to CCVD. PMID:23994932

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with renal disease undergoing hemodialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Frank Bastiani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of hepatitis C among 649 patients diagnosed with chronic or acute kidney disease − patients were undergoing hemodialysis treatment at a large hemodialysis center in Porto Alegre-RS, from January through December, 2012 –, as well as relating our data to that presented in the national census, reporting cases of coinfection by hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and defining the demographic profile of these patients. Method: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted and data was obtained from information in patients’ electronic medical records. Result and conclusion: The prevalence of hepatitis C in this study was 10.17% of the sampled population. However, further analysis of other liver centers would be required to estimate an accurate prevalence rate of infection caused by the hepatitis C virus in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Porto Alegre.

  12. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Vivian S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012 and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32% were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each. Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%, followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%. Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population.

  13. Tetracycline therapy for chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, S T

    1997-07-01

    Two hundred seventy-seven patients with chronic Lyme disease were treated with tetracycline for 1 to 11 months (mean, 4 months); the outcomes for these patients were generally good. Overall, 20% of the patients were cured; 70% of the patients' conditions improved, and treatment failed for 10% of the patients. Improvement frequently did not take place for several weeks; after 2 months of treatment, 33% of the patients' conditions were significantly improved (degree of improvement, 75%-100%), and after 3 months of treatment, 61% of the patients' conditions were significantly improved. Treatment outcomes for seronegative patients (20% of all patients) were similar to those for seropositive patients. Western immunoblotting showed reactions to one or more Borrelia burgdorferi-specific proteins for 65% of the patients for whom enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were negative. Whereas age, sex, and prior erythema migrans were not correlated with better or worse treatment outcomes, a history of longer duration of symptoms or antibiotic treatment was associated with longer treatment times to achieve improvement and cure. These results support the use of longer courses of treatment in the management of patients with chronic Lyme disease. Controlled trials need to be conducted to validate these observations.

  14. Spiritual Needs of Patients with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For many patients confronted with chronic diseases, spirituality/religiosity is an important resource for coping. Patients often report unmet spiritual and existential needs, and spiritual support is also associated with better quality of life. Caring for spiritual, existential and psychosocial needs is not only relevant to patients at the end of their life but also to those suffering from long-term chronic illnesses. Spiritual needs may not always be associated with life satisfaction, but sometimes with anxiety, and can be interpreted as the patients’ longing for spiritual well-being. The needs for peace, health and social support are universal human needs and are of special importance to patients with long lasting courses of disease. The factor, Actively Giving, may be of particular importance because it can be interpreted as patients’ intention to leave the role of a `passive sufferer´ to become an active, self-actualizing, giving individual. One can identify four core dimensions of spiritual needs, i.e., Connection, Peace, Meaning/Purpose, and Transcendence, which can be attributed to underlying psychosocial, emotional, existential, and religious needs. The proposed model can provide a conceptual framework for further research and clinical practice. In fact, health care that addresses patients’ physical, emotional, social, existential and spiritual needs (referring to a bio-psychosocial-spiritual model of health care will contribute to patients’ improvement and recovery. Nevertheless, there are several barriers in the health care system that makes it difficult to adequately address these needs.

  15. High prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in chronic renal failure patients exposed to gadodiamide, a gadolinium-containing magnetic resonance contrast agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Casper; Thomsen, Henrik S; Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease affecting renal failure patients. It may be caused by some gadolinium (Gd)-containing contrast agents, including gadodiamide. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of NSF after gadodiamide exposure for patients with chronic...

  16. Consequences of physical inactivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jorine E; Boezen, H Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2010-12-01

    The many health benefits of regular physical activity underline the importance of this topic, especially in this period of time when the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in the population is increasing. Physical activity levels are especially low in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Regular physical activity and an active lifestyle has shown to be positively associated with outcomes such as exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, and therefore could be beneficial for the individual COPD patient. An adequate level of physical activity needs to be integrated into daily life, and stimulation of physical activity when absent is important. This article aims to discuss in more detail the possible role of regular physical activity for a number of well-known outcome parameters in COPD. PMID:21128749

  17. Seroprevalence of anti-HAV among patients with chronic viral liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Chin Cho; Seung Woon Paik; Yu Jin Kim; Moon Seok Choi; Joon Hyeok Lee; Kwang Cheol Koh; Byung Chul Yoo; Hee Jung Son; Seon Woo Kim

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients with chronic viral liver disease in Korea. We also tried to identify the factors affecting the prevalence of HAV antibodies.METHODS: We performed an analysis of the clinical records of 986 patients (mean age: 49 ± 9 years, 714males/272 females) with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone HAV antibody testing between January 2008 and December 2009.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IgG anti-HAV was 86.61% (854/986) in patients with chronic liver disease and was 88.13% (869/986) in age- and gendermatched patients from the Center for Health Promotion.The anti-HAV prevalence was 80.04% (405/506)in patients with chronic hepatitis B, 86.96% (20/23)in patients with chronic hepatitis C, 93.78% (422/450)in patients with HBV related liver cirrhosis, and 100%(7/7) in patients with HCV related liver cirrhosis. The anti-HAV prevalence according to the decade of age was as follows: 20s (6.67%), 30s (50.86%), 40s (92.29%), 50s (97.77%), and 60s (100%). The anti-HAV prevalence was significantly higher in patients older than 40 years compared with that in patients younger than 40 years of age. Multivariable analysis showed that age ≥ 40 years, female gender and metropolitan cities as the place of residence were independent risk factors for IgG anti-HAV seropositivity.CONCLUSION: Most Korean patients with chronic liver disease and who are above 40 years of age have already been exposed to hepatitis A virus.

  18. Chronic diseases knowledge and related factors among the elderly in Jinan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapei Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the prevalence of chronic diseases is high among old people and they have poor chronic diseases knowledge. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the awareness rate of chronic diseases knowledge among people aged over 60 years, to explore its related factors and to provide evidence for future health education. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August in 2011. People aged 60 years and above from 3 communities in Jinan were selected by cluster sampling. Nine hundred and twenty five participants were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The awareness rates of chronic diseases knowledge varied from 29.5% to 90.2%. Four healthy lifestyles including quitting smoking and less drinking, keeping broad-minded, maintaining balanced diet and moderate physical activity were best known (from 86.3% to 90.2%. The least known knowledge were 2 complications of hypertension: nephropathy (29.5% and retinopathy (37.2%. Participants with the following characteristics or behaviors were more likely to have higher chronic diseases knowledge: younger age, female, Han Chinese, higher level of education, having health insurance, participating in societies, having family history of chronic diseases, frequently gathering with friends/relatives, usually going to provincial hospitals/hospitals affiliated with medical universities, usually going to municipal hospitals and usually going to community health center/station. CONCLUSIONS: Old people in Jinan had incomplete chronic diseases knowledge and the overall awareness rate was not high. The older people's chronic diseases knowledge should be improved and health education programs should target males, older people with lower educational level, having no health insurance, having no family history of chronic diseases, participating in no societies, and less frequently gathering with friends/relatives. Also, lower level medical

  19. The Prevalence of Labyrinthine Fistula in Chronic Otitis Media Surgery in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, A H; Heydari, S T; Rusta, M

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence of fistulas found during the surgery for chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma has been reported in a wide range in different geographical areas. This study aims to find the prevalence of labyrinthine fistula in the south of Iran. Methods A prospective cross sectional study of 787 (504 ears belong to 462 patients) consecutive tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy for chronic otitis media was performed. Data on preoperative clinical and preoperative and postope...

  20. Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults: Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Brian W.; Schiller, Jeannine S.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing and ameliorating chronic conditions has long been a priority in the United States; however, the increasing recognition that people often have multiple chronic conditions (MCC) has added a layer of complexity with which to contend. The objective of this study was to present the prevalence of MCC and the most common MCC dyads/triads by selected demographic characteristics. We used respondent-reported data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to study the US adult civ...

  1. STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN URBAN POPULATION OF BHOPAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPIYA BIGONIYA*, ALOK SHUKLA, HUMA IRAM ,FARAH IRAM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic respiratory disease occurrence in urban population is creating burden on economic growth and challenges to public health management. This descriptive, prevalence study was designed to gather data on risk factor related association of respiratory diseases occurrence with information on sign, symptoms and treatment modalities. Questionnaire based personal interview was conducted on selected patients with well documented respiratory problem on demographic, biosocial, educational, occupational and economic background. Body weight, height, blood pressure, details of treatment modalities, sign and symptoms were recorded from hospital data. The prevalence rates were presented as percentage and 95% confidence interval estimated and analyzed by person’s chi-square test. Age, number of children more than three (p<0.0001, family members more than three (p<0.01, overcrowding (p<0.0001, low socioeconomic class (p<0.0001, unhygienic surrounding (p<0.001, education below secondary level (p<0.01, low to normal BMI (p<0.002 and chronic smoking habit (p<0.001 showed significant risk factor related association with occurrence of respiratory disease. Most frequently found sign and symptom are apnea, tiredness, nausea, coughing and nose tickling. Marital status, source of drinking water, cooking fuel, occupation, employment status, income, respiratory rate, sleep pattern and regular use of other medication does not show any co-relation with respiratory disease occurrence. The significant risk factor for respiratory disease occurrence is aging, unhygienic environment, low level education, overcrowding and smoking.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Inflammation in End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. In patients affected by CKD, a progressive destruction of the nephrons is observed not only in structuralbut also in functional level. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is characterized by the deposition of lipids and fibrous elements and is a common complication of the uremic syndrome because of the coexistence of a wide range of risk factors. High blood pressure, anaemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, high oxidative stress are some of the most common factors that cause cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis in patients suffering from End Stage Kidney Disease (ESRD. At the same time, the inflammatory process constitutes a common element in the apparition and development of CKD. A wide range of possible causes can justify the development of inflammation under uremic conditions. Such causes are oxidative stress, oxidation, coexistentpathological conditions as well as factors that are due to renal clearance techniques. Patients in ESRD and coronary disease usually show increased acute phase products. Pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-a, and acute phase reactants, such as CRP and fibrinogen, are closely related. The treatment of chronic inflammation in CKD is of high importance for the development ofthe disease as well as for the treatment of cardiovascular morbidity.Conclusions: The treatment factors focus on the use of renin-angiotensic system inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, statins and anti-oxidant treatment in order to prevent the action of inflammatorycytokines that have the ability to activate the mechanisms of inflammation.

  4. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny L Gayton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature.Results: Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications.Conclusion: The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.Keywords: dry eye disease, etiology, prevalence, postmenopausal women

  5. Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults Page ... choices? Points to Remember Clinical Trials Why is nutrition important for someone with early chronic kidney disease ( ...

  6. Periodontal Disease: A Covert Source of Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of atherosclerotic complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death is increased in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients, especially in haemodialysis patients. Increasing evidence suggests that both in general population and in dialysis patients, systemic inflammation plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications. In general population, also, evidence shows that moderate to severe periodontitis can contribute to inflammatory burden by increasing serum CRP levels and may increase the prevalence of atherosclerotic events. Moreover, the results of some new interventional studies reveal that effective phase I periodontal therapy may decrease serum CRP levels, the most important acute phase protein, monitored as a systemic marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as well, used as an initial predictor of atherosclerotic events. Considering that moderate to severe periodontal diseases have a higher prevalence in CKD and in dialysis population and that periodontal examination is not part of the standard medical assessment, destructive periodontitis might be an ignored source of systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease patients and may add to the chronic inflammatory status in CKD.

  7. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: From Pathophysiology to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lullo, Luca; Gorini, Antonio; Russo, Domenico; Santoboni, Alberto; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). According to a well-established classification, cardiovascular involvement in CKD can be set in the context of cardiorenal syndrome type 4. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) represents a key feature to provide an accurate picture of systolic-diastolic left heart involvement in CKD patients. Cardiovascular involvement is present in about 80% of prevalent hemodialysis pat...

  8. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall ME

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Hall,1,2 Jussara M do Carmo,2 Alexandre A da Silva,2 Luis A Juncos,1,2 Zhen Wang,2 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mississippi Center for Obesity Research, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. Keywords: visceral adiposity, type II diabetes, sodium reabsorption

  9. Current treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉惠

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined by fixed airflow limitation associated with an abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response of the lungs to cigarette smoke. COPD represents an increasing burden worldwide, reported to be the sixth leading cause of death in 1990 and the fourth in 2000. Discouragingly, it is projected to jump to third place by the year 2020.There is increasing evidence that COPD is a more complex systemic disease than an airway and lung disease. In particular, cachexia, skeletal muscle abnormalities, diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure, cancer and pulmonary vascular disease are the most common comorbidities. It is associated with a wide variety of systemic consequences, most notably systemic inflammation. Because COPD patients have in general ahigher cardiovascular risk than the average population, cardiovascular safety in a COPD medication is of critical importance.SINGH et al performed a systematic review and recta-analysis of 17 clinical trials enrolling 14 783 patients treated with inhaled anticholinergic drugs used for the treatment of COPD. Inhaled anticholinergics significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke ( 1.8 % vs 1.2 % for control; RR, 1.58 (95 % CI,1.21 - 2.06); P < 0.001 ). However, UPLIIFT (Understanding the Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium) , a large, 4-year, placebo controlled clinical trial with tiotropium in approximately 6 000 patients with COPD. The preliminary results of UPLIFT showed that there was no increased risk of stroke with tiotropium bromide compared to placebo.A meta-analysis is always considered less convincing than a large prospective trial designed to assess the outcome of interest. However, COPD is a systemic disease. COPD management needs to focus on four major areas: smoking cessation, pharmacologic therapy, exercise training, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Clinicians and patients should always carefully consider any

  10. Recent trends in chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joseph S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine concurrent prevalence trends of chronic disease, impairment and disability among older adults. Methods We analyzed the 1998, 2004 and 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of older adults in the United States, and included 31,568 community dwelling adults aged 65 and over. Measurements include: prevalence of chronic diseases including hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease and arthritis; prevalence of impairments, including impairments of cognition, vision, hearing, mobility, and urinary incontinence; prevalence of disability, including activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Results The proportion of older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased from 13.1% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 12.4%-13.8% in 1998 to 7.8% (95% CI, 7.2%-8.4% in 2008, whereas the proportion reporting 1 or more chronic diseases increased from 86.9% (95% CI, 86.2%-89.6% in 1998 to 92.2% (95% CI, 91.6%-92.8% in 2008. In addition, the proportion reporting 4 or more diseases increased from 11.7% (95% CI, 11.0%-12.4% in 1998 to 17.4% (95% CI, 16.6%-18.2% in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting no impairments was 47.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-48.4% in 1998 and 44.4% (95% CI, 43.3%-45.5% in 2008, whereas the proportion of respondents reporting 3 or more was 7.2% (95% CI, 6.7%-7.7% in 1998 and 7.3% (95% CI, 6.8%-7.9% in 2008. The proportion of older adults reporting any ADL or IADL disability was 26.3% (95% CI, 25.4%-27.2% in 1998 and 25.4% (95% CI, 24.5%-26.3% in 2008. Conclusions Multiple chronic disease is increasingly prevalent among older U.S. adults, whereas the prevalence of impairment and disability, while substantial, remain stable.

  11. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, H H; Nielsen, E O; Hassing, A-G; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2008-03-22

    Between December 1999 and February 2001, two visits, eight weeks apart, were made to 90 herds of Danish finisher pigs. The prevalence of clinical signs was recorded by three veterinary technicians from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council according to a standardised procedure; they had been trained and their observations were monitored and validated before and during the study. A total of 154,347 finisher pigs were examined and 22,136 clinical signs were recorded. Vices accounted for 43 per cent of the signs. The highest mean prevalence was observed for ear necrosis (4.44 per cent), followed by respiratory signs (2.17 per cent), lameness (1.92 per cent), other skin diseases (1.73 per cent), tail bites (1.26 per cent), umbilical hernia (0.78 per cent), flank bites (0.52 per cent), diarrhoea (0.27 per cent), respiratory distress (0.12 per cent), atrophic rhinitis (0.10 per cent), recumbency (0.09 per cent) and central nervous disease (0.05 per cent). The prevalence of atrophic rhinitis was higher in conventional herds than in specific pathogen-free herds. The prevalence of clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg than among finishers weighing up to 50 kg, and the prevalence of respiratory signs was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg then among finishers weighing 76 to 100 kg. PMID:18359931

  12. Development and application of chronic disease risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sun Min; Stefani, Katherine M; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-07-01

    Currently, non-communicable chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a large proportion of chronic diseases are preventable through risk factor management. However, the prevention efficacy at the individual level is not yet satisfactory. Chronic disease prediction models have been developed to assist physicians and individuals in clinical decision-making. A chronic disease prediction model assesses multiple risk factors together and estimates an absolute disease risk for the individual. Accurate prediction of an individual's future risk for a certain disease enables the comparison of benefits and risks of treatment, the costs of alternative prevention strategies, and selection of the most efficient strategy for the individual. A large number of chronic disease prediction models, especially targeting cardiovascular diseases and cancers, have been suggested, and some of them have been adopted in the clinical practice guidelines and recommendations of many countries. Although few chronic disease prediction tools have been suggested in the Korean population, their clinical utility is not as high as expected. This article reviews methodologies that are commonly used for developing and evaluating a chronic disease prediction model and discusses the current status of chronic disease prediction in Korea.

  13. [New insights on hepcidin in anemia of chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Dan; Zhou, Dao-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Anemia of chronic disease is normocytic and normochromic. One of the mechanisms is misbalance of iron metabolism. Hepcidin, a kind of protein secreted by liver is considered to be the hormone regulating iron metabolism. It binds to ferroportin and induces the latter one's internalization. Thus, iron transportation from iron storage cells to serum is reduced. Cytokines are elevated in chronic disease. They stimulate hepcidin expression in liver through JAK2/STAT3 pathway. As a result, iron absorption and reabsorption is blocked, which leads to the misbalance of iron metabolism in anemia of chronic disease. In this article, the hepcidin and its relation to iron metabolism and anemia in chronic disease are reviewed.

  14. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slee Adrian D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabolic factors may play key roles in CKD development and pathogenesis. These include raised proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and −6, tumor necrosis factor, altered hepatic acute phase proteins, including reduced albumin, increased C-reactive protein, and perturbations in normal anabolic hormone responses with reduced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis activity. Others include hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS, with angiotensin II and aldosterone implicated in hypertension and the promotion of insulin resistance, and subsequent pharmacological blockade shown to improve blood pressure, metabolic control and offer reno-protective effects. Abnormal adipocytokine levels including leptin and adiponectin may further promote the insulin resistant, and proinflammatory state in CKD. Ghrelin may be also implicated and controversial studies suggest activities may be reduced in human CKD, and may provide a rationale for administration of acyl-ghrelin. Poor vitamin D status has also been associated with patient outcome and CVD risk and may indicate a role for supplementation. Glucocorticoid activities traditionally known for their involvement in the pathogenesis of a number of disease states are increased and may be implicated in CKD-associated hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes risk and cachexia, both directly and indirectly through effects on other systems including activation of the mineralcorticoid

  15. Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamedali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4. These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient.

  16. Optimism's Explicative Role for Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvenuti, Giulia; Baiardini, Ilaria; Giardini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest about dispositional optimism's role in health status and its positive modulating effect on health outcomes has led to a remarkable scientific production in the last decade. To date lot is known for which diseases optimism is relevant, instead much less is known about how optimism interacts with other factors, both biological and psychological, in determining health status. The aim of this mini review is to explore the literature derived from clinical and experimental research assessing the associations between dispositional optimism and health status. Dispositional optimism can be considered as facet of personality that is cognitive in nature which holds the global expectation that the future will be plenty of good events. Optimists view desired goals as obtainable, so they often confront adversities in active manners resulting in perseverance and increased goal attainment. Only studies that explicitly included optimism and health outcomes, as measurable variables, and that reported a clear association between them have been reviewed. Cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, and aging with multimorbidity were considered. Among the possible explicative hypotheses, two seem to best describe results: optimism may have a direct effect on the neuroendocrine system and on immune responses, and it may have an indirect effect on health outcomes by promoting protective health behaviors, adaptive coping strategies and enhancing positive mood. The research on optimism and health status has already shed light on important mechanisms regarding chronic diseases' management, however, further studies are needed to deepen the knowledge. PMID:26973582

  17. A Mobile Care Coordination System for the Management of Complex Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Sarah; Kim, Katherine K

    2016-01-01

    There is global concern about healthcare cost, quality, and access as the prevalence of complex and chronic diseases, such as heart disease, continues to grow. Care for patients with complex chronic disease involves diverse practitioners and multiple transitions between medical centers, physician practices, clinics, community resources, and patient homes. There are few systems that provide the flexibility to manage these varied and complex interactions. Participatory and user-centered design methodology was applied to the first stage of building a mobile platform for care coordination for complex, chronic heart disease. Key informant interviews with patients, caregivers, clinicians, and care coordinators were conducted. Thematic analysis led to identification of priority user functions including shared care plan, medication management, symptom management, nutrition, physical activity, appointments, personal monitoring devices, and integration of data and workflow. Meaningful stakeholder engagement contributes to a person-centered system that enhances health and efficiency.

  18. Self-reported chronic somatic diseases among adolescent students in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of the common self-reported chronic diseases among adolescent students in public secondary schools in Mansoura, Egypt.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 1493 adolescent students. Thirty clusters were selected to cover both general and vocational public schools of both sexes in urban and rural areas. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data from the students and their families, as well as a checklist of 15 chronic diseases.Results: About 6% of students reported one or more chronic somatic disease. The most frequent are acne vulgaris (4.2%, rheumatic heart disease (3.4%, refractive errors (1.4 and bronchial asthma (1.1%. This pattern does not show significant differences between males and females.Conclusions: Despite the self-reported nature, our findings indicate that Egyptian adolescents are not healthy as it is often considered.

  19. The pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, James C; Timens, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the innate and adaptive inflammatory immune response to the inhalation of toxic particles and gases. Although tobacco smoking is the primary cause of this inhalation injury, many other environmental and occupational exposures contribute to the pathology of COPD. The immune inflammatory changes associated with COPD are linked to a tissue-repair and -remodeling process that increases mucus production and causes emphysematous destruction of the gas-exchanging surface of the lung. The common form of emphysema observed in smokers begins in the respiratory bronchioles near the thickened and narrowed small bronchioles that become the major site of obstruction in COPD. The mechanism(s) that allow small airways to thicken in such close proximity to lung tissue undergoing emphysematous destruction remains a puzzle that needs to be solved. PMID:18954287

  20. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  1. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3-6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

  2. Autonomic dysfunction in chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frith J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available James Frith, Julia L NewtonNIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Ageing, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UKAbstract: It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD. One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this.Keywords: quality of life, treatment, fatigue, angiotensin II

  3. Slowing progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Paul E; Rosenberg, Mark E

    2013-12-01

    Early identification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides an opportunity to implement therapies to improve kidney function and slow progression. The goal of this article is to review established and developing clinical therapies directed at slowing progression. The importance of controlling blood pressure will be discussed along with the target blood pressure that should be achieved in CKD patients. Therapy directed at inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system remains the mainstay of treatment with single-agent inhibition of this system being as good as dual blockade with fewer adverse effects. Other therapies that may be used include correction of metabolic acidosis, dietary protein restriction, and new models for delivering care to patients with CKD. Emerging therapies targeting endothelin, uric acid, kidney fibrosis, and oxidant stress hold promise for the future. PMID:25019022

  4. Prevalence of Chronic Health Conditions in Children With Intellectual Disability : A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient m

  5. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  6. Mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose and age-specific prevalence rate from endemic chronic arsenic poisoning: a human toxicology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zald' ivar, R.; Ghai, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose, and age-specific prevalence rate for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning. Data on mean age (years), mean arsenic dietary dose (mg/kg body weight/day), and age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, for the 1968 to 1971 period, were collected. Endemic chronic arsenic poisoning means here chronic arsenical dermatosis associated with marked or sever symptoms (or signs) of chronic arsenic poisoning (chronic diarrhea, hepatic cirrohsis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, recurrent broncho-pneumonia, cardiomegaly, systemic occlusive arterial disease, cerebral thrombosis, etc.). There was a strong positive correlation between age-specific pevalence rate per 100,000 population and mean arsenic dose (r = + 0.9593) and a negative correlation between prevalence rate and mean age (r = 0.8789). These findings show that the prevalence rate declines with the advancing age and increases with the increase of arsenic dose. A multiple linear regression model E(y) = alpha + beta X1 + gamma X2, where y represents the age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population, X1 the mean arsenic dose, and X2 the mean age, was fitted to the data. The estimates of the parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma) were obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares sigma(y - alpha - beta X1 - gamma X2)2. The following multiple linear regression equation was obtained: Y = 202.161 + 8452.455 X1 - 2.394 X2. Of the total variability in the prevalence rate, 96.22 percent was accounted for by the multiple regression.

  7. Sediment and turbidity associated with offshore dredging increase coral disease prevalence on nearby reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Joseph Pollock

    Full Text Available In recent decades, coral reef ecosystems have declined to the extent that reefs are now threatened globally. While many water quality parameters have been proposed to contribute to reef declines, little evidence exists conclusively linking specific water quality parameters with increased disease prevalence in situ. Here we report evidence from in situ coral health surveys confirming that chronic exposure to dredging-associated sediment plumes significantly increase the prevalence of white syndromes, a devastating group of globally important coral diseases. Coral health surveys were conducted along a dredging-associated sediment plume gradient to assess the relationship between sedimentation, turbidity and coral health. Reefs exposed to the highest number of days under the sediment plume (296 to 347 days had two-fold higher levels of disease, largely driven by a 2.5-fold increase in white syndromes, and a six-fold increase in other signs of compromised coral health relative to reefs with little or no plume exposure (0 to 9 days. Multivariate modeling and ordination incorporating sediment exposure level, coral community composition and cover, predation and multiple thermal stress indices provided further confirmation that sediment plume exposure level was the main driver of elevated disease and other compromised coral health indicators. This study provides the first evidence linking dredging-associated sedimentation and turbidity with elevated coral disease prevalence in situ. Our results may help to explain observed increases in global coral disease prevalence in recent decades and suggest that minimizing sedimentation and turbidity associated with coastal development will provide an important management tool for controlling coral disease epizootics.

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease in Southwestern Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Zangeneh Kamali

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the etiology of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD among children attending the pediatric nephrology service at Abuzar children's hospital in Ahvaz city, the referral center in Southwest of Iran.Methods: We reviewed the records of 139 children, diagnosed to have CKD over a 10-year period. CKD was defined a glomerular filtration rate (GFR below 60 ml/1.73 m2/min persisting for more than 3 months.Findings: Among 139 children 81 (58% were males. The mean age at diagnosis of CKD in the patients was 4.2 (±3.6 years. Mean level of serum creatinine at presentation was 1.9 (±1.4 mg/dl. The mean GFR at presentation was 33.5 (±15.4 ml/1.73m2/min while 22% of the patients were already at end stage renal failure indicating that these children were referred too late. Congenital urologic malformation was the commonest cause of CKD present in 70 (50.4% children [reflux nephropathy (23.1%, hypo/dysplastic kidney (15.8%, obstructive uropathy (10.8%, and prune belly syndrome (0.7%]. Other causes included hereditary nephropathies (17.2%, chronic glomerulo-nephritis (6.5%, multisystemic diseases (4.3%, miscellaneous and unknown (each one 10.8%. The mean duration of follow-up was 26 (±24.67 months. Peritoneal or hemodialysis was performed in 10 patients. Six patients underwent (4 live-related and 2 non-related renal transplantation. The rest have died or received standard conservative management for CKD.Conclusion: The commonest causes of CKD were reflux nephropathy, hypo/dysplastic kidney, hereditary nephropathy and obstructive uropathy. Patients presented late, had severe CKD and were malnourished and stunted.

  9. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Niurka Mercedes Galende Hernández; Diosdania Alfonso Falcón; Carlos Alberto Martell Alonso; Alexis Díaz Mesa; Inti Santana Carballosa

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. This concept includes simple chronic bronchitis, asthmatic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchitis, and pulmonary emphysema; although this two last are the most commonly included. Risk factors, classification and treatment are commented, stressing the strategy of mechanical ventilation and the indications for mechanical invasive and no invasive ventilation. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most i...

  10. [Comparison and outcome of prevalence of concurrent diseases in patients with urological malignant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ohno, Rena; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Terao, Toshiya; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2006-07-01

    We compared the prevalence of concurrent diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart diseases and apoplexy) in patients with renal cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma and prostatic carcinoma diagnosed in our department with that in all patients in our department analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel regression. In hypertension, there was a significantly high prevalence of patients with renal cell carcinoma (p diabetis mellitus, ischemic heart diseases and apoplexy, no apparent characteristic of prevalence was recognized. The close relationship between renal cell carcinoma, prostatic carcinoma and hypertension in this study corresponded with previous reports.

  11. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  12. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, SP

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals’ quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. Aim To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2nd round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. Results The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using

  13. The need for physician referral of low-income, chronic disease patients to free community nutrition education programs

    OpenAIRE

    Shawver, Gregory Wayne Jr.

    1998-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of chronic diseases and conditions among older, low-income individuals in the United States. It is well recognized that diet plays an important role in the management and prevention of chronic diseases. Despite this, primary-care physicians often do not provide adequate dietary counseling or appropriate nutrition referrals to this patient population. Two surveys were conducted in Southwest and the western part of Central Virginia, one with 209 family pra...

  14. Microscopic colitis : prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, WJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH; Kolkman, JJ

    2005-01-01

    Background: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease. W

  15. Skin autofluorescence is a predictor of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kazuya; Akiyama, Daiichiro; Motosugi, Ai; Ikegishi, Yukinobu; Haraguchi, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2015-02-01

    Accelerated formation and tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reflecting cumulative glycemic and oxidative stress, occurs in age-related and chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal failure, and contributes to vascular damage. Skin autofluorescence (AFR), a noninvasive measurement method, reflects tissue accumulation of AGEs. AFR has been reported to be an independent predictor of mortality in Caucasian hemodialysis patients. We assessed the relationship between levels of AFR and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and clarified the prognostic usefulness of skin AFR levels in Asian (non-Caucasian) hemodialysis (HD) patients. AFR was measured with an autofluorescence reader in 64 HD patients. Overall and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during the 3-year follow-up. During follow-up, CVD events occurred in 21 patients. The deaths of 10 HD patients were associated with CVD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that initial AFR was an independent risk factor for de novo CVD in HD patients with or without diabetes. When patients were classified on the basis of AFR tertiles, Cochran-Armitage analysis demonstrated that the highest tertile of AFR level showed an increased odds ratio for the prevalence of CVD. These findings suggest that AFR levels can be used to detect the prevalence of CVD in HD patients with or without diabetes.

  16. Skin autofluorescence is a predictor of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kazuya; Akiyama, Daiichiro; Motosugi, Ai; Ikegishi, Yukinobu; Haraguchi, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2015-02-01

    Accelerated formation and tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reflecting cumulative glycemic and oxidative stress, occurs in age-related and chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal failure, and contributes to vascular damage. Skin autofluorescence (AFR), a noninvasive measurement method, reflects tissue accumulation of AGEs. AFR has been reported to be an independent predictor of mortality in Caucasian hemodialysis patients. We assessed the relationship between levels of AFR and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and clarified the prognostic usefulness of skin AFR levels in Asian (non-Caucasian) hemodialysis (HD) patients. AFR was measured with an autofluorescence reader in 64 HD patients. Overall and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during the 3-year follow-up. During follow-up, CVD events occurred in 21 patients. The deaths of 10 HD patients were associated with CVD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that initial AFR was an independent risk factor for de novo CVD in HD patients with or without diabetes. When patients were classified on the basis of AFR tertiles, Cochran-Armitage analysis demonstrated that the highest tertile of AFR level showed an increased odds ratio for the prevalence of CVD. These findings suggest that AFR levels can be used to detect the prevalence of CVD in HD patients with or without diabetes. PMID:25545539

  17. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy with Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Sierra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the secondary kidney damage produces diabetic nephropathy (DN). Early nephropathy is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/day), including normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or a mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2), with or without overt nephropathy. The earliest change caused by DN is hyperfiltration with proteinuria. The acceptable excretion rate of albumin in urine is 300 mg/day. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by abnormalities in renal function that persist for >3 months with health implications. Alterations in the redox state in DN are caused by the persistent state of hyperglycemia and the increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with ability to affect the renin-angiotensin system and the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), producing chronic inflammation and glomerular and tubular hypertrophy and favoring the appearance of oxidative stress. In DN imbalance between prooxidant/antioxidant processes exists with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS diminishes expression of the antioxidant enzymes (manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase). The early detection of CKD secondary to DN and the timely identification of patients would permit decreasing its impact on health. PMID:27525285

  18. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy with Early Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Guillermina Miranda-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and the secondary kidney damage produces diabetic nephropathy (DN. Early nephropathy is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria (30–300 mg/day, including normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR or a mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2, with or without overt nephropathy. The earliest change caused by DN is hyperfiltration with proteinuria. The acceptable excretion rate of albumin in urine is 300 mg/day. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by abnormalities in renal function that persist for >3 months with health implications. Alterations in the redox state in DN are caused by the persistent state of hyperglycemia and the increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs with ability to affect the renin-angiotensin system and the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, producing chronic inflammation and glomerular and tubular hypertrophy and favoring the appearance of oxidative stress. In DN imbalance between prooxidant/antioxidant processes exists with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS. The overproduction of ROS diminishes expression of the antioxidant enzymes (manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. The early detection of CKD secondary to DN and the timely identification of patients would permit decreasing its impact on health.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and its components associated with chronic kidney disease

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    Ali Maleki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited information on the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic kidney disease (CKD in the Iranian population, a group that has a high prevalence of CKD and obesity. The aim of present study was to determine the relationship between MetS and CKD in West of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 800 subjects aged more than 35 years admitted from 2011 to 2013 were enrolled in the study. MetS was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, and CKD was defined from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative practice guidelines. Waist circumference and body mass index were calculated, as well, blood samples were taken and lipid profile, plasma glucose levels, and serum creatinine were measured. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: CKD was seen in 14.8% patients with MetS and 8.3% individuals without MetS. MetS was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR for a glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.99; P = 0.004. Individuals with 2, 3, 4, and 5 components of the MetS had an increased OR for CKD: 2.19 (95% CI: 0.95-3.62, 2.65 (95% CI: 1.03-4.71, 2.86 (95% CI: 1.08-5.53, and 5.03 (95% CI: 1.80-8.57, respectively, compared with individuals with none of the components. Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of CKD in patients with MetS compared with the subject without MetS. Our observations raised major clinical and public health concerns in Iran, where both the MetS and kidney diseases are becoming common.

  20. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  1. Refractory invasive aspergillosis controlled with posaconazole and pulmonary surgery in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kepenekli, Eda; Soysal, Ahmet; Kuzdan, Canan; Ermerak, Nezih Onur; Yüksel, Mustafa; Bakır, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Among primary immunodefiencies, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has the highest prevalence of invasive fungal diseases. Voriconazole is recommended for the primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis in most patients. In patients whose aspergillosis is refractory to voriconazole, therapeutic options include changing class of antifungal, for example using an amphotericin B formulation, an...

  2. Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Osteopathy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchitti, Luca; Martelli, Marta; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) are globally highly prevalent and characterized by severe pathological medical conditions. Several trials were conducted aiming at measuring the effects of manipulative therapies on patients affected by CID. The purpose of this review was to explore the extent to which osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) can be benefi-cial in medical conditions also classified as CID. Methods This review included any type of experimental study which enrolled sub-jects with CID comparing OMT with any type of control procedure. The search was conducted on eight databases in January 2014 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent re-viewers conducted study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Heterogeneity was assessed and meta-analysis performed where possible. Results 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review enrolling 386 subjects. The search identified six RCTs, one laboratory study, one cross-over pilot studies, one observation-al study and one case control pilot study. Results suggest a potential effect of osteopathic medicine on patients with medical pathologies associated with CID (in particular Chronic Obstructive Pul-monary Disease (COPD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Asthma and Peripheral Arterial Disease) com-pared to no treatment or sham therapy although data remain elusive. Moreover one study showed possible effects on arthritis rat model. Meta-analysis was performed for COPD studies only show-ing no effect of any type of OMT applied versus control. No major side effects were reported by those receiving OMT. Conclusion The present systematic review showed inconsistent data on the effect of OMT in the treatment of medical conditions potentially associated with CID, however the OMT appears to be a safe approach. Further more robust trials are needed to determine the direction and magnitude of the effect of OMT and to

  3. Chronic inflammatory disease and osteopathy: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cicchitti

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases (CID are globally highly prevalent and characterized by severe pathological medical conditions. Several trials were conducted aiming at measuring the effects of manipulative therapies on patients affected by CID. The purpose of this review was to explore the extent to which osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT can be benefi-cial in medical conditions also classified as CID.This review included any type of experimental study which enrolled sub-jects with CID comparing OMT with any type of control procedure. The search was conducted on eight databases in January 2014 using a pragmatic literature search approach. Two independent re-viewers conducted study selection and data extraction for each study. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane methods. Heterogeneity was assessed and meta-analysis performed where possible.10 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review enrolling 386 subjects. The search identified six RCTs, one laboratory study, one cross-over pilot studies, one observation-al study and one case control pilot study. Results suggest a potential effect of osteopathic medicine on patients with medical pathologies associated with CID (in particular Chronic Obstructive Pul-monary Disease (COPD, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Asthma and Peripheral Arterial Disease com-pared to no treatment or sham therapy although data remain elusive. Moreover one study showed possible effects on arthritis rat model. Meta-analysis was performed for COPD studies only show-ing no effect of any type of OMT applied versus control. No major side effects were reported by those receiving OMT.The present systematic review showed inconsistent data on the effect of OMT in the treatment of medical conditions potentially associated with CID, however the OMT appears to be a safe approach. Further more robust trials are needed to determine the direction and magnitude of the effect of OMT and to generalize favorable results.

  4. Chronic Disease in Health Emergencies: In the Eye of the Hurricane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl S. Ford, MD, MPH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Inadequately controlled chronic diseases may present a threat to life and well-being during the emergency response to natural disasters. An estimate of the possible numbers of people who may require treatment for chronic diseases should help in planning a response, but such information for local areas is not easily accessible. We explored how a current surveillance system could be used to provide estimates of the potential needs for emergency treatment of chronic diseases in the wake of a natural disaster. Methods We used data from adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS in 2004 to estimate the prevalence and numbers of people with diabetes, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, and current asthma who lived in the New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner, La, metropolitan statistical area. Results About 9.0% of participants had diabetes, 4.6% had angina or coronary heart disease, 3.0% had had a myocardial infarction, 2.0% had had a stroke, and 6.3% had current asthma. About 25.4% adults had at least one of the above conditions. Conclusion A surveillance system such as the BRFSS can provide potentially useful baseline information about the numbers of people with chronic diseases and the treatment that they receive; this information can assist the medical and public health community in assessing the needs of people with chronic diseases after disasters and in planning relief efforts.

  5. Molecular diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, D; de Boer, M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, liver, brain and bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species, Klebsiella species, Burkholderia cepacia and Salmonella species. CGD is a rare (∼1:250 000 births) disease caused by mutations in any one of the five components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in phagocytes. This enzyme generates superoxide and is essential for intracellular killing of pathogens by phagocytes. Molecular diagnosis of CGD involves measuring NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes, measuring protein expression of NADPH oxidase components and mutation analysis of genes encoding these components. Residual oxidase activity is important to know for estimation of the clinical course and the chance of survival of the patient. Mutation analysis is mandatory for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes the different assays available for the diagnosis of CGD, the precautions to be taken for correct measurements, the flow diagram to be followed, the assays for confirmation of the diagnosis and the determinations for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24016250

  6. Building the chronic kidney disease management team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The need to be efficient and the demands for performance-based service are changing how nephrologists deliver care. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in patients with complex medical and social problems. CKD management requires that multidisciplinary professionals provide patient education, disease management, and psychosocial support. To remain cost-efficient, many physicians are training and supervising midlevel practitioners in the delivery of specialized health care. Specialized care that meets present CKD patient needs is best delivered in a CKD clinic. Three models of CKD clinic are identified: (1) anemia management CKD clinic, (2) the basic CKD clinic, and (3) the comprehensive CKD clinic. Each clinic model is based on critical elements of staffing, billable services, and patient-focused health care. Billable services are anemia-management services, physician services that may be provided by midlevel practitioners, and medical nutrition therapy. In some cases, social worker services may be billable. Building a patient-focused clinic that offers CKD management requires planning, familiarity with federal regulations and statutes, and skillful practitioners. Making services cost-efficient and outcome oriented requires careful physician leadership, talented midlevel practitioners, and billing professionals who understand the goals of the CKD clinic. As Medicare payment reforms evolve, a well-organized CKD program can be well poised to meet the requirements of payers and congressional mandates for performance-based purchasing.

  7. Optimism's explicative role for chronic diseases

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    Giulia eAvvenuti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest about dispositional optimism's role in health status and its positive modulating effect on health outcomes has led to a remarkable scientific production in the last decade. To date lot is known about which fields of medicine are affected by optimism, instead much less is known about how optimism interacts with other factors, both biological and psychological, in determining health status. The aim of this mini review is to explore the literature derived from clinical and experimental research assessing the associations between dispositional optimism and health status. Dispositional optimism can be considered as facet of personality that is cognitive in nature which holds the global expectation that the future will be plenty of good events. Optimists view desired goals as obtainable, so they often confront adversities in active manners resulting in perseverance and increased goal attainment. Only studies that explicitly included optimism and health outcomes, as measurable variables, and that reported a clear association between them have been reviewed. Cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure and ageing with multimorbidity were considered. Among the possible explicative hypotheses, two seem to best describe results: optimism may have a direct effect on the neuroendocrine system and on immune responses, and it may have an indirect effect on health outcomes by promoting protective health behaviors, adaptive coping strategies and enhancing positive mood. The research on optimism and health status has already shed light on important mechanisms regarding chronic diseases' management, however further studies are needed to deepen the knowledge.

  8. [Chronic disease and health condition prevention in childhood: emphases from the 13th Symposium of Preventive Pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinica, Maja; Grgurić, Josip; Jadrijević-Cvrlje, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases in childhood have become an important priority, especially in developed countries, because of higher prevalence, relatively and absolutely. Besides that, inappropriate procedures a chronically ill child can result in child's growth and development disorder. According to literature data, 15-20% of children have chronic disease with the impact on their physical, mental and emotional status. Disease prevention strategies are described at the primary, secondary and tertiary level: how to avoid occurrence of disease, how to diagnose and treat existent disease in early stages, before it causes significant morbidity, and finally how to reduce negative impact of existent disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications - how to improve quality of life of children with chronic diseases. The new term of quaternary prevention describes methods to mitigate or avoid results of unnecessary or excessive interventions in the health system. In this paper the authors present recent attitudes about chronic diseases prevention modalities in childhood, which, at the beggining of the 21st century, have become more intriguing and represent a new challenge for pediatric health care. Thus, from preventive standpoint, the following chronic illnesses are discussed: asthma, malignant diseases, autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, tuberculosis, diabetes type 1, congenital heart diseases, arterial hypertension, celiac disease, and eating disorders. These emphases are from the 13th Preventive Pediatrics Symposium, which took place in Skrad, June 2nd, 2012. Further activities are planned with the aim of continuation of health care furtherance for children with other chronic illnesses.

  9. Chronic kidney disease and the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Fractures across the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could be due to osteoporosis, some form of renal osteodystrophy defined by specific quantitative histomorphometry or chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). CKD-MBD is a systemic disease that links disorders of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD to either one or all of the following: abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone or vitamin D metabolism; abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth or strength; or vascular or other soft-tissue calcification. Osteoporosis, as defined by the National Institutes of Health, may coexist with renal osteodystrophy or CKD-MBD. Differentiation among these disorders is required to manage correctly the correct disorder to reduce the risk of fractures. While the World Health Organization (WHO) bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteoporosis can be used in patients with stages 1-3 CKD, the disorders of bone turnover become so aberrant by stages 4 and 5 CKD that neither the WHO criteria nor the occurrence of a fragility fracture can be used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The diagnosis of osteoporosis in stages 4 and 5 CKD is one of the exclusion-excluding either renal osteodystrophy or CKD-MBD as the cause of low BMD or fragility fractures. Differentiations among the disorders of renal osteodystrophy, CKD-MBD or osteoporosis are dependent on the measurement of specific biochemical markers, including serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and/or quantitative bone histomorphometry. Management of fractures in stages 1-3 CKD does not differ in persons with or without CKD with osteoporosis assuming that there is no evidence for CKD-MBD, clinically suspected by elevated PTH, hyperphosphatemia or fibroblast growth factor 23 due to CKD. Treatment of fractures in persons with osteoporosis and stages 4 and 5 CKD is not evidence-based, with the exception of post-hoc analysis suggesting efficacy and safety of specific

  10. ANESTHETIC CONSIDERATION S IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMON ARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a spectrum of diseases that includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and small airway disease. It i s characterized by progressive increased resistance to breathing. Patients with marked obstructive pulmonary disease are at increased risk for both intraoperative and Postoperative pulmonary complications. These patients require thorough preoperative prepa ration, meticulous intraoperative management & postoperative care. This article describes anesthetic considerations in a patient with COPD.

  11. Wound Chronicity, Inpatient Care, and Chronic Kidney Disease Predispose to MRSA Infection in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christopher; May, Kerry; Hale, Thomas; Allard, Bernard; Rowlings, Naomi; Freeman, Amy; Harrison, Jessica; McCann, Jane; Wraight, Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the microbiological profile of diabetes-related foot infections (DRFIs) and the impact of wound duration, inpatient treatment, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Postdebridement microbiological samples were collected from individuals presenting with DRFIs from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. RESULTS A total of 653 specimens were collected from 379 individuals with 36% identifying only one isolate. Of the total isolates, 77% were gram-positive bacteria (staphylococci 43%, streptococci 13%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from 23%; risk factors for MRSA included prolonged wound duration (odds ratio 2.31), inpatient management (2.19), and CKD (OR 1.49). Gram-negative infections were more prevalent with inpatient management (P = 0.002) and prolonged wound duration (P < 0.001). Pseudomonal isolates were more common in chronic wounds (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS DRFIs are predominantly due to gram-positive aerobes but are usually polymicrobial and increase in complexity with inpatient care and ulcer duration. In the presence of prolonged duration, inpatient management, or CKD, empiric MRSA antibiotic cover should be considered. PMID:19587371

  12. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a highly prevalent age-dependent phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzillo Roberta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy controls using extra- and intracranial colour Doppler sonography. Methods We examined 146 MS patients, presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, or primary progressive MS, and 38 healthy controls. Sonographic examination was performed according to Zamboni’s protocol and was performed by three independent sonographers. The results of sonographic examination were compared with clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results CCSVI, defined as the presence of at least two positive Zamboni’s criteria, was found in 76% of MS patients and 16% of control subjects. B-mode anomalies of internal jugular veins, such as stenosis, malformed valves, annuli, and septa were the most common lesions detected in MS patients (80.8% and controls (47.4%. We observed a positive correlation between sonographic diagnosis of CCSVI and the patients’ age (p = 0.003. However, such a correlation was not found in controls (p = 0.635. Notably, no significant correlations were found between sonographic signs of CCSVI and clinical characteristics of MS, except for absent flow in the jugular veins, which was found more often in primary (p Conclusions Sonographically defined CCSVI is common in MS patients. However, CCSVI appears to be primarily associated with the patient’s age, and poorly correlated with the clinical course of the disease.

  13. The impact of climatic risk factors on the prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ramesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trachoma is the most common cause of infectious blindness. Hot, dry climates, dust and water scarcity are thought to be associated with the distribution of trachoma but the evidence is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the extent to which climatic factors explain the current prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma. Understanding the present relationship between climate and trachoma could help inform current and future disease elimination. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted to identify observational studies which quantified an association between climate factors and acute or chronic trachoma and which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies that assessed the association between climate types and trachoma prevalence were also reviewed. RESULTS: Only eight of the 1751 papers retrieved met the inclusion criteria, all undertaken in Africa. Several papers reported an association between trachoma prevalence and altitude in highly endemic areas, providing some evidence of a role for temperature in the transmission of acute disease. A robust mapping study found strong evidence of an association between low rainfall and active trachoma. There is also consistent but weak evidence that the prevalence of trachoma is higher in savannah-type ecological zones. There were no studies on the effect of climate in low endemic areas, nor on the effect of dust on trachoma. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on the potential role of climate on trachoma distribution is limited, despite a wealth of anecdotal evidence. Temperature and rainfall appear to play a role in the transmission of acute trachoma, possibly mediated through reduced activity of flies at lower temperatures. Further research is needed on climate and other environmental and behavioural factors, particularly in arid and savannah areas. Many studies did not

  14. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Parenchymal Chronic Renal Diseases - Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Meola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Secondary nephropathies can be associated with disreactive immunological disorders or with a non-inflammatory glomerular damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis as in other connective tissue diseases, kidney volume and cortex echogenicity are the parameters that best correlate with clinical severity of the disease, even if the morphological aspect is generally non-specific. Doppler studies in SLE document the correlation between resistance indexes (RIs) values and renal function. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) causes different types of renal damage. At ultrasound (US), kidneys have almost a normal volume, while during superinfection they enlarge (coronal diameter >13 cm) and become globular, loosing their normal aspect. Cortex appears highly hyperechoic, uniform or patchy. Microcalcifications of renal cortex and medulla are a US sign that can suggest HIV. In amyloidosis, kidneys appear normal or increased in volume in the early stages of disease. Renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic and pyramids can show normal size and morphology, but more often they appear poorly defined and hyperechoic. RIs are very high since the early stages of the disease. Nephromegaly with normal kidney shape is the first sign of lymphoma or multiple myeloma. In systemic vasculitis, renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic, while pyramids appear hypoechoic and globular due to interstitial edema. When vasculitis determines advanced chronic kidney disease stages, kidneys show no specific signs. Microcirculation damage is highlighted by increased RIs values >0.70 in the chronic phase. PMID:27169551

  15. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn;

    2013-01-01

    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  16. Chronic Disease and Sexuality : A Generic Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Jesse E. A.; Enzlin, Paul; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2010-01-01

    Although sexual dysfunctions are frequently comorbid with many chronic diseases and their treatments, until recently, these dysfunctions have been neglected in both research and clinical practice. Fortunately, sexual functioning in the context of chronic disease has now begun to receive more scienti

  17. Predictors of objective cough frequency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Helen; Woodcock, Ashley; Kolsum, Umme;

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood.......Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood....

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers and comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Dahl, Morten; Lange, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have evidence of systemic inflammation that may be implicated in the development of comorbidities.......Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have evidence of systemic inflammation that may be implicated in the development of comorbidities....

  19. [Chronic diseases and employment: impact on social health inequalities].

    OpenAIRE

    Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Differential consequences of ill health according to individuals' position on the social scale may constitute an important pathway underlying social health inequalities. In the current context, chronic diseases have major consequences on employment. These consequences may play a substantial role in the process of social health inequalities. Understanding the employment consequences of chronic diseases and their socially differentiated nature constitutes a...

  20. Workplace problems and solutions for employees with chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Varekamp; F.J.H. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    Background While many employees who have a chronic disease manage their jobs well, others are hampered in work performance, experience work-related problems and are at risk for job loss. Aims To identify the practical and psychosocial barriers recognized by employees with chronic disease who experie